Gallery of Saints & Sinners from our Daily Bleed...
Luddite-related timeline / archive
This page covers the period 1750 to 1850 & extracts some of the dates, events & episodes associated with the Industrial Revolution found in the books 'The Village Labourer', 'The Skilled Labourer'[ ref #] & 'The Town Labourer'[ ref.*] by JL & B Hammond.
These are events described in the three books. The authors are concerned with the effects on the social structure of England as it particularly affected the 'labourers', rather than the merits of various acts as part of Government policy. Also reference should be made to 'Bound to the Soil', by B Kerr dealing with events affecting Dorset labourers.
?? 1253 = Statute of Merton allowed the Lord of the Manor to make enclosures on waste under certain terms.
?? 1391 = An Act, the parish church monies to be paid to poor parishioners.
ABT ?? 1399 > ? ? 1413 = Henry's Act confirmed 1391 Act.
?? 1490 > ? ? 1601 = various Acts to mitigate the worst consequences of enclosures.
?? 1551 > ? ? 1553 = # Statute prohibiting use of gig-mills, which used a large, revolving cylinder covered with teazles.
?? 1553 = Stubbes wrote of his protests against enclosures enabling rich men to eat up the poor.
?? 1555 = # Statute of Philip & Mary limited number of looms possessed by any clothier to one and any weaver to two - did not apply to Yorks.
?? 1562 = # Statute of Elizabeth which enforced 7 years apprenticeship on woollen trade workers.
?? 1601 = Act for the Relief of the Poor; regulated piecework wages, the State acknowledged and organised the duty to the poor taken over from the Church, forbade erection of cottages with < 4 acres round them.
?? 1603 = Settlement Act, forty days residence after notification.
?? 1662 = Settlement Act, abridged the poor's ability to move from their parish, strangers could be removed after 40 days without work.
?? 1691 = Settlement Act, notice to be read in church & registered in book kept for poor's account.
?? 1697 = Settlement Act, to prevent arbitrary ejection, not removable to original parish until chargeable in present parish.
BEF ?? 1700 = #Only coarse cotton fabrics made and finer ones imported at latter end from India and the East, China & Japan.
?? 1700 = #Act passed forbidding import of Indian silks and calicoes for domestic use to protect woollen industry; Act ineffective; penalty £200.
?? 1700 > ? ? 1760 = 208 Enclosure acts passed.
?? 1714 = Riotous Assembly Act.
?? 1719 = #Act forbidding the emigration of Artificers in the Woollen and other trades
?? 1720 = #Another Act against cotton, prohibited use of printed, painted, stained or dyed calico; penalty £5 for clothing, £20 for furniture.
?? 1722 = Settlement, Employment & Relief Act, no person to gain settlement for estate purchased for less than £30.
BEF ?? 1722 = Parishes had to get Act of Parliament to build a workhouse or poorhouse; out relief was only available.
AFT ?? 1722 = ?? Act , overseers could start workhouses with consent of the vestry, farm out the poor, or join with other parishes for the purpose.
?? 1724 = Defoe in his Tour considered West Riding was the only part specialised in manufacture.
?? 1726 = *# First Truck Act applied to the woollen industry, forbade combination and arranged fixing of wages by magistrates, initiated by Norwich masters; and in 1727
?? 1732 = Estimated to be 60 workhouses in the country and 50 in the metropolis following the 1722 Act.
?? 1733 = #John Kay of Bury invented the 'flying shuttle', or spring loom.
?? 1733 = Act for the Cultivation of Common Fields dealt with husbandry and regulation.
?? 1736 = #Act legalising use of fustian a cotton material.
ABT ?? 1740 = 10 furnaces in Sussex, more than any other county.
?? 1743 > ? ? 1763 = # Said to be Norwich's happiest period for the worsted trade, they sent wool to Yorksh and Westmoreland for spinning.
?? 1746 > ? ? 1796 = Kent (1796) writes that provisions up by 60% and wages by 25%.
?? 1747 = Wages Act, provided that disputes men & masters could be referred to magistrates.
?? 1750 > ? ? 1793 = *Some 12 bankers out of London at beginning, rising to nearly 400 in 1793, driven by the Industrial Revolution.
? Aug 1752 = #Woolcombers in Norwich struck owing to the employment of one Trye until he was discharged.
?? 1756 = # Gloucester woollen weavers petition Parliament for better observation of regulation governing wage payments, act passed.
? Feb 1757 = # Master woollen weavers in Wilts, Gloucs and Somersetsh petitioned Parliament to repeal various acts fixing wages from the 1562/3.
?? 1757 = #Kay's spring loom used and common by 1803 in some parts of Gloucestershire.
?? 1761 > ? ? 1801 = 2000 Enclosure acts passed.
?? 1761 > ? ? 1774 = #No cotton workers or manufacturers in Manchester, probably abt 30,000 persons involved by 1774.
?? 1763 = #Spitalfields silkweavers rioted and destroyed silk and looms for increase in wages, they were well organised and determined.
AFT ?? 1763 = # Worsted trade declined in Norwich and increased in Yorkshire, decline aggravated by war with American colonies.
?? 1764 > ? ? 1833 = #Cotton imports went from 3,870,392 to 303,726,199 lbs.
25 Aug 1765 = *# Coal strike on the Tyne & Wear arising from the bonding system, the system lasted until 1844.
?? 1765 = #Spitalfield & Moorfields silkweavers induced Parliament to pass Act prohibiting import of French silk.
ABT ?? 1765 = #James Hargreaves invents spinning-jenny.
?? 1767 = *Hanway's Act, all London workhouse children were boarded out not less than 3mi away for not less than 2/6 per week. Before this act very parish infants survived.
?? 1767 = *Newcastle Journal, 'many deplorable accidents have happened recently in the collieries'.
?? 1767 > ? ? 1770 = Enclosure of Haute Huntre Fen , Lincs, hindered by the inhabitants.
ABT ?? 1767 = Act which made wages of silk-weavers and tailors subject to magisterial regulation.
?? 1769 = #Arkwright's roller spinning water frame patented, based on Wyatt and Paul's spinning roller of 1738.
? Aug 1769 > ? Oct 1769 = # Serious riots led by handkerchief weavers, reward notices describe in detail 14 miscreants.
?? 1770 = Game Law, killing of game at night punishable by 3 to 6 m in prison.
?? 1771 = # Arthur Young est 12,000 looms and some 72,000 persons involved in Norwich wool trade.
?? 1773 = *Corn Law Act, admitted wheat at 6d/qtr duty when home price had risen to 48s/qtr
? Jul 1773 = # Spitalfields Act gave the silkweavers regulation of their wages alone amongst textile workers by the Lord Mayor and aldermen.
?? 1773 = Sir Rich Sutton's Act; majority of the common field occupiers could decide the course of husbandry and could let 1/12th of it.
?? 1774 = #Cotton Import Acts repealed through Arkwrights's exertions who was producing pure cotton goods, other manufacturers opposed this.
?? 1774 = Putrid fever killed 124 out of 220 inmates of Heckingham workhouse.
?? 1775 = #Arkwright patents machines for carding, roving, etc.
ABT ?? 1775 = # Warp knitting frame , a mixture of stocking frame & weaving loom appeared, a boon to the fashion world in silk hose and heavy woollen articles
?? 1775 = Elizabeth's Act repealed in respect of cottages to have 4 acres round them.
?? 1775 > ? ? 1783 = *American War, bought distress to the cotton spinners and woollen trade of Norwich.
?? 1776 = # Spinning-jenny first introduced into South-West clothing district of Shepton Mallet, where it caused riots, petition to Parliament 1st Nov
1 Nov 1776 = #Petition of wire-drawers, cardboard-makers,card-makers, scribblers, spinners, twisters, weavers, et al. in Somerset against the spinning-jenny.
?? 1776 = # Arkwright builds his factory in Birkacre, Lancs., a mob destroyed it on 4/5 Oct.
?? 1778 = # Point net machine finally patented made cushion lace with its 6 equal sides.
?? 1779 = #Samuel Crompton invents spinning mule, produced a finer and stronger thread than any before, but not patented.
?? 1779 = #Systematic attacks on new cotton machines, especially Arkwright machines, aggravated by loss of markets from the War with America. ABT ? Oct 1780 = # In Wigan magistrates, principal inhabitants and manufacturers suspend use of carding,roving and spinning machines.
?? 1780 = #Wool growers agitated for repeal of enactments against exportation; manufacturers too strong for them
?? 1780 > ? ? 1803 = # Power-loom weaving, Wm Radcliffe (1828) described as 'the golden age of this great trade'.
ABT ?? 1780 = #Introduction of spinning-jennies into Yorkshire for wool.
ABT ?? 1780 = *Employment of women and girls underground in Tyne and Wear district ceased.
30 Mar 1781 = Parl. Reg. - Parishes of any considerable extent consisted partly of old enclosures and partly of common fields.
ABT ?? 1782 = #Flying-shuttle or spring-loom first used in Yorkshire.
?? 1782 = Gilbert's Act, independent inspectors, paupers not sent more than 10 miles from their parish.
?? 1784 = #First worsted mill with water frames built at Dolphin Holme, Lancs on the river Wyre.
?? 1784 = Settlement Act, soldiers, sailors and families were allowed to exercise trade where they liked, not removable until chargeable.
?? 1785 = # By this time women of all ranks from highest to lowest are clothed in British manufactures of cotton.
?? 1785 = # James Watt's steam engine first used in cotton industry at Papplewick.
?? 1785 > ? ? 1809 = # Norfolk,Suffolk & Essex suffered severely from the loss of domestic spinning, scarcity and dearness of wool.
?? 1787 = # Rev Edmund Cartwright takes patent on improved power-loom he first patented in 1785.
? Apr 1788 = *Mr Porter a benevolent master chimney sweep induced a Committee to enquire into the use of boys, petitions presented
?? 1788 = *143 water mills in the United Kingdom, 41 of which were in Lancashire.
?? 1788 = #Woollen manufacturers induced Parliament to impose even more stringent penalties on wool exporters.
?? 1789 = # Watt's steam engine first used at Manchester.
ABT ?? 1790 = #Water began to be applied spinning mules and jennies as they passed into the factories.
?? 1790 = # Cartwright takes out first two patents on machines for woolcombing.
?? 1790 = #A scribbling mill at Bradford,Wilts, burnt down whereupon owner moved machinery to Malmesbury; other threats reported.
?? 1790 = #Somerset magistrate called in by 2 manufacturers of Keynsham to protect their property from 'lawless Banditti of Colliers and their wives'.
?? 1790 = JPs given power to inspect workhouses.
?? 1791 = *Corn Law Act, less liberal than 1773, prohibitive import duties until home price reached 50/-, 6d duty only when home price reached 54s.
?? 1791 = # Woolcombing machinery in Albion Mills, Southwark, burnt down.
?? 1792 = *Collier's strike in Somerset to raise wages from 10s to 12s, joined by 2000 from Gloucester.
?? 1792 = # Cotton spinners formed a Friendly Society in Stockport and elsewhere.
?? 1792 = # Cartwright takes out third patent on woolcombing machines; known as 'Big Ben' after a prize fighter; concern by workers was premature.
?? 1792 = # Spitalfields Act 1773 extended to include manufacturers of silk mixed with other materials.
8 Jun 1793 = # William Toplis, worsted manufacturer in Cuckney, Notts, takes a patent for waterpowered, woolcombing machine.
?? 1792 > ? ? 1815 = *Napoleonic Wars, annual expenditure rose from <£20m to £106m, taxes on salt, soap, candles, leather, malt, sugar, tea all used by workmen.
? Apr 1793 = # Woolcombers meet at Bradninch to consider these machines threatening 70,000 woolcombers.
?? 1793 = Act of 1784 extended to members of Friendly Societies.
ABT ?? 1793 = # or 1795, Mr Nathaniel Watt, master clothier of sympathetic temper, tried to introduce flying-shuttle in Stroud; after a meeting of ca 20,000 people he sold them to the weavers.
ABT ?? 1793 = #Steam engines applied in Leeds woollen mills. In Leeds 'respectable residents threatened legal proceedings for nuisance' against a Bradford steam engine
31 Mar 1794 = # Wm Toplis claims in petition to Parliament many woolcombers are 'single men, and lead itinerant lives.... and seldom work half their time'
8 Apr 1794 = # Woolcombers present Bill to protect them from machinery, defeated on second reading. Get relief in Act passed in 1795.
?? 1794 = #Petitions from woolcombers, in Barnstaple, New Sarum, Exeter, Somerset, Plymouth, Tiverton, London, Kidderminster, Cornwall, Warwick, N Riding, Durham, Leicester.
?? 1794 = Bishton 'Report on Shropshire' enclosures.
13 Jan 1795 = Oxford Quart. Sessions, resolved, as at Speenhamland, the wages to be given to labourers.
14 Apr 1795 = General Quart. Sessions, Newbury, requested attendance at meeting at the Pelican Inn, Speenhamland, 6th May.
6 May 1795 = Berkshire JPs, et al., met at Pelican Inn, Speenhamland and resolved on policy to 'tranquillise a hungry labouring population', it gave a fatal impulse to the reduction of wages; it had been convened to raise them!
6 May 1795 = Allowance scale was seven half gallon loaves for a family of 4.
6 May 1795 = Newbury, Berks, 'respectable meeting' chaired by the Mayor advocated fixing labourers' wages according to wheat price.
?? 1795 = Billingsley 'Report on Somerset', describes enervating atmosphere of the commoner's life.
?? 1795 = Law of Settlement Act, nobody to be removable until they became chargeable to the parish, removal orders suspended if pauper dangerously ill, nor gain settlement for < £10 per year. FROM THIS TIME CERTIFICATES NOT REQU'D.
?? 1795 = a series of food riots all over England, Aylesbury, Chudleigh, Carlisle, Ipswich, Fordingbridge, Bath, etc; (Hammonds' 'revolt of the housewives').
? Aug 1795 = *Crop harvest failure, wheat reached 122s in 1796.
ABT ?? 1795 = attempts to encourage oatmeal, barley and rye for bread rather than wheat, lack of milk following enclosures and other dietary changes to avoid raising wages.
ABT ?? 1795 = # Round the Yorkshire clothing towns land was cut up into small holdings of 2-5a; this domestic system only extinguished by the development of the power-looms.
ABT ?? 1795 = Norwich newspaper advert by day labourers of Heacham, Snettisham and Sedgford on wages & prices related to the price of wheat.
ABT ?? 1795 = Whitebread introduces Bill on minimum wage to amend Elizabeth's Act to regulate labourers' in husbandry wages.
ABT ?? 1795 = Middleton, 'Report on Middlesex', enclosures.
BEF ?? 1795 = # Yorkshire and South-West shearmen had instituted actions against use of gig-mills under old Statute of Edward VI.
?? 1796 = An Act, abolished restriction of relief, found 'inconvenient and oppressive', to those entering the workhouse willingly, relaxing the 1722 Act.
?? 1796 = # Act against Administering an Illegal Oath, passed because of the Mutiny of the Nore.
28 Feb 1797 = Pitt attempts to introduce badly put together Bill for the better Support & Maintenance of the Poor.
?? 1797 = Eden's book 'State of the Poor' describes parishes such as Leeds, Skipton, Knibworth-Beauchamp, Hothfield,Loes & Wilford in Suffolk, Coventry,etc.
?? 1797 = Commoners at Raunds, Northants, petitioned against their Enclosure Act
?? 1797 >? ? 1799 = #French war caused great scarcity of Spanish wool , employment bad, many men enlisted, later arrival of Spanish wool probably caused many women to become weavers.
?? 1798 = # Watt's steam engine first used at Oldham.
?? 1798 = 20,000 out of 23,000 acres in Middx cultivated on common field system.
?? 1798 = #Act for the Suppression of Seditious & Treasonable Societies, used.
5 Apr 1799 = *Master millwright petition concerning a combination of journeymen millwrights within and 25m round London for a wage increase
?? 1799 = Wilbarston, Northants, two troops sent to coerce commoners on enclosures.
12 Jul 1799 = *Combination Act passed, in spite of numerous petitions and opposition by Sir Francis Burdett, Mr Benjamin Hobhouse and Lord Holland, it removed trial by jury.
13 Jun 1800 = *Petitions received from Bath, Bristol, Derby, Leeds, Lancaster,London, Liverpool, Manchester, Nottingham, Newcastle, Plymouth protesting the 1799 Act.
?? 1800 > ? ? 1805 = Mr Estcourt's allotment scheme in Long Newton, Wilts; 140 poor persons in 32 families; loan paid back no relief claimed.
?? 1800 = *Food riots in Nottingham succeeded in reducing prices.
?? 1800 = *Whitebread stated there were 40 conspiracy and special laws against combination at this time on the Statute Book.
?? 1800 = Combination Act amending 1799 Act, the State effectively abdicated in favour of the employers and prohibited common action by workmen, due mainly to Wilberforce and Pitt.
?? 1800 = Game Act, poachers on conviction imprisoned with hard labour serve in the Army or Navy or be transported.
? Sep 1800 = *Crop harvest failure, wheat reached 155s in 1801.
ABT ?? 1800 = #Stockings, about 17 or 18 kinds of hose worn differing in shape, colour, texture and other fancy articles made on stocking-frames.
? Mar 1801 = # Food riots in Exeter and Tiverton.
?? 1801 = *Lancashire had 820 registered Friendly Societies 200 more than any other county.
?? 1801 = Whitebread repeats attempt to bring in Bill as in 1795; lost at second reading.
?? 1801 = # Attempt to introduce spring-loom or flying-shuttle in Somerset caused a riotous mob to intervene.
?? 1801 = General Enclosure Act(?), this followed numerous Bills presented from 1795 to 1800.
?? 1802 = *First Factory Act, brought in by Sir R Peel, although a chief offender.
?? 1802 = *Disturbances occurred over the use of gig-mills to raise the nap on cloth in the south-west.
?? 1802 > ? ? 1844 = 1,883 Enclosure Acts passed.
BEF ?? 1802 = #Many shearmen were discharged from Army & Navy following Peace of Amiens.ABT ? May 1802 = # Wilts campaign against gig-mills in Warminster, Bradford & Trowbridge.
21 Jul 1802 = # Cottage fulling & spinning mill at Littleton burnt down, similarly at Steeple Ashton and other places.
16 Aug 1802 = # Master clothiers held meeting in Bath, generally took a conciliatory and reasonable attitude, but it was poisoned by the Combination Acts.
? Aug 1802 = # The Government sent a Mr Read from London to Wilts to urge magistrates to arrest workers, various shearmen arrested.
BEF ?? 1802 = # In South-West labour movement from towns to villages where the water power existed for the clothing machines, weavers tried to enforce the Philip & Mary Act.
BEF ?? 1802 = # Enforcement of 7 year apprenticeship had fallen into disuse for most weavers and cloth workers.
? Mar 1803 = # Master manufacturers in 3 south-western counties and from Yorks petition to repeal the parts of 13 Acts on gig-mill,looms, apprenticeships.
?? 1803 = # Report of Committee on South-West Woollen Clothier's Petition.
?? 1803 = # A Frome woollen manufacturer declared 'he also sends wool into different parishes to be picked from the want of hands'.
?? 1803 = # Select Committee on the Cotton Weavers' Petitions discusses the operation of the 1799 Arbitration Act.
?? 1803 = *Society for Superseding Climbing Boys formed, objective to find a machine to clean chimneys, similar Societies in Sheffield (1807) and leeds
?? 1803 = Game Act armed resistance to arrest was a felony punishable by death.
ABT ?? 1803 = # Wm Radcliffe and Mr Horrocks, both of Stockport, patent improved power-looms and in 1804.
?? 1804 = *Petition against large numbers of apprentices from j'men calico printers in Lancs, Derbys, Cheshire, Stafford and 5 Scottish counties.
?? 1804 =*Corn Law revised again as the price had fallen to 50s.
?? 1805 = *Another petition, in committee stated 900 apprentices to 1500 j'men in Lancs, Cheshire, Derbysh and Stafford.
4 Jul 1806 = # Report on Woollen Manufacture followed two years of various petitions and Bills that were not passed.
?? 1806 = #Shearing frames introduced in Yorkshire.
?? 1806 = Broad Somerford, Wilts, the Rector stipulated provisions of land for the poor.
?? 1806 = *Napoleon's Berlin Decree tries to ring-fence Europe to stop UK trade & barricade Britain to shut out foreign goods.
25 Mar 1807 = *Sheridan introduces Bill to forbid master calico printers from having more than a certain number of apprentices, must have legal indenture.
?? 1807 = Whitebread Poor Law Bill, large & comprehensive, but without minimum wage provision.
?? 1808 = # Heathcoat patents the first Bobbin-net lace machine and second in 1809.
BEF ?? 1808 = Bedfordshire Rept, troops sent from Coventry to quell riots when Maulden enclosed.
19 Feb 1808 = # Journeymen cotton weavers petitioned Parliament again for a minimum wage, drawing attention to the many masters' bankruptcies.
9 Mar 1808 = # 101 master weavers also petition Parliament asking for a minimum wage.
? Jun 1808 = # 60,000 looms idle in Manchester.ABT ? Aug 1808 = # Weavers trade and wages much reduced again.
?? 1808 > ? ? 1813 = *Corn price never fell below 95/8d.
?? 1809 = *Whitebread in Parliament stated cotton wool imports had fallen by £26m and 32 Manchester mills were idle.
?? 1808 > ? ? 1809 = *Eastern coast of S America opened to British trade, subsequent speculation caused numerous bankruptcies.
?? 1809 = # After the recent petitions and suspended Bills this Act at last repealed Acts on which workers had built so many hopes.
?? 1810 = *Bullion Committee appointed, £100 paper money only worth £86/10/0 in gold causing immense price inflation
?? 1810 > ? ? 1830 = #Nottingham population rose from 47,300 to 79,000, building land sold for £4000 an acre following speculation after expiry of Heathcoat's patents in 1823.
ABT ?? 1810 = # Changes in fashion to more sombre articles, the cheaper market,in fancy hose, silk tickler mitts, silk elastic mitts went out of fashion and loss of jobs.
ABT ?? 1810 = # Introduction of wide knitting frames enable production of cheap & inferior 'cut-up' goods caused further market loss ABT? ? 1810 = #By now point lace trade had 1500 lace frames in Nottingham, but cheaper methods found which produced inferior goods, 1000 frames broken-up.
AFT ?? 1810 =*Francis Place, journeyman breeches-maker, eventually a master, devoted his life to destroying the Combination Laws;ally in Parliament was Joseph Hume.
30 May 1811 = #Monster petition, 40,000 signatures to Parliament, plus 7000 Bolton weavers and 30,000 Scottish weavers.
?? 1811 = * Tho Smith, Committee on Cotton Weavers Petition, said as farms thrown together, cottages were pulled down and people moved to towns.
?? 1811 = # Spitalfields Act 1773 extended again to include journeywomen.
?? 1811 > ? ? 1812 = # Outbreak of the Luddite disturbances in the Midlands, Notts,Leics & Derbys, mainly affected frame-work knitting machines.
11 Feb 1812 = # Stockport workers asked for meeting with masters on subject of wages; manufacturers agreed then withdrew offer at later Manchester meeting.
? Feb 1812 = #Shearing frames in small establishments in Huddersfield destroyed.
15 Mar 1812 = # Mr Vickerman's establishment, Taylor Hill, Huddersfield destroyed.
20 Mar 1812 = #Frame-Breaking Act made a capital felony, criticised by Sheridan, Whitbread,Romilly & Lord Byron, et al, opposed by Lamb Lord Liverpool.
24 Mar 1812 = #Thompson's mill Rawdon, Leeds, attacked; similarly Joseph Foster's mill at Horbury on 9th April.
? Mar 1812 = #Assizes in Nottingham, tried Wm Carnell, Jos Maples, Benj Poley, Benj Hancock, Geo Green, Jos Peck & Gerves Marshall.
4 Apr 1812 = #Riots at Stockport; Mr Goodwin's steam-looms destroyed.
11 Apr 1812 =# Wm Cartwright's mill, Liversedge, attacked by mobs from Halifax, Huddersfield, Liversedge, Heckmondwyke, Gomersal, Birstall, Cleckheaton et al.
14 Apr 1812 = #Sheffield food riot, mainly women & boys seized potatoes and vegetables and attacked a militia arms store.
20 Apr 1812 = #Colliers from Hollinwood and local mob attacked Mr Burton's manufactory in Middleton & again 22nd Apr, 10 rioters killed.
20 Apr 1812 = #Food riots in Manchester, Bolton, Ashton & Oldham, and all through Cheshire north-east of Stockport.
21 Apr 1812 = #Food riot at Tintwistle and machinery destroyed at Rhodes' woollen cloth mill
24 Apr 1812 = #Manufactory at West Houghton destroyed, although protected by small force.
26 Apr 1812 = # Thousands of strangers appeared at Manchester, local militia called out, most disappeared by 28 April.
ABT ? Mar 1812 = # Records show that much of the rioting and committees were instigated by Home Office 'spies', such as Mr Bent, John Stones, et al.
? May 1812 = #General Maitland sent by the Government to command disturbed areas, shrewd and independent observer, potatoes were now 1d per lb rather than 3lbs, wages 10s rather than 30s/week.
? Jul 1812 = # Illegal Oaths Act, now made a capital offence to give oath.
? Jul 1812 = #Preservation of the Public Peace Act; until 25 March 1813 gave magistrates power to search for arms and to disperse assemblies without the Riot Act formalities.
12 Dec 1812 = # Home Office notified of a Congress of Woolcombers to be held in Aug 1813 at Coventry.
ABT ?? 1812 = # Riots in Cheshire, Lancs & Yorkshire; esp. Ashton-under-Line, Eccles & Middleton? Jan 1813 = #Gravener Henson, bobbin-net maker of Nottingham initiated a Society for obtaining Parliamentary Relief & The encouragement of Mechanics in the Improvement of Mechanisms.
ABT ? Dec 1813 = # Price of wheat fell from 122/8d to 73/6d and the quartern loaf from 1/6 to < 1/-.
?? 1814 = Finish of war against French collapsed prices, ruined farmers showed up labourer's state of penury, who could not be absorbed by the parish.
? Jun 1814 = # Power-loom weavers struck for higher wages.
? Jul 1814 = # Masters secretly combined to flood work place with disbanded militia in Leics, Notts and Derby, caused collapse of Henson's Society started in 1813.
19 May 1815 = *[Bootle's Committee?] Report on Parish Apprentices; only able to look at apprentices within the Bills of Mortality (London,Westminster and some Middx and Sry parishes).
?? 1815 = *Robert Owen induced Peel to present new Bill; in all mills, manufactories and buildings no child was to work under 10y old, factory hours limited to 12.5 with only 10.5 spent in labour.
?? 1815 = *Seamen's strike in the north-eastern ports, Tyne and Wear region, suppressed by troops; ship owners undermanned their ships.
?? 1815 > ? ? 1818 = *Expenditure went from £106m to £53m, a violent and permanent shrinking of the market, Cu went from £180 to £80/ton, Fe from £20 to £8/ton.
?? 1815 > ? ? 1818 = *Expenditure went from £106m to £53m, in Shrops 24 out of 37 blast furnaces ceased, 7000 ironworkers unemployed, 8000 tons of coal lost and miners unemployed.
ABT ?? 1815 = #James Dean, land surveyor, Exeter, stated in Dec 1816 over 20 Devon woollen manufacturers had asked him to sell their mills.
AFT ?? 1815 = *Price of corn under the Corn Laws in the next 17 years formed an important element in the misery surrounding the labouring population.
?? 1816 = *Geo Rose,MP, stated that there were 700,000 members of Friendly Societies in England.
?? 1816 = *Bootle's Act to Limit Radius of Apprenticing to 40 miles from London workhouses, outside this zone children could be apprenticed to greater distances.
?? 1816 = Game Act, poacher found at night with a net was liable to transportation for 7 years.
?? 1816 = Board of Agriculture, 237 replies out of 273 reported want of employment and distress
?? 1816 = # Renewal of knitting frame breaking, mainly lace, confined to those, as in 1811 against stocking frames, which worked under price.
? May 1816 = Bitterly cold summer caused a meagre harvest with rise in corn price initiating riots in Norfolk, Suffolk, Hunts and Cambs. Met by yeomanry, dragoons and W Norfolk Militia.
28 Jun 1816 = # 17 men entered Heathcoat's factory, Loughborough, and broke up bobbin-net machines, one guard injured, one rioter James Towle eventually executed, some 3000 at funeral.
1 Jul 1816 = # Heathcoat asks Mayor of Tiverton for protection of his factory.
? June 1816 = Isle of Ely serious riots with loss of life, 75 prisoners - 5 hung , 4 transported, 10 imprisoned.
ABT ?? 1816 = #Lace Point net trade was dying replaced by warp, or Mechlin, lace machine (1775) & bobbin-net (1808) trade.
ABT ?? 1816 = # The Reform movement began to spread following the distress in the industrial areas from this time.
?? 1816 = *Peel's Committee on Children in Manufactories;formed as 1815 bill not passed, most of 150 children at Backbarrow cotton mill, Lancs, came from London.
?? 1816 > ? ? 1832 = Otmoor, Oxon, Enclosure Act caused disturbances and problems for years, troops and cavalry sent.
?? 1816 > ? ? 1817 = # High-water mark of prosperity for 'Gentlemen Clothiers' of South-West; industry migrated north to Yorkshire
?? 1817 = *Castlereagh stated 300,000 soldiers and sailors discharged since the Peace flooding the labour market.
?? 1817 = *Report on Chimney Sweeps; estimated 200 masters & 500 apprentices in London, 200 masters & 500 climbing boys outside
?? 1817 = * Truck Acts forbidding payments in goods or truck, extended to mines and steel industries.
?? 1817 = # Habeas Corpus Act suspended.
?? 1817 = 1816 Game Act repealed and replaced by transportation only if also carrying offensive weapon.
?? 1817 > ? ? 1819 = *The Hon H. Bennett son of Earl of Tankerville, attempted to pass Bills to stop abuses of chimney sweep boys, only lived to see the 1834 Act.
? Feb 1818 = *Second Factory Bill presented, no child under 9y to work, working hours to 12.5h of which 1.5 h for meals,
10 mar 1818 = #March of the 'Blanketeers' from Manchester, from HO papers appears to have been pushed along by the 'spies', did not get very far, one Abel Couldwell of Staylbridge is said to reached London.
13 Apr 1818 = # Alderman Wood in House of Commons said many poor Germans, Swedes & Irishmen ignorant of the language were entrapped into passing bad coin.
? Jul 1818 = #Strikes in Manchester involving, bricksetters & labourers, dyers, cotton spinners, some 20,000 idle by 18 July; generally collapsed by mid-September.
15 Jul 1818 = # Oldham Weavers present a manifesto to the manufacturers, another 20th July.
27 Jul 1818 = # Weaver delegates met at Bury from Bolton, Blackbun, Burnley, Padiham, Hgr & Lwr Darwen, Heywood, Haslingden, Todmorden, Walshawlane, et al. addressed a Bill to cotton manufacturers.
31 Aug 1818 = # Weavers strike in Bolton, Manchester,etc., orderly and peaceful.
?? 1818 = *Committee on Petitions of Ribbon Weavers.
ABT ?? 1818 = # A year of commercial prosperity, but the previously reduced wages were not raised.
ABT ?? 1818 = # Most Norwich worsted yarn was coming from northern mills such as Yorkshire.
? Jun 1819 = #Master manufacturers of calicoes & cambrics in Burnley, Bury, Blackburn & Preston issued declaration deploring low pay.
?? 1819 = #Flannel manufacturers in Rochdale alarmed by growing poverty agreed on table of wages and made a worthy declaration of principles, this upset the Committee on Combination Laws!
? Jul 1819 = # Est 14,000 knitters in Notts, Leics & Derby strike following rejection of Bill to abolish 'cut-ups', significant public sympathy.
?? 1819 = #Rev. Robt Hall starts Friendly Relief Soc for the three counties, lasts 5 years; 300 families emigrate to Cape of good hope.
?? 1819 = #Parliament agreed to an imposition of 6d per lb duty on imported wool; this led to a free trade in wool
?? 1819 = *Cotton Factories Regulation Act; altered version of 1818 Bill with best features eliminated.
?? 1819 = Select Vestry Act, empowered parishes to have 20 acres for the poor to work or lease.
?? 1819 = Settlement Act, attempt to simplify tenement of annual value £10, but unsuccessful.
?? 1819 = *Peel's Act, reduced the hours of children in mills to 72.
?? 1820 = *Truck Act, law strengthened forbidding employers to stipulate as to the expenditure of wages, but it remained idle.
?? 1820 = #Mr Lewis of Brinscomb invents improvements to the machinery for cutting cloth, the trade of shearmen dwindles away.
?? 1820 = *A.B.Haden, a parson and magistrate in Wolverhampton wrote to the HO and enforced payment in cash.
?? 1821 = * Wages reduced in Wellington and Tipton and prices raised in"Tommy-shops", rioting, yeomanry called in, 2 workmen killed.
? Jan 1822 = # Even this late flying-shuttle introduced in Frome caused disturbances; request for cavalry although in use in Yorks, Gloucs & Wilts.
?? 1822 = # In West-Riding first worsted power-loom sent secretly from Bradford to Shipley soon found out and destroyed.
ABT ? Jul 1823 = # Frome weavers struck demanding old wages before flying-shuttle introduced & abolition of truck; 18 sent to gaol.
?? 1824 = #Act passed to allow import and export of wool for 1d per lb in each case.
?? 1824 = Russell's Committee on Agricultural Wages, weekly wage 12/- to 15/- in north and 4/6 to 9/- in south.
?? 1824 = *Methodists strongest in Yorksh,Lincolnsh, Cornwall, Derby, Durham, Stafford, Nottingham, Leicester, Cheshire and Lancs.
?? 1824 = *Macclesfield, silk mills working hours were from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m.
AFT 12 Feb 1824 = *Hume's Artisans & Machinery Committee, collected evidence on the workings of the Combination Acts.
5 Jun 1824 = Repeal of Combination Acts, no longer a penal offence to form a Trade Union.
?? 1825 = # Men of Cullompton had bound themselves for nearly a century not to allow women weavers, but now relaxed.
?? 1825 =# Spate of strikes following Acts repeal, men in Uley & Stroud,Dursley, Wotton & Kingswood, Gloucs were met with sympathy from masons, millwrights, & carpenters.
?? 1825 = Rescinded Repeal of 1824.
?? 1825 = * Northumberland miners published pamphlet 'A Voice from the Coal Mines', gives breakdown of living costs.
?? 1825 = *Hobhouse's Act with object of preventing abuses of 1819 Act, hours reduced to 11, forbade mill owners, their fathers or sons to act as magistrates.
?? 1825 = # Woolcomber's Bishop Blaize Festival held at Bradford, Yorks, now recognised centre of the worsted industry.
7 Jun 1825 = # Woolcombers & weavers in Bradford struck, est 20,000 workers idle, money subscribed from all over the country, by November they had failed.
ABT ?? 1825 = Mills in Manchester and environs worked 12.5 to 14 hours, sometimes day and night.
ABT ?? 1825 = # Huddersfield had a flourishing weavers union with some 5,000 members.
18 Apr 1826 = # John Fielden of Todmorden organised a movement with signed agreement of 48 firms to pay a minimum wage, failed because of subsequent attacks on power-looms.
24 Apr 1826 = *Riots against power-looms, said to be 30 0r 40000 Irish weavers in Manchester alone; in 3 days starving weavers destroyed 1000 in Blackburn & Bury
? Aug 1826 = #Lancaster Assizes, 66 persons charged from the riots, 10 transported for life, 33 imprisoned for 3 to 18 m.
ABT ?? 1826 = # Spinning-mules introduced into Yorkshire and South-West woollen mills about the same time.
?? 1826 = Settlement Act, 1819 Act unsuccessful.
?? 1827 = Select Committee on Emigration.
ABT ?? 1828 = # Introduction of the spinning mule in the South-west clothing trade.
?? 1828 = 1817 Game Act repealed, new Act reserved transportation for third offence.
? Jan 1829 = Bedford Gaol, 96 prisoners for trial 76 able bodied driven to crime by want, 18 were poachers all bar one paupers.
? Jan 1829 = # Cotton spinners of Stockport, ca 10,000, struck until June against wage reductions.
20 Jan 1829 = # Gentlemen Clothiers at Stroud passed a strong resolution against payment in truck, but workmen also wanted the abolition of home or shop looms belonging to the master clothiers.
24 Feb 1829 = # Report from a Francis Fagan sent by the Government found the Union Lodges comprised all sorts, tradesmen, pensioners attorneys and surgeons.
?? 1829 = *Lords Committee on Coal Trade, Mr Buddle said no provision for accident victims except parochial relief and employer generosity.
5 Dec 1829 = #15 delegates from Spinners Societies in England, Scotland & Ireland met in Ramsay,IoM, to form a Grand General Union.
?? 1830 = #Revolution in France caused alarm with the militia and others and authorities proceeded with caution.
24 Oct 1830 = Kent Quarter Sessions, seven tried for machine breaking, lenient sentence of three days
? Oct 1830 = Sir Robert Peel wanted strong measures to suppress outrages in Kent, cavalry sent to Sittingbourne, mobs around Maidstone.
30 Oct 1830 = Maidstone magistrates went with 34 soldiers to meet some 400 people nearby, arrested 3 leaders.
?? 1830 = Agricultural labourer' rising.
? Nov 1830 = Similar arrangements to Brede made at Burwash, Ticehurst, Mayfield, Heathfield, Warbleton, Ninfield and Ringmer.
? Nov 1830 = Disturbances developed in Sussex, meetings with farmers and clergy in area of Maidstone, Hythe and Brighton; wages raised but farmers said tithes and rents must come down.
5 Nov 1830 = Brede, labourers and farmers signed an agreement to give 2/3 per day from 1 Mar 1831, removed their overseer Mr Abell from the parish
11 Nov 1830 = London police officer in Deal said wages were 1/8 to 2/3, but they would settle for 2/6.
15 Nov 1830 = Sir R Peel sent all disposable cavalry soldiers into Kent and E.Sussex; he disapproved of magistrate's conciliatory approach to labourers demands.
18 Nov 1830 = Horsham labourers more violent but met with sympathy, a 700 to 1000 strong mob summoned a vestry meeting.
ABT 25 Nov 1830 = The rising spread to Berks, Hants, and Wilts; manufactories at Fordingbridge, Wilton & Quidhampton attacked, Selborne & Headley workhouses destroyed.
ABT ? Nov 1830 = Risings spread to Dorset, Gloucs, Bucks and Stotfold, Beds, Nlk, Sfk and ESX.
ABT ?? 1830 = 123 furnaces in Lancashire, more than all other counties together.
8 Dec 1830 = Lord Melbourne issues circular stopping mediation by magistrates on the wages, the Government would adopt 'all practicable and reasonable methods'.
11 Dec 1830 = #52 firms Stalybridge,Ashton,Dukinfield reduced by agreement the wages from 3/11d to 3/9d. Est 23,000 workers on strikevAFT 18 Dec 1830 = Winchester trials, showed village mechanics, carpenters, joiners, smiths, bricklayers, shoemakers, shepherds & smallholders also joined in.
AFT 18 Dec 1830 = Joseph & Robert Mason, Bullington smallholders, Joseph carried a petition to the King at Brighton.
27 Dec 1830 = #Spinner's Union of the UK called a General Strike, failed only a few mills in Glossop & Manchester turned out.
27 Dec 1830 = Reading Special Commission opened, 138 prisoners.
2 Jan 1831 = Wiltshire Special Commission opened, same Winchester judges, 300 prisoners.
7 Jan 1831 = Winchester,101 capitally convicted, 6 executed, nearly 95 transported for life, 36 transported for less, 65 with hard labour, 67 acquitted.
11 Jan 1831 = Dorchester, some 50 prisoners.
26 Feb 1831 = #10,000 Tyne & Wear pitmen struck; some 20,000 from 47 collieries attended on 21 Mar meeting at Newcastle.
? Aug 1831 = #Thomas Hepburn pitman at Hetton Colliery appointed organiser to visit other collieries.
19 Sept 1831 = Lord Brougham stated 1 in 7 convictions between 1827 and 1830 were under the Game Code.
ABT ? Oct 1831 = #Cholera appears in Sunderland from Russia, devastated Newcastle, Gateshead, North Shields from Dec to Mar of 1832.
?? 1831 = Select Vestry Act, increased 1819 allowance to 50 acres, not much use made of Acts.
?? 1831 = Settlement Act,1819 & 1826 Acts unsuccessful.
?? 1831 = Select Committee on Secondary Punishment, description of effect on labourers transported, children were sent to prison in large numbers.
?? 1831 = Allowance scale was now 5 gallon loaves for a family of four - cf 1795.
? Jul 1831 = Wm Cobbett's trial for sedition at the Guildhall.
?? 1831 = *Hobhouse's Second Factory Act, again mutilated, applied only to cotton mills, there was still no means to enforce the Acts.
?? 1831 = *Sadler's Committee on Factory Children's labour
?? 1831 = #Number of cotton workers in Gt Britain risen to about 833,000.
?? 1832 = #New Coal Act, London coals sold by the weight not volume, thus eliminating the fraud by boat masters
ABT ? Mar 1832 = *#Northumberland coal strike, cholera epidemic and a clergyman evicted all his tenants.
Abt ? Jun 1832 = #Lead miners (ca 2,000) brought in from Wales, Staffs and Yorkshire.
ABT ?? 1833 = *Factory Commissioner's Report, spinners came from agricultural areas, Wales, Ireland and Scotland.
?? 1833 = # Felkin estimates 73,000 workers in frame-work knitting industry.
?? 1833 = Select Committee on Agriculture, failed to understand bad distribution of profits was itself a cause of agricultural problems, assumed only to steady prices by protection.
?? 1834 = Report of Poor Law Commission, still showed prejudice against allowing labourers to own allotments.
?? 1834 = *Suppl. Report of Poor Law Commission, in mills nearly 2/3 of boys and 1/3 of girls were employed directly by men workers
?? 1834 = Select Committee Report on Allotments, not until 1830 that allotments were much resorted to,i.e. desperate hungry labourers rioted.
?? 1834 = #Report of Select Comm. on Hand-Loom Weavers, describes last efforts to obtain a minimum wage.
?? 1835 = *Rept of Committee on Accidents in Mines.
?? 1840 = *Act passed no one under 21 to climb chimneys, no child under 16 to apprenticed to a chimney sweep.
?? 1840 = # Report from Assistant Hand-Loom Weavers Commissioners.
?? 1840 = #Commission on Hand-Loom Weavers describes their miserable plight.
?? 1840 = # In Norwich, 3398 out of 4054 looms were in the weavers' own homes, 2890 were in homes of either one or two looms.
?? 1840 = # Freshford, Som., employer had as many women as men working for him, ca 3,000 looms in Devon making Exeter serges, nearly 600 in Wellington, Som., mainly women.
?? 1842 = *First Report of Children's Commission ....in Mines and Manufactures, ages 5 to 8 years, strongly critical of owners and agents.
?? 1842 = *First Report of Children's Commission ....in Mines and Manufactures, women still working in West Riding, in Cheshire, some parts of Lancs and in S Wales.
ABT ?? 1842 = *The truck system still prevailed in remote areas where there were powerful landlords.
?? 1861 = #Commission on Children in Lace Manufacture, exposed conditions of the previous period.
ABT ?? 1867 = # frame-work knitting as a factory system was not yet in full force, it had hardly begun by 1844 >
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