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Marie Mayoux (nee Gouranchat), known as Joséphine Bourgon (1878-1969)
French teacher, militant revolutionary, pacifist & libertarian trade unionist. Born April 24, 1878, in Charente; died June 16, 1969.In 1915, with her companion François Mayoux, also a teacher, Marie Mayoux joined the Socialist Party (SFIO). Card-indexed with the Carnet B, they were subjected to a heavy fine & two years in prison for the publication in 1917 of a pacifist booklet Les instituteurs syndicalistes et la guerre.
Marie was released on April 1, 1919, after serving 10 months (François was released after 17 months). Their teaching licenses were revoked & were not reinstated until 1924. At the end of 1920 they joined the Communist Party, but were kicked out in 1922 when they refused to help the party take over trade unions. Consequently they moved towards the libertarian movement & participated in the anarchist press: "La revue anarchiste ", "La voix libertaire", "CQFD", "Défense de l'homme","Le monde libertaire," etc.
Expelled in 1929 from the CGTU, they were no less militant, supporting the Spanish Revolution & denouncing the action of the Stalinist grave-diggers.
In 1939, their son Jehan Mayoux, a poet & libertarian faithful to the pacifist convictions of his parents, refused mobilization & was imprisoned.
After WWII both Marie & François retreated to Ciotat, where he wrote his memoirs, Marie et François Mayoux, instituteurs pacifistes et syndicalistes.
In French, see Ephéméride anarchiste
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