Cat Has Had the Time of His Life

    thin line

    Our Daily Bleed...



-- McDaniels Calendar http://www.nortexinfo.net/McDaniel/jancal.htm


--
boynton
Not done July 25?, 26 27,
http://www.global-image.com/boynton/calendar/archives/july_archive.html



-- SPUNK ARCHIVE UPDATES
http://www.spunk.org/new.html



-- INFOSHOP EVENTS
Not done July 25?, 26 27,
http://www.infoshop.org/news98_1.html



-- timeline calendar of the counterculture....
http://www.well.com/user/mareev/TIMELINE/index.html



-- BOLIVIA Mujeres Creando paints Bolivia
DEAD : http://www.Americas.org/News/Features/9906_Gay_Rights/Bolivian_graffiti--ni%20dios%20ni%20amo.jpg ALT=? width="100" height="100" border="0" hspace="10" vspace="10" align="left" http://www.Americas.org/News/Features/9906_Gay_Rights/bolivias_mujeres_creando.htm



-- DOA: http://satie.arts.usf.edu/~ahawkins/conclu.html http://sortir.lemonde.fr/article/0,3118,89211--2616,00.html



-- Alice Stone Blackwell." Blackwell was the daughter of women's movement leader Lucy Stone & was active in left causes of the early 20th century, such as the National Council for the Protection of the Foreign Born (executive committee), American Friends of Russian Freedom, the National Mooney-Billings Committee, the League of Women Voters (honorary president of the Massachusetts branch), the Mary Ware Dennett Defence Committee, the International Labor Defense (national committee), the Massachusetts ACLU, etc. http://www.antiqbook.com/danwymanbooks/cat7.html




-- ed abbey

I'M DRIVING ED Abbey's Cadillac to Denver. It has moldered away in a dirt alley off Tucson's venerable main drag, & now it's going to reside in a pricey Republican enclave on the compromised high plains outside the mile-high city. Of course, if I told you which 'burb it was, I'd have to kill you.

A fire-engine red '75 Eldorado, it's been parked for a year behind Ed's pal Buffalo Medicine's house, accumulating a thick coat of dust & a calligraphy of cat and raccoon tracks across its massive hood. The cables have fallen loose in the engine compartment, the generator's shot, weeds have choked the wheels, & the ragtop's in sad shape. Local writers cruise by occasionally, tip their gimme caps, raise a can of Coors, & drive away. Their wheels churn up the alley dirt, adding another layer of dust to the Caddie. Just like Ed's memory.

Buffalo Medicine has possibly rooked El Piloto, a devotee of the Abbeyite Order, by selling him the car for money which might or might not be too much. Opinions vary. It all depends on where you're positioned in the continuing Ed debate. In Tucson, the debate is quite personal, since locals trade Ed sightings like baseball cards.

Ed Abbey--Sasquatch.

ALONG WITH THE Ed sightings, we are confronted with the most peculiar facet of the Dead-Ed Industry, the I-Was-Ed-Abbey's-Best-Friend Industry. Outside of Tucson, it's moderated a bit by distance into the I-Was-Ed-Abbey's-Biggest-Fan Industry. Shady dudes who may have tipped back a Dos Equis with Ed at a barbecue will now offer you insights into his soul, & a few of these Best Friends will offer to take Biggest Fans to Ed's "secret" gravesite where more Dos Equis can be consumed. Of course, east-coast tenderfoots could be led to my backyard & told the mulch pile is Ed's grave, & they'd go home happy. I wonder how many people have stared at a thoroughly empty pile of dirt in Saguaro National Monument & said perfectly lovely things--into thin air. Nobody seems to find this behavior creepy.

It is a telling measure of the man, & all he accomplished, that so many are willing to define themselves by proximity--real or imagined--to his being.

How much would you pay for a piece of Ed Abbey? We are in a dicey period here, where shit-heads Ed wouldn't have spit on are burning to buy his books & seven Earth First! T-shirts & claim to be his soul-mates. But El Piloto, possibly as thorny & ultimately as sentimental a man as Ed, has bought the car for Love. I wonder what he'll do when the Dead-Ed industry washes a bibliophile to his door with a limp check for $28,000, dying to drive a piece of the myth.

What can I say? I stole Ed's pencil out of the car & am hiding it in my office. That's a writer for you: happy hypocrite.

One thing's for sure: Rudolfo A. Anaya won't be offering anybody money for Ed's chariot. When he heard El Piloto & I were motoring cross-country with it, he put a curse on us. My cherished friend, Mr. Bless Me, Ultima, said: "I hope you have four flat tires in the desert. I hope the car catches fire. I hope it burns to the ground."

Way to go, Ed! Making friends.

BUT I TOO am mad at Ed. I don't know why anybody else is mad at him, & plenty of people are--which, of course, in the post-Abbeyan universe, is all the more reason to love Ed. That's part of the seductiveness of Edward Abbey, isn't it? The world's full of bastards, & Ed will cuss them out for us, tilt at them with his sharpened war lance, be inspected by the FBI, & occasionally blow up a bridge or sodomize a tractor into submission, all the while throwing cleverly hidden poems into his paragraphs and, for no extra charge, making us laugh.

We, in turn, get to feel like we've done battle with wicked forces while hiding behind a dead man. We feel like Ed's pals. Ed speaks for us, we compliment ourselves by thinking. We say Ed is our voice, expressing our deep feelings, after Ed himself often set the agenda we now claim for our own in one of his books that we bought out of a "used" box for $1.45.

Chicano readers, too, could be seduced. Like many people with a cause, we can be essentially pathetic, eager to side with anybody who sounds halfway sympathetic. Our weariness with the struggle, our exhaustion, is what makes us vulnerable. Our exhaustion makes us latch on to a strong voice for justice. & Ed, with his championing of lizards & watersheds, seemed to be championing us, too. Ed made some of us hope. & we fell over like puppies, wagging & peeing at his feet.

This is proof enough for me that Ed was a great writer. He angers the effete, & he utterly seduces his readers into absorbing his pith as if we were amoebas. And, sometimes, he hurts us.

EDWARD ABBEY ONCE stuck a knife in my heart.

I didn't know him outside of his books, & although I ponder swiping the car now & then, I'm not going to claim any special connection to the man. Or the ghost. Connecting with the books was quite enough. Desert Solitaire, The Monkey Wrench Gang, Black Sun, The Journey Home all had a massive, perhaps catastrophic, effect on me. I went mad for Ed, but more important, & a major reason others fell in love with him too, was the aching love he ignited in me for the land. The world. The tierra.

Ed Abbey--shaman.

In his "A Writer's Credo" (same book), the very first sentence says: "It is my belief that the writer...should be & must be a critic of the society in which he lives." Not a word about fame, love, beauty, or literary awards. Ed Abbey, by his own words, saw himself as a critic, a gadfly. In McGuane's words, "The original fly in the ointment." & nobody was spared. After all, One Life at a Time, Please contains his even more infamous assault on "The Cowboy & his Cow."


-- Alfred Kreymborg

(krm´bôrg) (KEY), 1883–1966, American poet & anthologist, b. New York City. Originally one of the imagists, he wrote poems collected in Mushrooms (1916), Manhattan Men (1929), Selected Poems (1945), & Man & Shadow (1946). He chronicled American poetry in such works as the critical history Our Singing Strength (1929, 1934) & the anthology Lyric America (1930). His puppet plays were also popular.

1

See his autobiography, Troubadour (1925).

edited the important magazine Others; See Kenneth Rexroth, Assays, page 155

With the poet Alfred Kreymborg, attempts to create an artist's community in Ridgefield with Man Ray

And even though your labor's done
& the race may rest in Jefferson,
Rise up again, there's more to be done!
Build, O men, keep building!
Keep on building Men !

Ballad of the Common Man
for the Jefferson Memorial
by Alfred Kreymborg




-- Margery Latimer (1899-1932)

Mentored by the Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright Zona Gale, Latimer belonged to a coterie of artists & writers that included Georgia O’Keeffe, Walt Kuhn, Meridel Le Sueur, & poet Kenneth Fearing. Moving between Greenwich Village & her hometown of Portage, Wisconsin, Latimer recorded her vision of the modernist milieu & of small-town America; both are depicted—ironically, tenderly, savagely—in her groundbreaking work.

http://persweb.wabash.edu/facstaff/CASTROJ/PAGES/research.htm


-- BARNEY ROSSET http://www.bluemoonbooks.com/moon/censorship/censormid.html


-- Jane Heap, Mina Loy, Ezra Pound

 
 
"Little Review" reunion:
Jane Heap, Mina Loy, & Ezra Pound, Paris, c. 1923

 
 
 
 




--

"In the carriages of the past, you can't go anywhere."

— Maxim Gorky, The Lower Depths




--
According to the tonalpohualli, the sacred Aztec calendar, this is the


http://www.azteccalendar.com/


-- CALENDARS

check 9/33 for other entries — The Daily Bleed; On this day, October

http://hometown.aol.com/nfwriters/authorbirth.html
http://english.yasuda-u.ac.jp/lc/modules.php?op=modload&name=NS-Ephemera&file=index&func=Ephemeridsshow

http://ytak.club.fr/
http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/heinakuu.htm

-- ?



-- Dave, No card yet, but here is the cat

bestcat2b.jpg Name: bestcat2b.jpg Type: JPEG Image (image/jpeg) Encoding: base64




-- - Seattle, KUOW-FM 94.9 The Writer's Almanac is produced by Minnesota Public Radio & distributed to radio audiences by Public Radio International

Not done July 25?, 26 27, skipped all of august, sept 1-6 http://almanac.mpr.org/docs/99_07_19.htm

-- boynton Not done July 25?, 26 27, http://www.global-image.com/boynton/calendar/archives/july_archive.html

-- SPUNK ARCHIVE UPDATES http://www.spunk.org/new.html

-- INFOSHOP EVENTS Not done July 25?, 26 27, http://www.infoshop.org/news98_1.html

-- timeline calendar of the counterculture.... http://www.well.com/user/mareev/TIMELINE/index.html http://almanac.mpr.org/docs/99_07_19.htm


-- Rebel Moon: Anarchist Rants & Poems Nawrocki, Norman

Paperback Publication Date: October 1996 Publisher: A K Press


?
-- Chapter 9 Anarchist Mountain School: 1896 to 1954

Anarchist Mountain Lookout

Located East of Osoyoos on Hwy. 3. From here, you can see the Okanagan Valley, as well as part of Washington State. A short trip by car takes you from 910 feet to 4045 feet. A must see for all Visitors!


Anarchist Mountain is named for a mysterious anarchist said to be either a renegade rancher or a lonely hermit with radical ideas.



?


While coming down Anarchist mountain, the view of Osoyoos Lake was beautiful.
http://wolfe.vsb.bc.ca/autotour/10-8.htm

DAY 7 Rossland - Manning Park (400 km). Follow the old trade route, the Dewdney Trail, to Manning Park. A steep descent down Anarchist Mountain brings you to Osoyoos, the warmest spot in Canada.


Site Name: Anarchist Elevation Launch 4200"asl LZ 910'asl Direction of Launch: SW
Site Suitable For: PG&HG

Location: Osoyoos BC at the summit of the hill heading East out of town. Region 2 Okanagan Valley in South Central British Columbia, Canada.
Type of Site: Mountain. Type of Flying: Thermal. Cross Country Potential: Excellent.
Description of Launch: There is a new road in on Long Joe Road. (Last road off on long hill heading East out of Osoyoos...or the first road if your coming down the hill from the West.) A small crude grassy slope. A short steep hike in. Thermals can be booming
Description Of LZ: Note: The campground below the Mountain is Reserve Property & is Closed unless asking permission beforehand. You can land on the public beach during non-populated hrs. RATED:Int. PG & Adv. HG as the LZ is difficult.

HPAC Requirements: Student, Intermediate, Advanced.
Mild Conditions: Int.PG Adv.HG Moderate conditions: Int.PG Adv.HG Strong Conditions: Adv. HG/PG
Skill Level Verification Requirements:HPAC Rating & Log Book
Site Regulation: None. Insurance: HPAC Or Local Club or Home Club Day Use.

Other Information: Great paragliding site. Great Scenery. House Thermal is to the left of launch in the bowl near to the vehicle parking area....or work back right to the North face. Red Rock often does not work. Not a wise idea to fly over the USA Border without following protocol.

Vehicle Requirements:Any vehicle rugged 2WD.
Radio Frquency:123.4MhzWHITE LAKE RADIO TELESCOPE OBSERVATORY AREA IS RADIO RESTRICTED (Aircraft) & 173.640Mhz (Local Club).
FSS Penticton: 250-493-6238 Fax: 250-493-5453.
Launch Road Name & Directions: Hyw.3 heading East from Osoyoos. Turn North on Long Joe Road. Landing Road Name & Direction.:The Beach during off hours!
Flying Season: Assign value 0 1 2 3 4 Best is 4:
Spring: 4 Summer: 2 Fall: 3 Winter: 1+
http://www.junction.net/osa/osg1.htm

Launch & Landing Area Maps are available in the printed version of the Site Guide which maybe obtained from fwilson@junction.net

There's an "Anarchist Mountain," named for an anarchist bureaucrat.

Columnists - Dan Gardner -Ottawa Citizen Online


For a memorable stay with a difference try the Observatory Bed & Breakfast on Anarchist Mountain, just east of Osoyoos.

Hosts, Jack & Alice Newton own an astronomy-theme B&B & their three rooms reflect this style—choose the Moon Room, the Saturn Suite or the galaxy-sized Eclipse Suite. All suites are self-contained with a level entrance & two have full kitchens.

Alice says they wanted to prove tourism doesn’t stop at 6 p.m., & states their 16-inch telescope housed in the rooftop observatory shows the area can be just as exciting after dark.

"Kids are blown away to see spiral arms in a galaxy & when they view the rings of Saturn they are hooked," she commented, adding she notices just as much delight on the faces of adults too.

Guests can also enjoy an in-home theatre with surround sound & a well-stocked video library, or they can arrange for expert instruction in astronomy, with Jack.

Sample some of the nearby attractions such as golfing, wine tasting, swimming, gold panning & touring the Osoyoos Desert Centre too.

Their season runs from May 10 to October 15. No children under age five and no pets. Phone 1-250-495-6745, e-mail jack@jacknewton.com or check their website at www.jacknewton.com


http://www.sonotek.com/sob-det1.html
http://www.osoyooschamber.bc.ca/visitor/outdoors.htm
http://www.magma.ca/~jppicard/album/timinougarag.html


Cordillera Anarchist Mountain Chardonnay 1999 (CSPC# 574103; BC VQA, $12)

Nice buttery textures & satisfying flavours of apple, citrus & tropical fruit. Moderate oak. I enjoyed this with chicken and ? on another occasion (guilty pleasure) with popcorn. Who knew?
http://www2.alberta.com/food/columns/displayone.cfm?articleid=533



?Beekeeper, self-portrait, Anarchist Mountain


Randy Johnson introduced the speaker, long-time SAS member Tom Calwell. In the summer of l976, Tom was off riding his BMW road bike up to Canada. He stopped to rest in Oroville at "The Anarchist Mountain Estates," which was just a gated field.

Anarchist Mountain Chardonnay ‘99: Some oak with dominant citrus. Clean & uncomplicated but not as exciting as the drive down to Osoyoos.




-- spain game 1936 http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~broszies/generalstab/archiv/fwtbt02/fwtbt02_07.html


-- OCTOBER: Monthly work notes (MOVING DATES)

2003

CLEAN OUT Literal spaces end of image links:

" " to do: replace http://recollectionbooks.com/bleed/gallery/galleryindex.htm#GoldmanEmma with http://recollectionbooks.com/bleed/Encyclopedia/GoldmanEmma.htm

This color code for radical literature entries

moving dates


-- comics -graphic novels -camyís favorites

ï Baru with Jean-Marc Thevenet. Road to America. Montreal, Drawn & Quarterly, 2002. ï Blain, Christophe. The Speed Abater. New York: NBM, 2003 ï Drooker, Eric. BloodSong NY: Harcourt, Inc., 2002 http://www.loc.gov/catdir/description/har021/2002024263.html ï Drooker, Eric. Flood! Milwaukee, OR: Dark Horse, 2002 ï Eisner, Will. A Contract With GodÖ. Etc, etc. ï Gaiman, Neil, & illustrated & designed by McKean, Dave. The Tragical Comedy and Comical Tragedy of Mr. Punch. New York: DC Comics, 1994. ï Karasik, Paul, & Mazzucchelli, David. Paul Austerís City of Glass. New York: Avon Books, l994 ï Kuper, Peter. Give It Up! & other short stories by Franz Kafka New York: NBM ComicsLit, 1995 ï Lutes, Jason. Jar of Fools. Black Eye, 1997. ï Lutes, Jason. Berlin: City of Stones Montreal, Canada: Drawn & Quarterly, 2001. ï Miller, Frank. Sin City Milwaukie, OR: Dark Horse Comics, 2001 ï Millionaire, Tony. The Adventures of Tony Millionaireís Sock Monkey. Milwaukie, OR; Dark Horse, 2000. ï Morse, C. Scott. Ancient Joe ñel bizarron. Milwaukee, OR: Dark Horse Comics, 2002. ï Noomin, Diane, ed. Twisted Sisters: A Collection of Bad Girl Art. NY; Penguin, 1991 ï Panter, Gary. Cola Madness. New York: Funny Garbage Press, 1989 ï Rabagliati, Michel. Paul Has a Summer Job. Montreal: Drawn & Quarterly, 2003. ï Smith, Jeff. Bone: Out from Boneville. Columbus, OH: Cartoon Books, 1996. ï Thompson, Craig. Goodbye Chunky Rice ï Ware, Chris. Jimmy Corrigan: the Smartest Kid on Earth. ï Wood, Brian. Channel Zero. San Francisco, CA: AiT/Planet Lar, 2000. comix Date: Mon, 25 Aug 2003 02:05:46 -0500 From: Camy Matthay To: David Brown hi David, It was nice seeing you again... attached are three lists: a little annotated list of books I just created for the Madison Area Peace Coalition's newsletter, a developing bibliography of political/historical/autobiographic comic books more or less sorted by content -in progress; & a list of my favorite graphic novels. take care, camy ps I can't remember if I sent you the "Ecosocialist Manifesto"... so I'll forward that to you as well.


-- Peter Kropotkin's Anarchist Communism & Anarchist Morality

Peter Kropotkin (1842-1921) was a revolutionary before leaving his native Russia, but it was in the Jura mountains of western Switzerland, present-day home to Fourmilab, that he developed his philosophy of anarchism. In his Memoirs, he wrote, ". . .when I came away from the mountains after a week's stay with the watchmakers, my views upon socialism were settled. I was an anarchist." His 1887 pamphlet, Anarchist Communism, is one of the clearest expositions of Kropotkin's view that anarchism cannot seek solely to do away with government, but must also abolish property & privilege. In Anarchist Morality, published in 1897, he treats morality as a characteristic of all living beings & argues that anarchism, oft condemned as immoral, is in fact entirely consistent with this innate morality. UPDATE ADD LINKS & TEXT SOMEWHERE; i HAVE ARCHIVED TEH KROPOTKIN ARTICLES; MOVE TO SIML & ADD TO LIBRARY INDEX & HIS PAGE http://www.fourmilab.ch/etexts/www/kropotkin/ancom/
http://www.fourmilab.ch/etexts/www/kropotkin/ancom/

-- SCREENSAVERS???

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WITH

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-- "No hay país donde el anarquismo haya tenido tanta influencia en la literatura como en la Argentina, si exceptuamos un cierto período en Francia... Se puede decir que la gran mayoría de los jóvenes escritores en la Argentina se han ensayado dede 1900... como simpatizantes del anarquismo, como colaboradores de la prensa anarquista y algunos como militantes..."25

Although this seems somewhat exaggerated to me, it does contain an indication of the force of anarchism's influence on young bohemian circles in Buenos Aires at the beginning of the century. One of the most notable intellectuals active in anarchist circles at the time was the playwright & poet Alberto Ghiraldo. He was at first close to the young people who formed Ruben Darío's coterie at the end of the l9th century & joined anarchist circles in 1900, when he took up editing the anarchist literary magazines Martín Fierro & El Sol; from 1904, he was editor of La Protesta.

Another example was the Uruguayan Florencio Sánchez, a leading playwright in the early years of the century who wrote M'hijo el dotor, a play that gave full expression to the reality of life of the lower classes in Buenos Aires.

There was also Félix Basterra, who wrote El crepúsculo de los gauchos, as well as Armando Discépolo, González Pacheco, José de Maturana & Alejandro Sux.

It should be noted that they all had dual loyalties: on the one hand, to the anarchist circles in whose publications they wrote & at whose social gatherings their plays were presented & their poetry read, while on the other, they carefully preserved their links to the external literary world in which their works were published & which constituted both their market & the source of the literary criticism that determined their status. At the same time, however, this dual loyalty opened gaps between the intellectuals & the anarchist activists, & created tension between the two groups.

Most of the latter were autodidacts, who had acquired their education as they worked -so they may be termed "semi-intellectuals"-, & later applied it to their newspaper writing & propaganda efforts. The tensions continued throughout this period & culminated in the second decade of the century with the majority of the bohemian intellectuals leaving the anarchist ranks.26

PAGE OR ADD TO INDEX (ghiraldo done 8/2007) http://www.tau.ac.il/eial/VIII_1/oved.htm
http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alberto_Ghiraldo

1 -- Dave, I knew you hadn't invented the name CLOTHES PEG. Claes Oldenberg didn't do that either. Maybe it's a bad translation from Swedish. The putter up of the page is a juvenile (I assume) named Nathan Edwards.




1 -- Kropotkin, Self-valorization & the Crisis of Marxism
Harry Cleaver
Anarchist Studies 2(1994): 119-35

The collapse of the socialist states & the ongoing crisis of Western capitalism Ð both brought on by pervasive grassroots opposition Ð demands a reconsideration of the issue of the transcendence of contemporary society by anarchists & Marxists of all stripes. Such a reconsideration should include a reexamination of the thinking of earlier revolutionaries as well as of their experiences within past social upheavals.

http://www.erica.demon.co.uk/AS205.html


3 -- trains hobos http://www.wshu.org/profiles/1997/pro70530.htm

http://www.wshu.org/profiles/1997/pro70530.htm


?
4 --


5 -- TO DO: REFERENCES RESOURCES TO PURSUE:
ARCHIE GREEN FOLKLORIST

NOTE: there are other references in the Daily Bleed to search on. Find links &/ or put short page together on him for SINNERS folder

Green joined the Institute of Labor & Industrial Relations at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1960, where he was librarian & later served also as an instructor in the English Department until 1972. At the same time, he produced sound recordings, conducted fieldwork, & wrote extensively.

music line

archive The first major collector that I corresponded with [at that time] was Gene Earle. Gene at that time was working at Patrick Air Force Base, he was living in Cocoa Beach, Florida. & I knew Archie Green of course, the folklorist in San Francisco. Archie & I got to know one another around 1957 or '58. We were introduced indirectly through Norman Pierce at the Record Cellar, because Archie would go in there looking for labor songs & picking up some of the recordings by the old-time groups, relevant ones he was interested in. So Norman Pierce let him know about me. Pretty soon I was making treks up to Archie's house there on Caselli Street, having a good time with him just talking about old-time music & learning a lot from him, too, about folklore in general and labor songs especially

http://www.mindspring.com/~oth/pages/6-4/6-4pinson.htm



http://www.lib.unc.edu/mss/inv/g/Green,Archie



6 -- Communist Party leader, radio commentator on WPFW, & activist for six decades.

See: HEALEY, Dorothy Ray & Maurice ISSERMAN. California Red: A Life in the American Communist Party. 288 pages. Illus. Paper. 1993., & Dorothy Healey Remembers: A Life in the American Communist Party (1990).

1960-1963 The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), & the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee (SISS) investigate Pacifica programming for "subversion." Broadcasts of writings by Bertolt Brecht, Norman Cousins, Carey McWilliams, Dorothy Healey, & W.E.B. DuBois were cited.

1962 KPFK broadcasts women's history profiles of Dorothy Healey & Elizabeth Gurley Flynn--programs that are later used in SISS Hearings charging Pacifica is communist infiltrated.

Carey McWilliams healey http://www.weisbroth.com/blacklisted/bibliog.html


7 -- Approximately 125 years before Europe produced a book using movable type, the 1323 Paris census listed 28 bookstores.

Source: Gies, Joseph & Frances. Life in a Medieval City. Harper Colophon edition, 1981.


8 -- http://www.potatoland.org/
http://www.topica.com/lists/oddweb/

12 --




20 --
http://www.sfmt.org/archives/chronlgy.html



25 -- RUSSELL BLACKWELL; notes for a page

Mary Low recuerda con vivacidad y emoción a numerosos amigos y conocidos en España durante la guerra: al amigo y poeta surrealista francés Benjamin Péret y su compañera Remedios, a su amiga Olga Loeillet, médico judía de nacionalidad polaca, al canadiense Krhem, siempre vestido con una elegancia exquisita, al norteamericano “Rosalio Negrete”, y por supuesto a la pareja Orr, con quienes colaboró en Spanish Revolution, financiado con los fondos recogidos en Inglaterra por John McNair y Bob Smilie. http://www.inisoc.org/marylow.htm

No existen pruebas de que la crítica de Rebull al comité ejecutivo del POUM deba buscarse en la influencia ideológica de Oehler y Negrete, o bien de Chazé/Davoust. EL POUM era resultado de la fusión de dos partidos en setiembre de 1935: el BOC de Maurín y la Izquierda Comunista de España de Nin. Josep Rebull había militado en el BOC, era un maurinista convencido, que criticaba en Nin lo que a sus ojos era la usurpación por parte de la Izquierda Comunista de España de la dirección del POUM. No era el primer caso de militantes del BOC más radicalizados e izquierdistas que los de la antigua ICE. Josep Rebull era el único contacto de Oehler y Negrete, y también de Chazé en el POUM. Eran ellos los que necesitaban creer en la influencia de Rebull en el POUM, eran ellos (al igual que Chazé-Davoust en Francia) los que publicaban en los boletines ingleses y franceses los artículos de Josep Rebull, eran ellos los que SE ILUSIONABAN en las "enormes posibilidades" que tenía la izquierda del POUM para enderezar al partido por la senda revolucionaria. Las críticas de Rebull a Nin están más influenciadas por su maurinismo que por las ideas de Oehler, Negrete o Chazé. [1]Citemos por ejemplo a: Chazé, líder de Union Communiste, que publicaba en Francia L'Internationale; Rosalio Negrete, del Revolutionary Workers League; el propio Trotsky, y el Secretariado Internacional, pese a los informes realistas y ponderados de Munis sobre la célula 72. http://es.geocities.com/hbalance2000/pagina_n14.htm

The (second) Libertarian League was founded in New York City in 1954 as a political organisation building on the Libertarian Book Club. Members included Sam Dolgoff, Russell Blackwell, Dave Van Ronk & Murray Bookchin. This league had a narrower political focus than the first, promoting anarchism & syndicalism. Its central principle, stated in its journal Views & Comments, was "equal freedom for all in a free socialist society". Branches of the League opened in a number of other American cities, including Detroit & San Fransisco, but it lacked an organisational focus & never managed to establish a presence amongst other anarchist & syndicalist organisations. It was dissolved at the end of the 1960s.


Hugo Oehler was a member of the United States Trotskyists in the thirties & a leader along with Tom Stamm of the split which took place in that organisation, 1935, against the French Turn, or the entry tactic in the parties of the Second International. They were for the independence of the revolutionary organisation. He along with approximately one third of the Workers Party broke away to form the Revolutionary Workers League. It was as representative of this organisation that Oehler & his comrade Russell Blackwell, whose pen-name was Rosalio Negrete, went to Spain. Blackwell is important in this connection as he was a Spanish speaker & handled for several months before going to Spain the correspondence with & the publication of the documents of the left wing of the POUM.

Blackwell’s mode of getting there is of some interest. Refused a passport valid for travel in Spain by the US State Department, because of his record as a revolutionary – Blackwell had been national secretary of the Young Communist League in Mexico & was deported from Honduras in 1925 & Mexico in 1927. for his activities – he stowed away on a French ship bound for France, & when it was discovered he spoke only Spanish, he was deported to Spain on arriving in France.

Both he & Oehler played an active part in the May events. Blackwell was wounded slightly.

After the collapse of the uprising Blackwell went into hiding. Oehler, on attempting to leave Spain, was arrested, held incommunicado for a month & charged with ‘spying’. After protests he was released & allowed to return to the United States.

Ten months after going into hiding Blackwell was arrested. Following protests he was released & put on board a British vessel bound for Marseilles. Before it sailed he was taken off by the Stalinist secret police, kept for over two months in a dungeon & tortured. After more protests from the movement, he was tried for High Treason, found not guilty & returned to the United States.

____

From: Preface to Barricades in Barcelona

 

From Revolutionary History magazine, Volume 1 No 2, Summer 1988. Used by permission.

 

To my knowledge Barricades in Barcelona is one of the only three eyewitnesses' accounts in English of the May Days in Barcelona 1937. The other two are Augustin Souchy’s The Tragic Week in May, published by the CNT & FAI, & George Orwell's Homage to Catalonia.

http://csf.colorado.edu/mirrors/marxists.org/ETOL/document/spain05.htm


In New York City, July 1954 Russell Blackwell, Esther & Sam Dolgoff formed the Libertarian League, of which for a short time Murray Bookchin was a member. Erlier, in 1949, Gregory P. Maximoff [G.P. Maximoff; Maximov] initiated the Libertarian Book Club just before he died in 1950.

... formed in July 1954 called the Libertarian League, started by Russell Blackwell, & the other formed in 1949 and called the Libertarian Book Club, an idea initiated by Gregory P. Maximoff, & formerly established by a number of anarchists, including: Bill & Sarah Taback, Joseph & Hannah Spivack, Joseph Aaronstam, Ida Pilot (a professional translator) & her companion Valerio Isca, & Esther & Sam Dolgoff. The Libertarian League of the 1920' was a simmilarly socialistic organization, but no longer existed. The Libertarian Book Club is based in New York City, & is still active today.
"Fragments: A Memoir", by Sam Dolgoff, Pub. 1986 Refract Publications, Cambridge, England

http://flag.blackened.net/liberty/libsoc.html


...Russell Blackwell was twice released from the Spanish police through the intervention of the US authorities. This though 'technically' correct is not entirely true. It was easier for a US or British citizen to obtain release from Spanish jails at that time. If you were a left winger from Fascist or Stalinist territory you had little chance of escape. (Blackwell pointed this out at his first meeting after arriving back in New York). Nevertheless it was necessary to form a Defence Committee & conduct a wide campaign in order to get Blackwell out of the Spanish jail. It was precisely this ability of the left in the USA & Britain to campaign on behalf of the victims that made the Republican Government more responsive to protest.

The Negrete-Blackwell Defence Committee, set up in New York, was composed of members of the Revolutionary Workers League, Socialist Workers Party (Trotskyists), Independent Labor League (Lovestoneites), Social Democratic Federation, Challenge (Anarchists), Canadian League for a Revolutionary Workers Party, & other groups & individuals. Meetings & picketing of the State Department & the Spanish Embassy were carried out. A report states:

'....Olay, representative of the CNT in the US, received a letter ... from Secretary Inigo of the Juridico Social section of the CNT in Barcelona, saying they have made an investigation into Blackwell's case at Olay's request & have been informed by the Military Investigation Service (controlled by the Stalinists) that Blackwell is a Trotskyist, author of Trotskyist books, former secretary to Trotsky & a spy sent to Spain by the American authorities, & they are suspending further efforts on Blackwell's behalf pending assurances that these things are not so. Olay & Carlo Tresca promptly cabled the CNT denying the charges.'

Trotsky wrote to the American & Spanish Consulates in Mexico City, denying that Blackwell was connected with him & added: 'I do not know whether the other accusations against Mr Blackwell are of the same kind'.

Norman Thomas, John Dewey, John Dos Passos & other wired the US State Department urging efforts to secure Blackwell's safe release.

In the light of all this to say that the US authorities secured Blackwell's release is hardly a fair summary, & must appear somewhat churlish to those of that time, who exerted themselves on his behalf.

--- Ernest Rogers
http://www.revolutionary-history.co.uk/backiss/Vol1/No3/RevsLets.html


Some correspondence by Blackwell is at the Labadie Collection in the Lois & Charles Orr papers, 1936-1983.
http://www.lib.umich.edu/libhome/SpecColl.lib/LabadieManuscripts.html


THE BRANDEIS SPANISH CIVIL WAR COLLECTION ...on deposit is the collection of the late Russell Blackwell, a former U. S. volunteer who fought in Spain with the P.O.U.M.
http://www.ukans.edu/~iberia/ssphs/vol1no6.html

Rosalio Negrete was the party name of Russell Blackwell (1904-1969) who joined the CPUSA in the l920s & was sent to Mexico to help build up the Communist youth movement there, working with Vittorio Vidali (Carlos Contreras) who was later to play such a sinister part in Spain & in the murder of Trotsky. Negrete was converted to Trotskyism by reading the US Militant & founded a Trotskyist group inside Ihe Mexican Communist Party, for which he was expelled from the country. He handled the Spanish language correspondence of the US Trotskyists, but left them along with Hugo Oehler. Whilst in Spain he allied with the 'Cell 72' opposition inside the Barcelona POUM. He was twice arrested by the GPU working through the Spanish police & was twice released on the intervention of the US authorities.




?
1890 -- Earliest known reference to Emma Goldman in print. Citation: "An Eloquent Woman," Baltimore Critic, October 25, 1890. http://www.jwa.org/exhibits/wov/goldman/egart.html


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1908 -- need exact date (TEXT IS CATALAN; FREE TRANSLATOR AT http://www.comprendium.es/index_demo_text_ca.html)
1908 -- ADD TO ENCYCLOPEDIA / BLEED (TEXT IS CATALAN; FREE TRANSLATOR AT http://www.comprendium.es/index_demo_text_ca.html)
1908 -- CHECK TRANSLATION FIRST, ADD TO ENCYCLOPEDIA / BLEED IF APPROPRIATE (TEXT IS CATALAN; FREE TRANSLATOR AT http://www.comprendium.es/index_demo_text_ca.html)
1908 -- ADD TO ENCYCLOPEDIA / BLEED IF APPROPRIATE (TEXT IS CATALAN; FREE TRANSLATOR AT http://www.comprendium.es/index_demo_text_ca.html)
1908 -- ADD TO ENCYCLOPEDIA / BLEED IF APPROPRIATE (TEXT IS CATALAN; FREE TRANSLATOR AT http://www.comprendium.es/index_demo_text_ca.html) from: PERSONATGES D'HISTÒRIA CONTEMPORÀNIA, http://www.xtec.es/~jbuxader/historia/personatges/a.htm
http://www.xtec.es/aulanet/viatge/credit3/05/foto54.htm

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1914 --


1917 -- Italy: Bisogna Abolire lo STAto ! Crimini e Misfatti dello stato italiano dalle origini ai giorni nostri MOVING DATES 1914-1918 La prima fase della guerra civile in Europa : i macellai al potere. 1914 Giugno. Inasprimento del carico fiscale. 7 Giugno. Durante una manifestazione anti-militarista ad Ancona i carabinieri sparano sulla folla : 3 morti e 20 feriti. Inizia così la "settimana rossa" nelle Marche e in Romagna. Lo stato invia nella zona 100.000 soldati per far fronte alle manifestazioni. Il bilancio finale è di tredici morti fra i dimostranti e di uno tra i soldati, con decine di feriti e contusi.

18 Ottobre. Il un articolo sull'Avanti intitolato "Dalla neutralità assoluta alla neutralità attiva e operante", il socialista Benito Mussolini modifica, cioè capovolge, la sua precedente posizione contro la guerra e parla di terre irredente da riconquistare. Nel comportamento di Mussolini si può vedere, in maniera ancor più chiara che in Crispi o Giolitti, come il trasformismo sia l'essenza e la costante di base degli uomini politici e quindi dello statismo.

9 Dicembre. Il ministro degli esteri Sidney Sonnino, a seguito della occupazione di Belgrado da parte delle truppe austroungariche, ha la spudoratezza di chiedere garanzie circa i compensi previsti per l'Italia dal far parte della Triplice Alleanza (Austria, Germania, Italia) mentre si sta vendendo alla Triplice Intesa (Francia, Inghilterra, Russia). Lo stato italiano, come una puttana, cerca di offrirsi a chi è disposto a pagare il prezzo più alto. Un mercato squallido e sordido. 25 Dicembre. L'esercito italiano occupa Valona (Albania) con la giustificazione, pretestuosa e ridicola, che altrimenti sarebbe stata occupata da altre potenze.

1915 13 GENNAIO / JANUARY . Un terremoto distrugge Avezzano (Aquila). Le operazioni di soccorso da parte dei corpi dello stato mostreranno incredibili disservizi e ritardi. 7 Luglio. L'offensiva sull'Isonzo si conclude con gravi perdite senza raggiungere obiettivi significativi. 4 Dicembre. I deputati (i cosiddetti rappresentanti del popolo) approvano la politica estera del governo (vale a dire la guerra) con 406 voti favorevoli e solo 48 contrari.

1917 18 Agosto. L'occupazione del monte Santo e di una parte dell'Altopiano della Bainsizza avviene attraverso perdite elevatissime, circa 165.000 uomini tra morti e feriti. Ottobre. 24 Ottobre. La disfatta di Caporetto. Il fronte italiano crolla a Caporetto e l'esercito austro-tedesco avanza di circa 150 chilometri creando la confusione e il panico. Il bilancio per l'esercito italiano è di 11.000 morti, 29.000 feriti, 280.000 prigionieri, oltre la perdita ingente di materiali. I soldati in fuga verso la pianura padana sono circa 350.000 e i profughi civili 400.000. 28 Ottobre. Gli austro-tedeschi entrano a Udine che era la sede del quartiere generale dell'esercito italiano. 5 - 6 Novembre. Al convegno di Rapallo, i governi francese e inglese chiedono la sostituzione del generale Luigi Cadorna, il massimo repsonsabile della tragedia di Caporetto. In caso negativo si rifiuteranno di impiegare le loro truppe sul fronte italiano. 9 Novembre. Il generale Armando Diaz sostituisce Luigi Cadorna come comandante supremo dell'esercito. 1918 Ottobre. Sui fronti europei (tranne che sul fronte italiano) si delinea la sconfitta dell'Austria e della Germania. Il 6 - 7 0ttobre i governi di questi paesi chiedono l'armistizio al presidente degli Stati Uniti Woodrow Wilson. 1919-1922 La decomposizione dello stato cosiddetto liberale : i mentecatti al potere [^] [Polyarchy] [Basta!] [Indice : crimini e misfatti]


[Source: Crimini e Misfatti]


?
1920 --


?
1920 -- ?





1925 -- ITALY: PLACEHOLDER OCTUBRE / OCTOBER / OCTOBRE / OKTOBER / OTTOBRE / OUTUBRO

OCTOBER 2 Ottobre. A palazzo Vidoni la Confindustria e la Confederazione delle corporazioni fasciste si riconoscono reciprocamente come i rappresentanti esclusivi degli industraili e dei lavoratori. Vengono abolite le commissioni interne di fabbrica. Il patto di palazzo Vidoni sancisce il monopolio sindacale fascista.

OCTOBER 3 Ottobre. I fascisti toscani sono protagonisti di violenze e aggressioni contro singoli individui e sedi di associazioni. OCTOBER 8 Ottobre. Il podestà, di nomina prefettizia, sostituisce il sindaco eletto dai cittadini del Comune. Vengono inoltre estesi i poteri del prefetto. La legge entrerà in vigore nel febbraio / FEBRUARY del 1926. OCTOBER 19 Ottobre. L'esercito italiano completa l'occupazione della Somalia.
[Source: Crimini e Misfatti]


1930 -- Italy: Basta ! MOVING DATES

Crimini e Misfatti dello stato italiano dalle origini ai giorni nostri

1929-1934 Lo stato fascista : dittatura e consenso ovvero la democrazia totalitaria

1929 23 Giugno. Dibattito al senato sui Patti Lateranensi. Benedetto Croce critica gli accordi e ribadisce la tesi liberale della netta separazione tra stato e chiesa. Nella sua replica Mussolini definisce Croce "un imboscato della storia".

1930 10 Aprile. Viene fondata a Milano la scuola di mistica fascista. 30 Ottobre. I dirigenti milanesi di Giustizia e Libertà sono arrestati a seguito della denuncia di un infiltrato. Il regime può contare su parecchie spie e delatori. 24 Novembre. Il commissario del popolo per gli affari esteri dell'URSS e il ministro italiano degli esteri si incontrano a Milano a conclusione di una serie di relazioni amichevoli sviluppate durante i mesi precedenti, tra cui la firma, in Agosto, di un accordo commerciale tra i due stati. Fascismo e bolscevismo si intendono alla perfezione in quanto si assomigliano alla perfezione. Scoppiano disordini a Torino a causa della difficile situazione economica. La polizia opera rastrellamenti e 'rimpatria' tutti i disoccupati da altri comuni, l'equivalente, in epoca attuale, del rimpatrio dei cosiddetti extracomunitari a seguito di atti di protesta. Cambia il nome dei regimi ma la sostanza (la dittatura dello stato) non cambia. 28 Novembre. I dirigenti comunisti Manlio Rossi Doria ed Emilio Sereni vengono arrestati a Napoli. Saranno condannati dal tribunale speciale a 15 anni. Vengono arrestati Mario Vinciguerra e Renzo Rendi, esponenti di Alleanza Nazionale, una organizzazione di ispirazione liberal-conservatrice. Saranno condannati dal tribunale speciale a 15 anni di prigione. La repressione da parte dello stato colpisce tutti gli oppositori, senza distinzioni di sorta.

1931 Marzo. Nonostante l'aver imposto una riduzione del 12% ai salari degli statali (Dicembre 1930), il bilancio dello stato è di nuovo in passivo. Il governo emette allora 4 miliardi di buoni del tesoro. E' evidente che la corretta amministrazione non rientra tra le capacità degli stati, neanche di quelli che dispongono di tutte le leve del potere. 29 Maggio. Viene eseguita la condanna a morte da parte del tribunale speciale di un anarchico sardo Michele Schirru, colpevole solo dell'intenzione, mai concretamente posta in essere, di compiere un attentato contro Mussolini. Anche i pensieri diventano oggetto di spietata repressione.

1932 25 Ottobre. In un discorso trionfalistico a Milano, Mussolini afferma : "Il secolo ventesimo sarà il secolo del fascismo". 29 Novembre. Si prepara l'aggressione all'Etiopia basandosi sulla "Memoria per una azione offensiva contro l'Etiopia" elaborata dal comandante militare in Eritrea, Luigi Cubeddu.

1933 23 GENNAIO / JANUARY . Il governo istituisce l'IRI (Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale) espandendo il ruolo di controllo dell'economia da parte dello stato. L'IRI giungerà ad avere oltre il 21% del capitale azionario di tutte le società per azioni italiane. MARZO / MARCH . Vengono costituiti l'INFAIL (Istituto nazionale fascista assicurazione infortuni sul lavoro) e l'INFPS (Istituto nazionale fascista della previdenza sociale). Alla caduta del fascismo questi istituti faranno cadere la F e continueranno la stessa politica di paternalismo statalista. not done; determine if worthwhile 27 Maggio. Il possesso della tessera del partito nazionale fascista diventa requisito indispensabile per l'ammissione ai concorsi statali. Dopo la caduta del regime questa regola rimarrà sostanzialmente in vigore, sostituita soltanto dalla tacita intesa del possesso di altre tessere di partito.

1934 3 Novembre. Viene costituita l'Organizzazione nazionale dei figli della lupa che inquadra i bambini dai 6 agli 8 anni di età. 5 Novembre. La settimana lavorativa è ridotta a 40 ore per combattere la disoccupazione. Oltre 60 anni dopo il governo socialista francese proporrà-imporrà la stessa misura (riduzione della settimana lavorativa a 35 ore) con le stesse motivazioni. Non bisogna certo dimenticare la comune origine culturale e programmatica del socialismo e del fascismo, essendo il fascismo una delle due correnti prodotte dalle scissioni del movimento socialista (l'altra è il comunismo). 7 Novembre. Viene ordinato agli insegnanti delle scuole elementari, ai direttori didattici e agli ispettori scolastici, di indossare la divisa di ufficiale della milizia. 5 Dicembre. A Ual Ual (confine tra Etiopia e Somalia) si verificano scontri tra soldati indigeni arruolati nell'esercito italiano e truppe dell'esercito etiopico. Vi sono 100 morti tra gli etiopi e 20 tra i soldati dell'esercito italiano. Sarà il pretesto per l'aggressione all'Etiopia da parte dello stato italiano .

1935-1938 Imperialismo, sciovinismo, razzismo : stato e masse tra tragedia e farsa [^] [Polyarchy] [Basta!] [Indice : crimini e misfatti]


[Source: Crimini e Misfatti]


1935 -- Emma Goldman, anarchist feministFrayhayt. [Freedom] Ed. Jacob Abrams et al. Nyu York, January- May 1918. Monthly. ['Fighters for Anarchism'; 'Anarchist Voices']

October 19-November 14 1935
Emma Goldman stays in Paris, visiting friends & political associates, including Jacob Abrams, who encourages her to lecture in Mexico.

Jacob Abrams & others had been convicted of distributing pamphlets criticizing the Wilson administration for sending troops to Russia in the summer of 1918. Although the government could not prove that the pamphlets had actually hindered the operation of the military, an anti-radical lower court judge had found that they might have done so, & found Abrams & his co-defendants guilty. On appeal, seven members of the Supreme Court had used Holmes's "clear & present danger" test to sustain the conviction. But Holmes, joined by Louis D. Brandeis, dissented, & it is this dissent that is widely recognized as the starting point in modern judicial concern for free expression.

http://civnet.org/resoures/teach/basic/part7/43.htm



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1936 -- spain — quotes http://www.afmltd.demon.co.uk/meltzer/articles/utopia.html


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1936 -- LINK TO REXROTH POEM —



1936 -- http://www.cnt.es/fal/bicel8.htm


1936 -- A trade-union conference representing 600,000 workers was held in Barcelona in October 1936, with the object of developing the socialization of industry. The initiative of the workers was institutionalized by a decree of the Catalan government dated October 24, 1936. This ratified the fait accompli, but introduced an element of government control alongside self-management. Two sectors were created, one socialist, the other private. All factories with more than a hundred workers were to be socialized (and those with between fifty & a hundred could be, on the request of three-quarters of the workers), as were those whose proprietors either had been declared "subversive" by a people's court or had stopped production, & those whose importance justified taking them out of the private sector. (In fact many enterprises were socialized because they were heavily in debt.) The decree of October 24, 1936, was a compromise between aspirations to self-management & the tendency to tutelage by the leftist government, as well as a compromise between capitalism & socialism. It was drafted by a libertarian minister, and ratified by the CNT, because anarchist leaders were in the government. How could they object to the intervention of government in self-management when they themselves had their hands on the levers of power? Once the wolf is allowed into the sheepfold he always ends up by acting as its master. http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/1931/guerin/AnSpain.html


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1937 -- http://images.anarchosyndicalism.org/subversion/


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1938 -- http://images.anarchosyndicalism.org/subversion/


1943 -- Italy: Basta ! Bisogna Abolire lo STAto !

Crimini e Misfatti dello stato italiano dalle origini ai giorni nostri

1939

Febbraio. Vengono ritirati dal commercio i libri di autori ebrei e antifascisti, nell'ambito della cosiddetta "bonifica culturale".

Ottobre. Viene varata una imposta ordinaria sui patrimoni per rastrellare risorse in vista delle prossime avventure militari.

1 Novembre. La settimana lavorativa viene riportata a 48 ore.

1940

3 GENNAIO / JANUARY . Viene istituita l'IGE (Imposta Generale sull'Entrata) che colpisce tutte le cessioni di beni e servizi. Costituirà per lo stato, per oltre 30 anni (quindi ben oltre la fine del fascismo), la fonte maggiore di gettito fiscale.

1942

Dicembre. In un discorso alla nazione Mussolini fa il bilancio della guerra italiana sui vari fronti : 40.000 caduti, 2000 morti sotto i bombardamenti, 232.000 prigionieri, 37.000 dispersi.

1943 13 Ottobre. Il governo Badoglio dichiara guerra alla Germania. E' il capovolgimento totale di tutte le posizioni.

1945

5 GENNAIO / JANUARY . A Ragusa scoppia una rivolta contro la coscrizione militare. Il movimento separatista siciliano si organizza con la formazione dell'Evis (Esercito volontario per l'indipendenza della Sicilia). La repressione dello stato post-fascista non tarda a venire. Maggio. Lo stato post-fascista ha bisogno di soldi. Il ministro del tesoro Marcello Soleri lancia il "prestito della liberazione" e rastrella così 106 miliardi di lire. 1946-1959 La stato dei partiti : rodaggio ed espansione della nuova piovra [^] [Polyarchy] [Basta!] [Indice : crimini e misfatti]


[Source: Crimini e Misfatti]


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1949 --


1962 -- ADD BLOOD UPDATES

Salzman Years of Protest Date: Fri, 08 Dec 2000 14:25:52 -0800

Canabalize:

Collects various literary radicals, anarchists, socialists, Marxists, etc. Alfred Hayes, Ernest Hemingway, John Dos Passos, Erkine Caldwell, Kenneth Patchen, James Agee, Edward Dahlberg, Michale Gold, Nathanael West, William Carlos Williams, Ezra Pound, Henry Miller, Henry Roth, Lola Ridge, Muriel Rukeyser, Sol Funaroff, Nelson Algren, Wallace Stevens, Kenneth Fearing, Edna St. Vincent Millay, Grace Lumpkin, Robert Cantwell, Josephine Herbst, Woody guthrie, Mary Heaton Vorse, Albert Halper, Meridel Le Sueur, John Steinbeck, etc. A broad range of stories, songs, poems, & plays, as well as photographs, cartoons & paintings of the period. Patchen Joe Hill

Where Have All the Songwriters Gone? By Bob Hulteen

Music has many functions, worship included. But one of its primary roles is its ability to move people. It’s not surprising that many of the great social movements of this century have included memorable songs—tunes with a beat & a message that drawfolks into a broader vision & a confidence to work for change.

Think enough & you won't know anything. - Kenneth Patchen


1963 -- http://www.patriagrande.net/uruguay/eduardo.galeano/memoria.del.fuego/index.php?mes=Septiembre


1963 -- The Origins of Modern Leftism - 4. The Theory of council communism ... In its early days, the Situationist International regarded itself as a restricted ... Cf. the circular issued by Socialisme ou Barbaric on 28 October 1963, ... http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Lobby/2379/gomlef07.htm


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1966 --


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1968 -- NEED TO CLEAN UP & FINISH OFF THESE EVENTS:

1961 Oct SLATE leads vigil against resumption of nuclear testing by US & USSR; 50,000 women around US demonstrate against the resumption

1970 Oct Jane Fonda starts campus speaking tour Oct Dylan: New Morning

1971 Oct Last LOOK Mag Oct Huey Newton returns to US to begin a new trial SOURCES: Judy Goldsmith's Timeline web site. Bill Murrey's Timeline web site. Fox Sport TV (Big Mc's 62 - 98) Life Magazine - CD & web site CNN Almanac web site. http://boomersint.org/octhist.html
http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/Chicago7/Chi7_imag.htm

1978 -- NEED EXACT MONTH & DAY: 1978 Jeamette Watson opened her Books & Co. bookstore on the Upper East Side. It closed in 1997. In 1999 Lynne Tillman authored ""Bookstore: The Life & Times of Jeanette Watson & Books & Co." http://timelines.ws/cities/NYC_C


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1981 -- In 1909 Renzo Provinciali (Parma, 14 mar.1895-Roma, 2 ott.1981) founded a Fascio Anticlericale 'Francesco Ferrer' in Parma & the following year established an 'independent' Futurist group in Parma arguing for an Anarcho-Futurism that was free from the influence of Marinetti's political thinking. Provinciali argued that a revolutionary art like Futurism could not survive in a bourgeois society whereas a revolutionary political organisation needed an avant-garde art & should lose traditional aesthetics. Parma was the centre of the Anarcho-Syndicalist movement & Renzo Provinciali was a widely known anarchist who united the Parma Anarchists & Futurists in a Circolo Liberatorio di Studi Sociali. Between May 1912 & January 1913 the group produced seven issues of the anarchist journal La barricata. In his 20's Illari joined the Parma Socialist Party & worked on their paper L'idea. By about 1920 Pietro Illari was heading the Parma Futurist group that had been founded by the anarchist Renzo Provinciali. Illari steered the vision of the group from Anarcho-Futurism closer towards the Left wing & actively involved the group with the Arditi del Popolo. In 1922 he joined the Italian Communist party & worked on their journals L'ordine nuovo & Idea communistra becoming the Parma Party Secretary in a short space of time. Illari had strong links with Marasco's Futurist group in Florence & was also in contact with the Anarcho-Futurists in La Spezia who were all militant anti-Fascists, very critical of Marinetti & violently opposed to the pro-Fascist element within Futurism headed by the Mario Carli / Emilio Settimelli faction. He was in contact with the Communist-Futurist Franco Rampa Rossi who collaborated on his periodical Rovente a journal that, while inherently Left wing & anti-Fascist, was also in violent opposition to the 'official' political line of mainstream Marinettian Futurism. Suddenly, however, in June 1922 he quit the Communist party for unknown reasons but possibly because the Communist Central Committee forced him to choose between Communism & Futurism. Illari, under no illusion that he could survive either artistically or politically under a Fascist government, emigrated to Argentina in 1924 where he taught children of Italian immigrants. Biographies on the web: Carlo Carrà (In Italian) http://www.artemotore.com/utenti.tripod.it/TRIBENET/carra_carlo.htm See also: The Funeral of Angelo Galli; http://melior.univ-montp3.fr/ra_forum/it/individui/carracarlo.html#Anchor-THE-47857 The Painting of Sounds, http://www.unknown.nu/futurism/paintsound.html Noises & Smells http://www.ecn.org/nautilus/provinc.html Gian Pietro Lucini (In Italian) http://www.unknown.nu/futurism/paintsound.html Renzo Provinciale (In Italian) ADD http://melior.univ-montp3.fr/ra_forum/it/futuristi.html#Anchor-49575
http://raforum.info/imprimerart.php3?id_article=893 http://www.ecn.org/nautilus/provinc.html

1982 -- This section of the Anarchist International was founded/reorganized at = the The First Nordic Anarchist Congress 15-17 october 1982 in Oslo, & = further developed at later congresses, & it is rooted back to the 1st = International's i.e. the IWMA - International Workingmen's Association's = conference at Saint-Imier, in The Swiss Confederation, 15-16.09.1872. At = this conference it was decided an anarchist resolution denouncing all = forms of political power, i.e. political/administrative & economically = broadly defined. Also a solidarity & fellowship pact was decided upon = by the delegates. The resolution put forward by Michael Bakunin = 16.09.1872, under the title "The political action of the proletariate", = at the Saint-Imier congress, should not be forgotten. The Anarchist = International had meetings several times during the years passing by, = first within the framework of the IWMA 1872-77, later related to other = international anarchist congresses.=20 IWW/AI promotes anarchosyndicalism, anarchism, decentralism, federalism = and real democracy as opposed to statism, centralism, & other = authoritarian tendencies in the unions & generally, see = http://www.anarchy.no/oslo_conv.html http://lists.indymedia.org/pipermail/pressreleases/2002-April/001707.html


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1986 -- And the centenary issue of the British anarchist paper Freedom (October 1986) contained an article by Barbara Smoker (president of the National Secular Society) entitled `Anarchism implies Atheism'. As a matter of historical fact the negative connection has indeed been the norm


1987 -- NEED EXACT MONTH & DAY: The "Winnie the Pooh" stuffed animals, the original toys of author A.A. Milne, given to publisher E.P. Dutton in 1947, were turned over to the New York Public Library. In 1998 the British requested that they be returned to England. http://timelines.ws/cities/NYC_C


1999 -- "revolutionary syndicalists" etc., see http://www.anarchy.no/apt.html = for an update. Say, in Sweden 1999 a real anarchosyndicalist Bjorn = S=F6derberg of SAC was killed by two nazis, after trying to stop the = fascist infiltration in a union-club. 23.10.1999 about 20-40000 persons = all over Sweden demonstrated against fascism & to honor the memory of = the brave syndicalist.=20 http://lists.indymedia.org/pipermail/pressreleases/2002-April/001707.html


2000 --

Links:





2000 -- http://freespeechseattle.org/
http://freespeechseattle.org/
http://freespeechseattle.org/posters/

2003 -- WHEN: October 2003-10-25 London Anarchist Bookfair ; 2003-10-25 Toronto Anarchist Bookfair ; 2003-10-25 The Second Annual New Orleans Bookfair http://www.anarchist-studies.org/8whatshappening.htm


2003 -- ADD NAZI BOOK IMAGE THU OCT 02, 2003 20:01:25 ET XXXXX — CAMPAIGN BOMBSHELL: ARNOLD PRAISED HITLER IN BOOK PROPOSAL Am unearthed book proposal by Pumping Iron's director George Butler is set throw the California recall race in to new levels of complete chaos. The book proposal quotes Arnold Schwarzenegger naming monster Adolf Hitler as a hero! MORE ABC News, which broadcast the remarks on Thursday, said they were contained in an unpublished book proposal with quotes from what it calls a "verbatim transcript" of the interview. Asked about his heroes, the young Schwarzenegger, in 1975, was quoted as saying; "I admired Hitler, for instance, because he came from being a little man with almost no formal education, up to power. "I admire him for being such a good public speaker & for what he did with it." The actor was quoted as saying he wished he could experience being .."like Hitler in the Nuremberg stadium & have all those people scream at you & just being total agreement whatever you say." Asked by ABC News to comment on the old remarks, Schwarzenegger said: "I cannot remember any of these. All I can tell you is that I despise everything Hitler stood for. I despise everything the Nazis stood for ... everything the Third Reich stood for." The author of the book proposal told ABCNEWS that the quotes needed to be seen in context of Schwarzenegger's admiration of powerful men. The book proposal contains other stunning passages, which ABCNEWS is preparing to reveal. Developing... ----------------------------------------------------------- Filed By Matt Drudge Reports are moved when circumstances warrant http://www.drudgereport.com for updates (c)DRUDGE REPORT 2003 Not for reproduction without permission of the author http://drudgereport.com/mattaa.htm


2004 -- RA Forum >>> http://raforum.info/article.php3?id_article=84 <<< Ferrua, Pietro "Living Utopia" (Vivir la utopia) A film by Juan Gamero Spain, 1997 color, 96 minutes Spanish with English subtitles. ASSISTANT DIRECTORS: Francesc RIOS & Mariana ROCA WRITING CREDITS: Juan GAMERO, Francesc RIOS, Mariana ROCA, Mitzi KOTNIK EDITING: Ramón RULL CINEMATOGRAPHY: Francesc RIOS SOUND: Jordi SOROLLA, Ramón GABARRÓ PRE-EDITING: M. PAZ DE VILLANUEVA LIGHTS: Juan ALCOBENDAS, Alfredo CARRACEDO TECHNICAL ASSISTANT: Dolores MARÍN TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION: Abel PAZ, Antoni CASTELLS, José Luis GUTIÉRREZ, Ignacio SORIANO; EL CABRERO LYRICS: José DOMÍNGUEZ, Elena BERMÚDEZ INTERVIEWERS: Mitzi KOTNIK, Juan GAMERO VOICE OFF: Maribel SÁNCHEZ-MAROTO, Manuel CARVAJAL POST-SYNCHRONIZATION: Xavier CARDONER, Albert TODA DOCUMENTATION: Francesc RIOS, Alex BALDORNÁ, Mariana ROCA COLLABORATION: CNT [1]; FUNDACIÓN ANSELMO LORENZO; ATENEU ENCICLOPEDIC POPULAR; NODO; FILMOTECA ESPAÑOLA, ARCHIVO TVE PRODUCER: Joan GASCH PRODUCTION COMPANY: TVE CATALUNYA. This video program consists of 30 interviews with survivors of the 1936-1939 Spanish Revolution, plus the recorded voices of former dictator Miguel Primo de Rivera, of his son José Antonio Primo de Rivera, founder of the "Falange" [the equivalent of the Fascist Party of Italy & the Nazi Party of Germany]and that of a known anarchist militant, Juan García Oliver, who became the Minister of Justice of the Republic. Miguel ALBA is a mason who narrates how circumstances led him to be elected as Secretary of the Transportation Union in 1936 in Barcelona. This was one of the first services organized by the CNT immediately after July 19, 1936. Ramón ÁLVAREZ tells us about the hesitations between fighting the war & implanting a federalist socialist society. He was on the Communist side & obeyed Stalin⤙s orders. Federico ARCOS confirms that everything that happened was spontaneous. He points out that who defeated the army was the people of Barcelona, under the leadership of the CNT & reveals that Governor Companys, who usually had been credited with offering power to anarchists when they became masters of the situation in Barcelona, actually had ordered the chief of police to disarm the members of CNT*-FAI**. Arcos concludes the film with a quote from Emma Goldman "To the daring belongs the future". Marcelino BAILO has only one modest line in the film. María BATET comments on the "Novela Ideal", a series of booklets devised by the Urales family (Federica Montseny⤙s parents). It dealt with subjects of general interest, was written in a simplified language & was widely disseminated among working-class people. Its publication continued even when the anarchists were exiled, & hundreds of titles were distributed. Later in the film, she defends Federica Montseny for having become the first female government minister, not only in Spain but in all of Europe. Being an anarchist, she found her own position to be difficult and, at times, incoherent, but she accepted only under the pressure from the events & upon request of comrades. Four anarchists became ministers of the new republic in 1936. Their deeds — or misdeeds — are discussed even today. Severino CAMPOS mentions the existence of 70 anarchist publications (daily, weekly, monthly, etc.) during the period of 1936 to 1939. He then explains how active and organized the anarchists were at that time ("Los aguiluchos de la FAI", to whom at least three film documentaries are dedicated), & how many people they had lost in battle or as a reprisal. He also reveals that a fraction of those troops wanted to come back from the front to Catalonia in order to punish the Communists for what they were doing against the anarchists in Barcelona. Francisco CARRASQUER relates how the revolution was spontaneous & how the people eliminated the military for the first time in Spain⤙s history. He emphasizes the importance of the propaganda that anarchists were spreading relentlessly among the masses. He also points out the importance, in liberating minds,of the work of Francisco Ferrer y Guardia with the Modern School he founded based on logic & reason. He reminds us also that, instead of frequenting bars, the anarchists were meeting in libraries & theaters. However, he underscores the fact that in those reading rooms people were not studying the classics of anarchism, but were reading literary texts, by novelists such as Blasco Ibáñez or Tolstoy. He then evokes Durruti⤙s funeral, held in Barcelona & attended (in his words) "...by 1,500,000 people". He notices the fact that, besides the anarchist press, no one mentioned favorably the collectives, even though it was thanks to them that the troops at the front were provided food & ammunition, and life in the rear guard continued normally. Miguel CELMA insists on the importance of the Ateneo Libertario as an institution of free (in both senses of the word) learning for illiterate as well as half-literate — and even highly literate — people. A very interesting sequence is his explanation of how Libertarian Communism functioned in a rural setting & the example of his own parents who, being individualists, did not want to adhere to the system, ended up complying partially (albeit bitterly) & finally recognized the benefits of Libertarian Communism. At age 16, he was placed in charge of the Calanda collective, which lasted until March 15, 1938, despite the attempt by General Lister (under Bolshevik orders) to stop any agrarian libertarian communist experience by jailing the collective⤙s council members. Valerio CHINÉ was a member of the so-called Durruti Column, which the government wanted to militarize after November 20, 1936. But the comrades did not want to become soldiers. After the defeat, Chiné reports to us what happened when the militians were told that they could leave from the port of Alicante or Valencia. Instead, some of them were surrounded & killed, while others were arrested & sent to concentration camps (including Chiné) in Albatera. José ESPAÑA remembers how Generación Consciente (which later became Estudios), founded in Alcoy in 1923 initiated the readers to sexual health & how many avid readers there were of that magazine. Of note is the transfer of power from the government to the unions, & then the application of workers⤙ control, federalism, & a network of exchanges (within Spain or with France, Belgium & Holland). José FORTEA comments on the above-mentioned system of exchanges, quoting the example of coal exchanged for goods, footwear & clothing. This happened in Aragón, as well as in Levante, Andalucía & Castilla. Juan GIMÉNEZ reports as if he was reading in the street under the gas lamp or in front of a lit shop window. As a member of the Durruti Column, he explains to us that in addition to fighting the militians they were simultaneously helping the peasants in their fields. Antonio LAHUERTA⤙s contribution is an example of the efficiency of collectivism (as opposed to individual land cultivation) through the use of tractors. Concha LIANO praises the Ateneo Libertario as an eye-opening institution. She explains the concept of free love, equating it to liking another person & forming a couple with him or her without the intervention of the State or the Church. She entered the movement through an excursion group called "Sun & Life", whose activities alternated between hiking & reading. Next, she was in Plaza de la Generalidad on July 19, 1936, waiting for Companys to distribute arms to the people. In retrospect, she asked herself if all the struggles, the sacrifices, the deaths & the exile were all worth it & answers affirmatively: "We taught the world a lesson. Insofar as we were able, we set an example of the possibility of living without government, because there was no government, yet the collectives were working & everything was functioning. Everything was operating by mutual agreement". Fidel MIRÓ stresses the habit of Spanish anarchists to project themselves as role models by leading a dignified life. But more needed to be done in favor of women⤙s liberation; the events of 1936 led automatically to women⤙s emancipation. Aurora MOLINA saw in the Spanish events of 1936 the establishment of an example for the whole world. The sirens of July 1936 were all she needed to run into the streets because she was the daughter of two eminent anarchists & knew what inspired them to act & what needed to be done. Molina witnessed an unforgettable spectacle: trucks painted with the acronyms "CNT-FAI" filled with people carrying weapons & with soldiers at the anarchists⤙ sides. Heleno MOLINA explains that there were no written stipulations for becoming a member of the FAI, but candidates needed to agree with some moral engagements. Then he relates how, after the proclamation of the Republic, there was an increase in anarchist publications. Many new titles were printed, but there were never enough copies available. A very disturbing aspect was his affirmation that Communists would murder anarchists. Molina cites the case of a small place like San Andrés where 50 members of the libertarian youth were shot in the back. Conxa PÉREZ describes the euphoria that reigned after the proclamation of the republic every night when some kind of cultural or political event ocurred, such as theater, study of Esperanto, meetings of Libertarian Youth or members of the Iberian Anarchist Federation, etc. She then explains how abortions (when they were absolutely necessary) were performed under normal conditions in hospitals & no longer by non-professionals & under scarce hygienic conditions as it happened before. Suceso PORTALES was a driving force in the field of feminism. She was the main organizer of Mujeres Libres in Guadalajara, which founded hundreds of schools for women & printed thousands of booklets on women⤙s problems. Dolores PRAT reconstitutes the early history of the CNT, the increase in membership, the strikes, & the improvised kitchens to help starving strikers. In the same spirit, on July 1936, the union decided that no one was to be out of a job & found work for all unemployed. Workers knew that they were no longer exploited, & were much more productive. Ximo QUEIROL first explains how an individual could become a member of the CNT, then describes how the Iron Column was organized on the basis of small federated groups of 10 people, as was happening also in the federation of collectives. Maravilla RODRÍGUEZ merely introduces herself as a former volunteer in the Ascaso battalion (founded as a memorial to Francisco Ascaso, who died on the very first day of the revolution while trying to conquer the military headquarters of Atarazanas in Barcelona). Juan ROMERO explains how things worked from the point of view of money (or the lack of it) in the collectives. Some places issued rationing cards, others distributed vouchers, & in some instances local currency was used: the system varied from region to region or from village to village, depending on the union members⤙ wishes. Even non-anarchists or non-trade unionists accepted the system willingly. Complaints were written on a blackboard & discussed in groups. Romero admits that, despite some squabbles and mistakes, they were able to demonstrate there was no need for police, bosses or priests to live in harmony. Manuel SANZ⤙s contribution to the video is his clarification of meaning of the date of July 19, 1936, celebrated annually by anarchists to recall their for roots. Sanz then talks about the humanistic vision of anarchism. Liberto SARRAU evokes the injustice that led to the condemnation of Francisco Ferrer who was innocent of the crimes that were attributed to him. He praises the schools & the quality of teaching inspired by Ferrer. Sarrau then provides a logical explanation of the reasons for burning down some churches, which occurred only with priests who joined the police & soldiers shooting — from bell towers (as one can see in Ken Loach⤙s film, Tierra y Libertad) — anyone they could aim at, including women & children, instead of shooting armed enemies. José SAUCES alludes to the Casas Viejas revolt, where libertarian communism was proclaimed in 1934 & failed, & then at the CNT in Saragoza (1936) when it was reconfirmed. Sauces shows that this is why people were ready in July. José SERRA ESTRUCH focuses on the rationality of the CNT in organizing work in the factory. Apparently, when the owners returned after the defeat of the revolutionists, they found everything working properly & well maintained. They observed a great improvement on what they had left behind three years earlier, & they discovered that productivity had doubled. Antonio TURÓN became a militant while working in a steel factory. He waa attracted to the anarchists because they did not drink alcohol, they did not smoke, but they read and talked instead. He cites the example of the Can Girona factory that was destroyed by Franco⤙s troops because, after being collectivized, had become a model facility due to its "machinery, tools & electrically operated kilns imported for making special alloys". José URZÁIZ explains how the Bolsheviks, a minority party in July 1936 (and before), had acted to gain influence. They "surreptitiously started to infiltrate the army, into the corps of commissars, into the military intelligence services (which they captured completely)". Antonio ZAPATA describes the function of the Urban Holding Administration & Control Commission of Barcelona. This organization was comprised of nine members, of which three were from the Generalitat, three were from the UGT, & three were from the CNT. In this video, the interviews are combined with visual materials such as manifestos, photographs, excerpts from film documentaries, portraits & other relevant graphical elements. The testimonials contribute to form a sufficiently clear perspective on the situation such as it was in Spain in 1936-39 from the point of view of the defenders of the Republic. Pietro Ferrua [1] CNT= CONFEDERACIÓN NACIONAL DEL TRABAJO ( Workers National Confederation) the most important Worker⤙s Union in Spain during the Republic. It identified with anarcho-syndicalism & made an alliance with UGT (UNIÓN GENERAL DE TRABADORES= Workers General Union, linked to the Socialist Party.

Source: http://raforum.info/imprimerart.php3?id_article=84


?
2004 -- Joaquina Dorado & fellow prison inmates Standing from left to right: Margarita ("de la Torrasa"), Manuela Saez, Francisca Avellanet, Joaquina Dorado, Dolores ?, Rosita Mateo. Sitting: Dolça (de Tarrasa), Antonia Martinez, Juliana, Pilar Bañolas. All were anarchists, except Dolores (jailed for smuggling) & Juliana & Pilar Bañolas (socialists). The latter was caught at the border without papers & carrying a message from cellist Pablo Casals. All except Joaquina, Dolores & Pilar were sentenced to death, but were reprieved.


2005 -- anarchist wiki at infoshop

How does anarchist wiki differ from wikipedia?? http://www.infoshop.org/wiki/index.php/Anarchism


2005 -- good html CODE resource TEMPLATE STUFF font FONT COLOR ALICEBLUE LinksA collection of things which interest me, & might interest you http://www.gospelcom.net/guide/resources/popuphelp.php
SEE ALSO OVERLIB http://www.bosrup.com/web/overlib/

2005 -- Peter Egloff *1953

Anführer der revolutionären Gruppe um Daniele. Wandelt sich im Gefängnis vom Anarchisten zum Marxisten und ist überzeugt, dass es auch heute noch eine revolutionäre Perspektive gibt. Will im Film nicht auftreten, weil er die Aufarbeiung der Geschichte nur dann sinnvoll findet, wenn daraus Erkenntnisse für den Klassenkampf gewonnen werden können.

Roberto M. *1954 Wird 1969 als 17jähriger verhaftet und mit anderen Anarchisten angeklagt, die Bombe in der Piazza Fontana in Mailand gelegt zu haben, die 16 Menschen tötete und 45 schwer verletzte. Erst viel später wird sich herausstellen, dass die Täter Agenten des italienischen Geheimdienstes waren. Roberto M. radikalisiert sich, lernt in Mailand Daniele und seine Freunde kennen und vernetzt sie mit Militanten in Italien, Deutschland und Spanien. Wird 1975 in Rom verhaftet und auf die süditalienische Insel Linsa verbannt. Ist heute Buddhist und will nicht mehr über seine traumatische Vergangenheit sprechen.

http://www.koolfilm.de/doit/doit_biografien.php4


2005 -- Julian Barnes dreams of an anarchistic Europe. http://www.koolfilm.de/doit/doit_biografien.php4


2005 -- Lillian Mendelsohn

For biographical information, see the Emma Goldman-Leon Malmed papers, MC 332/M-88.

SCOPE & CONTENT

This collection consists mainly of letters from Emma Goldman to one or both Mendelsohns. There are also copies of EG's letters to or from others & recollections of WM about EG & Angelica Balabanoff.

Additional catalog entries (a card for each of the following appears in the card catalog):

  • Goldman, Emma, 1869-1940
  • Scott, Evelyn, 1893-
  • Anarchism & anarchists
  • Balabanoff, Angelica, 1878-1965
  • Comyn, Stella, 1886-1961
  • Reed, John ("Jack"), 1887-1920
  • Russia--History--Revolution, 1917-1921
  • Soviet Union--Politics & government
  • Spain--History--Civil War, 1936-1939
  • U.S.--Politics & government--20th century
  • INVENTORY

      • 1. Ts. memorandum by WM, March 15, 1982: recollections of the Mendelsohns' meeting with EG in 1938, reporting EG's descriptions of the situation in Spain, her arrival in England, her discussions with John Reed about the Russian Revolution, & Angelica Balabanoff; also information about the Mendelsohns' friendship with Balabanoff & the differing political philosophies of Balabanoff and EG.

      • 2. Correspondence

        • July 19-Nov. 24: EG to Mendelsohns (to both L & WM, unless otherwise noted), 1938
          • July 19 to Lillian, re: Mendelsohns' trip to Paris, wants them "to see a few people for me who will be on our project," pc.
          • July 29 to WM, re: visit of King & Queen to Paris, Arthur Leonard Ross, Jeanne Levy (WM's sister), EG's plans, TLS
          • Sept. 9 to Lillian, re: Stella Comyn's illness, people Mendelsohns should get in touch with in U.S. re: EG's American visa, Spain, the situation of Jews in Austria & Germany, Neville Chamberlain, TLS
          • Nov. 24 to Lillian, re: EG's trip to Spain & her upcoming trip to Canada, SC's illness, "could [they] compile a list of outstanding men & women in the scientific professions," TLS with ms. P.S.

        • Jan. 23-July 26: EG to Mendelsohns (to both L & WM, unless otherwise noted), 1939
          • Jan. 23 re: party the Mendelsohns gave in NY for EG's friends, "the appeal of the Spanish scientist," the Spanish Civil War, arranging Alexander Berkman's & her papers at the International Institute of Social History, EG's report on Spain, TLS with ms. P.S.
          • Jan. 28 re: "the appeal to Scientists," the fall of Barcelona, TLS
          • Jan. list of people who should recive appeal of Spanish scientist (see Jan. 23), cc.
          • Jan. 31 "hold up" on appeal, events in Spain "and the callous indifference of the world," pc.
          • FEBRUARY 7 do not send appeal, "the harrowing calamity" in Spain, pc.
          • FEBRUARY 17 to Lillian, re: Lillian's expected baby; EG quotes at length from her letter to Balabanoff re: Spain, plight of the Spanish refugees; the threat of war and the American attitude; is to sail for Canada in April, TLS
          • FEBRUARY 25 to Lillian, re: recognition of Franco government, TLS with ms. P.S.
          • May 9 to Lillian, re: EG's Toronto lectures, Jeanne & Jay Levy, SC's illness, "reasonably certain I will not be permitted to re-enter the States," TLS with ms. P.S.
          • May 21 re: birth of their daughter, a father's desire to have his first-born be a son is a "silly primitive idea," EG's U.S. visa, TLS
          • July 26 re: their contribution to her birthday fund, her health & "deep depressions," the Levy's visit, A. Balabanoff, TLS & Mariano R. Vazquez, "For the Spanish Libertarian Movement," to EG, June 12, 1939, on the occasion of EG's 70th birthday, "we declare you our spiritual mother," printed.

        • Sept. 7-FEBRUARY 9a: EG to others, other to EG, all cc., 1938-1939
          • Sept. 7, 1938 EG to Eugene Lyons, re: praise for his book, Assignment in Utopia, Russian Revolution, Spanish Civil War, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, A. Balabanoff, Upton Sinclair attached: title page of Lyon's book, & flyleaf with inscription to Mendelsohns, October 18, 1938, photocopies

          • FEBRUARY 9-Feb. 9a: 1939
            • FEBRUARY 9 EG to John Cowper Powys, re: A. Berkman's & her papers in Amsterdam, American papers "confiscated by the Federal Authorities...in June 1917," Spanish Civil War; general strikes ("only the brave suffragettes have proven the efficacy of this method"); converting JCP to anarchism
            • Jan./FEBRUARY Evelyn Scott to EG, re: project to get EG a U.S. visa, war climate in U.S. & role of newspapers; religion; typed transcript
            • Feb. 9a EG to Evelyn Scott, re: Spain, Mercedes Composada (editor of Mujeres Libres), "if I eventually go to Canada, it will largely be to run away from myself," the use of machines, Christianity, the state & dictatorship, Russian Revolution

      • 3f. Printed material, inscriptions
        • 1931 title page of The Second Oldest Profession, by Ben L. Reitman, M.D., 1931, dedication page (to EG), photocopies
        • 1938 first page of Estampas de la Revolucion Espanola (19 Julio de 1936), inscribed by EG to L & WM, July 1938, photocopy
        • ca. 1938 Leaflet: "Spain Betrayed by the Politicians...," issued by I.W.M. (International Workers Movement?), n.d. EG mentioned as Representative of "London Refugee Fund of the I.W.M. Ass."
        • 1940 Daily Times, Chicago, May 16, 1940, re: EG & her burial in Chicago, clipping

    http://oasis.harvard.edu:10080/oasis/deliver/findingAidDisplay?_collection=oasis&inoid=2038&histno=1


    2005 -- # (4297) Stevenson, Gil. Poems : various formats, 1936 & undated. 1 folder. Includes titles:

    * American literature as a course has all of the earmarks of a sonofabitch (f.l.) : Ts (photocopy);
    * From the prophet, dost thou know (f.l.) : Ts;
    * I am an anarchist (f.l.) : Ts;
    * Owau no ka rose o sarona : Ts with AMs annotation;
    * The ballad of our hoosegow : Ts.
    Removed from: Correspondence, item (1605).

    FROM: New Directions Publishing Corp. Records: Guide. Houghton Library, Harvard College Library Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 © 2000 The President & Fellows of Harvard College
    Descriptive Summary Repository: Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard University Location: b Call No.: MS Am 2077 Creator: New Directions Publishing Corp. http://oasis.harvard.edu:10080/oasis/deliver/findingAidDisplay?_collection=oasis&inoid=2643&histno=0


    2006 --

    (pt) Artigo da Wikipedia: História do movimento anarquista em Portugal

    Date Mon, 27 Feb 2006 11:32:01 +0100 (CET)


    http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hist%C3%B3ria_do_movimento_anarquista_em_Portugal
    História do movimento anarquista em Portugal da década de 70 do século XIX
    até à actualidade, com destaque para as publicações libertárias.

    No final do século XIX dá-se o desenvolvimento de grupos anarquistas, que
    contribuíram para o derrube da monarquia em 1910. Com a 1ª república há
    uma grande expansão e é fundada em 1919 a Confederação Geral dos
    Trabalhadores, de tendência sindicalista revolucionária e
    anarco-sindicalista. Com a instauração da Ditadura Militar em 1926, e com
    a ditadura de Salazar que se lhe seguiu, proíbe-se a actividade dos grupos
    anarquistas. Em 1933 a censura prévia é legalmente instituída. Os vários
    jornais anarquistas, incluindo “A Batalha”, passam a ser clandestinos e a
    ser alvos de perseguições. Em 1938 tenta-se assassinar Salazar. Com o 25
    de Abril de 1974 há um novo ressurgimento do movimento libertário, embora
    com uma expressão muito reduzida.

    Considera-se 1886 como o ano do início da actividade anarquista em
    Portugal. No entanto já antes se faziam sentir as influências das ideias
    de Proudhon em muitos intelectuais, como nos escritores Antero de Quental
    e Eça de Queirós.

    Há pelo menos um nome a destacar, no início do anarquismo em Portugal, que
    é o do médico Eduardo Maia. Já em 1873, ainda jovem, apresentou uma
    conferência baseada nos congressos da Associação Internacional dos
    Trabalhadores, em que põe em causa o direito de propriedade. Ele é
    considerado como fundador da corrente anarquista pós-proudhoniana. Em 1879
    é adepto do anarco-comunismo de Kropotkine, e fez escândalo ao declarar-se
    publicamente como anarquista. Fez parte do Grupo Comunista-Anarquista de
    Lisboa em 1887 e do Grupo Revolução Social em 1894. Colaborou no semanário
    socialista “pensamento social” nos anos 1870, onde foram publicados
    artigos considerados anarquistas. Colaborou também no “revoltado” em 1897.

    O lançamento do movimento libertário em Portugal é no ano de 1886, a
    partir da vinda do geógrafo Elisée Reclus e do seu encontro com José
    António Cardoso.

    Em 1886 formou-se um comité anarquista que editou um órgão mensal com o
    seu nome: “A Centelha”.

    Com excepção do sindicalismo de acção directa, o anarquismo foi a
    componente do movimento social que exerceu mais influência na sociedade
    portuguesa entre 1886 e 1936.

    A partir de 1886 houve um grande crescimento do número de grupos
    anarquistas. Em cada ano há, em média, cerca de 10 novos grupos. A
    corrente predominante é a do comunismo-anarquismo.

    Intensificou-se também a actividade de propaganda libertária. Ao longo de
    10 anos, a partir de 1886, surgiram 24 periódicos. A maior parte não durou
    mais de 10 números. No entanto o jornal “A Revolução Social” de 1887 do
    Porto publicou-se ao longo de 48 números. “A Revolta”, fundada em 1889, no
    Porto, publicou 19 números. “A Revolta” (2ª série), de 1892, de Lisboa
    publicou 44 números. “A Propaganda” criada em 1894, em Lisboa, publicou 61
    números. Houve também periódicos noutras cidades como Coimbra, Covilhã e
    Aveiro.

    Nessa época fazia-se sentir repressão sobre os anarquistas, nomeadamente
    em 1893 e 1886, ano em que surgiu a lei anti-anarquista. Este novo
    instrumento repressivo permite doravante a prisão de quem quer que seja
    que «apoie, defenda ou incite, oralmente ou por escrito, a acção
    subversiva(...) ou que professe as doutrinas anarquistas». A imprensa
    ficou formalmente proibida de se fazer eco dos atentados, dos inquéritos
    policiais e do desenrolar dos processos. A mínima alusão, mesmo velada,
    implicava a suspensão do jornal, a penhora das publicações, e obrigava as
    tipografias a uma pesada multa de 500 mil reis.

    Graças aos métodos expeditivos, a justiça portuguesa lança assim para
    deportação, para a Guiné-Bissau, para Moçambique e sobretudo para Timor,
    algumas «centenas de operários» perigosos ou suspeitos.

    Apesar da perseguição foram publicados alguns jornais clandestinos como “O
    Petardo Anarquista” (Aveiro, 1896) e “O Revoltado” (Coimbra, 1898). Mais
    tarde surgiram “O Germinal” (Lisboa, 1900) e “O Agitador” (Porto, 1901).

    Em 1908 surgiu “A sementeira” que durou 11 anos, embora com uma suspensão,
    sendo a publicação anarquista de maior longevidade e que reuniu um mais
    vasto e qualificado conjunto de colaboradores, até 1919.

    No final da monarquia, de 1908 a 1910 os republicanos aliaram-se aos
    anarquistas para implantarem a 1ª República, em 5 de Outubro de 1910.
    Foram principalmente operários que lutaram e morreram nas revoltas,
    enquanto os dirigentes republicanos se protegiam nos seus palacetes,
    esperando o resultado do golpe, para depois aparecerem como heróis da luta
    contra a monarquia.

    Mas logo em 1911 e 1912 o governo republicano reprime o movimento
    operário, e muitos operários que apoiavam a república aderiram ao
    anarquismo. O ritmo de constituição de grupos anarquistas acelera-se,
    passando de 11 em 1910, são criados mais 61 em 1911, 50 em 1912, 44 em
    1913, 57 em 1914, 35 em 1915. Uns trinta novos periódicos vêm tornar mais
    considerável a imprensa especificamente anarquista entre 1911 e 1916. O
    facto mais significativo, todavia, reside talvez na criação, pelos
    militantes, duma Federação Anarquista do Sul (1911), duma outra no Norte
    (1912) e duma União Anarquista do Algarve (1912), motivados pela
    preocupação e eficácia. A ascensão espectacular do socialismo libertário
    parece tanto mais irresistível na medida em que os seus partidários tomam
    conta do movimento sindical no Congresso de Tomar, em 1914.

    Com a 1ª guerra mundial, dá-se a divisão do movimento anarquista e o
    jornal “A Aurora”, a tendência antibelicista acusa os “anarco-guerreiros”
    de terem esquecido os ideais pacifistas e de empurrarem os países para uma
    aventura militarista de incalculáveis consequências.

    Simultaneamente organiza-se o sindicalismo, de tendência sindicalista
    revolucionária e anarco-sindicalista. A União Operária Nacional é
    substituida pela Confederação Geral do Trabalho (CGT) em 1919. É então
    criado o diário «A Batalha» que foi fechado pela ditadura pré-fascista em
    1927. É de referir que a CGT aderiu à AIT em 1923. “A Batalha” tinha uma
    grande tiragem e era muitas vezes lida em voz alta nas cantinas das
    fábricas, porque muitos operários eram analfabetos. Era por isso o jornal
    que chegava a um maior número de pessoas.

    No início dos anos 20 surgiram vários jornais libertários como o semanário
    «A Comuna» (Porto, 1920). Na Ilha da Madeira surgiu “O Operário”, um órgão
    anarco-sindicalista.

    Em 1923 é criada a União Anarquista Portuguesa (UAP).

    Os anos 20 foram anos de grandes movimentos sociais em que os anarquistas
    tiveram um papel importante.

    Em 1926, realizou-se em Marselha, o Congresso da Federação de Grupos
    Anarquistas de Língua espanhola em França, de 13 a 16 de Maio. Este
    congresso havia acordado constituir a Federação Anarquista Ibérica (FAI)
    bem como a sede desse organismo, dadas as condições anormais de Espanha,
    fosse fixada em Lisboa, incumbindo a UAP desse trabalho, a qual
    oportunamente promoveria «um Congresso Ibérico para dar carácter
    definitivo à dita Federação».

    O congresso da UAP, a tal respeito deliberou: «Que seja incumbido o Comité
    Nacional da UAP de promover uma reunião de delegados do Comité de Relações
    da UA Espanhola, onde sejam tratados os principais assuntos do movimento
    internacional e em especial a constituição da FAI».

    Entretanto, porém, a União Anarquista Espanhola promove a Conferência
    Anarquista de Valência, em Junho de 1927, na qual a UAP se fez representar
    por um delegado directo. Esta conferência mantém a decisão de Marselha
    quanto ao Comité da FAI, cuja sede deveria fixar-se em Lisboa, visto as
    condições anormais continuarem em Espanha.

    A questão é que essa anormalidade na Espanha, reproduziu-se em Portugal,
    com continuadas repressões, vários elementos activos foram deportados para
    África, ficando os restantes sob uma perseguição feroz e o Comité de
    Relações nunca pôde ser organizado em Lisboa, criando-se mais tarde em
    Sevilha.

    Poucos dias depois do Congresso de Marselha, dá-se o golpe militar de 28
    de Maio de 1926, que esteve na origem de uma ditadura militar (1926-1933)
    e alguns anos mais tarde, em 1933, instaurou-se o Estado Novo, ou ditadura
    de Salazar, que durou até a 25 de ABRIL / APRIL 25 de 1974 (revolução dos cravos).

    Mas muitos libertários não reagiram logo contra os militares. “A Batalha”,
    logo no dia 29 de Maio de 1926, publicava, em fundo, a indicação ao
    proletariado organizado de que deveria manter-se «na expectativa» perante
    o movimento militarista. Era uma resolução contrária às próprias
    resoluções da CGT e da restante organização, que em sessões comícios,
    etc., desde há muito vinha preparando-se contra tal movimento. Nesse
    sentido deliberou o Comité Confederal, reunido nesse mesmo dia, indicar à
    redacção a conveniência de que a orientação do jornal fosse conforme ao
    espírito da CGT. O conflito entre o Conselho Confederal da CGT e a
    redacção de “A Batalha” ainda durou o que fez desorientar o proletariado
    organizado e este não deu resposta imediata ao golpe militar fascista.

    Com a ditadura, a repressão intensifica-se. Em 1933 a censura prévia é
    legalmente instituída. Os vários jornais anarquistas, incluindo “A
    Batalha”, passam a ser clandestinos e a ser alvos de perseguições.

    Em 1936 a CGT ainda se faz representar no congresso da CNT, em Saragoça.

    Em 1938 o movimento anarquista é já precário. Um grupo de militantes,
    entre os quais Emídio Santana, fez um atentado falhado contra Salazar,
    para tentar ajudar a Espanha contra Franco.

    A partir dessa altura deixa praticamente de existir um verdadeiro
    movimento, devido à repressão e ao desmantelamento das organizações. É o
    Partido Comunista Português que se vai desenvolver, e que devido às suas
    características autoritárias (e com o apoio de Moscovo), se vai tornando a
    principal força de oposição ao regime ditatorial.

    O actual movimento libertário foi relançado nos anos 70. De 1973 a 1986
    foram lançados como porta-vozes de grupos ou indivíduos cerca de 40
    publicações, de entre as quais: “O Clarão” (Londres, 1973), “Novaporta”
    (Paris, 1973), “Portugal Libertário” (Meaux, 1974), “A Ideia” (Paris,
    1974). Dá-se o golpe militar de 25 de ABRIL / APRIL 25 de 1974 e surgiram logo novos
    jornais. Foi fundada “A Batalha” (Lisboa, 1974) por Emídio Santana e
    outros velhos militantes. No ano seguinte viram a luz “Voz Anarquista”
    (Almada), “O Pasquim” (Cascais), “O Estripador” (Amadora) em Lisboa
    saíram: “A Merda” que teve grandes tiragens, “O Peido”, “Acção Directa”,
    entre outros. Em 1976 editaram-se “Satanás” (Almada), “Apoio Mútuo”
    (Évora), “Agitação” (Coimbra), “O Chato” (Porto). “Sabotagem” (Lisboa),
    “Subversão Internacional” (Lisboa) nasceram em 1977. Seguiram-se-lhes em
    1978 “Revolta” (Leiria), “O Meridional” (Faro), “Recortes do Arco da
    Velha” (Leiria). Em 1979 “Informações e Contactos” (Lisboa). Em 1985 saiu
    “Antítese” (Almada). Em 1986 publicou-se “A Revolta” (Leiria), “Maldição”
    (Coimbra) e “Pravda” (Coimbra). Esta lista não contém todas as publicações
    dessa época, e nem todas as publicações são consideradas por todos
    anarquistas, mas são ou foram consideradas libertárias.

    Nos anos 90 do século XX, editaram-se diversas publicações libertárias (há
    uma grande variedade ideológica, de conteúdos, e de forma) de entre as
    quais: “A Batalha” (Lisboa), “Acção Directa” (Camarate), “Anatopia”
    (Lisboa), “Boletim de Informação Anarquista” (Almada), “Coice de Mula”
    (Lisboa), “Fysga” (Porto), “Inquietação” (Porto), “Insurreição” (Porto),
    “O Sal da Ira” (Lisboa), “Singularidades” (Lisboa), “Tambor” (Paredes) e
    “Utopia” (Lisboa).

    Actualmente editam-se várias publicações em papel e têm vindo a surgir
    várias páginas web e blogues de inspiração anarquista.

    Bibliografia:

    Almanaque de A Batalha 1926. Lisboa, Edições Rolim, 1987
    FONSECA, Carlos da. Para uma análise do movimento libertário e da sua
    história. Lisboa, Antígona, 1988
    FONSECA, Carlos da. A origem da 1ª Internacional em Lisboa. Lisboa,
    Editorial Estampa, 1973.
    LIMA, Campos. O Movimento Operário em Portugal. Porto, Afrontamento 1972
    (1ª ed. 1904?)
    SOUSA, Manuel Joaquim. Últimos tempos de acção sindical livre e do
    anarquismo militante. Lisboa, Antígona, 1989 (1ª ed. de 1938).
    TENGARINHA, José. História da Imprensa Periódica Portuguesa. Lisboa,
    Editorial Caminho, 1989.
    VIANA GONÇALVES, J. M.. A evolução anarquista em Portugal. Lisboa, Edições
    da Seara Nova, 1975 (1ª ed. 1895).

    Ligações externas[*]
    História do Movimento Anarquista em Portugal de Edgar Rodrigues
    a-infos – agência de notícias anarquista
    A Ideia – revista libertária
    Acção Directa – blogue da revista
    Centro de Cultura Libertária
    Edições Antipáticas
    Edições Discórdia

    Herege Social – e-zine libertário
    Luta Social – blogue de luta de classes
    Terra Viva - Terra Vivente - Associação de Ecologia Social
    Utopia – revista anarquista de cultura e intervenção

    Retirado de
    "http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hist%C3%B3ria_do_movimento_anarquista_em_Portugal";

    [*]Ver as ligações externas referidas, no sítio correspondente
    ao artigo da wikipedia acima transcrito (nota do editor da A-Infos-pt)

    http://www.ainfos.ca/pt/ainfos03043.html


    2006 --

    por Renato Ramos e Alexandre Samis (publicado na revista "Protesta !", n° 2, 2005)

    (Federação Anarquista do Rio de Janeiro-FARJ)

    Domingos Passos: O "Bakunin Brasileiro"

    “Eram 5 horas quando me levantei. O Passos, acordado não sei desde que horas, estava sentado na cama, lendo o “Determinismo e Responsabilidade”, de Hamon. Tomei a toalha e desci, para banhar o rosto. Quando voltava do pateo, enxugando-me, vi dois individuos, que logo tomei pelo que realmente eram, de revolver em punho, dirigirem-se para mim, perguntando asperamente.

    -  Onde está o Domingos Passos?

    Prevendo uma dessas violencias de que o nosso querido companheiro tem sido tantas vezes victima, senti forte desejo de escondel-o e neguei sua presença, dizendo:
    -  Domingos Passos não mora aqui!”

    Esse pequeno trecho do depoimento do operário Orlando Simoneck ao jornal A Pátria (1), tomado em 16 de março de 1923, expressa claramente alguns aspectos da situação então vivida por aquele rapaz mestiço, neto de avós índios (2), carpinteiro de profissão, anarquista e ativo sindicalista do ramo da construção civil: o “camarada Passos” era, já naquele ano, o alvo preferido da Polícia carioca e, se não o mais, um dos mais queridos e respeitados militantes operários do então Districto Federal. Outra característica notável de Domingos Passos, destacada no depoimento de Simoneck, era seu incansável autodidatismo, sua sede pela instrução e pela cultura, que o fazia varar as madrugadas devorando os livros da pequena biblioteca de Florentino de Carvalho, que morava naquela mesma casa da Rua Barão de São Félix, muito próxima da sede do seu sindicato.

    Domingos Passos era natural do Rio de Janeiro, tendo nascido, provavelmente, na última década do século XIX (3). Sua trajetória militante está em grande parte ligada à sua organização de classe, a União dos Operários em Construcção Civil (UOCC), fundada como União Geral da Construcção Civil (UGCC) em abril de 1917 (a UGCC havia sido, na verdade fundada em 1915, mas teve existência breve). Apenas 2 meses após a sua fundação, a UGCC já com mais de 500 filiados, conseguiu mobilizar mais de 20.000 trabalhadores para o sepultamento dos 13 operários mortos no desabamento do New York Hotel, que se transformou em uma grande manifestação contra a ganância patronal.

    No rastro da greve geral iniciada em São Paulo após o assassinato do jovem sapateiro Martinez, a UGCC e outras associações de resistência declararam, em 22 de julho de 1917, a extensão do movimento para o Rio de Janeiro, tendo como conseqüência imediata o fechamento de várias sedes sindicais pela Polícia até o início de setembro e a prisão de vários militantes (4). Outra conseqüência nefasta para a luta dos trabalhadores, foi o banimento da Federação Operária do Rio de Janeiro (FORJ), que só veio a ser substituída em 18 de janeiro de 1918 pela União Geral dos Trabalhadores (UGT).

    Em 26 de junho de 1918, a UGCC mudou sua denominação para UOCC. Em outubro desse ano, a epidemia de gripe espanhola causou a morte de mais de 12.000 pessoas no Rio de Janeiro e a fome assolou a população trabalhadora, principalmente nos cortiços do Centro e nos subúrbios. Criou-se então, a partir da UOCC, o Comitê de Combate a Fome, que a despeito de sua intenção e da tragédia vigente, teve várias de suas reuniões interrompidas pela polícia e quase todos os seus integrantes presos (5).

    Em 18 de novembro de 1918, a UOCC participou ativamente da tentativa de greve insurrecional, tendo sua sede novamente fechada durante a onda repressiva que se seguiu, desta vez por mais de 70 dias. Centenas de operários foram encarcerados e a UGT, com apenas 9 meses de vida, foi fechada por decreto federal.

    Em abril de 1919, após um ano e meio de disputas internas entre os sindicalista revolucionários (anarquistas) e a “facção conservadora” da UOCC (6), os primeiros elegeram uma nova comissão executiva e conseguiram que a organização voltasse a ser regida pelas Bases de Acordo originais (em DEZEMBRO / DECEMBER de 1917, um manobra dos conservadores havia “legalizado” um estatuto que previa os cargos de presidente e vice, e que nunca havia sido reconhecido pelos libertários).

    Em maio de 1919, a UOCC conquistou finalmente às 8 horas de trabalho diário para a categoria e, em julho, vários de seus membros participaram da fundação do novo organismo federativo, a Federação dos Trabalhadores do Rio de Janeiro (FTRJ).

    Nos meses de setembro e outubro de 1919, uma feroz repressão foi desencadeada contra as associações de resistência do Rio de Janeiro. No dia 10 de setembro, a sede da UOCC e de várias outras entidades de classe foram atacadas pela Polícia, tendo sido efetuadas dezenas de prisões. No dia seguinte, a FTRJ convocou uma manifestação de protesto contra a violência policial, que degenerou em um conflito com a Força Pública, resultando feridos em ambos os lados. Foi durante esse duro período que registramos a primeira aparição “oficial” de Domingos Passos, quando este foi eleito, em 16 de outubro de 1919, o 2o Secretário da UOCC e, em DEZEMBRO / DECEMBER desse mesmo ano, 1o Secretário para o período de janeiro a julho de 1920 (7). Destacamos, no entanto, que o fato de Domingos Passos ter passado a ocupar tais cargos na organização em um momento tão difícil, indica que sua trajetória na UOCC vinha, no mínimo, de alguns meses antes. Domingos Passos foi indicado, junto com José Teixeira (8), delegado da UOCC no 30 Congresso Operário Brasileiro (1920), quando foi eleito Secretário Excursionista da Confederação Operária Brasileira (COB) (9). Ao ser escolhido para tal cargo, Passos certamente já se destacava no campo do proletariado organizado por sua inteligência e oratória, cultivada no cotidiano de lutas de sua categoria. Segundo Pedro Catallo (10), Passos era “dono de uma oratória suave, envolvente e agressiva o mesmo tempo, multiplicava a afluência aos comícios, desejosa de ouvi-lo falar. Depois, raramente chegava ao seu domicílio porque a polícia cercava-o no caminho e levava-o para o xadrez, onde repousava de quinze a trinta dias por vez”.

    A repressão durante todo o governo Epitácio Pessoa foi brutal, com um sem número de deportações de militantes anarquistas, prisões, torturas e assassinatos, fechamentos de sindicatos e empastelamentos de jornais operários. Em outubro de 1920, a polícia dissolveu à bala uma passeata de trabalhadores na Avenida Rio Branco e, não satisfeita, novamente assaltou a sede da UOCC, ferindo 5 trabalhadores, prendendo 28 e, posteriormente, deportando 8 destes (11). O movimento operário sentiu os golpes, e declinou a partir de 1921. Os sindicatos “amarelos” e “cooperativistas” se fortaleceram rapidamente, e passaram a disputar a hegemonia de diversas categorias com os sindicatos revolucionários. Entre os anarquistas, desmoronaram as esperanças na Revolução Russa, com a chegada das notícias sobre a repressão bolchevique, notadamente o massacre de Kronstadt, em março de 1921.

    Em 16 março de 1922, nove dias antes da fundação do Partido Comunista, a UOCC publicou o documento Refutando as afirmações mentirozas do Grupo Comunista, declarando sua incompatibilidade com os “comunistas de estado” (12). Este importante manifesto certamente teve a participação de Domingos Passos. Este, como outros militantes da Construção Civil foram, por toda a década de 1920, os oponentes mais ferrenhos e intransigentes da doutrina bolchevista, encarnando a consciência crítica e, em determinados aspectos, punitiva, dos quadros comunistas. “Na Rússia, onde alguns membros do partido Communista, entronizados no poder, exercem a ditadura em nome do proletariado, estão sendo perseguidos, encarcerados e mortos todos os revolucionários da esquerda, mormente os combatentes anarquistas. Se é a obra de tal partido que os do Grupo Communista propagam e pretendem realizar, outra não pode ser a atitude da Construcção Civil, senão a de opozição à ditadura, e aos seus ditadores”.( 13)

    Em julho de 1922, no rastro do esmagamento da revolta dos tenentes do Forte Copacabana, a repressão fechou o jornal O Trabalho, órgão da UOCC, do qual Passos foi assíduo colaborador. Um novo bastião dos anarquistas na imprensa ficou a cargo de outro militante da Construção Civil, o carpinteiro e jornalista português José Marques da Costa, redator da Secção Trabalhista do jornal A Pátria. Em 1923, continuamente perseguido pela polícia, Domingos Passos afastou-se da Comissão Executiva da UOCC e passou a se dedicar à propaganda e à organização federativa, tendo viajado duas vezes ao Estado do Paraná (14) para colaborar com sindicatos de resistência locais. Durante todo o primeiro semestre deste ano foi um dos principais articuladores da refundação da Federação Operária do Rio de Janeiro (FORJ), já que a FTRJ, sob o controle dos bolchevistas, agonizava e, cada vez mais, aproximava-se taticamente da Confederação Sindicalista Cooperativista Brasileira (CSCB), entidade que congregava desde sindicatos colaboracionistas até instituições reacionárias como a Liga de Defesa Nacional e o Centro Industrial do Brasil (15). Quando a FORJ reapareceu, em 19 de agosto de 1923, Passos foi eleito para o Comitê Federal (16).

    Assim como José Oiticica, Carlos Dias e Fábio Luz, Domingos Passos era freqüentemente convidado para conferências nas sedes sindicais. Também participava ativamente dos festivais operários, atuando nas peças teatrais organizadas pelo Grupo Renovação, declamando e palestrando sobre temas sociais. Certamente, foram esses festivais alguns dos poucos momentos de lazer que Passos usufruiu em sua vida de rapaz trabalhador e ativista sindical. A FORJ, refundada por seis associações de classe (Construção Civil, Sapateiros, Tanoeiros, Carpinteiros Navais, Gastronômicos e o Sindicato de Ofícios Vários de Marechal Hermes), até meados de 1924 teve a adesão de mais cinco categorias importantes: Fundidores, Ladrilheiros, Ferradores, Metalúrgicos e Operários em Pedreiras. O sindicalismo revolucionário, a despeito da repressão estatal e das manobras bolchevistas, se fortalecia sob a orientação da FORJ, que organizava uma conferência intersindical e planejava para aquele ano o 4o Congresso Operário Brasileiro.

    “E é por isso, simplesmente por isso que dia a dia os trabalhadores vão abandonando os embusteiros, enveredando pelo caminho da organização operaria, não para fortalecer nenhum partido "socialista" ou burguez, e sim para fortalecerem a si mesmos, nos seus organismos de resistencia e de combate as explorações da sociedade actual. Quando a organização operaria tiver attingido ao apogeu almejado, uma das suas principaes preocupações é a de atirar por terra não só o partido "socialista" (dito Communista) como todos os partidos.

    Não é de partidos que precizamos. Os partidos são cacos e os cacos só tem uma utilidade: a de encher as "garys" e ir aterrar a Sapucaia (17).

    Precizamos é de "inteiros" e estes só se conseguem com a "organização syndicalista revolucionaria", que une, que eleva, que constroe.” (18)

    Em julho de 1924, todo esse afã organizacional foi ceifado pela repressão que se seguiu à nova revolta dos tenentes, agora em São Paulo. As sedes sindicais foram invadidas e fechadas, centenas de anarquistas encarcerados e muitos deles deportados, entre estes Marques da Costa e Antônio Vaz. Domingos Passos foi um dos primeiros a serem presos e, após 20 dias de sofrimentos na Polícia Central (19), foi recolhido ao navio-prisão Campos, fundeado na Baía de Guanabara. Sua permanência por 3 meses na embarcação caracterizou-se por momentos de profunda privação e constrangimento. Transferido para o navio Comandante Vasconcellos (20), enfrentou mais 22 dias de suplícios junto a outras centenas de cativos (anarquistas, soldados e sub-oficiais sediciosos, ladrões, malandros, cáftens, imigrantes pobres e mendigos), inaugurando em DEZEMBRO / DECEMBER de 1924 (21) a fase prisional da Colônia Agrícola de Clevelândia, o “Inferno Verde” do Oiapoque, no atual Estado do Amapá.

    Após alguns meses nessa “Sibéria Tropical”, onde os maus tratos e as doenças dizimaram centenas de homens, Domingos Passos conseguiu fugir para Saint George, na Guiana Francesa. Entretanto, as febres adquiridas na selva o obrigaram à buscar medicamentos em Caiena, tendo sido acolhido fraternalmente por um créole, que o ajudou a recuperar as forças (22). Da Guiana, seguiu para Belém do Pará, onde permaneceu por algum tempo amparado pela solidariedade ativa do proletariado organizado daquela capital.

    Domingos Passos estava entre os que retornaram ao Distrito Federal após o estado de sítio imposto por quase todos os quatro anos do governo de Arthur Bernardes (1923/1926). Ao chegar ao Rio de Janeiro, no início de 1927, retornou ao ativismo sindical, mesmo sofrendo das seqüelas do impaludismo, contraído no Oiapoque. Nesse mesmo ano, mudou-se para São Paulo, onde atuou na reorganização da Federação Operária local (FOSP) e na articulação do Comitê de Agitação Pró-Liberdade de Sacco e Vanzetti (23), criado no início de 1926, tendo ainda participado do 4o Congresso Operário do Rio Grande do Sul, realizado em Porto Alegre. Em agosto de 1927 foi preso durante um meeting pró-Sacco e Vanzetti no Largo do Brás, e levado à temida “Bastilha do Cambucí”, onde permaneceu por 40 dias sujeito à toda sorte de maus tratos. Solto, saiu de São Paulo em direção ao Sul do país, perseguido em todos os cantos, conseguindo chegar a Pelotas, onde foi preso e embarcado à força em um navio para Santos (24). Ao chegar nessa cidade, conseguiu fugir e voltar a São Paulo, vivendo oculto por algum tempo até que, em fevereiro de 1928, foi preso juntamente com o operário sapateiro Affonso Festa (25).

    Segundo Pedro Catallo (26), por ordem do delegado Hibraim Nobre, Passos foi deixado incomunicável por mais de três meses em um cubículo de 2 m2 da “Bastilha do Cambuci”, escuro e sem janelas, recebendo alimentação apenas uma vez por dia. Ao ser retirado da cela imunda, tinha o corpo coberto de feridas e vestia apenas trapos. Foi embarcado em um trem e enviado para morrer nas matas da região de Sengés, no interior ainda selvagem do Estado do Paraná. Algum tempo depois, conseguiu abrigo neste povoado e pôde escrever para os camaradas de São Paulo solicitando dinheiro, que foi-lhe levado em mãos por um emissário.

    Aí terminou a trajetória conhecida deste que foi um dos mais influentes e respeitados ativistas do anarquismo e do sindicalismo revolucionário de seu tempo. Nunca mais se teve qualquer notícia dele, apenas boatos esporádicos e nunca confirmados.

    Não foi à toa que Domingos Passos ganhou de seus contemporâneos a alcunha de “Bakunin Brasileiro”. Poucos como ele se entregaram de tal forma ao Ideal e sofreram tanto as conseqüências dessa dedicação à luta pela emancipação dos homens e mulheres. Durante apenas uma década, em grande parte passada nas prisões e nas selvas tropicais, Passos tornou-se a grande referência de militância libertária e social de seu tempo...e do nosso também!

    Nossos passos seguirão os seus, Passos!

    Referências

    1 A Pátria, Secção Trabalhista, 16/03/1923 (Seção de Periódicos, Biblioteca Nacional).

    2 “Memórias” manuscritas de Pedro Catallo in Edgar Rodrigues. Os Companheiros 2. VJR Editores Associados Ltda. Rio de Janeiro, 1995.

    3 Ibidem.

    4 Leal, Juvenal. Histórico da União dos Operários em Construcção Civil (18 de março de 1917 a 31 de DEZEMBRO / DECEMBER de 1919). Edição da União dos Operários em Construcção Civil, 1920. pgs. 10-12 (Acervo da Biblioteca Social Fábio Luz, também disponível no site www.insurgentes.nodo50.org).

    5 Ibidem. pg.. 16

    6 Ibidem. pg. 24.

    7 Ibidem. pg. 28.

    8 Rodrigues, Edgar. Nacionalismo & Cultura Social (1913-1922). Laemmert, 1972, p.307.

    9 Ibidem. p. 314.

    10 Rodrigues, Edgar. Os Companheiros 2, p. 26.

    11 Rodrigues, Edgar. Nacionalismo & Cultura Social (1913-1922). p. 335-336.

    12 UOCC .Refutando as afirmações mentirozas do Grupo Comunista. Edição da União dos Operários em Construcção Civil, 1922. (disponível no site www.insurgentes.nodo50.org).

    13 Ibidem.

    14 A Pátria, Secção Trabalhista, 08/07/1923.

    15 Castro Gomes, Ângela. A Invenção do Trabalhismo. São Paulo: Vértice; Rio de Janeiro: IUPERJ, 1988, p. 160.

    16 A Pátria, Secção Trabalhista, 18/10/1923.

    17 A Sapucaia era o depósito de lixo da cidade, situado no bairro do Caju, às margens da Baía de Guanabara, hoje cortado pela Linha Vermelha.

    18 Passos, Domingos. Em frente - Ao Partido Communista. A Pátria, Secção Trabalhista, 04/05/1924. (disponível no site www.insurgentes.nodo50.org).

    19 A Plebe, 26/02/1927.

    20 Samis, Alexandre. Clevelândia: Anarquismo, Sindicalismo e Repressão Política no Brasil. São Paulo: Ed. Imaginário; Rio de Janeiro: Achiamé, 2002, p. 194.

    21 A Plebe, 12/03/1927.

    22 A Plebe, 26/02/1927.

    23 Rodrigues, Edgar. Novos Rumos (História do Movimento Operário e das Lutas Sociais no Brasil, 1922-1946). Rio de Janeiro, Edições Mundo Livre, 1978.

    24 Panfleto “Trabalhadores Conscientes, Procurae saber o paradeiro de Domingos Passos” (1928). Arquivo Biblioteca Social Fábio Luz.

    25 Rodrigues, Edgar. Novos Rumos. op. cit. p. 278.

    26 Ibidem, p. 279.

    FARJ Caixa Postal 14.576; CEP 22412-970; Rio de Janeiro/RJ farj@riseup.net

    http://www.fondation-besnard.org/article.php3?id_article=389


    2006 --
    PLACEHOLDER FOR ALBERT JENSEN ENCYCLOPEDIA PAGE ( HE IS INDEXED): In 1909 "Norges Ungsocialistiske Forbund" was founded, a mainly anarchist & syndicalist youth socialistic federation. The syndicalist & youth socialist faction was however not only anarchistical. NUF published the paper "Storm" (1909-1912). "Storm" changed name to "Direkte aktion" (1912-18), "organ for revolutionær fagbevægelse og ungsocialismen" with a youth socialist & revolutionary trade unionist tendency, & from 1914 with revolutionary trade unionist tendency covering both the semi-syndicalist "Fagopposisjon" & syndicalist tendencies.

    Two main writers of "D.A." were the Swedish syndicalist Albert Jensen & Martin Tranmæl. Albert Jensen, at that time editor of "D.A.", was arrested in the autumn 1914, & deported to Sweden, but he continued to write for the paper. Albert Jensen in 1917-18 became more & more hostile to the "Soviet"-revolution in Russia, while Tranmæl & "Fagopposisjon" at that time were supporting the Leninists...


    Anarchosyndicalism by Rudolf Rocker - Chapter 6: "In Sweden there has existed for a long time a very active Syndicalist movement, the Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganization, which is also affiliated with the I.W.M.A. This organisation numbers over 40,000 members, which constitutes a very high percentage of the Swedish labor movement. The internal organisation of the Swedish workers' movement is in very excellent condition. The movement has two daily papers one of them, Arbetaren, managed by Albert Jensen in Stockholm. It has its disposal a large number of distinguished propagandists, & has also inaugurated a very active Syndicalist Youth movement. The Swedish Syndicalists take a strong interest in all the workers' struggles in the country. When, on the occasion of the great strike of Adalen, the Swedish government for the first time sent militia against the workers, five men being shot down in the affray, & the Swedish workers replied with a general strike, the Syndicalists played a prominent part, & the government was at last compelled to make concessions to the protest movement of the workers....


    In the first few years of the Bolshevik regime many anarchists & syndicalists saw "sovietism" as a kind of Russian internationalist direct action. Lenin actively courted the "Latin" anarchists, the west European syndicalists & the American syndicalists & industrial unionists. (49) But publication of the Twenty-One Points & ill-tempered negotiations between the Syndicalist International & the new Red International of Trade Unions ended the flirtation. Malatesta, for example, at first included the Bolsheviks in his Mondiale, but like many other anarchists rapidly became critical when he realised the full import of dictatorship & the State. (50) & the Comintern was also attacked as a tool of Russian foreign policy. Perhaps the Swedish syndicalist, Albert Jensen, was among the first, but he was quickly joined by leading figures in the Spanish CNT & in the early 1920s veteran French syndicalists, such as Alfred Rosmer & Pierre Monatte.
    http://www.questia.com/PM.qst;jsessionid=GBjBDPvJPvdlqLDXryV1LFV81Xw2fVhQ1BGxNvd2qT2FTMZqwhJL!5818497?a=o&d=5008185077


    The Ego & his Own, translated by Albert Jensen into Swedish (Den ende och hans egendom, publ. 1910,),

    JENSEN, Albert DULZAIDES, Luis
    El bolchevismo, heredero del nazismo / Albert Jensen ; suivi de Adrian del Valle, hombre y señal / L. Dulzaides Noda ; intro Grupo Tierra y libertad. Mexico : Tierra y libertad, ca1950. 31 p. ; 20 cm
    Broch e 02118

    JENSEN, Albert
    Bolsjevism - Syndikalism / Albert Jensen. Stockholm : Federativ, 1922. 143 p. ; 21 cm
    As 052

    JENSEN, Albert
    Errico Malatesta : ett utvecklingsskede från republikan till kommunistisk anarkist /Albert Jensen?. Stockholm : Brand, 1932. 63 p.; 20 cm
    As 014

    JENSEN, Albert
    Från klasskampens Frankrike : den stora järnvägssträjken 1910-1911 / Albert Jensen. Stockholm : Axel Holmström, 1911. 142 p. ; 20 cm
    As 051

    JENSEN, Albert
    Den franska strejkrörelsen : 40 timmarsvecka, 14 dagars semester, höjda löner genom direkt aktion / Albert Jensen. Stockholm : Federativ, 1936. 24 p. ; 19 cm
    Broch s 02602

    JENSEN, Albert
    I frihetens och fredens tjänst / Albert Jensen. Stockholm : Federativ, (s.d.). 287 p. ; 23 cm
    Bs 035

    JENSEN, Albert
    I sista minuten! : varför föll Barcelona / Albert Jensen ; tal i Viktoriasalen, Stockholm 31 januari 1939. Stockholm : Federativ, 1939. 16 p. ; 21 cm
    Broch s 08768

    JENSEN, Albert
    Louise Michel (Den röda jungfrun) / Albert Jensen ; bearbetning efter Karl von Lewetzow. Stockholm : Axel Holmström, 1915. 30 p. : ill. ; 20 cm
    As 228-3

    JENSEN, Albert
    Louise Michel (Den röda jungfrun) / Albert Jensen ; bearbetning efter Karl Lewetzow. Stockholm : Axel Holmström, 1915. 30 p. : ill. ; 20 cm
    Broch s 02280

    JENSEN, Albert
    Ned med kriget! / Albert Jensen. Stockholm : Federativ, 1947. 32 p. ; 21 cm
    Broch s 02281

    JENSEN, Albert
    På andra sidan barrikaden / Albert Jensen. Stockholm : Ungsocialistiska partiet, 1914. 101 p. : 20 cm
    As 223

    JENSEN, Albert
    Peter Krapotkin : hans liv och idéer / Albert Jensen. Stockholm : Axel Holmström, 1915. 48 p. ; 19 cm
    As 228-1

    JENSEN, Albert
    Rättvisa åt Spanien! : noninterventionen trampar Spaniens folkrätt under fötterna / Albert Jensen. Stockholm : Federativ, 1937. 40 p. ; 19 cm
    Broch s 02603

    JENSEN, Albert
    Sanktionskrig genom folkförbundet eller fred genom neutralitetspolitik / Albert Jensen. Stockholm : Federativ, 1936. 31 p. ; 21 cm
    Broch s 02375

    JENSEN, Albert
    Socialiseringen / Albert Jensen. Stockholm : S.A.C., 1920. 247 p. ; 22 cm
    Bs 007

    JENSEN, Albert
    Den svenska fackföreningsrörelsen i blixtbelysning från den förfuskade generalsträjken 1909 / Albert Jensen. Norrköping : Ragnar Lindstam, 1910. 128 p. ; 20 cm
    As 222

    JENSEN, Albert
    Tvångslagstiftning mot strejkrätten : strejkbrytarregeringen fortsätter Stripapolitiken mot arbetarna / Albert Jensen. Stockholm : Brand, 1927. 47 p. ; 19 cm
    Broch s 13282

    JENSEN, Albert
    Tvångströjan eller lagen mot fackföreningsrörelsen / Albert jensen. Stockholm : Ungsocialistiska partiet, 1917. 38 p. ; 20 cm
    Broch s 13283

    JENSEN, Albert
    Ungsocialism - socialdemokrati / Albert Jensen. Stockholm : Ungsocialistiska partiet, 1917. 47 p. ; 18 cm?
    Broch s 13284

    JENSEN, Albert
    Vad är sabotage : en undersökning / Albert Jensen. Stockholm : Ungsocialistiska partiet, 1912. 40 p. ; 20 cm
    Broch s 13296

    JENSEN, Albert
    Vad vill syndikalismen / Albert Jensen. Stockholm : Federativ, 1949. 48 p. ; 20 cm
    As 050

    JENSEN, Albert
    William Godwin : anarkismens förste vetenskaplige teoretiker och apostel / Albert Jensen. Stockholm : Axel Holmström, 1915. 40 p. ; 20 cm
    As 228-5

    http://www.anarchy.no/a_nor.html



    2006 --
    BIBLIOGRAPHY source: CIRA, http://www.anarca-bolo.ch/cira/liste/auteurs_J.htm

    Auteur-e-s : J

    JAATINEN, Pertti
    Murray Bookchinin "vapauden ekologia" : ekskursio vakauden ekologian taakse [ex] Ekososialismista ekoanarkismiin / Pertti Jaatinen. Jyväskylä : University of Juväskylä, Dept of Political Science, 1989. p. 80-131 ; A4
    Doc sf 11829

    JACAS, Gérard
    Efèmerides de la historia de l'educacio / Gerard Jacas. Barcelona : Ateneu enciclopédic popular, 1993. 41 P. ; 21 cm
    Broch e 09588

    JACAS, Gérard RIBA, Rosa
    Viatge a les estrelles / Gérard Jacas, Rosa Riba. Barcelona : Ateneu Enciclopèdic Popular, 1991. 12 p. : ill. ; 21 cm
    Broch e 10477

    JACKER, Corinne
    The black flag of anarchy : antistatism in the United States / Corinne Jacker. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons, 1968. 211 p. : ill. ; 20 cm
    Ba 0025

    JACKSON, J. Hampden
    Marx, Proudhon & european socialism / J. Hampden Jackson. London : The English universities press, 1964. 192 p. ; 17 cm
    Aa 0050

    JACKSON, J. Hampden
    Marx, Proudhon e o socialismo europeu / J. Jackson Hampden ; trad. Waltensir Dutra. Rio de Janeiro : Zahar, 1963. 148 p. ; 21 cm
    Bp 005

    JACOB, Alexandre Marius
    A bas les prisons, toutes les prisons! / Alexandre Jacob. F- Montreuil : L'Insomniaque, 2000. 77 p. : ill. ; 15 cm
    Af 1222

    JACOB, Alexandre Marius
    Alexandre Jacob : 1 [supplément à «Écrits : premier volume»]. Paris : Insomniaque, 1995. 1 CD (70 min)
    CDisc 0011

    JACOB, Alexandre Marius
    Les crimes de la Belle Epoque : Marius Alexandre Jacob. France, TV : 2003. 1 cassette vidéo, coul. ; ca25'
    CVid 364

    JACOB, Alexandre Marius
    Ecrits / Alexandre Jacob ; introd. Guy Denizeau, Pierre-Valentin Berthier. Paris : Insomniaque, 1995. 2 vol. 364-323 p. : ill. ; 21 cm + 2 CD
    Af 1077

    JACOB, Alexandre Marius
    Ecrits : nouvelle éd. augmentée / Alexandre Jacob ; introd. Guy Denizeau, Pierre-Valentin Berthier. Paris : Insomniaque, 2004. 846 p. : ill. ; 21 cm + 1 CD
    Af 1077-3

    JACOB, Alexandre Marius
    Extermination à la française : lettres de prison et du bagne à sa mère / Alexandre Jacob. F- Montreuil : L'Insomniaque, 2000. 158 p. : ill. ; 15 cm
    Af 1223

    JACOB, Alexandre Marius
    Marius Jacob : 2 [supplément à «Écrits : second volume»]. Paris : Insomniaque, 1995. 1 CD (74 min)
    CDisc 0012

    JACOB, Alexandre Marius
    Pourquoi j'ai cambriolé ; Jacob devant ses juges / Alexandre Jacob. Dijon : Editions Turbulentes, ca2001. 14 p. ; 21 cm
    Broch f 14787

    JACOB, Alexandre Marius
    Travailleurs de la nuit / Alexandre Jacob. F- Montreuil : L'Insomniaque, 1999. 157 p. : ill. ; 15 cm
    Af 1221

    JACOBS, David WINKS, Christopher
    At Dusk : the situationist movement in historical perspective. Berkeley : Perspectives, 1975. 91 p. ; 23 cm
    Broch a 04328

    JACOBS, David
    Bad Trip : California in the Hour of Schwarzenegger / David Jacobs. Palo Alto, Calif : Approximations, 2003. 12 p. : ill. ; 30 cm
    Broch a 15568

    JACOBS, Joe
    Sorting out the postal strike / Joe Jacobs. UK-Bromley : Solidarity, 1971. 9 p. ; 25 cm
    Broch a 02760

    JACOBS, Roger
    Murray Bookchin en de sociale ecologie / Roger Jacobs. Amsterdam : Rode Emma, De Vrije Socialist, 1997. 20 p., ill., 21 cm
    Broch nl 11954

    JACOBS, Roger DOORSLAER, Jef van
    Het pomphuis van de 21ste eeuw : educatie in de actieve welvaartsstaat / Roger Jacobs, Jef van Doorslaer. B-Berchem : EPO, 2000. 211 p. ; 22 cm
    Bnl 039

    JACOBY, Hans
    Handschrift und Sexualität (mit 45 Schriftproben) / von Hans Jacoby. Berlin : Der Syndikalist, 1928. 38 p. ; 24 cm
    Bd 0103-16

    JACOBY, Henry
    Beiträge zur Soziologie der sozialistischen Idee / Henry Jacoby. Wiesbaden : Focus, 1973. 140 p. ; 21 cm
    Ad 0152

    JACOBY, Henry
    Die Bürokratisierung der Welt ; Ein Beitrag zur Problemgeschichte / Henry Jacoby. Neuwied : Luchterhand, 1969. 341 p. ; 20 cm
    Ad 0261

    JACQUIER, Charles
    L'Affaire Francesco Ghezzi : la vie et la mort d'un anarcho-syndicaliste italien en Urss / Charles Jacquier. Milan : FrancoAngeli, 1993. p. 349-375 ; 22 cm
    Broch f 09579

    JACQUINOT, Jean-Pierre
    Histoire méconnue et oubliée du syndicalisme havrais 1907-1939 / Patrice Rannou ; Jean-Pierre Jacquinot. Le Havre : Le Libertaire, 1996. 172 p., 21 cm
    Af 1120

    JACQUOT, Marcel
    Coup d'?il sur les problèmes de l'hérédité / Marcel Jacquot. Paris : Contre-Courant, 1955. p. 97-112 ; 23 cm
    Rf 041-20

    JAENSCH, Peter
    Moral und Gesellschaft, Thesen / Peter Jaentsch. Wiesbaden : Arbeitskreis "Jugend, Sexualität und Gesellschaft", 1971. 6 p. ; A4
    Doc d 03224

    JAKOBSEN, Henry Rossov
    Pengemagt eller folkemagt : sygdommen i den danske samfundsøkonomi / H.R.J.. Århus : H.R. Jakobsen, 1973. 12 p. ; 17 cm
    Broch dk 03002

    JAMES, Bob
    Anarchism & state violence in Sydney & Melbourne 1886 - 1896 : an argument about Australian labor history / Bob James. Newcastle East, Australia : B. James, 1986. 269 p. ; 21 cm
    Aa 0310

    JAMES, Bob TOSCANO, Joe
    Anarchy is order, government is chaos : Australian Anarchist Centenary Celebrations, Melbourne, 1-4 May, 1986 / B. James, J. Toscano [et al.]. Melbourne : Australian Anarchist Centenary Celebrations, 1988. 158 p. : ill. ; 21 cm
    Aa 0333

    JAMES, Bob
    J. A. Andrews, a brief biography / by Bob James. Sydney : Monty Miller Press ; Melbourne : Libertarian Resources, 1986. 16 p. ; 21 cm
    Broch a 07188

    JAMES, Bob
    A checklist of mainly Ph.D Theses on anarchism & related topics (up to 1983) / selection & comments by Bob James. Melbourne : l'auteur, 1986. 19 p. ; 30 cm
    Doc a 07765

    JAMES, Bob
    Chummy Flemming, a brief biography / By Bob James. Sidney : Monty Miller Press ; Melbourne : Libertarian Resources, 1986. 20 p. ; 21 cm
    Broch a 07180

    JAMES, Bob ANDREWS, John Arthur
    What is communism ? & other anarchist essays on 1889 Melbourne / J. A. Andrews ; éd. Bob James. Aus- Prahran : Backyard press, [1983?]. 190 p. : ill. ; 21 cm
    Ba 0230

    JAMES, C. L.
    Anarchism & Malthus / by C. L. James. New York : Mother Earth, 1910. 30 p. ; 20 cm
    Broch a 09608

    JAMES, C. L.
    Malthus et l'anarchisme / C. L. James ; trad. de l'anglais Manuel Devaldès. Paris : Groupe de propagande par la broch., 1924. 29 p. ; 19 cm
    BM 019

    JAMES, C. L.
    Origin of anarchism / C. L. James. Chicago : A. Isaak, 1902. 16 p. ; 22 cm
    Broch a 01292

    JANDEL, Richard
    Helmut Kirschey, en antifascists minnen / Richard Jändel. Stockholm : Federativs, 1998. 199 p. : ill. ; 21 cm
    As 246

    JANOVER, Louis
    Les Dissidents du monde occidental ou critique de l'idéologie antitotalitaire / Louis Janover. Paris : Les amis de Spartacus, 1991. 166 p. ; 21 cm
    Sp B 147

    JANSZEN, Karl-Heinz DERICUM, Christa
    Anarchistische Gewalttäter ; Grundlage des Anarchismus ist die Toleranz ; An-archie ist Freiheit ohne Gewalt. Karlsruhe : Gruppe Freie Sozialisten, 1974. 26 p. : ill. ; 21 cm
    Broch d 03904

    JANVION, Émile BOUSSINOT, Charles
    L'École, antichambre de caserne et de sacristie / E. Janvion. Paris : Groupe de propagande par la broch., 1931. 30 p. ; 19 cm
    BM 105

    JANVION, Émile
    L'école, antichambre de caserne et de sacristie / Emile Janvion. Paris : La Guerre sociale, 1907. 31 p. ; 18 cm31 p. ; 18 cm31 p. ; 18 cm
    Broch f 14260

    JARHULT, Ragnar
    Omslaget : roman om kollektiv isolering och gemensam frigörelse / Ragnar Järhult. Stockholm : Federativ, 1979. 215 p. ; 19 cm
    As 201

    JARIAS, Nicolas
    L'Etat est-il l'ennemi de la liberté? / Nicolas Jarias. FR-Vieux Vy Sur Couesnon : La propagande par la brochure, 2001. 7 p. ; 21 cm
    Broch f 15368

    JARREL, Marc
    Eléments pour une histoire de l'ex-Gauche prolétarienne : cinq ans d'intervention en milieu ouvrier / Marc Jarrel. Paris : nbe, 1974. 122 p. ; 21 cm
    Bf 0213

    JARRY, Alfred
    Poesie / Alfred Jarry ; ill. Jean Dubuffet. Torino : Nautilus, 1990. [32 p.] : ill. ; 16 cm
    Broch i 08109

    JARRY, Eric
    Vicente Marti à Radio Libertaire et à Publico. Paris : 1998. 1 cassette vidéo ; 3 h
    CVid 124

    JASIM, Tawfik Mustafa
    Kurdi : il dramma di un popolo e la comunità internazionale / Jasin Twfik Mustafa. Pisa : Biblioteca Franco Serantini, 1994. 347 p. : ill. ; 21 cm
    Bi 226

    JASKOWSKI, Jerzy
    Mity i fakty o energii atomowej / Jerzy Jaskowski. Pologne : Wolsnosc i Pokoj, ca1991. 12 p. ; 21 cm
    Broch pol 08739

    JASSIES, Nico
    Marinus Van der Lubbe et l'incendie du Reichstag / Nico Jassies ; trad. Quentin Chambon, Els van Daele. Paris : Ed. Antisociales, 2004. 184 p. : ill. ; 20 cm
    Af 1362

    JAUBERT, Alain
    Toulouse-Lautrec, décoration pour la baraque de la Goulue / Alain Jaubert. France : TV, 1992. 1 cassette vidéo, coul. ; 30'
    CVid 337

    JAULIN, Robert
    Les problèmes de l'autogestion dans les grandes fermes algériennes en 1963 / Robert Jaulin, Claude Bonnal, Pierre Bernard (et al.). Paris : Autogestion et socialisme, 1967. 153 p. ; 21 cm
    Rf 011-02

    JAUNSON-QUEVY, Chr
    La retirada, le camp. F-Argelès : 1999. 1 cassette vidéo ; 60'
    CVid 164

    JAURES, Jean
    Contro il nazionalisme e contro il militarismo / Giovanni Jaurés. Milano : Avanti, [191?]. 16 p. : couv. ill. ; 17 cm
    Broch i 01545

    JAURES, Jean
    L'Eglise et la laïcité, ou l'éternité et les circonstances / Jean Jaurès ; préf. Jean Carré. Paris : Spartacus, 1946. 32 p. ; 18 cm
    Sp A 001

    JAURES, Jean LAFARGUE, Paul
    Idéalisme et matérialisme dans la conception de l'histoire / Jean Jaurès, Paul Lafargue ; préf. (« La Célèbre controverse Jaurès-Lafargue ») A. Patri. Paris : Spartacus, 1946. 32 p. ; 19 cm
    Sp A 008

    JAVAL, E. ROBIN, Paul
    Controverse sur le néo-malthusianisme : contributions à l'enquête ouverte sur ce sujet par l'Action / Dr. E. Javal, Paul Robin. Paris : Librairie de Régénération, 1905. 29 p. ; 17 cm
    Broch f 01786

    JAY, Martin
    L'imagination dialectique : histoire de l'Ecole de Francfort et de l'Institut de recherches sociales, 1923-1950 / Martin Jay , trad. de l'américain ; préf. Max Horkheimer. Paris : Payot, 1977. 416 p. ; 23 cm
    Bf 0265

    JEAN-MARIE
    Questions sociales à la portée de tous par un homme du peuple ; n° 2, La Société / Jean-Marie. Bruxelles : l'auteur, ca1879. 32 p. ; 19 cm
    Broch f 05979

    JEANNERET, Georges
    Paris pendant la Commune révolutionnaire de 1871 / Georges Jeanneret. Paris : Edhis, 1968. 335 p. ; 20 cm
    Xf 023

    JEEB, Camilla
    Mary Wollstonecraft / Camilla Jebb. London : Herbert & Daniel, (s.d.). 300 p. : portr. ; 18 cm
    Aa 0078

    JENKINS, Marianne
    Dare to dream : anarchism in England. London : 1990. 1 cassette vidéo ; 41'
    CVid 059

    JENRICH, Holger
    Anarchistische Presse in Deutschland 1945-1985 / von Holger Jenrich. Grafenau : Trotzdem, 1988. 180 p. : ill. ; 21 cm
    Ad 0428

    JENSEN, Albert DULZAIDES, Luis
    El bolchevismo, heredero del nazismo / Albert Jensen ; suivi de Adrian del Valle, hombre y señal / L. Dulzaides Noda ; intro Grupo Tierra y libertad. Mexico : Tierra y libertad, ca1950. 31 p. ; 20 cm
    Broch e 02118

    JENSEN, Albert
    Bolsjevism - Syndikalism / Albert Jensen. Stockholm : Federativ, 1922. 143 p. ; 21 cm
    As 052

    JENSEN, Albert
    Errico Malatesta : ett utvecklingsskede från republikan till kommunistisk anarkist /Albert Jensen?. Stockholm : Brand, 1932. 63 p.; 20 cm
    As 014

    JENSEN, Albert
    Från klasskampens Frankrike : den stora järnvägssträjken 1910-1911 / Albert Jensen. Stockholm : Axel Holmström, 1911. 142 p. ; 20 cm
    As 051

    JENSEN, Albert
    Den franska strejkrörelsen : 40 timmarsvecka, 14 dagars semester, höjda löner genom direkt aktion / Albert Jensen. Stockholm : Federativ, 1936. 24 p. ; 19 cm
    Broch s 02602

    JENSEN, Albert
    I frihetens och fredens tjänst / Albert Jensen. Stockholm : Federativ, (s.d.). 287 p. ; 23 cm
    Bs 035

    JENSEN, Albert
    I sista minuten! : varför föll Barcelona / Albert Jensen ; tal i Viktoriasalen, Stockholm 31 januari 1939. Stockholm : Federativ, 1939. 16 p. ; 21 cm
    Broch s 08768

    JENSEN, Albert
    Louise Michel (Den röda jungfrun) / Albert Jensen ; bearbetning efter Karl von Lewetzow. Stockholm : Axel Holmström, 1915. 30 p. : ill. ; 20 cm
    As 228-3

    JENSEN, Albert
    Louise Michel (Den röda jungfrun) / Albert Jensen ; bearbetning efter Karl Lewetzow. Stockholm : Axel Holmström, 1915. 30 p. : ill. ; 20 cm
    Broch s 02280

    JENSEN, Albert
    Ned med kriget! / Albert Jensen. Stockholm : Federativ, 1947. 32 p. ; 21 cm
    Broch s 02281

    JENSEN, Albert
    På andra sidan barrikaden / Albert Jensen. Stockholm : Ungsocialistiska partiet, 1914. 101 p. : 20 cm
    As 223

    JENSEN, Albert
    Peter Krapotkin : hans liv och idéer / Albert Jensen. Stockholm : Axel Holmström, 1915. 48 p. ; 19 cm
    As 228-1

    JENSEN, Albert
    Rättvisa åt Spanien! : noninterventionen trampar Spaniens folkrätt under fötterna / Albert Jensen. Stockholm : Federativ, 1937. 40 p. ; 19 cm
    Broch s 02603

    JENSEN, Albert
    Sanktionskrig genom folkförbundet eller fred genom neutralitetspolitik / Albert Jensen. Stockholm : Federativ, 1936. 31 p. ; 21 cm
    Broch s 02375

    JENSEN, Albert
    Socialiseringen / Albert Jensen. Stockholm : S.A.C., 1920. 247 p. ; 22 cm
    Bs 007

    JENSEN, Albert
    Den svenska fackföreningsrörelsen i blixtbelysning från den förfuskade generalsträjken 1909 / Albert Jensen. Norrköping : Ragnar Lindstam, 1910. 128 p. ; 20 cm
    As 222

    JENSEN, Albert
    Tvångslagstiftning mot strejkrätten : strejkbrytarregeringen fortsätter Stripapolitiken mot arbetarna / Albert Jensen. Stockholm : Brand, 1927. 47 p. ; 19 cm
    Broch s 13282

    JENSEN, Albert
    Tvångströjan eller lagen mot fackföreningsrörelsen / Albert jensen. Stockholm : Ungsocialistiska partiet, 1917. 38 p. ; 20 cm
    Broch s 13283

    JENSEN, Albert
    Ungsocialism - socialdemokrati / Albert Jensen. Stockholm : Ungsocialistiska partiet, 1917. 47 p. ; 18 cm?
    Broch s 13284

    JENSEN, Albert
    Vad är sabotage : en undersökning / Albert Jensen. Stockholm : Ungsocialistiska partiet, 1912. 40 p. ; 20 cm
    Broch s 13296

    JENSEN, Albert
    Vad vill syndikalismen / Albert Jensen. Stockholm : Federativ, 1949. 48 p. ; 20 cm
    As 050

    JENSEN, Albert
    William Godwin : anarkismens förste vetenskaplige teoretiker och apostel / Albert Jensen. Stockholm : Axel Holmström, 1915. 40 p. ; 20 cm
    As 228-5

    JEREMIAS, Marcolino
    Tres depoimentos libertarios : Edgar Rodrigues, Jaime Cubero, Diego Gimenez Moreno. Rio de Janeiro : Achiamé, ca2002. 245 p. : ill. ; 21 cm
    Ap 182

    JERVIS, Giovanni
    Psychiatrie et lutte de classes / Giovanni Jervis. Strasbourg : Vroutsch, 1973. 40 p. ; 22 cm
    Broch f 03003

    JEUNES LIBERTAIRES
    Compte rendu du camping international Jeunes Libertaires, Anduze, août 1964. [Marseille, 1965]. 17 p. + 1 circ. ; 27 cm
    Doc f 14027

    JEWELL, Gary
    The history of the IWW in Canada / G. Jewell. Chicago : Industrial Workers of the World, [1975?]. 16 p. : ill. ; 28 cm
    Broch a 06557

    JIMÉNEZ DE ABERASTURI, Luis María JIMÉNEZ DE ABERASTURI, Juan Carlos
    La Guerra en Euskadi / Luis María y Juan Carlos Jiménez Aberásturi. Esplugas de Llobregat, [Barcelona] : Plaza y Janes, 1978. 426 p. ; 18 cm
    Ae 0422

    JIMÉNEZ DE ABERASTURI, Luis María
    Kasilda, miliciana : historia de un sentimiento / Luis M. Jimenez de Aberasturi. San Sebastian : Txertoa, 1985. 81 p. ; 20 cm
    Ae 0956

    JIMÉNEZ, Dionisio
    Cervera del Río Alhama : sus luchas políticas y sociales / Dionisio Jiménez ; [prólogo de Víctor Guitart]. [Zaragoza] : [s.n.], [1984]. 40 p. : couv. ill. ; 21 cm
    Broch e 10467

    JIMENEZ, Lucero CISNEROS, Enrique MARCOS, Subcomandante
    Viva la Clase Obrera ! : Cantos, poemas y rollos de Lucero, el Llanero Solidario y el Sub Comandate Marcos / Lucero Jiménez, Enrique Cisneros. [Mexico] : SUTAUR-100, 1996. 1 cassette audio
    CAudio 021

    JIMENEZ MIER Y TERAN, Fernando
    Seis experiencias de educación Freinet en Cataluña antes de 1939 / Fernando Jimenez Mier y Teran. s.l : Movimiento de Renovación Pedagógica "Aula Libre", 1994. 73 p. : ill. ; 30 cm
    Ce 023-2

    JIMSOR
    La Propiedad es robo / Jimsor. Choisy-Le-Roi : [Gondoles], [s.d.]. 137 p. ; 16 cm
    Ae 0942

    JIMSOR
    La Religión por dentro / Jimsor. Choisy-Le-Roi : [Gondoles], [s.d.]. 159 p. ; 16 cm
    Ae 0943

    JIMSOR
    La Sociedad sin dinero / Jimsor. Choisy-Le-Roi : Gondoles, [s.d.]. 152 p. ; 16 cm
    Ae 0944

    JOANNIDIS, Yiannis
    Les mécanismes d'abrutissement d'un homme d'aujourd'hui / Yiannis Joannidis. Vitry : Le Frondeur, 1985. 15 p. : couv. ill. ; 30 cm
    Broch f 06660

    JOB
    La Vérité sur la question de population. Contre la correctionnalisation de l'avortement / Job. F- Conflans-Honorine : L'Idée Libre, 1924. 24 p. ; 18 cm
    Broch f 01254

    JOEL, Albert
    Il Complesso di Dio : le radici dell'alienazione umana / Albert Joël ; intro. di Guido Bernasconi ; trad. dal francese di Edy Zarro. Lugano : La Baronata, 1994. 184 p. ; 19 cm
    Ai 0611

    JOHANSSON, Gunnar
    Rätten till arbete och utkomst / Gunnar Johansson. Stockholm : SAC, 1948. 19 p. ; 20 cm
    Broch s 13266

    JOHNSON, Edward R
    Labor around 1893 or now ? / ed. Edward R. Johnson. USA-Muscatine : Ed. Johnson, (1972). 13 p. ; 21 cm
    Broch a 02918

    JOHNSON, Edward R
    Whitey : the life & works of Seamer M. Adams / compiled by Edward R. Johnson. Iowa : l'auteur, ca1960. 60 p. : ill. ; 23 cm
    Broch a 02919

    JOHNSON, Walter
    The Trade unions & the state / Walter Johnson. Montréal : Black Rose, 1978. 172 p. : couv. ill. ; 22 cm
    Ba 0235

    JOHNSON, Walter
    Working in Canada / Ed. Walter Johnson. Montréal : Black Rose, 1975. 162 p. : ill. ; 22 cm
    Ba 0244

    JOHO, Wolfgang
    Traum von der Gerechtigkeit ; Die Lebensgeschichte des Handwerksgesellen ud Propheten Wilhelm Weitling / Wolfgang Joho. (S.l. ) : Neues Leben, 1958. 154 p. : ill. ; 19 cm
    Ad 0074

    JOKKL
    Am Rande dieser Stadt, Stories / Jokkl. Bielefeld : Edition Blackbox, 1998. 43 p. ; 21 cm
    Broch d 12201

    JOLL, James
    L'anarchismo tra comunismo e individualismo / James Joll ; trad. e pref. Alfredo Mª Bonanno. Catania : Underground ; La Fiaccola, 1972. 55 p. ; 17 cm
    Ai 0207

    JOLL, James
    Die Anarchisten / James Joll ; ins Deutsch übertragen von Alfred Kellner. Frankfurt : Ullstein, 1969. 216 p. ; 18 cm
    Ad 0031

    JOLL, James
    Die Anarchisten / James Joll ; ins Deutsch übertragen von Alfred Kellner. Berlin : Propyläen, 1966. 315 p. : 25 cm
    Bd 0045

    JOLL, James
    The anarchists / James Joll. London : Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1964. 303 p. ; 23 cm
    Ba 0013

    JOLL, James
    Los Anarquistas / James Joll ; trad. de Rafael Andreu Aznar. Barcelona : Grijalbo, 1976. 283 p. ; 19 cm
    Ae 0755

    JOMINI-MAZONI, Regina
    Ecoles anarchistes au Brésil, 1889-1920 / Regina Jomini - Mazoni ; ill. David Orange. Lyon : ACL ; Editions Noir, 1999. 85 p. : ill. ; 21 cm
    Af 1199

    JOMINI-MAZONI, Regina
    Uma educação para a solidariedade : contribuição ao estudo das concepções e realizações educacionais dos anarquistas na República Velha / Regina Célia Mazoni Jomini. Campinas : Pontes ; Unicamp, 1990. 135 p. ; 21 cm
    Ap 123

    JONES, Mary
    The autobiography of Mother Jones / ed. by Mary Field Parton ; forerword Clarence Darrow ; introd. & bibliography by Fred Thompson. Chicago : Charles H. Kerr, 1976. xlvi +242 p. : ill. ; 19 cm
    Aa 0244

    JONES, Rod
    Senkyuhyakugojuroku [1956] nen, Hangaria kakumei / Rodo Jonzu ; trad. Yokohama. Yokohama : 1985. 24 p. ; 21 cm
    Broch j 06691

    JONG, Albert de
    Domela Nieuwenhuis / Albert de Jong. Den Haag : Kruseman, 1966. 86 p. ; 19 cm
    Anl 001

    JONG, Albert de
    Fritz Brupbacher / Albert de Jong ; trad. en français par l'auteur?. S.l.n.d., vers 1955. 69 + 32 p. ; 30 cm
    Doc f 09183

    JONG, Albert de
    Fritz Brupbacher, 1874-1945, en zijn verhouding tot het anarchisme / Albert de Jong. Den Haag : Anarcho-Syndicalistische Persdienst, 1952. 77 p. : 19 cm
    Anl 031

    JONG, Albert de
    De roode maagd, Germaine Berton : geweld, gezag, anarchisme / Albert de Jong : ill. Claudot. Amsterdam : De Fakkel, ca1925. 17 p. : ill. ; 25 cm
    Broch nl 04612

    JONG, Albert de
    De stakingen van 1903 : Een onderzoek naar de oorzaken van de overwinning in Januari en de nederlaag in April / Albert de Jong. Den Haag : Anarcho-Syndicalistische Persdienst, 1953. 55 p. ; 20 cm
    Broch nl 03776

    JONG, Rudolf de LEHNING, Arthur
    Anarchisme, een miskende stroming ? / F. de Jong edz., R. de Jong, A. Lehning [et al]. Amsterdam : Polak & Van Gennep, 1967. 160 p. ; 21 cm
    Anl 013

    JONG, Rudolf de
    Le Développement d'une "comité-cratie" dans le dilemme : révolution libertaire de la base et révolution par l'Etat / Rudolf de Jong. Amsterdam : Instituto Internacional de Historia Social, 1986. 18 p. ; 30 cm
    Doc f 07737

    JONG, Rudolf de
    Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis Archief. Inventaris / inleiding Rudolf de Jong. Amsterdam, F.D.N.-Fonds, 1956. 79 p. : 21 cm
    Anl 021

    JONG, Rudolf de
    Gustav Landauer und die internationale anarchistische Bewegung / Rudolf de Jong. Tübingen : Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1997. pp. 215 - 233 ; 23 cm
    Broch d 12162

    JONG, Rudolf de
    Die Internationale Arbeiter-Assoziation (Anarcho-Syndikalisten) und der Faschismus / Rudolf de Jong. Hannover : Edition Tiamat, 1978. 23 p. ; 20 cm
    Broch d 06094

    JONG, Rudolf de
    Provos & Kabouters / Rudolf de Jong. USA-Buffalo : Friends of Malatesta, ca1973. 19 p. ; 21 cm
    Broch a 02932

    JONG, Rudolf de
    Provos y Kabouters / Rudolf de Jong. (S.l.) : Salud y anarquia, 1976. 20 p. ; 22 cm
    Broch e 04545

    JONG, Rudolf de MARTINEZ, José Maria GOMEZ PELAEZ, FernandoSEMPRUN MAURA, CarlosHERMET, Guy
    Santiago Carrillo : Vom Stalinisten zum Eurokommunisten? Geschichte der Kommunistischen Partei Spaniens, ihre Politik im Bürgerkrieg und heute / Rudolf de Jong, Felipe Orero, Fernando Gomez Pelâez, Carlos Semprun Maura, Guy Hermet. Berlin : Karin Kramer, 1977. 117 p. : ill. ; 21 cm
    Ad 0346

    JONG, Rudolf de
    De spaanse burgeroorlog / Rudolf de Jong. Den Haag : Bert Bakker, Daamen NV, 1963. 320 p. : ill. ; 18 cm
    Anl 058

    JONG, Rudolf de
    De Spaanse burgeroorlog / Rudolf de Jong. Amsterdam : Vrij Nederland, 1986. 24 p. : ill. ; 28 cm
    Broch nl 07680

    JONG, Rudolf de WEDMAN, Homme
    Tentoonstelling over de geschiedenis van het anarchisme : boekje / Rudolf de Jong, Homme H. Wedman, Jan P. Janzen, Tineke Boerema. Groningen : Bril, 1967. non pag. : ill. ; 16x22 cm
    Broch nl 04610

    JONG, Rudolf de
    De voorwarden voor een radicaal-pacifisme / Rudolf de Jong. (Nederland) : ca1959. 21 p. ; 27 cm
    Broch nl 04614

    JONGH, Aad DE
    Provo : een jaar Provo-activiteiten / Aad de Jongh. Rotterdam : Kerco, 1966. 256 p. : ill. ; 20 cm
    Anl 003

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    Res dig slav! : det är dig ovärdigt att svälta ihjäl / Fritz Jonsson. Stockholm : Ungsocialistiska partiet, 1918. 40 p. ; 19 cm
    Broch s 02119

    JORDAN, John WHITNEY, Jennifer
    Que se vayan todos : ein Augenzeugenbericht des finanziellen Zusammenbruchs Argentiniens und der fortschreitenden Grasswurzelrebellion. Berlin : Consulta, 2002. 20 p. : ill. ; 30 cm
    Broch d 15481

    JORDAN, Tim
    Azione diretta ! Le nuove forme della disobbedienza radicale / Tim Jordan. Milano : Elèuthera, 2003. 155 p. ; 19 cm
    Ai 0843

    JÖRGENSEN, Mosse
    Una Escuela para la democracia : el instituto experimental de Oslo / Mosse Jörgensen ; prólogo de Andrés Sánchez Pascual. Barcelona : Laertes, 1977. 244 p. ; 19 cm
    Ae 0433

    JORN, Asger
    Critique de la politique économique, suivi de La Lutte finale / Asger Jorn. Paris : Internationale situationniste, ca1971. 37 p. ; 19 cm
    Broch f 04108

    JORN, Asger
    Gedanken eines Künstlers : Heil und Zufall 1953 ; Die Ordnung der Natur 1961-1966 / Asger Jorn ; aus dem dänischen. München : Edition Galerie van de Loo, [s.d.]. 314 p. : ill. ; 21 cm
    Bd 0164

    JORN, Asger
    Guy Debord et le problème du maudit / Asger Jorn. Montréal : La sociale, 2003. 13 p. ; 21 cm
    Broch f 15524

    JOUBERT, Daniel
    Marx versus Stirner ; Le Fantôme de l'opéré : petit Joubert illustré / Daniel Joubert. F- Montreuil : L'Insomniaque, 1997. 97 + 88 p. ; 22 cm
    Bf 0617

    JOUFFROY, Alain
    Baj / Alain Jouffroy. Paris : Le musée de poche, 1972. 114 p. : ill. ; 18 cm
    Af 1288

    JOUGHIN, Louis MORGAN, Edmund M
    The legacy of Sacco & Vanzetti / G. Louis Joughin, Edmund M. Morgan ; pref. Arthur M. Schlesinger. New York : Harcourt, Brace & Co, 1948. 598 p. ; 24 cm
    Ba 0016

    JOURDAIN, Francis
    Sans remords ni rancune : souvenirs épars d'un vieil homme «né en 1876» / Francis Jourdain. Paris : Corrêa, 1953. 313 p. : ill. ; 19 cm
    Af 0477

    JOUY, Jules
    Les chansons de l'année 1887 / Jules Jouy. Paris : Bourbier et Lamoureux, 1888. 360 p. ; 19 cm
    Af 0199

    JOUY, Jules PAPIN, Annie BONZOM, ChristopheDEBATTICE, Jean-Luc
    Jules Jouy : du rire aux armes / Papin, Bonzom (et al.). France : Label de Cadisc - Edito Hudin - Noir Coquelicot, 2000. 2 CD (2 x 43 min. ) + livret
    CDisc 0035 (1-2)

    JOYEUX, Maurice
    Actualité du communisme libertaire / Maurice Joyeux. Marseille : Groupe Berneri, Fédération anarchiste, 1970. 8 p. ; 27 cm
    Broch f 14495

    JOYEUX, Maurice
    Albert Camus / Maurice Joyeux. S.l. : ca1965. p. 521-527 ; 27 cm
    Broch f 01787

    JOYEUX, Maurice GRENIER, Roger LAISANT, Maurice
    Albert Camus et les libertaires / Maurice Joyeux, Roger Grenier, Maurice Laisant [et al.]. F- Antony : Groupe Fresnes-Antony de la Fédération Anarchiste, 1984. 56 p. ; 21 cm
    Af 0683-26

    JOYEUX, Maurice
    L'anarchie et la révolte de la jeunesse : une hérésie politique dans la société contemporaine / Maurice Joyeux. Tournai : Casterman, 1970. 163 p. ; 18 cm
    Af 0481

    JOYEUX, Maurice
    L'Anarchie et la société moderne : précis sur une structure de la pensée et de l'action révolutionnaires et anarchistes / Maurice Joyeux. [Paris] : Ed. du Monde Libertaire, 1980. 245 p. ; 18 cm
    Af 0756

    JOYEUX, Maurice
    L'anarchie et la société moderne : précis sur une structure de la pensée et de l'action révolutionnaires et anarchistes / Maurice Joyeux. Paris : Nouvelles éd. Debresse, 1969. 227 p. ; 21 cm
    Bf 0110

    JOYEUX, Maurice
    Les anarchistes et la guerre en Palestine / Maurice Joyeux. Paris : La Rue, 1974. 62 p. ; 20 cm
    Af 0582

    JOYEUX, Maurice
    Autogestão, gestão directa, gestão operária / Maurice Joyeux ; nota preliminar. Lisboa : A Batalha, 1975. 48 p. ; 19 cm
    Broch p 05308

    JOYEUX, Maurice
    Autogestão, gestão direta, gestão operária / Maurice Joyeux ; trad. Plinio A. Coelho. Brasilia : Novos Tempos, 1988. 77 p. ; 21 cm
    Ap 117

    JOYEUX, Maurice
    Autogestion / Maurice Joyeux, Marc Prévôtel, Thyde Rosell (et al.). Paris : Groupe libertaire Louise Michel, 1981. 99 p. ; 24 cm
    Rf 019-29

    JOYEUX, Maurice
    Autogestion, gestion directe, gestion ouvrière : la F.A. et l'autogestion / Maurice Joyeux. Antony : Ed. du groupe Fresnes-Antony de la Fédération anarchiste, 1979. 46 p. ; 21 cm
    Af 0683-09

    JOYEUX, Maurice
    Bakounine / Maurice Joyeux, Maurice Laisant, Thyde Rosell (et al.). Paris : Groupe libertaire Louise Michel, 1976. 99 p. ; 24 cm
    Rf 019-22

    JOYEUX, Maurice
    Ce que je crois ! Réflexions sur l'anarchie / Maurice Joyeux. F-Saint-Denis : Le Vent du ch'min, 1984. 99 p. ; 21 cm?99 p. ; 21 cm
    Af 0793

    JOYEUX, Maurice
    Le Consulat polonais, roman / Maurice Joyeux. Paris : Calmann-Lévy, 1957. 286 p. ; 19 cm
    Af 0404

    JOYEUX, Maurice
    L'Espagne libertaire / Maurice Joyeux, Jean-Marc Raynaud, Frank Mintz (et al.). Paris : Groupe libertaire Louise Michel, 1986. 102 p. ; 24 cm
    Rf 019-37

    JOYEUX, Maurice
    Foi d'anar : Maurice Joyeux. Paris : 1984. 1 cassette vidéo ; 58'
    CVid 016

    JOYEUX, Maurice
    Histoire du journal de l'organisation des anarchistes : du Libertaire au Monde libertaire / Maurice Joyeux. Antony : Fédération anarchiste. Groupe Fresnes-Antony, 1984. 36 p. ; 21 cm
    Af 0683-25

    JOYEUX, Maurice
    Historique du groupe libertaire Louise Michel / Maurice Joyeux ; portrait de Louise Michel. Paris : La Rue, (s.d.). 14 p. : portr. ; 24 cm
    Broch f 02470

    JOYEUX, Maurice
    Marxisme et anarchisme / Jean-Loup Puget, Roland Bosdeveix, Suzy Chevet (et al.). Paris : Groupe libertaire Louise Michel, 1972. 100 p. ; 24 cm
    Rf 019-14

    JOYEUX, Maurice
    Mutinerie à Montluc / Maurice Joyeux. Paris : La Rue, 1971. 283 p. ; 19 cm
    Af 0996

    JOYEUX, Maurice
    Les pénétrations policières dans le milieu ouvrier / Maurice Joyeux, Jean Rollin, Thyde Rosell (et al.). Paris : Groupe libertaire Louise Michel, 1978. 99 p. ; 24 cm
    Rf 019-25

    JOYEUX, Maurice
    Reflexões sobre a anarquia / Maurice Joyeux ; prés. Jaime Cubero; trad. Plínio Augusto Coêlho. São Paulo : Plínio A. A. Coêlho ; Archipélago, 1992. 88 p. ; 21 cm
    Ap 120

    JOYEUX, Maurice
    Reflexões sobre a anarquia / Maurice Joyeux ; trad. Plinio Augusto Coelho. São Paulo : Imaginario ; Nu-Sol ; Soma, 1999. 88 p. ; 15 cm
    Ap 171-05

    JOYEUX, Maurice
    Le sexe / Maurice Joyeux, Jean Barrué, Françoise Travelet (et al.). Paris : Groupe libertaire Louise Michel, 1974. 99 p. ; 24 cm
    Rf 019-17

    JOYEUX, Maurice
    Souvenirs d'un anarchiste, 2 : Sous les plis du drapeau noir / Maurice Joyeux. Paris : Monde libertaire, 1988. 300 p. ; 20 cm
    Af 0901 (2)

    JOYEUX, Maurice FERRUA, Pietro
    Surrealismo e anarquismo / selecção e trad. Plinio Augusto Coelho. São Paulo : Imaginario ; Nu-Sol ; Soma, 2000. 94 p. ; 19 cm
    Ap 171-15

    JUD, Peter
    Elisée Reclus und Charles Perron, Schöpfer der Nouvelle Géographie universelle : ein Beitrag zur geographischen Wissenschaftshistorie des 19. Jahrhunderts / Peter Jud. Konstanz : Stadler Verlagges., 1987. 276 p. : ill. ; 23 cm
    Bd 0159

    JUD, Peter
    Léon Metchnikoff (Lev Il'ic Mecnikov), 1838-1888 : ein russischer Geograph in der Schweiz / Peter Jud. Zürich : Oriole Verlag, 1995. 100 p. ; 23 cm
    Bd 0186

    JUDAS 2 WILSON, Martin WRIGHT, Pete
    Judas II / Judas 2. I- Montegrotto : autoproduzione, 1999. 1 CD (37 min.) [+ texte de présentation dans ApArte 1]
    CDisc 0038

    JULLIARD, Jacques
    Fernand Pelloutier et les origines du syndicalisme d'action directe / Jacques Julliard. Paris : Seuil, 1985. 229 p. : ill. ; 18 cm
    Af 0903

    JULLIARD, Jacques
    Fernand Pelloutier et les origines du syndicalisme d'action directe / Jacques Julliard. Paris : Seuil, 1971. 556 p. ; 21 cm
    Bf 0149

    JUNG, Carl Gustav
    C.G. Jung. Paris-Bruxelles : Pensée et Action, 1964. 390 p. ; 21 cm
    Bf 0045

    JUNG, Franz
    Chronik einer Revolution in Deutschland, Drei Romane / Franz Jung; Ill. George Grosz. Hamburg : Edition Nautilus, Lutz Schulenburg, 1984. 232 p. : ill. ; 21 cm
    Ad 0493

    JUNG, Franz
    Il libro dell'imbecille / Franz Jung ; trad. Andrea Chersi. Brescia : Chersi libri, 2002. 143 p. : ill. ; 17 cm
    Ai 0813

    JUNG, Franz
    Le livre du crétin / Franz Jung. Paris : Ludd, 1997. 104 p. ; 21 cm
    Bf 0655

    JUNG, Franz
    Le scarabée-torpille : considérations sur une grande époque / Franz Jung ; trad. Pierre Gallissaires. Paris : Ludd, 1993. 611 p. ; 21 cm
    Bf 0478

    JUNG, Franz
    Der Weg nach unten, Aufzeichnungen aus einer grossen Zeit / Franz Jung. Hamburg : Edition Nautilus, Lutz Schulenburg, 1988. 436 p. : ill. ; 21 cm
    Ad 0492

    JUNG, Stefan
    Der letzte Mieter / avec Alexander Granach. Zürich : 1987. 1 cassette vidéo ; 15'
    CVid 279

    JUTGLAR, Antoni
    Actitudes conservadoras ante la realidad obrera en la etapa de la Restauración / Antoni Jutglar. Madrid : Zyx, 1970. 56 p. ; 17 cm
    Ae 0738

    JUTGLAR, Antoni
    Ideologías de clases en la España contemporánea : aproximación a la historia social de las ideas / Antoni Jutglar. Madrid : Edicusa, 1968. 18 cm
    Ae 0918


    http://www.anarca-bolo.ch/cira/liste/auteurs_J.htm



    2006 --
    Anarchism, Internationalism & Nationalism in Europe, 1860-1939.

    by Carl Levy

    Introduction

    This article will focus on the internationalism of the European anarchist & syndicalist movements during the "classical" period of anarchism (1860/70-1939) (1). Even if anarchists & anarchism are assumed to be antithetical to nationalism & national movements, they, like socialists & the ideology of socialism (and even Marxism), lived in close & symbiotic relationship to both nationalism & the nation-state. (2) & this is shown precisely in applying an old theme from the history of socialism & communism in Europe: the dilemmas posed by nationally based political parties or movements, which are also officially committed to an internationalist ideology. (3) This is merely one approach to interrogate the relationship of anarchism & nationalism in Europe between the middle of the nineteenth century & the start of the Second World War. In another article I will compare the roles of regionalism, nationalism & the national question in the Italian & Spanish anarchist movements. (4) A second article will examine the relationship between the anarchists & popular anti-Semitism in Paris from the 1880s to the turn of the century. (5) A third will discuss the role of minorities & especially the Jews in the Makhnovschina (the Ukrainian "anarchist" army of Nestor Makhno, which on occasion controlled significant swathes of Ukraine during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1921). (6) A fourth article investigates two anarchist intellectual theorists of nationalism: Gustav Landauer & Rudolf Rocker, two Germans who paralleled Austro-Marxists' efforts to defend the right of national cultures within a cosmopolitan framework. (7)

    This article will focus chiefly on the First & Second Internationals & the birth of the Third. I will examine the ideology & political culture of Internationalism, which was the nursery of the modern anarchist movement. The linkage between federalist or regionalist republicanism & the anarchists is stressed & influence of the Paris Commune of 1871 is highlighted. I will then conclude the discussion of the First International by examining the cosmopolitan political economy that sustained the "anti-anthoritarian" Internationalists of the First International (and indeed linked them to its Marxist opponents). The desire to secure a global level playing field in labor markets spurred on & ultimately limited efforts at promoting labor internationalism. This will be followed by a discussion of the internationalism of the anarchists & syndicalists during the eras of the Second & early Third Internationals, in which both the "patriotic legacy" of the Paris Commune & the logic of the global level playing field moulded & limited anarchist & syndicalist internationalism.

    The First International & the Ideological Force-Field of Anarchism in the late Nineteenth-Century Europe

    Anarchism, as a distinctive ideology & set of social practices, is the product of the era of the First International & the Paris Commune. Indeed, well-defined Marxist & Anarchist ideologies are only really evident in the late 1870s or even 1880s.s Marxism as "scientific socialism" took decades to permeate into the socialist movement of Europe. (9) The political thought of Proudhon, Bakunin & Kropotkin became flesh when adopted by social movements, in much the same manner that German & other social democrats found Marxist or Engelsian "scientific socialism" congenial to their growing political parties after 1880. Thus in a parallel fashion to the spread, reception & appropriation of Marxism, certain social movements in France, Italy, & Spain were predisposed to anarchist rather than Marxist ideology. Detailed monographs of the "Bermuda triangle" of anarchist history (the 1870s & 1880s) have studied in depth the evolution of anarcho-collectivist & anarcho-communist doctrines within the context of uniquely receptive political sub-cultures. (10) In this respect the term "anarchist" was less interesting than the terms "collectivist", "communist" and, later at the turn of the century, "libertarian".

    For my purposes here, "federalist" & "internationalist" are key markers. In order to understand the arrival of anarchism within European social movements in the last half of the nineteenth century, one must place the concept & its associated practices within a broader force field. Anarchism is part of a wider nineteenth-century tradition: it is impossible to understand the origins of anarchism on the levels of individual biography or broader social movement without noting the intimate relationship of anarchism to radical federalist & internationalist republicanism.

    These political currents were shaped by the revolutions of 1848, the after-effects of the national revolutions of the 1860s in Germany, Italy & Spain & the interaction of the latter two nations' republicans with ramifications of the Paris Commune. The tradition of federalist & internationalist republicanism was not limited to the Continent. Even, in the "exceptionalist" case of British post-Chartist radicalism these currents had brief if notable effects & drew British trade unionists into the First International. (11)

    Anarchism, Pan-Nationalism & Patriotism: The First International

    Disputes within the International (1864-1876) were present at its birth & the first major clash pitted anti-socialist Mazzinian nationalists against all the other factions: mutualists (the followers of Proudhon), federalists & the supporters of Marx. Indeed Bakunin's alliance with Marx was important for the marginalisation of the Mazzinians & the more moderate mutualists. But whereas Marx & Engels endorsed the creation of large compact "historical" states, federalists & Internationalists influenced by Proudhon or Bakunin celebrated the region, the canton, & the commune.

    Proudhon's death did not prevent his followers from being influential within the International. His earlier influence in Spain, Italy & of course France prepared the way for the spread of anarchism after 1870. Proudhon opposed centralisation & Jacobinism, but he did not dismiss regional patriotism. But what led him in this direction? Some historians have drawn connections between Proudhon's origins & his anti-Jacobin federalism. (12) As a native of Franche Comte, he was born in a region only relatively recently incorporated in to France (1690s), & a region, which still retained a distinct antagonism against Paris. It has also been suggested that nearby Switzerland served as a model for Proudhon's federalist patriotism, especially the Switzerland, which emerged from the civil war of 1848. Proudhon maintained an immense distrust of the centralising Italian & German nationalists. There was no love lost between Proudhon & Mazzini. He admired the rich regional traditions found in the states of Germany & Italy, which catered to the traditions of the local peasant & artisan. But some historians have asserted that if Proudhon was a federalist & anti-Jacobin, he was nevertheless a French federalist & anti-Jacobin. A unified Germany & Italy threatened French predominance in the European balance of power. (13) Like an anti-Jacobin anticipation of Clemenceau, Proudhon wanted weak neighbours to preserve the grandeur of his France.

    Bakunin's role in winning over federal republicans in Italy & Spain to the First International has been thoroughly investigated. (14) It is now clear that Bakunin's anarchism emerged in his encounter with the Italians. (15) His debates with Mazzini and, more indirectly, Garibaldi & the controversial effect of the legacy of the Risorgimento hero, Carlo Pisacane, were crucial steps. Before the 1860s Bakunin was for all intents & purposes a Pan-Slavist & it was only in Italy in the 1860s that he became a collectivist libertarian socialist. & reciprocally, in Spain, Italian Republicans recently converted to Bakuninist Internationalism served as catalysts in a three-sided debate between cantonalists, federalists & mainstream Republicans that produced the first generation of Spanish anarchists.

    The Paris Commune & the "Patriotic" Origins of the Internationalists

    Before 1917 the two defining moments for much of the European Left were the Paris Commune of 1871 & the Haymarket riot in Chicago in 1886. The internationalism that gave birth to nationally based anarchist movements was rooted in two images: the martyrdom of the Communards & the execution of the Chicago anarchists. (16) & both images serve to highlight the two themes of this article. Thus the revolutionary, spontaneous patriotism of the Commune aligned a generation of anarchists & syndicalists closer to the republican tradition than they realised. & the Commune & the First International were used as the organisational precursors for the anarchists who pioneered a syndicalist strategy in the 1890s & became stalwarts within syndicalist movements before 1914. The internationalist symbolism of May Day, which was derived from the Chicago anarchists' drive for the eight-hour day, underwrote anarchist & socialist political culture in the following decades. In the 1890s May Day was considered an anarchist revolutionary challenge by much of the forces of law & order in Europe. For the anarchists & radical socialists May Day in the 1890s was a one-day global general strike of international solidarity when the industrial suburbs overwhelmed bourgeois city centres. But by 1914, reflecting its assimilation into socialist reformist strategies of national integration, May Day became the workers' holiday when the big battalions of labor could flex their muscles with a disciplined, peaceful if determined show of force. (17)

    The Paris Commune was neither dominated by Marxists nor by anarchists. (18) Its motive force was found in an abused Parisian municipal pride & French patriotism rather than international revolution: Prussians & their French lackeys in Versailles were the enemy. But French patriotic undertones were underplayed in the First International, thus an international, rather than a national model, was promoted to the extent that in the 1870s & 1880s the Spanish anarchists called themselves the Spanish regional rather than national section of the International. (19) Nevertheless the prevalent "reading" of the Paris Commune by the "anarchists" & the dispute with the German, Karl Marx, translated into assumed or openly anti-German prejudice (and in Proudhon & Bakunin crude anti-Semitism). Thus the authoritarian German Empire found its natural parallel in Marxist authoritarian statist socialism. This logic is certainly present in the works of Bakunin & Kropotkin. It is found in Bakunin's influential Statism & Anarchy & it is repeatedly expressed in Kropotkin's writing from the 1880s to 1914. (20) Indeed, when war broke out in 1914 & Kropotkin enthusiastically supported the Allied side, the Italian anarchist, Errico Malatesta, suggested that Kropotkin's "teutonophobia" had been widely known in anarchist circles before the war, but the Russian's fame kept doubters silent. (21)

    Racial & national stereotyping of course was not limited to the voices of the antiauthoritarian St. Imier International. The Marxist opponents of Bakunin in the General Council accused Bakunin & friends of being agents of the Tsar. However both Bakunin & later Kropotkin supported Polish freedom & the Polish revolts against the Russian Empire, but they envisaged Russia as a stem culture around which other Slavic nations would cohere. (22) Bakunin felt that the Slavic proletariat & peasantry had never been state worshipers & that the Russian State itself was a product of the German knout. But Bakunin is best remembered for his admiration of the poor of the southern periphery of Western Europe, for those rather wild, "orientalist" passages where he praises the revolutionary potential of the peasants, craftspeople & unemployed students of Italy & Spain. (23)

    All this is relatively well known from the standard histories & biographies of anarchism. The invocation of racial & national stereotypes by Bakunin & other predominant figures within the First International is part & parcel of the historical narrative: Bakunin repeatedly identified an elective affinity between the "Latins" & the Slavs. This familiar story of traded national or "racial" insults & the appalling anti-Semitic invective of Proudhon & Bakunin has been retold frequently. What is, however, fascinating is to discover evidence of similar sentiments at the grassroots indeed in the very national or "regional" section of the anti-Marxist St. Imier International whose example converted the exiled Russian narodnik, Kropotkin, to anarchism in the first place.

    With the schism (between "Marxists" & "anarchists") & criminalisation of the International during the 1870s in Spain, Italy & France, the Swiss Jura watchmakers' organisation was one of the few social movements allowed to flourish unhindered. While the craft nature of the watch-making trade may have predisposed the artisans of the Jura to support Baknninist libertarian collectivism, Mario VuiUeumier has shown how regional, ethnic & religious identities had a significant, if not decisive impact, on their political allegiances. (24) The Chaux de Fonds, where the Bakuninist watchmakers were the strongest, opposed the dominance of the nearby German-speaking Canton of Berne, & also resented the authoritarian traditions of Neuchatel, a formerly Prussian ruled canton. The radical Protestantism of Chaux de Fonds was transformed into a secular radicalism, & Vuilleumier argues that in their dispute with the national Arbeiterbund the Jura anarchists employed similar language used by Bakunin to the attack the Marxist & "German authoritarian" International. Indeed they seemed to paraphrase the language of the Russian anarchist but married it to a local "dissenting" political culture, which stressed the autochthonous francophone traditions of decentralised organisation & individual responsibility.

    Thus the traditions of cantonal & federalist anti-clerical or dissenting Republicanism acted in Italy, Spain or Switzerland as a bridge to the anti-Authoritarian International. This form of Internationalism was grounded in the imagery of the Paris Commune & unspoken & (spoken) assumptions predisposed militants & leaders to be suspicious of Germany & "German socialism". Though the grubby realities of the Third Republic did not endear them to contemporary France, nevertheless the patriotic imagery of another revolutionary France remained within the deeper mental structure of the European anarchists & syndicalists in the antebellum era. I will now tom to the other theme of this article: the logic of internationalism as tool of labor solidarity.

    labor Solidarity & the First International: Internationalism & Cosmopolitan Political Economy (Level Playing Field One)

    Marx & Bakunin, indeed the entire International, shared the inheritance of the Enlightenment, the political economy of the early nineteenth century & "utopian socialism". Thus both of their "camps" shared a set of assumptions, which predicted that for good or in modern commercial & industrial capitalism would usher in a new global, cosmopolitan order. (25) In bourgeois Europe the First International gained an infamous reputation through its tenuous association with the Paris Commune & the image of the Commune helped convert republicans to Internationalists in Spain, France or Italy after it was brutally suppressed. But as an organisation the International gained real if limited clout through the attraction of the British New Model Trade Unionists to the First International. It may be true that certain British trade unionists were influenced by a culture of radical republican & Communard solidarity, which had a lively foothold in London & elsewhere in the late 1860s & early 1870s. A more abiding attraction to the First International was its usefulness in stopping cheaper continental labor from undercutting British workers' higher wages. (26) Thus Marcel van der Linden has shown how the British model trade unionists required international cooperation in order to secure the domestic ascendancy of their modern form of industrial organisation. (27) Without the control of labor markets on the continent, the British felt that their high wages would be undercut from cheaper skilled labor imported from Belgium or France. However once the political & economic rights of the skilled working class were secured for a least a generation in Britain, & rapid industrialisation in north central Europe saw the parallel development of well articulated & protected national labor markets for the more politically articulate section of the working classes, this type of internationalism was muted & replaced with the politics of national integration. (28) Thus British trade unionists no longer needed to resort to internationalist strategies in order to level the playing field.

    Anarchism & Syndicalist Internationalism during the Era of the Second International

    After 1889 a Second International composed of national & parliamentary socialist parties at first marginalised, & then finally expelled the anarchists, in 1896. (29) Although the anarchists called a meeting in Amsterdam in 1907 in an attempt to resurrect an anti-authoritarian International (the "Marxist" First International was sent to the USA where it had some impact on the American socialist movement), this only led to a correspondence society of anarchists. (30) However they did find a voice within the growing global syndicalist movement.

    The syndicalists did not establish their own International until 1913. (31) There isn't much to say about its activities before the First World War because the largest & most influential syndicalist trade union federation in Europe, the French CGT, refused to join it, & decided for pragmatic reasons to stay in the more moderate Berlin-based ISNTUC (International Secretariat of National Trade Union Centres). (32) We therefore have to examine two aspects of syndicalist (and anarchist) internationalism before 1914: migration & global radicalism, that is a rebirth of the cosmopolitanism of the 1860s, & the ensuing national tensions between the CGT & the German Free Trade Unions, which undermined it in Europe. Both cases illustrate the insoluble conundrums that anarchist or syndicalist internationalism encountered within the national & global arenas. Following in the wake of the British, other European nation-states pursued their unique roads to national integration, which weakened the potential for sustained international solidarity. A global system composed of nation-states, in which imperial power politics set the pace, made a level playing field aimed at promoting political or social solidarity, a new cosmopolitanism, difficult to sustain.

    Nevertheless the conditions that were present in the 1860s returned, at least briefly, spurred on the by the globalisation of capital & labor in the world economy during the Belle Epoque. The anarchists & syndicalists played a prominent part in a generic international movement in which international anti-militarism & industrial trade union organisation was disseminated by a new mobile proletariat of laborers, transportation workers & some skilled artisans, most notably, Italians, Spaniards, Russians, Scandinavians, Britons, Irish & Yiddish-speaking Jews. (33) They were part of the vast labor migration between Europe, the Americas & the so-called "white" Dominions of the British Empire. This reached a crescendo just as a series of international strike waves surged through this global economy & clustered around the period of the Russian Revolution of 1905 & between 1911 & 1914. In parts of the British Empire & Dominions, this syndicalism was a white man's movement of international solidarity. However, the IWW in South Africa & on occasion in Australia did attempt to create integrated trade unions. American IWW organisers were lynched in the South for their efforts at inter-racial solidarity. (34) On the other hand, some Italian syndicalists returned to Italy after sojourns in New York or Brazil with a distinctly nationalist slant to their rhetoric. Indeed for their rank & file, national identity may have been discovered only when they were labelled as "Italians" in their host countries. (35)

    Level Playing Field 2: The Logic of Franco-German Solidarity, 1900-1914

    The history of the CGT before 1914 can be divided into two eras. (36) In a first period, until about 1909, the CGT was dominated by a coterie of anarchists recruited from the Bourses du Travail. During this era the anti-militarism of the leadership was directed towards the maximalist goal of subverting the French army. Popularity for this campaign amongst the rank-and-file of the CGT (the sou du soldat) owed more to the French working classes' hatred of military intervention in strikes than to anti-national sentiment. After 1909, in a second phase of the CGT's history, the anarchists were pushed aside by a new generation of radical reformers such as Alphonse Merrheim who represented the emergence of the metalworkers over the traditional artisanal trades of the anarchist dominated Bourses du Travail. (37) His industrial model of trade unionisation was much closer to German practices. Merrheim was a radical reformist & used the techniques of industrial unionism to win greater bargaining power for workers, not to promote social revolution. Merrheim endeavoured to use the ISNTUC at the international level to overcome the weak & increasingly ideologically divided CGT. Within the European labor market Merrheim wanted the French labor movement to become the decisive balancing factor & therefore make it more attractive to the Germans. This was made easier when the relatively well paid & protected British trade union movement remained happily on the sidelines in the 1900s. In order for Merrheim to fulfil his objective, however, he needed to come to a working agreement with the SPD, & more importantly, the Free Trade Unions.

    The position of the German trade unionists was in many respects similar to the position of the British New Model unionists in the 1860s. With the most advanced industrial economy in continental Europe & the wealthiest & most organised trade union organisations, the Germans wanted to use the ISNTUC to level the playing field in European labor markets & prevent employers from using unorganised strikebreakers from neighbouring countries. (38) In short, they wanted similar levels of union density & similar types of industrial relations throughout Western Europe. In this respect, like the British support for French workers in the 1860s, the Germans also promoted international solidarity in order to achieve their pragmatic programme. So, for example, in 1912-13, the large German metalworkers' union used its considerable funds to support the Italian metalworkers' strike, organised by FIOM (the socialist metal workers federation) & the Italian "Merrheim", Bruno Buozzi to increase the wage levels of their Italian counterparts. (39)

    Merrheim & the other leaders of the CGT toned down the revolutionary rhetoric of French anti-militarism. The CGT shifted from maximalist anti-militarism, which was impossible in Germany & treated with great suspicion by the leaders of the Free Trade Unions to an essentially reformist campaign to better conditions experienced by the conscripted French soldier. (40)

    But even as the French & the Germans grew closer, problems of communication between them persisted. It was extremely difficult for German trade unionists to campaign for any reform of the Imperial army, & as Howorth has shown, the image of the authoritarian German socialist was carried over from the pre-1909 anarchist leadership to the post-1909 reformers. (41) The "inter-nationalism" of both movements was, Callahan argues, framed in mutually exclusive unspoken first premises, that relied upon the deep structure of respective national left-wing political cultures (German internationalism, the French revolutionary heritage). (42) They were cacophonous when played as a duet in international solidarity meetings. Thus Yvetot, a French anarchist militant, was nearly arrested in Berlin in 1911 during an anti-militarist speech in front of German trade unionists. His German hosts had to smuggle him out of the country & upon his return to France he wrote an article that ended: "Expelled from Germany, here I am back in France. Salut a ma patrie!" (43)

    The fact that the CGT & many leading anarchists supported their nations in 1914 when war broke out should be not come as a great surprise. Simultaneous general strikes seemed an impossible dream for the libertarians or for that matter the socialists of the Second International. In August & September of 1914 Pads was on the verge of collapse & memories of 1870-1871 were reawakened. Until the first Battle of the Marne resulted in a stalemate on the Western Front, a significant number of Italian anarchists, for example, volunteered to fight in the new companies of garibaldini. These had been organised by Amilcare Cipriani (an old garibaldino), the quasi-anarchist sovversivo hero of the Paris Commune, the penal camps of New Caledonia & Italian prisons. In Italy itself noisy groups of anarchists, syndicalists, Republicans & dissident socialists led by Benito Mussolini pushed for intervention, for the fourth war of the Risorgimento to redeem the lands in Habsburg hands. (44) & revolutionary & libertarian France was invoked, the Paris Commune recalled: the very model which has inspired anarchist internationalism for more than forty years was now a recruiting sergeant for World War.

    Level Playing Three: Libertarian Internationalism & the Bolsheviks, 1914-1921

    Until the military deadlock in 1915-1916, many anarchists in Europe kept their counsel. Anarchist international organisations were always weaker than the Second International, & weaker still during the war without the protective colouration of the international syndicalist culture that thrived before 1914, but that had dried up as the great global labor migrations ceased. Nevertheless, 1916-1917 witnessed the emergence of a radical network that seemed to presage a new anti-war International, which transcended the politically sectarian & national divisions present in the pre-war world. Anarchists, syndicalists & socialists found new unity in opposing the bloody stalemate. (45) It spanned the Italian anti-war USI & the French syndicalist journal La Vie Ouvriere, the metallos around Merrheim & elements of the IWW, various fringe shop stewards movements in Britain & even shop stewards in Berlin & elsewhere in central Europe. This network was also supported by pacifists & socialists close to the Zimmerwald & Kienthal movements, & seconded by the more radical & suspicious Russian Bolsheviks.

    When Kropotkin & fifteen other leading anarchists & syndicalists in the Allied countries signed a manifesto in 1916 against a negotiated peace & in support of the total defeat of Imperial Germany, Malatesta rallied anti-war anarchists throughout Europe. (46) & he even suggested that a new international (La Mondiale) might replace the discredited Second International. However, the radicalism of 1916-1917 was dampened down when Lenin & his government signed a separate peace treaty in 1918. (47) The Germans could turn their attentions to the French & Italian fronts. On the Western Front German troops almost reached Paris in the late spring of 1918 & even the more radical metallos rallied to the national cause or discovered the prudence of silence. In Italy after the suppression of anti-war rioting in Turin & the rout at Caporetto in the summer & autumn of 1917, much of the anti-war libertarian left was jailed, internally exiled or rallied to the national cause. (48) The logic of the level-playing field operative in the 1860s or in the pre-war era returned during the tragic violence of the Great War.

    In the first few years of the Bolshevik regime many anarchists & syndicalists saw "sovietism" as a kind of Russian internationalist direct action. Lenin actively courted the "Latin" anarchists, the west European syndicalists & the American syndicalists & industrial unionists. (49) But publication of the Twenty-One Points & ill-tempered negotiations between the Syndicalist International & the new Red International of Trade Unions ended the flirtation. Malatesta, for example, at first included the Bolsheviks in his Mondiale, but like many other anarchists rapidly became critical when he realised the full import of dictatorship & the State. (50) & the Comintern was also attacked as a tool of Russian foreign policy. Perhaps the Swedish syndicalist, Albert Jensen, was among the first, but he was quickly joined by leading figures in the Spanish CNT & in the early 1920s veteran French syndicalists, such as Alfred Rosmer & Pierre Monatte. (51)

    The Bolsheviks had carried out a dual-track strategy. The growing transnational radical solidarity evident in Europe after the February Russian Revolution in 1917 was cut short when the Bolsheviks signed a separate peace in order to preserve state power less than a year later. On the other hand the Bolsheviks also transfused the transnational radicalism of 1917-1921 into the body of the Third International, which very soon merely empowered the foreign policy of the new State built on the ruins of the Tsarist Empire. Veteran anarchists & syndicalists embraced this new reality with enthusiasm & ceased being libertarians, or opted for obscurity. Outside of the exceptional case of Spain, the next, potential generation of proletarian anarchists & syndicalists in France, Italy or Germany was drawn to the Soviet Union. For this generation the Soviet Union became the workers' homeland. The syndicalist utopia had been realised on the Volga not on the Seine.

    Conclusion: The Logic of Level Playing Fields

    Before the First World War the anarchists achieved their greatest successes when they were implanted within a broader syndicalist movement. But syndicalism (even anarcho-syndicalism) had to obey economic imperatives & this forced militants & leaders to balance the broader ideology of internationalism with the needs of their membership. Thus the British Model Trade Unionists of the 1860s & the German moderate socialist trade unionists of the 1900s represented the big battalions. The Internationalists in the 1860s & the syndicalists in the 1900s had to play a pragmatic game. In both cases agreements were limited because of the mismatch of industrial development & union density between industrialised Britain or Germany & artisanal & industrialising France & southern Europe.

    Cosmopolitan internationalism was predicated on the globalisation of capital & the proletariat. But this cosmopolitanism was undermined by the unevenness of regional or global labor markets: labor was increasingly structured by the nation-state. The anarchists & syndicalists were stymied by a world of nation-states, unlike socialists who could happily live with its framework. Although this anticipates future work, it is worth pointing to the rapid decline of Spanish anarchism during the Civil War, when the movement had precisely reached it apogee of power. (52) Without a foreign patron the anarchists could not prevail over the armaments & armed intervention given to the rebels by the Italians & Germans, but neither would the French or the Russian sell the anarchists arms. They relied on the Republicans, the socialists & the communists to procure these. In a world of nation-states the anarchists & syndicalists could never compete when nation-states intervened in the Spanish civil war to assist their friends. The Syndicalist International founded in 1913 survived the war & the Russian Revolution but by the 1920s was drained of any importance. Fascism, Nazism, the defeat of Republican Spain & authoritarian dictatorship in South American erased an alternative syndicalist politics or culture. Syndicalism & the legacy of the First International were historical relics in 1939. (53)

    (1) In this respect I do not depart greatly from the periodisation used by most of the general histories of anarchism. The authors of these might identify anarchist thought & anarchist-type social movements variously in classical Greece, ancient China, medieval Europe or Civil War England, but assert that anarchism as a self-conscious ideology is a product of nineteenth century European ideology & politics. Thus the key attributes of anarchist political thought are its anti-statism, its perfectionism & its scientism. As an ideology anarchism is the cumulative reworking of Rousseau & Comte through the lenses of Godwin, Proudhon, Bakunin & Kropotkin: the after-shocks of the French Revolution & the combined & uneven march of industriatisation. Thus in the early twentieth century Chinese & Japanese radicals were attracted to anarchism as another European ideology, even if some historians assert that they reformulated this within the cultural & religious contexts of their own cultures. The social classes that formed the bedrock of anarchism before 1945 were decidedly different from those of the "classical period". Peasants, artisans, mobile skilled & unskilled workers overwhelmed the intellectuals & educated middle classes of the movement. After 1945 the movement was overwhelmingly composed of the vastly expanded educated middle classes & the dissenting intelligentsia. Industrial or agrarian anarchism was replaced by post-materialist or post-modern anarchism, albeit the themes of post-1945 anarchism can be found in the thoughts of the "classical anarchist" thinkers & in the utopian experiments in living pioneered in the late nineteenth & early twentieth centuries.

    The standard accounts of anarchism are D. Gurrin, Anarchism (New York, 1970); J. Joll, The Anarchists, Second Edition (Cambridge, Mass, 1980); G. Woodcock, Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas (Harmundswoth, 1990); P. Marshall, Demanding the Impossible. A History of Anarchism (London, 1993); & M. Nettlau, A Short History of Anarchism (London, 1996). For a very perceptive analysis of the origins of modern anarchist ideology see, G. Crowder, Classical Anarchism. The Political Thought of Godwin, Proudhon, Bakunin & Kropotkin (Oxford, 1991). I have discussed the differences between pre & post-1945 anarchism in my entry "Anarchism" for the Encarta Encyclopedia, Websters International, Microsoft Encarta, London, 2004. For a good account of anarchism in the New Social Movements of late twentieth century Britain see, G. McKay, Senseless Acts of Beauty. Cultures of Resistance since the Sixties (London, 1996). For a sample of a massive literature on the relationship of anarchism to modernism, see J.U. Halperin, Felix Feneon: Aesthete & Anarchist in Fin-de-Siecle Paris (New Haven, 1988); P. Leightan, Re-Ordering the Universe. Picasso & Anarchism (Princeton, 1989); R.D. Sonn, Anarchism & Cultural Politics in Fin de Siecle France (Lincoln, 1989); M. Lowy, Redemption & Utopia (London, 1992); J. G. Hutton, Neo-Impressionism & the Search for Solid Ground Art, Science & Anarchism in Fin-de-Siecle France (Baton Rouge, 1994); G. Berghaus, Futurism & Politics. Between Anarchist Rebellion & Fascist Reaction (Providence, 1996); S. Whimster, ed., Max Weber & the Culture of Anarchy (Basingstoke, 1998); D. Goodway, ed., Herbert Read Revisted (Liverpool, 1998); R. Porter, Film & the Anarchist Imagination (London, 1999); D. Sweetman, Explosive Acts: Toulouse-Lautrec. Oscar Wilde & Felix Feneon & the Art of Anarchy of the Fin de Siecle (New York, 1999); D. Kadler, Mosaic Modernism: Anarchism, Pragmatism, Culture (Baltimore, 2000); A. Antliff, Anarchist Modernism. Art, Politics & the First American Avant Garde (Chicago, 2001).

    (2) For overviews of the relationship between anarchism & nationalism see, E. Cahm & V.C. Fisera, eds., Socialism & Nationalism (Nottingham, 1978-1980) Vols. 1-3; M. Forman, Nationalism & the International Labor Movement. The Idea of the Nation in Socialist & Anarchist Theory (University Park, 1998). For the creation of labor movements see, M. van der Linden & J. Rojahn, eds., The Formation of labor Movements 1870-1914: An International Perspective, Vol. 1 (Leiden, 1990). For an excellent overview of the relationship between nationalism, ethnicity & labor see, S. Berger & A. Smith, eds., Nationalism, labor & Ethnicity 1870-1939 (Manchester, 1999).

    (3) The classic accounts are G. Haupt, Socialism & the Great War: The Collapse of the Second International (Oxford, 1972); J. Joll, The Second International 1889-1914 (London, second edition, 1974). For excellent overviews of European socialism see, D. Sassoon, One Hundred Years of Socialism: The West European Left in the Twentieth Century (London, 1996); G. Eley, Forging Democracy. The History of the Left in Europe, 1850-2000 (Oxford, 2002).

    (4) "Italian & Spanish anarchism compared: Nation, region & patriotism, 1860-1945", forthcoming.

    (5) "Popular anti-Semitism & French anarchism: 1880s to 1900s", forthcoming.

    (6) "The Makhnovschina, Ukrainian nationalism & the Russian Civil War, 1918-1921", forthcoming.

    (7) "Gustav Landaner & Rudolf Rocker: National Identity, Ethnicity & Anarchism", forthcoming.

    (8) E. Hobsbawm, "The Fortunes of Marx's & Engels' Writings", in E. Hobsbawm, ed., History of Marxism, Vol. 1, Marxism in Marx's Day (Bloomington, 1982); G. Haupt, "Marx & Marxism", in Hobsbawm, History of Marxism; F. Andreueci, "The Diffusion of Marxism in Italy during the Nineteenth Century", in R. Samuel & G. Stedman Jones, eds., Culture, Identity & Politics. Essays for Eric Hobsbawm (London, 1983); F. Andreucci, Il marxismo collettivo. Socialismo, marxismo e circolazione delle idee dalla second alla tet'za internazionale (Milano, 1986).

    (9) C. Levy, "Introduction: Historical & Theoretical Themes", in C. Levy, ed., Socialism & the Intelligentsia, 1880-1914 (London, 1987), pp. 8-10.

    (10) D. Stafford, From Anarchism to Reformism: A Study of the Political Activities of Paul Brousse 1870-90 (London, 1971); C. Cahm, Kropotkin & the Rise of Revolutionary Anarchism, 1872-86 (Cambridge, 1989); G. Esenwein, Anarchist Ideology & the Working-Class Movement in Spain, 1868-1898 (Berkeley, 1989); K. S. Vincent, Between Marxism & Anarchism: Benoit Malon & French Reformist Socialism (Berekeley, 1992); N. Pemicone, Italian Anarchism 1864-1892 (Princeton, 1993).

    (11) M. Finn, After Chartism: Class & Nation in English Radical Politics (Cambridge, 1993).

    (12) K. S. Vincent, P.J. Proudhon & the Rise of French Republican Socialism (Oxford, 1984), pp. 109-14.

    (13) P. Thomas, Karl Marx & the Anarchists (London, 1980), pp. 186, 271.

    (14) Esenwein, Anarchist Ideology, pp. 22-34; Pernicone, Italian Anarchism, pp. 11-56.

    (15) T. R. Ravindranathan, Bakunin & the Italians (Montreal, 1986) pp. 57-71.

    (16) P. Avrich, The Haymarket Tragedy (Princeton, 1984); B. Nelson, Beyond the Martyrs. A Social History of Chicago's Anarchists 1870-1900 (New Brunswick, NJ, 1988).

    (17) E. Civolani, L'anarchismo dopo la Comune. I casi italiano e spagnolo (Milan, 1981); M. Antonioli, Vieni o Maggio: Aspetti del Primo Maggio in Italia tra Ottocento e Novecento (Milan, 1988); M. Antunioli, "Bakinun tra sindacalismo rivoluzionario e anarchismo", in M. Antonioli, Azione diretta e organizzazione operaia. Sindacalismo rivoluzionario e anarchismo tra la fine del'Ottocento e il fascismo (Manduria-Bari-Rome, 1990); G. Manfredonia, "Pour ou contre la Rdpublique?: Les anarchistes frangaises et la tradition republicaine, 1848-1914", in Les anarchistes et la revolution francaise (Paris, 1990); J. Jennings, "Syndicalism & the French Revolution", Journal of Contemporary History, Voh 27 (1992), pp. 43-65. For the anarchist sub-culture see, S. Gemie, "Counter-Community: An Aspect of Anarchist Political Culture", Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 29 (1994), pp. 349-67.

    (18) R. Tombs, The Paris Commune of 1871 (London, 1999).

    (19) J. M. Smyth, "Left Responses to Nationalism in Spain: Federal Republicanism, Anarcho-Collectivism & the Marxist Parties", in Cahm & Fisera, Socialism & Nationalism, Vol. III, p. 19.

    (20) For good overviews see, J. C. Cahm, "Bakunin", in Cahm & Fib, era, Socialism & Nationalism, Vol. I, pp. 33-49; J.C. Cahm in ibid., Vol. III, pp. 50-68; See the edition of Statism & Anarchism edited by Marshall Shatz (Cambridge, 1990).

    (21) Malatesta, "Pietro Kropotkin--Ricordi e eritiche di un vecehio amico", Studi sociali, 15 April 1931, in Movimento Anarehieo Italiano, ed., Errico Malatesta. Pensiero e Volonta (Carrara, 1975), pp. 368-79.

    (22) Forman, Nationalism & the International labor Movement, pp. 22-40.

    (23) Joll, The Anarchists, p. 75.

    (24) M. Vuilleumier, Horlogers de l'anarchisme: emergence d'un mouvement: la Federation jurassienne (Lausanne, 1988).

    (25) G. Claeys, "Reciprocal Dependence, Virtue & Progress: Some Sources of Early Socialist Cosmopolitanism & Internationalism in Britain 1750-1850", in F. van Holthoon & M. van der Linden, eds., Internationalism in the labor Movement 1830-1940, Vol. I (Leiden, 1988).

    (26) R. Harrison, Before the Socialists: Studies in labor & Politics, 1862-1881 (London, 1965).

    (27) M. van der Linden, "The Rise & Fall of the First International, An Interpretation", in van Holthoon & van der Linden, Internationalism in the labor Movement.

    (28) M. van der Linden, "The National Integration of European Working Classes, 1870-1914. Exploring the Causal Configuration", International Review of Social History, Vol. 33 (1988), pp. 285-311.

    (29) For a lively contemporary account see, A. Hamon, Le socialisme & le Congrbs de Londres (Paris, Stock, 1897).

    (30) For the 1907 Anarchist congress see, M. Antonioli, ed., Dibattito sul sindacalismo. Atti del Congresso Internazionale Anarchico di Amsterdam (1907) (Florence, 1978).

    (31) W. Thorpe, "The Workers Themselves ": Revolutionary Syndicalism & Industrial labor, 1913-1923 (Dordrecht, 1989), Chaps. 1-2.

    (32) S. Milner, "The International labor Movement & the Limits of Internationalism: The International Secretariat of National Trade Union Centres, 1901-1913", International Review of Social History, Vol. 33 (1988), pp. 1-24.

    (33) For overviews, see M van der Linden & W. Thorpe, eds., Revolutionary Syndicalism: An International Perspective (Aldershot, 1990); M. van der Linden, "Second Thoughts on Revolutionary Syndicalism", labor History Review, Vol. 63, 2 (1998), pp. 182-96. Also see the ambitious attempt to situate syndicalism within the broader currents of working-class social movements in Europe, M. Mann, "Sources of Variation in Working-Class Movements in Twentieth Century Europe", New Left Review, 212 (July/August, 1995), pp. 14-54. For the strike waves in the early twentieth century see, F. Boll, "International Strike Waves: A Critical Assessment", in W. J. Mommsen & H-G Husung, eds., The Development of Trade Unionism in Great Britain & Germany, 1880-1914 (London, 1985).

    (34) V. Burgmann, Revolutionary Industrial Unionism. The Industrial Workers of the World in Australia (Cambridge, 1995); L. van der Walt, "Revolutionary Syndicalist Organising in South Africa: The International Socialist League & the Industrial Workers of Africa, 1916-19", "Syndicalism: Swedish & Historical Experiences", University of Stockholm (March 13-15, 1998); L. van tier Walt, '"The Industrial Union is the Embryo of the Socialist Commonwealth'. The International Socialist League & Revolutionary Syndicalism in South Africa, 1915-1920", Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa & the Middle East, Vol. XIX, No. 1 (1999), pp. 1-24; N. A. Sellars, Oil, Wheat & Wobblies: The Industrial Workers of the World in Oklahoma, 1905-1930 (Norman, 1998).

    (35) D. Gabaccia, "Worker Internationalism & Italian Labor History, 1870-1914", International Labor & Working Class History, Vol. 45, 1 (1999), pp. 63-79; D. Gabaccia, Italy's Many Diasporas (London, 2000), pp. 106-28; D. Gabaccia & F. Ottanelli, eds., Italian Workers of the World: Labor Migration & the Formation of Multiethnic States (Urbana & Chicago, 200I); C. Levy, "Currents of Italian Syndicalism before 1926", International Review of Social History, Vol. 45 (2000), p. 4; M. M. Topp, Those without a Country: The Political Culture of Italian American Syndicalists (Minneapolis, 2001).

    (36) For a good overview, see J. Jennings, Syndicalism in France. A Study of Ideas (Basingstoke, 1990).

    (37) N. Papayanis, Alphonse Merrheim: The Emergence of Reformism in Revolutionary Syndicalism. 1871-1915 (Dordrecht, 1985); K. H. Tucker, French Revolutionary Syndicalism & the Public Sphere (Cambridge, 1996), pp. 159-80.

    (38.) In general see, S. Milner, The Dilemmas of Internationalism: French Syndicalism & the International labor Movement, 1900-1914 (Oxford, 1990).

    (39) I cover this strike in C. Levy, Gramsci & the Anarchists (Oxford, 1999), pp. 49-50.

    (40) R. Magraw. "Appropriating the Symbols of the Patrie? Jacobin Nationalism & its Revival in the French Third Republic", Berger & Smith, Nationalism, labor & Ethnicity, p. 39.

    (41) J. Howorth, "French Workers & German Workers: The Impossibility of Internationalism, 1900-1914", European History Quarterly, Vol. 15 (1985), pp. 71-97.

    (42) K. Callahan, "'Performing Inter-nationalism' in Stuttgart in 1907: French & German Socialist Nationalism & the Political Culture of an International Socialist Congress", International Review of Social History, Vol. 45 (2000), pp. 51-87.

    (43) Howorth, "French Workers & German Worker", p. 86.

    (44) P. C. Masini, "Anarchici italiani tra interventismo e disfattismo rivoluzionario", Rivista Storica del Socialismo, 5 (1959), pp. 200-21; C. Levy, "Italian Anarchism, 1870-1926", in D. Goodway, For Anarchism. History, Theory & Practice (London, 1989), pp. 56-8; M. Antonioli, "Gli anarchici italiani e la prima guerra mondiale. Lettere di Luigi Fabbri e di Cesare Agostinelli a Nella Giocomelli (1914-1915)", Rivista Storica dell'Anarchismo, Vol. 1, 1 (1994), pp. 7-34; M. Antonioli, "Gli anarehici italiani e la prima guerra mondiale. Lettere di anarchici interventisti (1914-1915)", Rivista Storica dell' Anarchismo, Vol.2, 1 (1995), pp. 77-87.

    (45) I summarize the literature on transnational wartime radicalism in Gramsci & the Anarchists, pp. 102-104. Also see, W. Thorpe, "The European Syndicalists & War 1914-1918", Contemporary European History, Vol. 10, 4 (2001), pp. 1-24.

    (46) Gramsci & the Anarchists, p. 103.

    (47) D. Kirby, War. Peace & Revolution. International Socialism at the Crossroads 1914-1918 (Aldershot, 1986).

    (48) Levy, Italian Anarchism, pp. 58-60.

    (49) A. Lindemann, "The Red Years": European Socialism versus Bolshevism 1919-1920 (Berkeley, 1974); Thorpe, "The Workers Themselves ", chaps 3-6.

    (50) Levy, Italian Anarchism, pp. 72-3. In general see, S. Fedele, Una breve illusione. Gli anarchici italiani e la Russia Sovietica 1917-1939 (Milan, 1996).

    (51) C. Levy, "Sac och den internationella solidariteten-hur svenska syndikalister hjalpte offren for den italienska fascismen", Meddelande fran Arbetarrorelsens Arkiv och Bibliotek, 14-15 (1980), pp. 32-39.

    (52) G. Esenwein, "Anarchists in Government: A Paradox of the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939", in F. Larmon & P. Preston, eds., Elites & Power in Twentieth-Century Spain: Essays in Honour of Sir Raymond Cart (Oxford, 1990); C. Ealham, "From the Summit to the Abyss", in P. Preston & A. L. McKenzie, eds., The Republic Besieged. Civil War in Spain 1936-1939 (Edinburgh, 1996); J. Casanova, De la calle al frente. El anarcosindalisimo en Espana, 1931-1939 (Barcelona, 1997), pp. 238-46; H. Graham, "'Against the State': A Genealogy of the Barcelona May Days (1937)", European History Quarterly, Vol. 29, 4 (1999), pp. 485-542.

    (53) W. Thorpe, "Syndicalist Internationalism before World War II", in van der Linden & Thorpe, Revolutionary Syndicalism, pp. 237-60.

    CARL LEVY

    Goldsmiths College, University of London

    -1-

    http://www.questia.com/PM.qst;jsessionid=GBjBDPvJPvdlqLDXryV1LFV81Xw2fVhQ1BGxNvd2qT2FTMZqwhJL!5818497?a=o&d=5008185077



    3500 -- George Woodcock (1912-1995) anarchist George Woodcock was born in Winnipeg, Canada. He was educated in England, where worked in railway administration & as a farmer, free-lance writer, & editor. He has taught at the University of Washington & the University of British Columbia. He held a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1951-52 & in l959 has became editor of the periodical Canadian Literature. He has had a considerable number of books, articles, fiction, & poetry published, including biographies of Godwin, Proudhon, & Kropotkin. (Irving Horowitz, The Anarchists, 1964, Dell Publishing) Note: Author of Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas & Movements


    3500 -- dead links in home page links page Eric Benchley Ralph Ellison (both sites gone) Ferlinghetti Lovecraft (thriving, but has a new address) Orwell Whitman Online Classic Literature Library Author Pronunciation Index Insane Search Puig Antich saint-page: "Cultura i espectaculo" link




    3500 -- Rexroth's "Thou Shalt Not Kill" Kenneth Rexroth 1905-82, American poet; b. South Bend, Ind. A leader of the San Francisco literary revival & briefly associated with the BEAT GENERATION, he is best known for his poetry, e.g., In What Hour (1940), In Defense of the Earth (1956), and New Poems (1974). He also wrote many critical essays and translated Asian poetry.

    beat generation certain American artists & writers popular in the 1950s. Influenced by Eastern religions, e.g., ZEN BUDDHISM, and the rhythms of progressive JAZZ, they rejected traditional forms & sought expression in intense experiences and beatific illumination. Novelists in the movement included William Burroughs & Jack KEROUAC. Among the beat poets were Allen GINSBERG & Lawrence FERLINGHETTI.

    http://users.aol.com/mikeb1/rexroth/classics.html


    3500 -- QUOTE ARCHIVE Our elections are free--it's in the results where eventually we pay. Bill Stern .... No man's life, liberty or property are safe while the legislature is in session. Judge Gideon J. Tucker It could probably be shown by facts & figures that there is no distinctly American criminal class except Congress. Mark Twain

    Fleas can be taught nearly anything that a congressperson can. A radical is a person with both feet firmly planted in the air. Lighthouse: A tall building on the seashore in which the government maintains a lamp & the friend of a politician. With Congress, every time they make a joke it's a law; & every time they make a law it's a joke.

    This last Presidential election was something like the sex life of many people. They had to settle for what they could get. There is a certain inevitability to a couple of things. Death & taxes come to mind. However, death doesn't get worse every time the legislators come together.

    Pro is to con as progress is to Congress. Don't vote, it only encourages them. Democracy is a government where you can say what you think even if you dont think.

    Problem / Solution

    I have yet to see any problem, however complicated, which, when you looked at it in the right way, did not become still more complicated. Poul Anderson

    I don't have any solution, but I certainly admire the problem. Ashleigh Brilliant

    When I'm working on a problem, I never think about beauty. I think only how to solve the problem. But when I have finished, if the solution is not beautiful, I know it is wrong. Richard Buckminster Fuller

    For every problem, there is one solution which is simple, neat & wrong. H. L. Mencken

    Procrastination

    By doing just a little every day, I can gradually let the task completely overwhelm me. Ashleigh Brilliant

    Procrastination is the art of keeping up with yesterday. Don Marquis

    Procrastination is the thief of time. John Dos Passos

    The sooner I fall behind, the more time I have to catch up.

    Nothing is really work unless you'd rather be doing something else.

    Religion

    To you I'm an atheist; to God, I'm the Loyal Opposition. Woody Allen

    Christian: One who believes that the New Testament is a divinely inspired book admirably suited to the spiritual needs of his neighbor. One who follows the teachings of Christ in so far as they are not inconsistent with a life of sin. Ambrose Bierce, "The Devil's Dictionary"

    An apology for the devil: it must be remembered that we have heard one side of the case. God has written all the books. Samuel Butler

    It may be that our role on this planet is not to worship God, but to create him. Arthur C. Clarke

    I am an agnostic; I do not pretend to know what many ignorant men are sure of. Clarence Darrow

    My religion consists of a humble admiration of the illimitable superior spirit who reveals himself in the slight details we are able to perceive with our frail & feeble mind. Albert Einstein

    I want to know all Gods thoughts...all the rest are just details. Albert Einstein

    I could prove God statistically. George Gallup

    Who says I am not under the special protection of God? Adolf Hitler

    God is the tangential point between zero & infinity. Alfred Jarry

    The Christian resolution to find the world ugly & bad has made the world ugly & bad. Nietzsche

    If a person wants to be atheistic it's his God-given right to be an atheist Michael Patton

    A year spent in artificial intelligence is enough to make one believe in God. Alan J. Perlis, "Epigrams of Programming"

    My atheism, like that of Spinoza, is true piety towards the universe & denies only gods fashioned by men in their own image, to be servants of their human interests. George Santayana

    There is only one religion, though there are a hundred versions of it. George Bernard Shaw

    I think that God in creating man somewhat overestimated his ability. Oscar Wilde

    Religions revolve madly around sexual questions.

    Christian Fundamentalism: The doctrine that there is an absolutely powerful, infinitely knowledgeable, universe-spanning entity that is deeply & personally concerned about my sex life. Andrew Lias

    Sanity There was never a genius without a tincture of madness. Aristotle

    Mad, adj: Affected with a high degree of intellectual independence. Ambrose Bierce, "The Devil's Dictionary"

    It's good to know that if I behave strangely enough, society will take full responsibility for me. Ashleigh Brilliant

    Ordinarily he was insane, but he had lucid moments when he was merely stupid. Heinrich Heine

    It's great to be young & insane. Michael Keaton, "Dream Team"

    I wouldn't recommend sex, drugs or insanity for everyone, but they've always worked for me. Hunter S. Thompson

    Truly great madness can not be achieved without significant intelligence. Henrik Tikkanen

    Science (See also Math) ...the genes almost always accurately reproduce. If they don't, you get one of the following results: One, monsters--that is, grossly malformed babies resulting from genetic mistakes. Years ago most monsters died, but now many can be saved. This has made possible the National Football League. Cecil Adams

    Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon compounds. Biochemistry is the study of carbon compounds that crawl. Mike Adams

    The most exciting phrase to hear in science, the one that heralds new discoveries, is not 'Eureka!' (I've found it!), but "That's funny..." Isaac Asimov

    When the lay public rallies round to an idea that is denounced by distinguished by elderly scientists & supports the idea with great fervour & emotion, the distinguished but elderly scientests are then, after all, right. Isaac Asimov

    You will be able to appreciate the influence of such an Engine on the future progress of science. I live in a country which is incapable of estimating it. Charles Babbage

    The chemists are a strange class of mortals, impelled by an almost insane impulse to seek their pleasure among smoke & vapor, soot & flame, poisons & poverty, yet among all these evils I seem to live so sweetly, that may I die if I would change places with the Persian King. Johann Becher

    The investigator should have a robust faith -- & yet not believe. Claude Bernard, French physiologist (1813-78)

    Inventor: A person who makes an ingenious arrangement of wheels, levers & springs, & believes it civilization. Ambrose Bierce, "The Devil's Dictionary"

    God runs electromagnetics by wave theory on Monday, Wednesday, & Friday, & the Devil runs them by quantum theory on Tuesday, Thursday, & Saturday. Sir William Bragg

    If scientific reasoning were limited to the logical processes of arithmetic, we should not get very far in our understanding of the physical world. One mihgt as well attempt to grasp the game of poker entirely by the use of the mathematics of probability. Vannevar Bush

    The generation of random numbers is too important to be left to chance. Robert R. Coveyou

    It has been a bitter moritification for me to digest the conclusion that the 'race is for the strong' & that I shall probably do little more but be content to admire the strides others made in science. Charles Darwin

    The average Ph.D. thesis is nothing but a transference of bones from one graveyard to another. J. Frank Dobie, "A Texan in England" 1945

    That's the nature of research--you don't know what in hell you're doing. 'Doc' Edgerton

    To invent, you need a good imagination & a pile of junk. Thomas Edison

    ....I have not failed. I've just found 10,000 ways that won't work. Thomas Edison

    There are three schools of magic. One: State a tautology, then ring the changes on its corollaries; that's philosophy. Two: Record many facts. Try to find a pattern. Then make a wrong guess at the next fact; that's science. Three: Be aware that you live in a malevolent Universe controlled by Murphy's Law, sometimes offset by Brewster's Factor; that's engineering. Fortune

    It's hard to imagine anything more difficult to study than human sexuality, on every level from the technical to the political. One has only to picture monitoring orgasm in the lab to begin to grasp the challenge of developing testing techniques that are thorough & precise, yet respectful. Winnifred Gallagher, American science journalist, 1986

    A science is any discipline in which the fool of this generation can go beyond the point reached by the genius of the last generation. Max Gluckman

    The great tragedy of Science -- the slaying of a beautiful hypothesis by an ugly fact. Thomas Henry Huxley

    Scientists are the easiest to fool. They think in straight, predictable, directable, & therefore misdirectable, lines. The only world they know is the one where everything has a logical explanation & things are what they appear to be. Children & conjurors -- they terrify me. Scientists are no problem; against them I feel quite confident. James P. Hogan, "Code of the Lifemaker"

    In the world of human thought generally, & in physical science particularly, the most important and fruitful concepts are those to which it is impossible to attach a well-defined meaning. H.A. Kramers

    Enzymes are things invented by biologists that explain things which otherwise require harder thinking. Jerome Lettvin

    http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/ee/msr/quotes2.html


    3500 -- Detroit, Michigan: home of the "motown sound"/GM/ford/chrysler/rats in the kitchen & roaches in the bathroom/ no heat in winter & nothing cool when the summer comes/ pistons pounding out a drum beat..




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    3500 -- MOMO RELEASE




    3500 -- OVER????????????



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    3500 -- CALDER2






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    3500 -- ????????????



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    3500 -- DECISION,




    3500 -- schools out SCHOOL BUS




    3500 -- "Resentment is like taking poison & expecting someone else to die."





    3500 -- utah phillips

    "Call him a conspicuous enigma: a canny, uncanny lend of Mark Twain & Will Rogers, with a touch of PT Barnum & more than a hint of Huck Finn. Utah Phillips is also one of the most important songwriters to be found in North America." - Rolling Stone "A bard who gives us joy & hope." - Studs Terkel http://www.flemtam.com/up.html



    3500 -- add to kiev Babi Yar The Jews of Kiev were rounded up by the Einsatzgruppen for "resettlement" in late September 1941. Thousands of Jews were brought to a ravine on the outskirts of Kiev & mowed down by machine guns. Many who were not wounded, including thousands of children, were thrown into the pit of bodies & were buried alive. According to an account in The Holocaust by Martin Gilbert, Ukrainian militia men joined in the slaughter. The records of the Einsatzgruppen unit which participated in the executions recorded 33,771 Jews killed at Babi Yar on SEPTEMBER 29-30. In all, more than 100,000 persons, most of them Jews, were executed at Babi Yar between 1941-1943 by the Nazis. In the summer of 1943, the bodies were dug out by slave labor and burned to hide the evidence of the slaughter. http://remember.org/guide/Facts.root.final.html

    http://www.ess.uwe.ac.uk/genocide/Einsatz2b.htm



    3500 -- Timeline of the Hippie Movement, ...acid Dec 31 - Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, Paul Krassner, Dick... ...begins. Tom Hayden, Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin et. al charged with... hippy.com/timeline.htm Cached (35k) N
    Remember, don't trust anyone over 60! http://hippy.com/timeline.htm


    3500 -- Ruhama Veltfort Sun 8:14 PM Subject: my mission >1776 -- San Francisco de Assisi mission started at present site of San Francisco, California. Probably corner of Haight-Ashbury. ooooh. You are sooo SILLY!

    The mission is at 16th & Dolores. In the Mission District. A neighborhood at the intersection of hip & yup but going down yup street fast.

    OK they might have started some mission somewhere else. (too lazy to check). But it sure wasn't haight/asbury as that was sand dunes in the 18th c.

    "History will absove me" --Ruhama




    ?
    3500 -- Ricardo Flores Magon (1874-1922) anarchist MERGE IF NEED INTO MAGON PAGE, DELeTE THIS OUT OF BLEEDWORK Ricardo Flores Magon, born in 1874, was the most important & influential anarchist in the Mexican revolutionary movement. He became active in the struggle against the dictator Porfirio Diaz at an early age. In 1901 he came to the forefront of the liberal movement, a reformist organisation opposed to the excesses of the regime and, as editor of the opposition newspapers, Regeneracion (founded by his brother) & El Hijo del Ahuizote he was imprisoned several times by the dictatorship. Forced to take refuge in the U.S. in 1904 he continued the struggle against Diaz first from St. Louis & later from Los Angeles, in spite of continual persecution & imprisonment by the U.S. authorities at the instigation of the Mexican dictatorship In 1905 Magon founded the Partido Liberal Mexicano which organised two unsuccessful uprisings against Diaz in 1906 & 1908. http://flag.blackened.net/liberty/libertarians.html ? http://mati.eas.asu.edu:8421/~getty/html_pages/koyok7.html
    http://spin.com.mx/~hvelarde/Mexico/ricardo.flores.magon/home.html
    http://struggle.ws/revolt/mexico/history/anarchism_1910.html

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    3500 -- sue coe dead meat animal liberation http://www.graphicwitness.org/coe/prntsale.htm


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    3503 -- The Odyssey of Elisée Reclus image

    alt; Élisée Reclus, Elisee Recluse; Reclus, Elisée
    http://www.web.net/~blakrose/geofree.htm
    http://recollectionbooks.com/bleed/gallery/galleryindex.htm#ReclusElisee

    3508 -- Rexroth on British cooking: ARCHIVE Besides these three main themes of “sex, mysticism & revolution,” there are satirical epigrams (this one is on British cooking)—

    How can they write or paint In a country where it Would be nicer to be Fed intravenously?9

    http://www.bopsecrets.org/PS/Rexroth1.htm


    3508 -- archive Besides these three main themes of “sex, mysticism & revolution,” there are satirical epigrams (this one is on British cooking)—

    How can they write or paint
    In a country where it
    Would be nicer to be
    Fed intravenously?

    & a variety of other genres too numerous to quote — lyrics to music (folk tunes, Elizabethan tunes, Erik Satie, Duke Ellington, Ornette Coleman); Buddhist meditations in Japan, recited to koto & shakuhachi (“The Silver Swan,” “On Flower Wreath Hill”); feminine mystical-erotic poems which he pretended he had translated from a young Japanese woman (“The Love Poems of Marichiko”); surreal Mother Goose rhymes & a subversive “Bestiary” for his children; reminiscences comic (“Portrait of the Author as a Young Anarchist”), erotic (“When We with Sappho”) & nostalgic (“A Living Pearl”); open letters (“A Letter to William Carlos Williams,” “Fundamental Disagreement with Two Contemporaries” addressed to Tristan Tzara & André Breton); & translations from Greek, Latin, French, Spanish, Italian, Chinese & Japanese (including several volumes of Oriental women poets).

    What I think of as especially characteristic of Rexroth’s poetry is the way he interrelates even the most disparate & seemingly incongruous topics. However immersed in nature, he always remains aware of the human world, & the juxtaposition of the two realms cuts through both nature sentimentality & civilized pettiness.

    Watching the constellations, he envisions the Spanish REVOLUTION 1936 Civil War (“Requiem for the Spanish Dead”). Climbing in the mountains, he remembers Sacco & Vanzetti (“Climbing Milestone Mountain,” “Fish Peddler & Cobbler”). Erotic relations interweave with evocations of the elegant mathematical relations that order the universe (“Golden Section,” “Theory of Numbers”). Elegiac reveries drift from poetry to history to nature to society:

    http://www.bopsecrets.org/PS/Rexroth1.htm

    http://recollectionbooks.com/siml/library/RexrothRequiem.htm

    3509 -- Time will add, I hope, a fair number of further chapters to this fragmentary biography.

    October 18, 1922.

    APPENDIX The Final Declaration of Errico Malatesta Before the Milan July (1921)

    Gentlemen of the Court, Gentlemen of the jury!

    Trials have always been one of our beet means of propaganda & the dock has been the most efficient and, permit me to say it, the most glorious of our

    *This declaration characterizes better than anything the state of spirit at the end of the Milan trial of 1921, which is recorded in full in the book E. Malatesta , A. Borghi e compagni, davonti ai giurati di Milano.

    Unfortunately the Milan persecutions did not end there; those who could not stand by & see Malatesta & his comrades killing themselves by hunger were tried in May, 1922, & received on June 1st ferocious sentences sending Marioni & Boldrini to the living tomb of the ergastolo, young Aguggini to 30 years of prison,. eleven others to many more years of prison.

    Their fate is told in Processo agli anarchici nelle assise di Milano, published by the Comitato oro vittime politiche di Milano & in the special issue of Pagine Libertarie.

    Errico Malatesta The Biography of an Anarchist A Condensed Sketch of Malatesta from the book written by by Max Nettlau Published by the Jewish Anarchist Federation New York City. 1924


    3509 --

    ANARCHIST ARCHIVE/REFERENCE

    From Sasha's brief notes I could only guess what was happening in New York, but soon the newspapers were filled with accounts of the work of the Anti-Militarist League, which Sasha had founded, & the demonstrations in behalf of the Ludlow miners held in New York & in Tarrytown, Rockefeller's citadel. It was wonderful to me to see Sasha's old spirit rising to the battle, & to observe his extraordinary skill in organizing & handling the work.

    The New York activities resulted in a number of arrests, among them that of Becky Edelsohn & several boys from the Ferrer School. Sasha wrote that Becky had been splendid at her trial, where she had conducted her own defence. On being convicted she had declared a forty-eight-hour hunger strike in protest. It was the first time that a political prisoner had done this in America. I had always known Becky to be brave, though her lack of responsibility & perseverance in her personal life had for years been a source of irritation to me. I was therefore very glad to see her show such strength of character. It is often the exceptional moment that discovers unsuspected qualities.

    Liberal & radical elements in New York were co-operating in protest against the Ludlow butchery. The "Silent Parade" in front of Rockefeller's office, organized by Upton Sinclair & his wife, & the various other demonstrations were arousing the East to the appalling conditions in Colorado.

    I eagerly scanned the papers from New York. I had no anxiety about Sasha, for I knew how dependable & cool he was in times of danger. But I longed to be at his side, in my beloved city, to take part with him in those stirring activities. My engagements, however, kept me in the West. Then came the news of an explosion in a tenement house on Lexington Avenue which cost the lives of three men— Arthur Carron, Charles Berg, & Karl Hanson—and of an unknown woman. The names were unfamiliar to me. The press was filled with the wildest rumours. The bomb, it was reported, had been intended for Rockefeller, whom the speakers at the New York meetings had charged with direct responsibility for the Ludlow massacres. The premature explosion had probably saved his life, the papers declared. Sasha's name was dragged into the case, & the police were looking for him & the owner of the Lexington apartment, our comrade Louise Berger. Word came from Sasha that the three men who had lost their lives in the explosion were comrades who had worked with him in the Tarrytown campaign. They had been badly beaten up by the police at one of the Union Square demonstrations. The bomb, might have been intended for Rockefeller, Sasha wrote, but in any case the men had kept their intentions to themselves, for neither he nor anyone else knew how the explosion had occurred.

    Comrades, idealists, manufacturing a bomb in a congested tenement house! I was aghast at such irresponsibility. But the next moment I remembered a similiar event in my own life. It came back with paralysing horror. In my mind I saw my little room in Peppi's flat, on Fifth Street, its window-blinds drawn, Sasha experimenting with a bomb, & me watching. I had silenced my fear for the tenants, in case of an accident, by repeating to myself that the end justified the means. With accusing clarity I now relived that nerve-racking week in July 1892. In the zeal of fanaticism I had believed that the end justifies the means! It took years of experience & suffering to emancipate myself from the mad idea. Acts of violence committed as a protest against unbearable social wrongs – I still believed them inevitable. I understood the spiritual forces culminating in such Attentats as Sasha's, Bresci's, Angiolillo's, Czolgosz's, & those of others whose lives I had studied. They had been urged on by their great love for humanity and their acute sensitiveness to injustice. I had always taken my place with them as against every form of organized oppression. But though my sympathies were with the man who protested against social crimes by a resort to extreme measures, I nevertheless felt now that I could never again participate in or approve of methods that jeopardized innocent lives.




    3510 -- Left-Wing Films archive


    FEMINISM

    A League of Their Own - Tom Hanks, Geena Davis, Rosie O'Donnell and Madonna star in this dramatization of the true story of a group of women enlisted by the government & professional basebal to play baseball (albeit like ladies, in miniskirts) while the men were in WWII. Though the league faded away in the early 1950s, it paved the way for new attitudes towards women in sports.

    Accused, The - (1988, Jonathan Kaplan) An ambitious assistant district attorney (Kelly McGillis) & a free-spirited waitress (Jodie Foster) wage a personal battle against the legal system in this gripping' h)' contemporary drama. Foster stars as the victim of a brutal barroom gang rape that is witnessed by a roomful of patrons & employees. Foster and McGillis join forces in a determined attempt to bring to trial the people who are as guilty as the men who committed the crime- the bystanders who let it happen. The Accused is an EXTREMELY disturbing film that explores the devastating aftereffects of a vicious crime & the shocking apathy that allowed it to occur. (110 min.) Hollywood comes to grips with rape as a pervasive attitude rather than an isolated incident. Anchored by Jodie Foster's she's-no-angel protagonist, it launched a whole genre of made-for-TV movies, an indication that a film has hit a cultural nerve."Review by John Sayles, in Mother Jones, 1996"

    An Angel at My Table - A film by Jane Campion (The Piano) based on an autobiography of an New Zealand woman writer who was diagnosed as mentally ill, & long mistreated in the health care system.

    Betrayal - A woman is sexually abused by her psychiatrist and brings him to trial on rape charges in this timely, emotional drama. Starring Rip Torn, Lesley Ann Warren, Richard Masur & Ron Silver. (100 min.)

    Frida - A biography of the Mexican, transgendered, disabled, Trotskyist, bisexual artist, Frida Kahlo.

    Fried Green Tomatoes (1991) - Jessica Tandy, Kathy Bates, Mary Stuart Masterson, Mary-Louise Parker. An elderly woman recounts her lesbian feminist past in hostile, rural America.

    Handmaid's Tale - A horrific vision of a world where Pat Buchanan/Pat Robertson-types have taken over in a Christian fascist coup, & enslaved the few remaining fertile women as the breeders for the elite.

    I, the Worst of All (1995) - This Spanish movie is a beautiful, deeply affecting dramatization of the life of Sister Juana Ines de la Cruz, one of the greatest Spanish language poets. Sor Juana became a nun in the 16th century in Mexico because she would not have been allowed to pursue a life of scholarship & writing as an aristocratic married woman. The free-thinking & feminist sentiments of her poetry, however, bring her into conflict with the intensely misogynist ArchBishop. She is protected from the Inquisition by her erotic muse & special friend, the wife of the Governor of Mexico. Her Sapphic poems to the governess eventually bring about her downfall.

    Kahlo - A documentary about the Mexican, transgendered, disabled, Trotskyist, bisexual artist, Frida Kahlo.

    Ladybird Ladybird: an award winning film by English Socialist Ken Loach examines the life of an unmarried mother of four, all by different fathers, & the social services agencies & courts who remove her children from her care. She meets a Paraguayan political refugee who changes her life. Based on a true story.

    Marie: A True Story - Sissy Spacek stars as a Tennessee criminal justice head who uncovers a massive conspiracy of graft & corruption that reaches the state capital, & her battle against the system also stars Jeff Daniels & Morgan Freeman. (112 min.)

    Mildred Pierce - is a story of a woman who rises from waitress to restaurateur in order to support her spoiled daughter.(111 min.)

    Out of Africa - the accounts of Isak Dinesen's life in 1910's Africa. Meryl Streep stars as the Danish woman who reluctantly goes to Africa with her husband Klaus Brandauer to run a coffee plantation, but slowly comes to fall in love with the land. (161 min.)

    The Piano - Jane Campion's story of repression & self-discovery in Australia.

    She's Gotta Have It - Spike Lee's most fun movie, about a young black woman living independently, & making decisions about what she wants from the men in her life.

      A dissent - I have a HUGE problem with your inclusion of "She's Gotta Have It" as a feminist film. Not only is the free-spirited female lead raped by her boyfriend in an effort to control her but it is extremely homophobic - her lesbian friend is portrayed as nothing more than a preying sex fiend trying to "change" her. bell hooks has written about the misogyny of Spike Lee's films in several of her articles. - anonynmous
    Silkwood - Meryl Streep is Karen Silkwood, the free-spirited, nuclear plant worker who questions the safety of her work environment, investigates on her own, & dies in a mysterious car accident on her way to deliver evidence of wrongdoing. (131 min.)

    Thelma & Louise - Two gals escape from patriarchy, kill a rapist, self-actualize while on the run from the cops, & then kill themselves.

    The Scarlet Letter - There are three versions of this Nathaniel Hawthorne novel. The first version was made in 1934 & captures the classic drama of Puritan life in the 1600's & the secret that forced Hester Prynne to wear the scarlet letter. The second version is from Wim Wenders. This version lends insights into the novel through the unjust treatment of Prynne and her daughter. The final version was broadcast on PBS for Masterpiece Theatre five years ago. This version is a classic rendition of the novel and is, by far, the best of the three but is also the hardest to obtain.

    I Want to Live - This true story stars Susan Hayward as a woman framed for murder & sentenced to death for a crime she didn't commit. (122 min.)

    Katherine - An absorbing drama fueled by a stand-out performance from Sissy Spacek. A spoiled little rich girl, through her fight against social injustice, turns to radicalism & eventually, political terrorism. (98 min.)

    Rape & Marriage:The Rideout Case - A timely drama set around the 1978 court case where a woman charged her husband with rape. Starring Mikey Rourke, Rip Torn, Linda Hamilton & Conchata Ferrell. (96 min.)

    Killing Us Softly - Advertising's image of women is a 30 min. film based on a multi-media presentation created by Jean Kilbourne. This movie was made in 1981, so therefore, much of the material is dated. The information presented is often very disturbing & provides a great backdrop for sexual stereotypes discussion.


    PEACE, IMPERIALISM & the THIRD WORLD

    All Quiet on the Western Front (1930) - A classic pacifist tale set in WWI.

    America's Defense Monitor . Over 200 half-hour episodes on military related subjects that challenge the insanity of U.S. military policy. These programs are a staple in college classrooms & over 100 PBS & cable systems around the country. 

    Apocalypse Now - Based on Conrad's Heart of Darkness, about a rogue general in Vietnam driven crazy by the war.

    The Ballad of Gregorio Cortez (1982, Robert M. Young) A late skirmish in the so-called Mexican War. The oppressor's need to demonize the oppressed has seldom been better realized."Review by John Sayles, in Mother Jones, 1996"

    Battle of Algiers - This 1962 film is widely considered the best radical film ever made. Directed by Pontecorvo in cinema verite , documentary style, it chronicles the Algerian war against French colonialism. French with English subtitles. There are two versions, one is about 150 min., the other about 210 min.

    Braveheart (1995) - Award-winning story of the medeival Scottish struggle against British imperialism.

    Breaker Morant - Edward Woodward plays a soldier commanding a squad of Australian fighting for Britain during South Africa's Boer War. Explores the brutality & corruption of the British colonial struggle.

    Camp de Thiaroye - Senegalese film about African soldiers forced by the french to fight on front lines in Europe against Hitler. Takes place mostly in a holding camp following the Allied Victory. Also, see Sembene's "Black Girl," about a Senegalese woman who leaves Dakar to be a nanny for her French employers, is exploited & learns the true nature of black-white neo-imperialist relations.

    Coming Home (1978) - Jane Fonda & Jon Voight in one of the first post-Vietnam films about Vietnam vets.

    Dades Kaden - by Akira Kurosawa, shows the devastation left by WWII in Japanese town.

    Dear America: Letters Home From Vietnam (1987, Bill Couturie) Couturie takes a simple idea--matching letters from soldiers in Vietnam with images of the war--and creates a powerful yet surprisingly subtle film. Couturie screened the entire archive of NBC News war footage, and in many cases matches letter writers with TV, film, home movies, & photographs of them at play, in action, wounded, & dead."Review by Roger Ebert, in Mother Jones, 1996"

    Dr. Strangelove - The Kennedy-era classic that spoofs the Cold War in a story about a mad American general who blows up the world. Brilliant performances by Peter Sellers in three or four roles.

    El Norte - (1983, Gregory Nava & Anna Thomas) Beginning in the remote mountain jungles of Guatemala, this extraordinary odyssey focuses on two young people seeking a better life as their world begins to crumble. When their mother is abducted by soldiers & their father killed, Enrique and Rosa are forced to set out for the "promised land" of the north- "el norte"-The U.S. They must travel dangerous roads & cross heavily patrolled boarders. Once in America, they are "illeagals" & must live in constant fear of discovery. But they do have each other & the faith & fortitude of their native land. Spanish with English subtitles. (141 min.) A simple story, directly but poetically told: A brother & sister leave Guatemala and trek the length of Mexico, slipping across the U.S. border in search of employment & better lives in "el norte." Pat Buchanan may rail against "immigrants" as a faceless horde, but this movie gives a face to two of the many."Review by Roger Ebert, in Mother Jones, 1996"

    Fat Man & Little Boy Paul Newman stars in this movie about the development & deployment of the atomic bomb.

    For Whom the Bell Tolls (1943) - Hemingway's tale of the Spanish Civil War.

    Gandhi - Ben Kingsley won an Oscar for this portrayal. (188 min.)

    Good Morning Vietnam - Based on a true story, Robin Williams plays a very funny disk jockey who got very popular in Vietnam & then got booted out.

    Hidden Agenda (1990, Ken Loach) Loach's films are always, in one way or another, political. This one is based on the Stalker Affair, a scandal involving a senior British police official (Brian Cox) who is investigating a shooting by security forces & gets reassigned after he discovers the killing was unjustified. Set in Northern Ireland, Hidden Agenda argues that a right-wing cabal successfully plotted a "dirty tricks" campaign against Prime Minister Harold Wilson."Review by Roger Ebert, in Mother Jones, 1996"

    I Am Cuba, made by Russian filmmakers in the early '60s & explores the communist uprising in Cuba. The cinematography is mind boggling and the film is extremely moving.

    Killing Fields, The - Based on a true story of friendship between an American & Cambodian covering the fall of Cambodia at the end of the Vietnam War. The Cambodian was captured by the Khmer Rouge & then escapes to freedom. (135 min.)

    Land & Freedom by Ken Loach about an unemployed man in Liverpool who goes to fight in the spanish civil War against Franco.

    La Hora de los Hornos (The Hour of the Furnaces) This semi-documentary was made by Argentinian revolutionaries Fernando Solanas and Octavio Getino in 1968. Designed specifically to make the audience participants instead of just spectators, this film not only called for political revolution in the name of Marx, Che, & others, it also called for a cinematic revolution. The two co-wrote "Towards a Third Cinema," a manifesto criticizing the American "first cinema" approach to filmmaking. Not just revolutionary propaganda (although it contains a great deal of that), the film examines the American/European imperialism & neocolonialism which caused widespread poverty & class distinctions across Argentina and the whole continent of South America.

    Missing - (1982, Constantin Costa-Gavras) Based on the true story of the disappearance of an American writer, Charles Horman, after the Pinochet coup in Chile. Focuses on the political transformation of Charles's father Ed Horman, a New York businessman who arrives in Chile to try to find his son. Initially trusting his advice from the U.S. embassy, Ed Harman comes to recognize the complicity of the United States in the coup.

    Like Reds, it reinforces the idea that if an American wasn't present it didn't really happen, but explores sharp implications about U.S. imperialism. Jack Lemmon & Sissy Spacek get to the point."Review by John Sayles, in Mother Jones, 1996"

    Mission, The - Based on a true story, about Jesuits in Amazon in the 1600s who solidarize with their converts & lead an unsuccessful Indian revolt against the conquistadors.

    Moses (1994) - Ben Kingsley leads the people of Israel out of bondage.

    My Brilliant Career Movie about an Australian woman discovering herself in the outback.

    On the Beach A chillingly depressing depiction of the final survivors of a nuclear war, waiting for the end.

    Paths of Glory (1957) Directed by Stanley Kubrick. When soldiers are sent on a suicide mission & fail, their ambitious General chooses from the survivors at random to face court-martial. Kirk Douglas is the soldier-lawyer defending his comrades.

    Platoon (1986, Oliver Stone). Platoon helped vets feel acknowledged, which The Deer Hunter, Apocalypse Now, or The Green Berets never did. Red Sorghum Traditional Chinese class & sex relations, & the struggle against the Japanese Imperialist agression against China.

    Salvador - James Woods brilliantly portrays the outspoken American photojournalist Richard Boyle in 1980 during the civil war in El Salvador. The real life Boyle collaborated with director Oliver Stone to create a movie which is thrilling, terrifying, suspenseful & impossible to forget. This is an exceptionally powerful film which will promote intense discussion. (123 min.)

    Swimming to Cambodia - Brilliant one-man performance art piece by Spalding Gray about his participation in the making of The Killing Fields, and dissects American foreign policy along the way.

    Ten Commandments The - Charlton Heston leads the chosen people out of slavery to the land of milk & honey.

    Testament (1983, Lynne Littman) Many films have portrayed life after a nuclear war, but none were so shattering as this. Jane Alexander stars as a suburban mother trying to hold her family together in the aftermath of the Bomb. We never see a mushroom cloud or know who started the war. What we see is even more affecting: A speculation about how communities of survivors might organize after the devastation."Review by Roger Ebert, in Mother Jones, 1996"

    Under Fire with Nick Nolte, Joanna Cassady & Gene Hackman, on the U.S. presence in the war in Nicaragua.

    War Games (Matthew Broderick , Ally Sheedy, Dabney Coleman - 1983) High school computer wizard David Lightman (Broderick) breaks into computer not knowing it belongs to the United States Air Force. Lightman sets a Soviet suprise nuclear attack simulation as a joke. It backfired. Lightman escapes from Federal custody to find Dr. Stephen Falken, an elusive and enigmatic computer expert, for he alone knows what Joshua (USAF's computer) can do.

    Year of Living Dangerously - Follows a journalist in the midst of Suharto's bloody coup to overthrow the democratically elected, leftist Indonesian government of Sukarno.


    SEXUAL FREEDOM

    Bostonians, The - Vanessa Redgrave as a lesbian suffragist, involved in the Socialist milieu in the 1910's. Not a very happy picture of pre-WW I gay life.

    Buddha of Suburbia - An hilarious tour of racial, sexual and political turmoil of Brtiain in the 1970srom the perspective of a bisexual Pakistani man.

    Carrington (1995) - Emma Thompson in the true story of the love triangle around the gay 19th century British author Lytton Strachey.

    Celluloid Closet, The (1995) - A brilliant documentary on the 100-year history of Hollywood depictions of gays & lesbians, with wonderful interviews & video clips (102 min).

    Desert Hearts - Two women fall in love at a women's writers' retreat.

    Dresser, The - Albert Finney is a cantakerous, aging, Shakespearean actor; Tom Courtenay is the doting dresser who cares for him & lives vicariously through his performances. (118 min.)

    Edward II - A reinterpretation of the Marlowe classic that makes explicit the gay subtext.

    Entre Nous - A homoerotic friendship between two women.

    Harold & Maude (1971) - A love affair between a neurotic young aristocrat, & a fesity old Jewish anarchist Holocaust-survivor.

    Henry & June - The story of the menage a trois of Henry Miller, Anais Nin, & June, Henry Miller's wife.

    Incredibly True Story of Two Girls in Love (1995) - A light-hearted, and optimistic, teen lesbian love story that explores race & class in unexpected ways.

    I, the Worst of All (1995) - This Spanish movie is a beautiful, deeply affecting dramatization of the life of Sister Juana Ines de la Cruz, one of the greatest Spanish language poets. Sor Juana became a nun in the 16th century in Mexico because she would not have been allowed to pursue a life of scholarship & writing as an aristocratic married woman. The free-thinking & feminist sentiments of her poetry, however, bring her into conflict with the intensely misogynist ArchBishop. She is protected from the Inquisition by her erotic muse & special friend, the wife of the Governor of Mexico. Her Sapphic poems to the governess eventually bring about her downfall.

    Kiss of the Spider Woman - Two prisoners in a Latin American jail, Raoul Julia, a Spartan revolutionary leader, & William Hurt, a movie-obsessed homosexual, find their lives & destinies intertwined in this bizarre drama that blurs the lines between reality & fantasy, freedom and entrapment. (119 min.)

    Lianna - Lianna is a wife & mother who returns to college and falls in love with Ruth, her child psychology professor. John Sayles captures the joy & pain of a woman coming to terms with her sexuality & depicts the effect her decision has on her family.

    The Living End, two HIV positive men do a Thelma & Louise.

    Long Time Companion - Story of AIDS & gay life in the 80s, centered on a group of friends. (96m)

    Making Love - Yuppie angst when married man has affair with another man. (103m)

    Maurice - E.M. Forster story about a young Brit coming to terms with his gayness in 1910s. (135m)

    My Beautiful Launderette - A Pakistani youth living in London starts working for his businessman uncle & is given a laundromat that he, along with his English lover, renovates into a neighborhood landmark. A unique seriocomedy that blends dark humor, racial drama & offbeat romance for an intriguing look at modern British society. (93 min.)

    My Own Private Idaho - River Phoenix & Keanu Reeves as male prostitutes in Seattle who have a tragic love affair while everyone recites Henry IV (102m)

    The Naked Civil Servant - is a biographical look at Quentin Crisp, a British author who was one of the first crusaders for gay rights. Based on Crisp's best-selling memoirs, the film is touching & inspiring in its view of one man's struggle to live his life. (80 min.)

    Paris is Burning - A documentary about drag queen subculture in New York.

    Parting Glances (1986, Bill Sherwood) One of the earliest films about gay men to acknowledge AIDS, it never loses its sense of fun and solidarity."Review by John Sayles, in Mother Jones, 1996"

    Prick up Your Ears - Based on a true story, about the tragic relationship of a gay novelist & his lover.

    Times of Harvey Milk - Academy Award-winning, powerful documentary about the powerful, charismatic, compassionate, gay San Francisco city official Harvey Milk, who was suddenly assassinated. (90 min.)

    The Rocky Horror Picture Show, a hilarious poof of 50s science fiction movies, with a great celebratory attitude about sexuality in general, and bisexuality in particular. Spawned a cult following in the 70s that must have led to untold millions of sexual experiments.

    Strawberry & Chocolate (1995) - A Cuban film that contrasts a straight Communist man with his gay friend who wants to leave.

    Summer Vacation 1999, a beautiful Japanese film about a school boy who committed suicide & returns to woo his beloved class mate who spurned him, claiming he's someone else.

    Torch Song Trilogy - Harvey Fierstein brilliantly re-creates the role he originated on stage, that of Arnold Beckoff, a shy, introspective female impersonator who longs for love & fulfillment, but never loses his sense of humor. Matthew Broderick & Brian Kerwin costar as Fierstein's lovers & Anne Bancroft is perfect as his nagging Jewish mother. (126 min.)

    The Trials of Oscar Wilde (1960) - Dramatization of the events leading to Oscar Wilde's imprisonment

    Urinal - Famous, dead, gay artists are mysteriously collected to fight homophobia in modern Canada.

    We Were One Man - A simple French farmer & a wounded, abandoned German soldier are ultimately united in an openly sexual relationship in this award winning French film. French with English subtitles. (90 min.)

    When Night is Falling - A repressed woman confronts her lesbian desires. Critics choice at the Berlin Film Festival in 93

    Wild Life - A video portrait of two 15-year-old gay Latinos, this work by John Goss combines documentary-style interviews with fictional segments in which the young men act out their fantasized day in Los Angeles. As they talk about their lives, we see scenes of them changing into wild clothes on the street, cruising around "Gay City," meeting their friends at the park, & "throwing attitude." They are questioned about the nature of being gay, relationships with friends & lovers, style & image, and their use of gay language. (40 min.)

    The Woman Inside - A young man comes to grips with his own sexual identity in this dramatic look at transsexualism. Medical science makes him a woman, but can she find acceptance & love? (94 min.)

    Sergeant Matlovich Vs. The U.S. Air Force - Real-life drama of a decorated Air Force officer who takes the military to court after he's dishonorably discharged because of his homosexuality. (96 min.)

    http://www.dsausa.org/dsa/rl/Docs/Films.html


    3510 -- Left-Wing Films archive


    HISTORY OF THE LEFT

    1900 - Robert DeNiro learned to speak Italian for this 3-hour saga about the Italian Communist party & the rise of the Black Shirts.

    Absolute Beginners -- A one-hour show about the Bolshevik-Menshevik split, starring Patrick Stewart as Lenin!, which is one of 13 episodes of the British Series "Fall of Eagles" series.

    Daniel - Timothy Hutton turns in a powerful performance as a young man trying to clear his family name years after his parents are executed for conspiracy. Taken from the best-selling novel by E.L. Doctorow and based on the tragedy of Julius & Ethel Rosenberg. (130 min.)

    Fame is the Spur - A British film starring Michael Redgrave on the life of Ramsay MacDonald, the first labor PM.

    Half a Life - Winner of the Camera D'Or at the 1982 Cannes Festival and the Cesar, Half a Life is a personal memoir of that brief moment in French history, during the late `60's, when the youthful Left seemed to be successfully storming the Bastille. (95 min.)

    Last Emperor, The - Bernardo Bertolucci's beautiful story of the last Emperor of China, demonstrating the necessity & horror of the Chinese Revolution.

    Man of Marble (1977, Andrzej Wajda) This film & Wajda's sequel, Man of Iron, not only documented the Solidarity movement, they became part of it."Review by John Sayles, in Mother Jones, 1996"

    May Fools - A 1990 Louise Malle film about a bourgeois French family screwing around at a funeral in May 1968, & suddenly realizing the country is in revolution.

    Reds - The 1981 history of John Reed, author of Ten Days That Shook the World & a founder of the American Communist movement, & his wife Louise Bryant. Though the portrayal of Socialist Party politics has an unfortunate tilt towards the Bolshevik faction, the main point is the struggle between love & political sacrifice. Starring Warren Beatty, Diane Keaton & Jack Nicholson.

    Rosa Luxumburg - The story of the Polish socialist leader who neared turned the tide for socialism in Western Europe after the Russian Revolution.

    Seeing Red - Done by the same independent producers as Union Maids, this documentary history of the U.S. Communist Party pulls its punches, never asking its respondents the hard questions about support for Uncle Joe, or the Hitler-Stalin pact.

    The Slingshot (1994, Ake Sandgren, Sweden) The young son of an immigrant Russian-Jewish feminist & a Swedish socialist faces anti-Semitic and anti-Bolshevik hostility in 1920's Sweden. The title of the film refers to slingshots the boy makes out of condoms his mother illegally distributes. (Steve Press)

    Things to Come - This 1933 H.G. Wells novel was a summary of his vision of the coming of world-wide war with total weapons, leading to the rising of a scientific dictatorship which will rebuild society, and establish a utopian world government.

    The Way We Were Barbara Streisand as a Communist, & then former Communist left-liberal, involved with Robert Redford.


    LABOR & BIG BUSINESS

    9-to-5 - Dolly Parton, Lilly Tomlin, & Jane Fonda are secretaries who unite to throw off corporate patriarchy in the persona of evil boss, Dabney Coleman. Check out the fanatasy dope-smoking scene.

    Agitator, The (1944) A British film about a socialist who inherits the ownership of a major firm & begins wrestling with his beliefs.

    Alien, Aliens & Aliens III An underlying message in this series, especially in Aliens, seems to be that unrestrained capitalism is monopolistic, deceptive, & inhuman, often with horrifying consequences. The film's Company men, along for want to bring back live specimens of Alien for use as biological weapons. There's a strong implication that the Company is ready to sacrifice individuals, whole communities, & ultimately human civilization, to the proft motive. At one point one of the humans says of the aliens that "at least they don't fuck each other over for a percentage." Doesn't paint a pleasant picture of the military as unwitting cannon fodder, either. It does, however, have a strong, intelligent, active female lead whose match can only be found in Sarah Connor's Terminator 2 performance.

    American Dream (1990, Barbara Kopple) Kopple's earlier 1976 documentary about striking Kentucky coal miners, Harlan County, U.S.A., might seem a more obvious choice. But American Dream speaks directly to the era of downsizing, & the waning power & focus of labor unions. During the long, painful strike at the Hormel meatpacking plant in Austin, Minn., we realize the union members are fighting each other while the employers hold all the cards." Review by Roger Ebert, in Mother Jones, 1996"

    Blue Collar (1978, Paul Schrader) The ending is purposely didactic, but the trip there delves into racial & union politics at a depth seldom matched before or since." Review by John Sayles, in Mother Jones, 1996"

    Business as Usual - A British drama about a woman fired for protesting sexual harassment, who inspires a nation-wide strike that successfully gets her reappointed. Along the way it portrays the failures of the labor movement as the result of collaboration, & is sympathetic to the labor Party's Militant Tendency.

    Carry On at Your Convenience (1971) This is the tale of industrial strife at WC Boggs' Lavatory factory. Vic Spanner is the union representative who calls a strike at the drop of a hat; eventually everyone has to get fed up with him.

    A Christmas Carol -- This is certainly generally done as a parable about the need for the wealthy employer to be generous & paternalistic, rather than as a criticism of systemic inequality, but the 1951 Alistarir Sim version shows the Leftist nature of the parable very clearly - Christmas Present with Ignorance & Want under his robe!

    F.I.S.T. - Sly Stallone plays a young truck driver who organizes a truckers union, gets heavily indebted to Mafia guns in his rise to power, and then (dumb, dumb) tries to distance himself from the Mob. Loosely based on Jimmy Hoffa & the Teamsters, is very sympathetic to the difficulties of workers against armed company goons.

    Force of Evil (Abraham Polonsky, 1948) John Garfield, as a gambling syndicate lawyer, is pitted against his brother who runs a small, independent bookmaking operation. Racketeering is portrayed as a form of monopoly capitalism. (Steve Press)

    The Funeral (Abel Ferrara, 1996) Christopher Walken & Chris Penn, gangster brothers involved in labor racketeering, are arranging the funeral of a third brother who had been developing leftist sympathies. (Steve Press)

    Germinal is the story of a group of coal miners in late 19th century France, & to me it had some similarities to "The Grapes of Wrath", even though the setting was different.

    Last Exit to Brooklyn (1989) Set in Brooklyn during the 1940s against a backdrop of union corruption & violence. A prostitute falls in love with one of her customers. Also a disturbed man discovers that he's gay.

    Matewan - The brutal confrontations between mine operators and striking workers in West Virginia's coal fields during the 1920's. Created by writer/ director John Sayles in this stunning drama of diverse people united by a common goal (132 min.)

    Melvin & Howard (1980, Jonathan Demme) The Odyssey of the American working stiff. Media-driven dreams, divorce, restlessness, serial employment--like a wake-up call for the '80s." Review by John Sayles, in Mother Jones, 1996"

    Modern Times - Charlie Chaplin's classic take on the exploitation of the worker.

    Norma Rae - This 1975 classic of labor & feminist history tells the story of Norma Rae's struggle to organize her fellow textile workers in a small town in the South. Sally Field in Oscar winning performance, based on a true story.

    On the Waterfront - This hard-hitting drama about corruption in the Longshoremen's Union stands as a major achievement in American film. Without losing any of its dramatic force, it tackles complex social, political and personal issues. The implicit support for those who testified before the HUAC gives this McCarthy-era film a disturbing edge. (108 min.)

    Riff-Raff - (1991, Ken Loach) British socialist director Ken Loach takes you on a tour of a building site during the Thatcher era. The workers are exploited & underpaid; unions not permitted; conditions in which the men work are extremely hazardous. After one of the "mates" is killed because of unsafe equipment the workers strike back. The legacy of Thatcherism & the inept labor Party seen through the eyes of the multi- ethnic crew at a construction site." Review by John Sayles, in Mother Jones, 1996"

    Roger & Me (1989, Michael Moore) This surprisingly successful film was a populist thumb in the eye of General Motors. Wearing a baseball cap & dingy windbreaker, Moore elbowed his way into GM offices & stockholder meetings, & documented what he considered the company's rape of his hometown of Flint, Mich. Yes, the film took cheap shots--but it took them openly and gleefully, & that was part of the fun." Review by Roger Ebert, in Mother Jones, 1996"

    Salt of the Earth - LAB Tells the story of a New Mexico zinc miner's strike that was taken over by the wives of the miners when they were prohibited from picketing. Most of the film crew was black listed in Hollywood in 1954 for doing this film. This movie remains a stirring demand for worker unity & sexual equality. (94 min.)

    A Taxing Woman (1987, Juzo Itami) The individual's relationship to the group & to the state in modern Japan, played out in a duel between a love-hotel franchiser & a tax investigator. How many movies make you want to hang with an IRS agent? " Review by John Sayles, in Mother Jones, 1996"

    Thieves' Highway (Jules Dassin, 1949) Richard Conte is a truck driver who takes on crooked wholesaler Lee J. Cobb, who has been playing the drivers off against each other.

    Total Recall - Arnold Schwarzenegger is a brainwashed Martian cop on the run, or maybe just a tripping Earth-bound worker on holiday. In any case, a corporate fascist government is exploiting workers on Mars and somethings got to be done about it.

    The Triangle Shirt Factory Fire Scandal - LAB Real-life drama of the tragic sweatshop fire in 1911 New York that awakened public awareness, as seen through the eyes of four women that worked there. Starring Stephanie Zimbalist, David Dukes & Tovah Feldshuh. (98 min.)

    Tucker: The Man & His Dream - is the true story of Preston Tucker, a brilliant automobile designer of the 1940s who overcame extraordinary obstacles to realize a lifetime dream- the manufacture of his own "car of tomorrow, today." Instead of embracing the higher standards & innovative features advocated by Tucker, Detroit manufacturers forced him out of business. Although his dreams were crushed by big business during his lifetime, Tucker's extraordinary vision made him immortal. (111 min.)

    Union Maids - A documentary about three women in the Communnist Party who organized in the Back-of-the-Yards meatpacking district of Chicago in the 1930s. DSA's own Vickie Starr stars as "Stella Nowickie".

    Out of Control - A 1990 documentary which combines firsthand experiences of workers & industry experts to explain the deterioration of worker safety in the petrochemical industry (30 min.) [OCAW Visual Productions, PO Box 2812, Denver, CO 80201]

    Wall Street - The archetypal film of 80's corporate greed, graft and decadence.


    RACE RELATIONS

    A World Apart - Based on a true story, Barbara Hershey is arrested for her anti-apartheid activities, leaving her troubled teenage daughter to cope with the tumult. (112 min.)

    Alien Nation - Aliens land in L.A. & take the place of blacks and Latinos in the underclass. An alien cop & a human cop team up against alien drug pushers exploiting the alien ghetto.

    Bad Day at Black Rock (John Sturges,1955) Set just after WW II. Spencer Tracy plays a one-armed man who arrives in a small western town to deliver a medal to the father of a Japanese-American solder who served with him & was killed in Europe. He is met by an extremely hostile populace, led by Robert Ryan, & hiding a racially based murder of the father. (Steve Press)

    Bread & Chocolate - An Italian film, protraying the discrimination, partly based on skin color, of the Swiss against their imported Italian laborers.

    Boyz N the Hood (1991, John Singleton) "Boyz N the Hood let people into a world they didn't want to know existed." Review by John Sayles, in Mother Jones, 1996 "A first film of astonishing power & insight, showing how the fates of inner-city black youths can be decided by the social environment. As the hero's father (Larry Fishburne) tries to focus his son (Cuba Gooding Jr.) on the future, the danger of guns & gangs is always present. The best of an extraordinary group of debut films, including Menace II Society, Straight Out of Brooklyn, and Fresh." Review by Roger Ebert, in Mother Jones, 1996"

    Brother From Another Planet - An alien slave, who bears a striking resemblance to an African, hides from alien cops, who look like whites, in the ghetto.

    Countdown to Freeedom A documentary chronicle of campaigns and days leading up to first post-apartheid elections in South Africa. Directed by Danny Schechter.

    Chocalat - A highly charged relationship between a French family and their African servants in Africa.

    Cry Freedom - Stirring drama by Richard Attenborough that follows the friendship between white South African journalist Donald Woods (Kevin Kline) & black activist Stephen Biko (Denzel Washington) through the violent struggle against their country's racist regime. (157 min.)

    Cry the Beloved Country - A Black South African priest travels to the city in search of his son, only to learn that the boy has been sentenced to death for murder. (105 min.)

    Dances with Wolves (1990) Lt. John Dunbar is dubbed a hero after he accidentally leads Union troops to a victory during the Civil War. He requests a position on the western frontier, but finds it deserted. He soon finds out he is not alone, but meets a wolf he dubs "Two-socks" and a curious Indian tribe. Dunbar quickly makes friends with the tribe, and discovers a white woman who was raised by the Indians. He gradually earns the respect these native people, & sheds his white-man's ways.

    Dead Presidents - a young black Vietnam vet sees the system for what it is, gets exposed to radical politics, & decides to rob a bank. An amazing film with an even more amazing soundtrack.

    Do the Right Thing (1989, Spike Lee) This record of one hot summer day in Bedford-Stuyvesant is the most important & moving film about race in America. What empowers the film is its fairness; watching it, you can identify with most of the characters, black & white. As a series of trivial incidents & misunderstandings escalate into the death of a man at the hands of police, & then the destruction of a pizzeria, Lee shows that the divide of racism, more than any particular event, has led to the film's disturbing conclusion." Review by Roger Ebert, in Mother Jones, 1996"

    Dry White Season - Donald Sutherland awakening to the horror of S. African apartheid in the 1970s.

    The Glass Shield (Charles Burnett, 1995) Racism & corruption at a Southern Calif. sheriff's station as seen through the eyes of an ethically compromised black rookie.

    Great White Hope, The - James Earl Jones is Jack Johnson, the first Black Heavyweight World Boxing Champion. Even when stripped of his title by whites, Johnson triumphs over his persecutors. Jane Alexander gives a remarkable performance as Johnson's girlfriend, who is torn apart by her ordeal & the boxer's unfocused hostility. (103 min.)

    Guess Who's Coming to Dinner (1967) - Sidney Poiter stars as the young black UN diplomat who surprises middle class liberals on the Upper West Side, Spencer Tracy & Katherine Hepburn, by proposing marriage to their daughter.

    Hate (French with subtitles) - excellent french film that deals with racism, & classism by following three immigrant youth in france over the course of a day under the backdrop of social unrest. this movie kicks ass in its stark & gritty realism of life for working class immigrant youth in france.

    Homicide (David Mamet,1991) Joe Montegna as a Jewish policeman, who identifies as a cop, not a Jew, is assigned, against his will, to investigate the murder of an elderly Jewish woman, in what appears at first to be a racially motivated killing (Black on white/Jewish). (Steve Press)

    Hoop Dreams (1994, Steve James) Not really about basketball at all, but the most powerful American documentary of modern times. It's a story, told over five years, of two inner-city Chicago boys who dream that their basketball skills will provide them a college education, & perhaps a ticket to the NBA. How could the filmmakers have guessed, as they filmed their subjects in eighth grade, that their stories would encompass so many aspects of big-city African-American life? " Review by Roger Ebert, in Mother Jones, 1996"

    House Made of Dawn - based on N. Scott Momaday's book about the condition of American Indians has been made into a poetically beautiful film. More convinving & authentic than any Hollywood effort to understand the Indian, it is clearly the definitive statement on the plight of Native Americans. (91 min.)

    KKK - B-grade melodrama about Southern racism.

    Last Wave, The (1977) - An Australian lawyer defends an aborigine on trial for murder, while having premonitions that white Australia will be destroyed for its genocide against native people.

    Liberation of L.B. Jones - Story of Southern racism. (102m)

    Little Big Man - Dustin Hoffman as a white boy kidnapped and raised by Indians, then taken back to "civilization" in adolescence, and then returning to "the human beings" as an Indian scout for General Custer. A lot funnier than Dances with Wolves, & just as radical.

    The Long Days of Summer - A small town in the 1930's New England is the focus for this look at prejudice, as seen through the eyes of a young Jewish boy whose lawyer father comes under attack from the townspeople. (78 min.)

    Malcolm X (1992, Spike Lee) Lee maintains what Alex Haley's Autobiography of Malcolm X captured the incredible evolution of Malcolm X's thought."Review by John Sayles, in Mother Jones, 1996"

    Mandela - The courage & self-sacrifice of South African freedom fighters Nelson & Winnie Mandela is the subject of this critically acclaimed production, starring Danny Glover & Alfre Woodard. Their enduring love and dignity despite three decades of imprisonment & oppression symbolize the determination of an entire people. (135 min.)

    Mississippi Burning - A supposed dramatization of the investigation of the Cheney et al. murders during Freedom Summer. A total whitewash of the FBI's role in ignoring Klan activity.

    Mississippi Masala - Indian girl & black man start affair that scandalizes both communities.

    Native Son - [1951] The first filming of Richard Wright's controversial novel. Wright stars as the young black chauffer who is befriended by his employer's daughter & her beau...with tragic consequences.(90 min.) [also a 1987 version with Oprah Winfrey, Matt Dillon & Victor Love, 112 min.]

    No Way Out (Joseph L. Mankiewicz,1950) Richard Widmark as a racist hoodlum who blames E.R. physician Sidney Poitier for the death of his brother after he & his brother had been wounded while committing a robbery. (Steve Press)

    Nothing But a Man (Michael Roehmer,1964) Racism from outside as well as class conflict within the Black community in Alabama. (Steve Press)

    Odds Against Tomorrow (Robert Wise,1959) Mutual racial hatred between Robert Ryan & Harry Belafonte, both participants in a bank robbery. (Although Robert Ryan often played bigots, he was an active member of the ACLU & SANE.) (Steve Press)

    Once We Were Warriors - The title is ironic as this recent  New Zealand film deals with the collapsing Moari {native NZ} family. Quite shocking & a welcome antidote to the conservative "family values" bull-shit, which is set in another world from that of oppressed peoples. Includes youth suicide, child rape, & several feminist themes.

    Open Secret (John Reinhardt, 1948) With the help of an Italian-American policeman, a young couple on their honeymoon busts a gang of white-supremacist, anti-Semitic thugs.

    Panther -Its about the Black Panthers. Though not completely historically accurate it is still a neat film.

    Planet of the Apes (1967-1973) - These five movies are, in part, an exploration of racism & slavery transposed to speciesism, culminating in the 1973 Battle for the Planet of the Apes in which our enslaved simian servants revolt.

    Prisoners of Hope A documentary chronicle of the reunion in 1995 of 1500 political prisoners formerly held captive on Robben Island, South Africa, where President Nelson Mandela was also imprisoned.

    Sarafina (1992) - The film version, with Whoopi Goldberg, of the hit musical from South Africa about a township heroine.

    Sounder - Black sharecroppers in the 1930s. (105m)

    A Time to Kill (1996) - A black man is tried for killing the white men who raped his daughter. Two young white lawyers defending him experience anti-racist redemption.

    To Kill a Mockingbird - Black man gets framed for rape of white girl, town goes into racist lynch frenzy, & he gets defended by courageous white man.

    Voices of Sarafina - The beautiful musical, performed by kids from Soweto, about a courageous girl "comrade" in the township.

    The Well (Leo Popkin, Russell Rouse,1951) A young black girl falls down a well, but before that is discovered as the reason for her disappearance, a white stranger in town is accused of kidnapping her. (Steve Press)

    White Man's Burden (1995) - John Travolta & Harry Belafonte in an America in which whites are the poor underclass & blacks are the ruling class.



    NORTH AMERICAN HISTORY & POLITICS

    3 Days of the Condor - The CIA tries to kill one of its own who knows too much.

    All the President's Men - The scintillating, & mostly true story, of Bernstein & Woodward breaking the Watergate coverup. (138m)

    All the President's Men (1976, Alan J. Pakula) Excellent Hollywood ensemble casting & William Goldman script. At the time it felt like the end of the nightmare.... Little did we know." Review by John Sayles, in Mother Jones, 1996"

    The Big Fix (Jeremy Paul Kagan, 1978) Richard Dreyfuss as an ex-60's radical who has become a private detective, gets involved in a movement related case. (Steve Press)

    Bob Roberts - Tim Robbins plays a right-wing folk singer whose folksy populism catapults him into Congress, adabd for the Presidency. Disturbingly plausible parody of American politics.

    Born on the Fourth of July (1989, Oliver Stone) "Like many Vietnam-era youths, Ron Kovic enlisted out of patriotism & became disillusioned by the war. Disabled by wounds in Vietnam, Kovic gets further radicalized stateside--in mounting fury at the way the nation seems content to shelve and forget him. This is the most powerful of Stone's Vietnam trilogy (released between Platoon & Heaven & Earth), & centers on Tom Cruise's career-best performance as Kovic." Review by Roger Ebert, in Mother Jones, 1996

    Canadian Bacon - Michael Moore's first non-documentary film, with Alan Alda as a President with failing fortunes who decides to encourage a Cold War with Canada. Some laid off defense workers, led by John Candy, take some of their former product & attack Canada in a patriotic raid.

    Citizen Kane - The story of Charles Foster Kane, Goliath of the publishing world, is told with dynamic editing, imaginative camera angles and ever-shifting perspective. This is a story of the rise of one man and the effects of the depravity of capitalism with a final crashing result.

    City of Hope (1991, John Sayles) "Sayles weaves together many strands--there are some 36 meaningful speaking roles--in a story of how life, work, race, & politics connect in a modern New Jersey city. Joe Morton is poignant as a black alderman who tries to effect change but is efficiently pushed toward the system, & Vincent Spano is lost & touching as a man whose father supplies him with a job, but not with an occupation." Review by Roger Ebert, in Mother Jones, 1996"

    Daniel - Timothy Hutton turns in a powerful performance as a young man trying to clear his family name years after his parents are executed for conspiracy. Taken from the best-selling novel by E.L. Doctorow and based on the tragedy of Julius & Ethel Rosenberg. (130 min.)

    Dead Man Walking (1995, Tim Robbins) "Robbins' film plays the death penalty issue down the middle, giving equal weight to the convicted murderer (Sean Penn) & the anguish of his victims' families. Susan Sarandon, as the nun who grows to know him, is torn by the struggle to see both sides. The buried subject is the society that deprives Penn's character of the insight to understand what he has done, & what he feels about it." Review by Roger Ebert, in Mother Jones, 1996"

    Deer Hunter, The - The blockbuster about the lives of steelworkers before during & after the Vietnam conflict. Harrowing, brilliantly acted and unforgettable.

    Fellow Traveler (Philip Saville, 1989, made for cable) An actor and a screenwriter get blacklisted in 50's Hollywood. (Steve Press)

    The Front - (Martin Ritt, 1976) Woody Allen plays the front man for blacklisted writers during the 50's red scare. (The director, screenwriter, and several of the cast members had actually been blacklisted in the 50's.) (Steve Press)

    Grand Canyon (1991, Lawrence Kasdan) "Danny Glover plays a tow truck operator who saves an attorney (Kevin Kline) from certain mugging in an unsafe neighborhood. Kline seeks him out to thank him, & a tentative friendship begins. The film explores how every day involves countless possibilities, some hopeful, some deadly. It is about practicing free will in a jungle." Review by Roger Ebert, in Mother Jones, 1996

    Grapes of Wrath, The - A family of Sharecroppers travels westward, driven from their home in Oklahoma farm during the Great Depression, but the golden dream of California also fails them. This unforgetable movie about the triumph of humanity over adversity is based on John Steinbeck's classic novel. (124 min.)

    JFK (1991, Oliver Stone) "Take it apart incident by incident, but the fact remains: We all think the government is lying. With Kevin Costner as Jim Garrison to sugarcoat the bitter pill, Stone's JFK is a larger version of Joe Pesci's memorable paranoid speed-rap. It is to conspiracy theorists what Clueless is to valley girls--a point of reference in a treacherous world." Review by John Sayles, in Mother Jones, 1996"

    Manchurian Candidate - A brain-washed POW returns to the U.S. under the control of Communist agents, trained for assassinations of leading politicians. Released shortly before the assassination of John F. Kennedy, and then quickly withdrawn from circulation for more than twenty years, this brilliant & shocking film skewers both McCarthyite anti-Communism and totalitarian Communism at the same time. The 1963 film stars Frank Sinatra, Lawrence Harvey & Angela Landsbury.

    Medium Cool - Haskel Wexler uses a TV cameraman as the eyes through which the 1968 Democratic Convention riots are viewed. He creates an idyllic romance framed by the realities of death, political hypocrisy & racial hatred. (110 min.)

    Mr. Smith Goes to Washington - What happens when venal corporate elites try to use a naive Boy Scout leader as their foil in the U.S. Senate. A classic in the Frank Capra genre of true-blue American populist struggle films. The 1940 film stars Jimmy Stewart & Claude Rains.

    Nixon (1995) - Oliver Stone directs Anthony Hopkins in a really depressing look inside Nixon's life.

    Red Dawn - The great, & goofy, story of ordinary high school kids fighting back when the Russians invade the U.S. Great example of Reagan-era Cold War hysteria, excelled only by the mid-80s Amerika miniseries.

    Reds - The 1981 history of John Reed, author of Ten Days That Shook the World & a founder of the American Communist movement, & his wife Louise Bryant. Though the portrayal of Socialist Party politics has an unfortunate tilt towards the Bolshevik faction, the main point is the struggle between love & political sacrifice. Starring Warren Beatty, Diane Keaton & Jack Nicholson. (1981, Warren Beatty) Bohemian romance meets the Russian Revolution, or why Americans make lousy communists." Review by John Sayles, in Mother Jones, 1996"

    Running on Empty (1988, Sidney Lumet) Judd Hirsch & Christine Lahti play married 1960s radicals living on the run. They blew up a building, accidentally killing a janitor, & it left their life a shell: While they appear ordinary to their neighbors, they have trained their two boys to keep secrets, & be ready to leave town in an instant. Now their older, teenage son (River Phoenix) needs a "real" identity to pursue education and a career. Politics, ironically, have been left far behind; that kind of involvement would blow the family's cover." Review by Roger Ebert, in Mother Jones, 1996"

    Secret Honor (1984, Robert Altman) "Those who thought Oliver Stone's Nixon went too far should see this film. Philip Baker Hall delivers a virtuoso monologue as Nixon in the dark hours after his resignation, pacing his office & addressing ghosts, memories, & the pictures on the walls. Both in this film & in Nixon, the man himself becomes more human, understandable, and--dare it be said?--sympathetic." Review by Roger Ebert, in Mother Jones, 1996"

    The War at Home (1979, Barry Brown & Glenn Silber) "A 'found' documentary: The filmmakers had access to all of the television news footage shot in Madison, Wis., in the years of the Vietnam War, & employed it to create a film about how the war, & the protests against it, affected one American city. Far more than a cut-and-paste, talking-heads job, it records social, as well as political, history as the shape of the 1960s gradually reveals itself.'" Review by Roger Ebert, in Mother Jones, 1996

    The Un-Canadians - A feature length documentary is about the way Canada handled the McCarthy period during the 50's & 60's. It focuses on the blacklisting of performers & innocent victims during the anti-communist hysteria. It interviews those whose lives were torn apart during the red scare decades by the hidden black lists of the Canadian government & the RCMP.

    http://www.dsausa.org/dsa/rl/Docs/Films.html
    http://www.spunk.org/texts/writers/meltzer/sp001591/app1.html

    3510 -- IS EINSTEIN AN ANARCHIST? The FBI has been forced to release hundreds of documents on Albert Einstein under the 'Freedom of Information Act'. These can be found as PDF files at http://foia.fbi.gov/einstein.htm The opening document includes a letter arguing that Einstein should be excluded from the USA because of his affiliation with the War Resisters League which the document describes as 'Anarcho-communist'. It further argues that Einstein's own beliefs are anarchist although the writers seem more then a little confused in writing that "Not even Stalin himself is affiliated with so many anarcho-communist international groups ... as ALBERT EINSTEIN" http://foia.fbi.gov/einstein.htm
    http://www.ainfos.ca/ainfos00271.html

    ?
    3510 -- ANARCHIST IMAGE ARCHIVE SPAIN 1936 http://www.morgane.org/master.htm



    3510 -- DURRUTI IMAGE ANARCHIST http://www.chumba.com/images/


    3510 -- Subject: Richard Dick Ellington IWW Industrial Workers of the World

    Re: About Dick Ellington Date: Mon, 04 Sep 2000 09:03:03 -0700 From: "Dave, Recollection Books" To: Robby Barnes

    Robby, Thanks very much, very helpful.

    Russell Blackwell is another name of interest, & interestingly there is more information about him at one of the Trotskyist pages than any of the anarchist pages.

    ---Dave http://www.recollectionbooks.com/bleed/today.htm Robby Barnes wrote:

    > Hi Dave,

    > > I saw your request for information about Dick Ellington on the Research on Anarchism List.

    > Here are some things I remember about Dick Ellington:

    > > Sylvie & I met Dick & his companion Pat in Oakland during the early 1970s. They were both very outgoing & friendly, & not at all cliquish.

    > He helped us with some typesetting & printing projects we did during the 1970s in New York.

    > Dick told us he was born & grew up in Seattle.

    > He lived in New York during the 1950s & early 1960s. In 1959, he worked with Dave Van Ronk to write & self-publish THE BOSS'S SONGBOOK, the subtitle of which was Songs To Stifle the flames of discontent. It was supposed to be a humorous collection, consciously modeled on the IWW Little > Red Songbook. >

    Dick had a Multilith 1250 & did some movement printing in New York City during the 1950s, including VIEWS & COMMENTS, which was published by the Libertarian League. It was either a weekly or biweekly paper edited by Sam Dolgoff & Russell Blackwell.

    In Oakland in the mid to late 1970s Dick did freelance typesetting on his > stand-alone IBM Composer in his home. The name of his enterprise was Roll Yur Own Typesetting. (I didn't make a mistake in spelling) He did a lot of > typesetting free for various movement organizations & individuals, in the > Bay area & throughout the country. He persisted in this, even as his > arthritis grew progressively worse, & he had some joint replacements in > his hands.

    > > I hope this helps.

    > > Cheers, > > Robby http://recollectionbooks.com/bleed/Encyclopedia/VanRonk/VanRonkDave.htm


    3510 -- add blood [Fwd: Spanish anarchism - new links by Michael Seidman] Date: Wed, 15 Aug 2001 20:05:11 -0700 From: Subject: Spanish anarchism - new links by Michael Seidman From: "social history" To: chomskyarchive@yahoo.com Michael Seidman's writing overturns many of our preconceptions about the anarchists in the Spanish civil war & about the whole nature of revolution in the 20th century. He has written on the anarchist collectives, on women & on the widespread reluctance to fight in the civil war. Much of Seidman's writing is now available on the web at: http://www.angelfire.com/nb/revhist36/ (If you have a web-site please consider including a link to this site?) http://www.angelfire.com/nb/revhist36/


    3510 --

    FREEDOM INDEX


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     Do feel free to send comments & suggestions to Freedom Press




    3510 -- infoshop.org - Anarchist Quiz 1

    Mid-Atlantic Infoshop

    Anarchist Quiz 1

    by Neil Birrell
    with modifications by Chuck0


    STARTERS


    Who said 'Property is theft?' & when?

    *

    Where can you find a mailing list which is 'like a pub where the theme is anarchy'?

    *

    Who is 'Wildcat'?

    *

    Which English writer gave a sympathetic account of the anarchist revolution in Spain in 1936 in his book 'A Homage to Catalunia'?

    *

    What do the letters CNT stand for?

    *


    MAIN COURSE


    Which famous anarchist has had a mountain named after him?

    *

    Identify the Sarvodaya movement & translate its name into English.

    *

    Which former anarchist was found wandering naked & mad in the mountains of Italy after his conversion to marxism? :-)

    *

    What does the word Kropotkin mean in Russian?

    *

    In what anarcho-context was the following said: 'Unfortunately... I mean fortunately there have been no explosions yet'

    *

    Answers

    Go to:
    Quiz 2
    Quiz 3

    Site Navigational Map Mid-Atlantic Infoshop Top Page Email the webmaster Communities What's new at the Infoshop Frequently Asked Questions News & Current Events Site Map & Directory Search the MA Infoshop site

    Back to Infoshop Page | Contact Us | Communities | What's New | FAQ | News | Site Map | Search infoshop.org - Anarchist Quiz 2

    Mid-Atlantic Infoshop

    Anarchist Quiz 2

    by Neil Birrell
    with modifications by Chuck0


    STARTERS

    Weren't they naughty?


    Which anarchist took sides in WW1?

    *

    Which anarchist accepted a knighthood?

    *

    Which anarchist has been accused of being an apologist for the Khmer Rouge?

    *

    Which British labor politician became converted to socialism by reading Kropotkin & ended up shadow Foreign Secretary?

    *

    Who wrote off the anarchist movement & then had to eat his words?

    *


    MAIN COURSE


    Who translated Kropotkin into Chinese?

    *

    What was Malatesta's trade/skill/occupation apart from propagandist?

    *

    Identify The IRSM & the editor of the book about it.

    *

    If you translated Mrs Thatcher into French what revealing play on words would you be left with?

    *

    Who said 'Property is robbery (my emphasis)' & when?

    *

    Answers

    Go to:
    Quiz 1
    Quiz 3

    Site Navigational Map Mid-Atlantic Infoshop Top Page Email the webmaster Communities What's new at the Infoshop Frequently Asked Questions News & Current Events Site Map & Directory Search the MA Infoshop site

    Back to Infoshop Page | Contact Us | Communities | What's New | FAQ | News | Site Map | Search infoshop.org - Anarchist Quiz 3

    Mid-Atlantic Infoshop

    Anarchist Quiz 3

    by Neil Birrell
    with modifications by Chuck0


    STARTERS

    Who said, sung or wrote


    Right now! Ah ha ha ha ha ha!

    *

    Stand up against governments, against God.
    Stay irresponsible.
    Say only what we know & imagine.
    Absolutes are Coercion.
    Change is absolute.

    *

    Workers of the world, awaken!
    Break your chains, demand your rights.
    All the wealth you make is taken
    by exploiting parasites.
    Shall you kneel in deep submission
    from your cradles to your graves?
    Is the height of your ambition
    to be good & willing slaves?

    *

    The golden lemon is not made
    but grows on a green tree:
    A strong man & his crystal eyes
    is a man born free.

    *

    Business man he drink my wine
    Ploughmen dig my earth
    Noone will level on the line
    Nobody of it is worth

    *


    MAIN COURSE


    Which anarchist weekly recently published its 1000th edition?

    *

    Identify & locate 'Christiana'?

    *

    Name Guy Debord's first film & give a brief resume of the 'plot'

    *

    Where & when did Emma Goldman die?

    *

    Who said 'Property is freedom' & explain any paradox arising from your answer?

    *


    SECOND HELPINGS?


    Name the defendants in the
    PERSONS UNKNOWN trial (see quiz no 1)

    *

    Identify the Kabouters & say what the word means in English.

    *

    Give the title & name the author of the book subtitled The Lost History of the British Anarchists

    *

    Who wrote The Philosophy of Poverty.... ... & who replied by writing The Poverty of Philosophy?

    *

    Who gave the lecture The Impossibilities of Anarchism.... ... & who replied by writing The Impossibilities of Social Democracy?

    *

    Answers

    Go to:
    Quiz 1
    Quiz 2

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    ?
    3510 -- Lieberman, Aaron. Aaron Liebermans Briv/Letters of Aaron Lieberman. With an introduction & notes by Kalman Marmor. NY, YIVO, 1951. Octavo, paper wraps, 252 pp., sections from two unpublished works, index. Some of the letters are in Russian. Brief preface in English. Very Good. Lieberman was an important Anarchist in the Whitehall scene. He was a close associate of Rodolf Rocker.

    Henry Hollander Bookseller Catalogue No. 17 - Yiddish Books Anarchy


    3511 -- ANARCHIST ARCHIVE Many names useful for reference

    Libertarian Socialism

    Libertarian Socialism is a term essentially synonymous with the word "Anarchism". Anarchy, strictly meaning "without rulers", leads one to wonder what sort of system would exist in place of one without state or capitalist masters... the answer being a radically democratic society while preserving the maximal amount of individual liberty & freedom possible.

    Libertarian Socialism recognizes that the concept of "property" (specifically, the means of production, factories, land used for profit, rented space) is theft & that in a truly libertarian society, the individual would be free of exploitation caused by the concentration of all means of wealth-making into the hands of an elite minority of capitalists.

    Why "Libertarian"?

    It is recognized that there are authoritarian systems & behavior, distinct from libertarian, or non-authoritarian ones. Since capitalism's early beginnings in Europe, & it's authoritarian trend of wage-slavery for the majority of people (working class) by a smaller, elite group (a ruling, or, capitalist class) who own the "means of production": machines, land, factories, there was a liberatory movement in response to capitalism known as "Socialism". In almost every case, the socialist movement has been divided along authoritarian, & libertarian lines. The anarchists on the libertarian side, & the Jacobins, Marxists, Leninists, Stalinists, & reformist state-socialists on the authoritarian side. (And liberals more or less split down the middle.)

    There was also a movement called "Propaganda by deed", around the late 1800's to early 1900's, in which some anarchists (Such as the Italian Anarchist Luigi Galleani (1861-1931)), believed that violence was the best strategy for opposing the state. This proved a disaster, alienating anarchists from the general population & exposing them to negative characterizations by the press... the "bomb-toting anarchist" is for the most part a creation of the corporate media- before this stigma anarchism was recognized as an anti-authoritarian socialist movement.

    Many anarchist groups & publications used the word "libertarian" instead of "anarchist" to avoid state repression & the negative association of the former term. Libertarian Socialism differentiates itself from "Anarchy" as a movement only in that it specifically focuses on working class organisation & education in order to achieve human emancipation from the fetters of capitalism.

    Why "Socialism"?

    Socialism, in it's traditional & true definition, means "the workers democratic ownership and/or control of the means of production". Such a definition implies that rather than a government bureaucracy for managing such means, there is a focus on highly democratic organisation, education & awareness, & every individual is encouraged to become an active, rather than passive participant in that which effect their lives. Only the workers themselves bear the knowledge of what their own freedom & liberty means, & only they know what is best for themselves, ultimately. Advocates of the state, be they on the left, or the right, have repeatedly defined the meaning of "socialism" to mean arbitrary rule by a set of "leaders", or a political con-game in which socialism is no more than capitalism with a few token adjustments for bearability.

    I've heard of "national socialism"... does that have anything to do with "libertarian socialism"?

    Defiantly not. The National Socialist, or NAZI party controlled by Adolf Hitler in Germany in the 1930's used the word "socialist" in their party name because of the strong awareness workers there had of class divisions & socialist theory at the time. The National Socialist Party was actually a right-wing movement that sought to win over working class people from the left. Workers were basically tricked into believing that the NAZI party would solve their countries economic problems by eliminating Jews & other minorities, & expanding the country. The end result was Germany's defeat by the allied powers. Now days there are people who call themselves "national socialists" who attempt the same tactics of fooling people... hopefully they will never succeed again. If a national socialist party ever came into power it would be bitterly & ferociously opposed by libertarian socialists all over the world.

    What about the American "Libertarian Party"? Don't they already use the word "libertarian"?

    The word "libertarian" has been widely used in conjunction with the word "anarchist" & anti-authoritarian strands of socialist organisations, groups, & individuals since the turn of the century. For example, in the US, Sam Dolgoff started the still-running anarcho-syndicalist publication "Libertarian Labor Review" in the late 1980's, & Noam Chomsky has repeatedly spoken about a libertarian socialist solution to the oppression of workers worldwide. In France (Paris, Nanterre, & Bretagne), Italy, Lebanon & Belgium there are separate anarchist publications and/or groups all currently using the name "Libertarian Alternative". In London, England the Soliderity group published a series of periodicals since 1960, one of the most recent entitled "Soliderity: A Journal of Libertarian Socialism", & George Woodcock wrote "Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas & Movements" in 1962 (some 9 years before the creation of the US Libertarian Party.) In Cuba in 1959 there existed an anti-capitalist, anti-state organisation called the "Libertarian Association of Cuba". In the 1950's George Fontenis published "The Manifesto of Libertarian Communism". In New York City, July 1954 Russell Blackwell, Esther & Sam Dolgoff formed the Libertarian League, of which for a short time Murray Bookchin was a member. Erlier, in 1949, Gregory P. Maximoff initiated the Libertarian Book Club just before he died in 1950.

    During the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) a coalition group called the United Libertarian Organisations (ULO) was created with the intent of spreading truthful information about the revolutionary anarchist activities in Spain. The organisation consisted of groups publishing Cultura Proletaria (Spanish), Il Martello (Italian), Delo Truda (Russian anarchist), Il Proletario (Italian IWW), Freie Arbeiter Stimme (Jewish Anarchist Federation), the American anarchist publication, Vangaurd, as well as the Marine Transport Workers Industrial Union & General Recruiting Union of the IWW, & the Spanish Labor Press Bureau (administered by the CNT-FAI representative in the United States & Canada, the Chicago anarchist Maximilian Olay). The official organ of the ULO wascalled Spanish Revolution (now available in facsimile from Greenwood Publishing Corporation). Examples of articles are: Rural Collectives in Graus & Imposta; Peasants Build a New Economy; Statistics on Industrial Socialization in Catalonia; Organising the Textile Industry; Industrial Democracy; Running a Department Store; Telephone System Run by Workers; Peasant Communes in Aragon; etc. Anyone interested in constructive economic & social achievements of the CNT-FAI in revolutionary Spain should consult the pages of Spanish Revolution.

    In Spain in 1932 Issac Puente wrote the pamphlet"Libertarian Communism", & the CNT adopted libertarian communism as its goal at the 1936 Saragossa conference on the eve of the Spanish Revolution. In France in 1926 the Dielo Trouda group of anarchists who had fled Russia wrote the hotly debated "Organisational Platform of the Libertarian Communists".

    "Sébastien Faure, who founded Le Libertaire in 1895, is often credited with having invented the word 'libertarian' as a convenient synonym for 'anarchist.' However, Joseph Dejacque's use of the word as early as 1858 suggests that it may have had a long currency before Faure adopted it."
    [George Woodcock, Anarchism, p. 281 (footnote)]
    The term "libertarian" goes back at least to the 17th & 18th century religious debates regarding free-will versus pre-destination, & was used at that time to refer to persons who believed that individuals had full liberty to act as they saw fit.

    According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first known usage of "libertarian" was in 1789 as part of "Belsham's Essays", in which he appears to use the term in opposition to "necessitarian". It's hard to say whether there was a direct connection with other uses of the term.

    The basic socialistic libertarian movement (in deeds if not in name) most likely has it's roots at least as far back as the French Revolution of 1789 in the poor serfs who saw through the authoritarianism of the Jacobins (and the bourgeoisie in general) who had used these serfs to overthrow the monarchy. [Further information is available from Peter Kropotkin's The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793 (pub: 1909)]

    It should be noted that there were two branches of libertarian socialists in the nineteenth century... the communist libertarians, & the mutualist libertarians. Both accepted the Labor Theory of Value, & the worker's right to the wealth which he or she produces... but they supported different means of achieving the goal of universal equality & freedom for mankind. The mutualists included people such as Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Benjamin Tucker, & the like. There was even a mutualist libertarian organisation (which came along still later than the French & Spanish socialist's use of the term "libertarian") called the Libertarian League in the 1920's. These people were clearly "Social Revolutionaries" in that the interests of the "working man" were of prime importance to them, though the more communistic libertarians might have called the mutualists "reformist", they were still, at heart, socialist.

    There is ample proof from writings from the mid-1800s that indicate that before the capitalists borrowed the term "libertarian", it was already in use in a political context that one could loosely describe as "pro-socialist". It was not until the 1950's that the capitalistic use of the term came into vogue.

    While a number of pro-capitalist "Libertarian" organisations & publications tend to have recently appeared in the United States & a few other countries, these entities serve the interests of small business owners, landlords, investors & some upwardly-mobile professionals. Essentially secular neo-conservative organisations, with strong inspiration from the writings of the ultra-capitalist Ayn Rand, economist Murray Rothbard, & science-fiction writer Robert Heinlein. Typical of these advocates of the sacredcy of private property is a distortion of the theories of the moral individualist philosophers of the 19th century (Benjamin Tucker, Lysander Spooner, Josiah Warren, Henry David Thoreau, etc.) who respected the rights of the individual but were highly critical of the concentrations of wealth & power which led to capitalism & economic oppression since the dawn of the Industrial Revolution. Due to the elite privilege for the few over the many inherent in a 'pure' capitalist system, "libertarian" capitalism is un-democratic & anti-libertarian. For more information see the essay "Libertarianism: Bogus Anarchy", by Peter Sabatini, & a TV interview with Noam Chomsky.

    The Libertarian or sometimes-called "anarcho-" capitalist movement was a reaction from the political right-wing against US president FDR's sweeping social democratic laws passed as a response to a powerful labor movement in the 1930's. The libertarian left had little interest in nationalizations or state-social-programs, arguing that they placed power into the hands of elite managers & not the workers themselves. The destruction of the original libertarian movement in the United States, (by mass deportations & imprisonment), as well as in Europe (The Fascist victories in Spain, Italy & Germany) left a vacuum in which was possible for one Dean Russell of the capitalist "Foundation for Economic Education" to write an article in the FEE publication, "Ideas on Liberty" of May, 1955 entitled "Who is a Libertarian?" which advocated that the right should "trademark & reserve for our own use the good & honorable word 'libertarian.'" In other cases, conservative Science Fiction writers such as Robert Heinlein & Poul Anderson used the term in their writing to depict fictionally virtuous forms of capitalism. It should be noted that these writers & others like them (Ann MaCaffrey, Daniel F. Galouye, Keith Laumer, etc.) supported the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. For more information see the article "Starship Stormtroopers" by Michael Moorcock.

    What these people did not know or chose to ignore was that at least two US libertarian socialist organisations already existed, one formed in July 1954 called the Libertarian League, started by Russell Blackwell, & the other formed in 1949 and called the Libertarian Book Club, an idea initiated by Gregory P. Maximoff, & formerly established by a number of anarchists, including: Bill & Sarah Taback, Joseph & Hannah Spivak, Joseph Aaronstam, Ida Pilot (a professional translator) & her companion Valerio Isca, & Esther & Sam Dolgoff. The Libertarian Book Club is based in New York City, & is still active today.
    (This information is from the book "Fragments: A Memoir", by Sam Dolgoff, Pub. 1986 Refract Publications, Cambridge, England)

    In Webster's New International Dictionary, the definition of 'Libertarian' is stated to be: "One who holds to the principle of free will; also, one who upholds the principles of liberty, esp. individual liberty of thought & action." Clearly, in comparison to the authoritarian Soviet Union & Red China of the 1940's & 50's, liberal capitalism could be made to appear more "libertarian" than socialism if one were to accept that China & the USSR were the definitive examples of "socialism". But, if one were to have listened to the original socialistic libertarians (the anarchists) all along, it would have been clear that both the "socialism" of so-called Communist" countries, & the idea of a "libertarian (or anarcho-) capitalism" were a farce.

    Finaly, it should be noted that most of the modern pro-capitalist "libertarian" writing suffers from a severe defect: they overlook the fact that capitalism in every form ever tried throughout history is inherently authoritarian (i.e the boss/worker relationship), & thus incompatible with libertarianism in any form. However, if you ignore & skip over those portions that talk about capitalist ideas, there are some really eloquent arguments for individual rights, liberties, & responsibilities in these writings.

    Unlike right-wing Libertarians, Liberals & Social Democrats, libertarian socialists reject participation in the mainstream representative voting process. Libertarian socialism is, in effect, a revolutionary theory & approach to political life. Libertarian Socialism's anti-state stance might even give it the label "Laissez-fair socialism"- if a politician (or capitalist) were to approach some anarchist workers in France & ask them what it was he could do for them, they would reply, "Laissez-nous faire."- essentially, "leave us alone". Libertarian socialists understand that it is the workers who create & maintain everything in the world, & they do not need leaders to direct them in the affairs of their lives. What is the least a government could do for workers? Keep the Government & capitalists off their back--but it is far better to avoid the need for "politricksters" & capitalist rulers in the first place.

    What about individual liberty?

    Libertarian Socialism is an anti-authoritarian form of socialism & the main principles are liberty, freedom, the right for workers to fraternize & organise democratically, the absence of illegitimate authority & the resistance against force. Libertarian Socialists hold that the people can make the best judgments for themselves when given enough information & therefore stress education rather than regulation. In current society, the individual worker is separated from her or his fellow workers & not permitted to organise against his or her own exploitation... the state is the force which permits this lack of freedom to continue.

    Libertarian Socialists see humankind divided in a struggle between different social classes: the property-owning class, & the working class. Libertarian socialists are against all forms of coercion, state & capitalist, & do not seek to regulate human behaviors by way of the state, including such issues as possession of firearms, drugs, sexual conduct between consenting individuals, & related issues.

    Libertarian Socialists see such things as gun control, "speech codes", drug, alcohol, pornography & prostitution prohibition as a waste of time, & an unnecessary violation of individual choice. Most of humanities woes arise from the inherently coercive, undemocratic & un-libertine capitalist & state systems which human society is currently forced to follow. The answer is not regulation or limitation, but organisation & education with a working-class emphasis. Libertarian Socialists reject the "social democratic" solution of keeping the state & military apparatus around but raising taxes to support social programs. These are merely "band-aids" for problems which under capitalism will never go away, & always threaten to get worse. World problems will not be solved by "professionals", free-market entrepreneurs, the ruling capitalist class, politicians or stateist bureaucrats. Only the people, organised & educated, can solve their own problems.

    What do Libertarian Socialists feel about Racism, Sexism, & Homophobia?

    It has always been impossible for workers to challenge capitalism effectively so long as divisions of people based on gender, skin color, or sexual orientation have continued. Racism in particular has been used from the start as a way of dividing workers along an arbitrary basis & weakening any chances for solid organisation. So long as there is always someone being looked down upon, someone forced to accept lower wages because of their low status in society, wages in a competitive system can always be pushed to what the lowest & most desperate will accept. It should also go without saying that there is no scientific proof of the existence of separate human "races" which are truly incapable of getting along, nor is there scientific proof that women are inherently physically weaker or less intellectually capable than men. The issue of "hate speech" & pornography must always take into account the importance of artistic freedom & the necessity to criticize what one disagrees with. When it is clear that a conscious effort is being made to denigrate or divide a group of people from another, with some economic or political goal as it's motivation, libertarian socialists would resist such actions on the basis that they would divide & weaken any chance for eventual liberation from capitalism. Finally, so long as any group is prejudiced against, humanity will wage war against itself for irrational reasons, using such divisions as a means to an end when seen fit. If people understand that they too can be discriminated against, based on ANYTHING about them, it should be obvious that such discrimination, like any other human activity, has potential to be self-destructive in it's consequences.

    What libertarian socialist organisations exist?

    Currently the most prominent organisations along libertarian socialist lines are the International of Anarchist Federations (IFA), & the syndicalist union known as the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), the anarcho-syndicalist International Workers Association (IWA), & various anarchist organisations & groups world-wide.

    Are there any major libertarian socialist theorists?

    Aside from the significant number of anarchist communist theorists such as Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Mikhail Bakunin, Peter Kropotkin & Alexander Berkman, some important contributors to libertarian socialist theory & philosophy would be Noam Chomsky, Daniel Guerin, & Murray Bookchin.

    (This article was originally written in mid-late 1995 & later updated.)

    http://flag.blackened.net/liberty/libsoc.html


    3512 -- UPDATE

    9. A complete collection of Hsin Shih-chi (The New Century). together with some of the pamphlets published by the Paris group, were reprinted in four volumes, in Shanghai, 1947. All citations from Hsin Shih-chi are from this edition. 94. A brief biography of Shih Fu appears at the beginning of his collective works, Shih Fu wen-ts`on (Collective Works of Shih Fu), Canton, 1927. See also his biography in the anarchist publication Ko-ming hsien-ch'ü (the Vanguard of Revolution), Shanghai, 1928. For a sketch in English, see H. E. Shaw, "A Chinese Revolutionist," Mother Earth, Vol.X, No.8, October, 1915, pp.284-5. 107. For its declaration, see "Declaration of the Society of Anarchist Communist Comrades," Min Sheng, No.19, July 18, 1914, pp. 6-9.

    109. For example, in Min Sheng, No. 21, August 2, 1914, the receipt of one of Emma Goldman's books is acknowledged, & her picture is printed. In the same issue, is a note stating that despite the seizure & suppression of Osugi Sakae's new journal, Heimin Shimbun(The Commoner Newspaper), Min Sheng has secretly received a copy of issue No.1. Scarcely an issue of Min Sheng, moreover, was without news of some foreign anarchist party or movement. In issue No.13, an advertisement appears on p. 12 for a Chinese socialist & anarchist journal published in Burma called Cheng Sheng(The Voice of Justice).

    110. Shih Fu lived until after the publication of issue No. 22. It is reported that after every issue, he became ill from over-exhaustion. Following his death, Min Sheng was changed to a bi-weekly, & the last few issues were published very irregularly. At a later point, the anarchists began to publish the magazine again

    The Chinese Anarchist Movement, by R. Scalapino & G. T. Yu (1961). http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/anarchist_archives/worldwidemovements/scalapino.html


    3512 -- archive A.J. MUSTE Muste served as general secretary of the Amalgamated Textile Workers for over two years. Strikes occurred somewhere almost every week. From 1921 to 1933 he was the educational director of Brookwood Labor College.

    During the Depression he worked with the labor movement, the Unemployed Leagues, the Workers Party, the sit-down strikes, & the forming of the C.I.O. Muste helped start the Conference for Progressive Labor Action (CPLA) which offered a radical alternative to the Communist Party.

    In 1936 he helped organize a strike of the Goodyear Tire workers in Akron, Ohio, which was the first time the sit-in tactic was used in the American labor movement. Also in 1936 A.J. gave up his Trotskyism & returned to Christian pacifism for the rest of his life, saying that God is love & that "love is the central thing in the universe."

    Love, he felt, must be carried into every aspect of family life, race relations, labor movement, political activity, & international relations.

    In 1940 A.J. Muste published

    http://www.san.beck.org/WP25-Muste.html


    3513 -- ANARCHIST ARCHIVES Used books offered for sale by French dealer Anarchy Control & information for this catalogue:

    For information one this catalogues & to order : Bookshop the Lectern - e-mail : randrii@aol.com [ Galaxidion | Sets of themes fields | Abbreviations | Currencies ] For the majority, the references are extracted from : Jean Maitron : " the anarchistic movement in France " ---

    Anarchie

    Commande et information pour ce catalogue :
    For information on this catalogue & to order :
    Librairie Le Lutrin - e-mail : randrii@aol.com

    GalaxidionDomaines thématiquesAbréviationsCurrencies ]


      Pour la plupart, les références sont extraites de : Jean Maitron :
      " Le mouvement anarchiste en France "

    1. orange diamond dingbat L'Alliance de la Démocratie Socialiste et l'Association des Travailleurs. Rapport et documents publiés par ordre du congrès international de la Haye.
      Darson, Londres, 1873.
      Brochure in-8° de 138 pp. Manquent le dos et le 2ème plat de la couverture.
      8 000,00 F.
      Ecrit par Engels et Lafargue contre Bakounine, c'est à la suite du congrès de La Haye en 1872 que l'Alliance des Démocraties socialistes de Bakounine se sépara de l'A.I.T. Rare.

    2. orange diamond dingbat BAKOUNINE (Michel) Dieu & l'Etat.
      Préface de E. Reclus et C. Cafiero. Nouvelle édition.
      La Brochure Mensuelle, Bibliothèque sociale, Paris, sans date.
      In-12° broché, 2 portraits, IX-87 pp. Titre manuscrit au dos.
      200,00 F.

    3. orange diamond dingbat CHALLAYE (Félicien) Les origines de la guerre mondiale. Les responsabilité Russes et Françaises.
      Chez l' Auteur, Paris, sans date.
      Plaquette in-8° brochée, 31 pp.
      100,00 F.

    4. orange diamond dingbat CREAGH (Ronald) Laboratoires de l'Utopie. Les communautés libertaires aux Etats-Unis.
      Payot, Paris, 1983.
      In-8° broché, 224-(3) pp.
      100,00 F.

    5. orange diamond dingbat DEVALDES (Manuel) Contes d'un rebelle.
      Editions de l'Idée Libre, Conflans-Sainte-Honorine, 1925. Edition originale.
      In-12° broché, frontispice, 175 pp.
      200,00 F.

    6. orange diamond dingbat DEVALDES (Manuel) Les raisons de mon insoumission.
      Editions de l'Idée Libre, Conflans-Honorine, juin 1926. Edition originale.
      Plaquette in-8° brochée, 8 pp.
      200,00 F.
      Lettre écrite à Marceline Hecquet qui lui posait cette question pour son livre à paraître sur les réfractaires du monde entier. La parution de l'ouvrage tardant, M. Devaldès décida de la publier.

    7. orange diamond dingbat ELTZBACHER (Paul) L'Anarchisme.
      Marcel Giard, Paris 1923. Traduction de Otto Karmin. (EO : 1902)
      In-12° broché, 416 pp.
      300,00 F.

    8. orange diamond dingbat FAURE (Sébastien) Deux martyrs: Sacco et Vanzetti.
      La Fraternelle, Paris 1927.
      Plaquette in-8° brochée, 14 pp.
      150,00 F.

    9. orange diamond dingbat FAURE (Sébastien) La Douleur universelle. Philosophie libertaire.
      Préface d'Emile Gautier.
      P.V. Stock, Bibliothèque sociologique, 1921.
      250,00 F.
      In-12° broché, 427 pp.
      L'édition originale date de 1895, cet exemplaire porte une couverture avec mention " La brochure mensuelle " 11ème édition, alors que le corps d'ouvrage porte P.V. Stock, 14ème édition.

    10. orange diamond dingbat FEDERATION JURASSIENNE. Mémoire présenté par la Fédération Jurassienne de l'association Internationale des travailleurs à toutes les fédérations de l'Internationale.
      Comité Fédéral Jurassien, Sonvillier, 1873.
      In-8° broché, 285 - 139 pp. Couverture tachée, légères fentes au dos.
      8 000,00 F.
      Mémoire publié par ordre du Congrès de la Fédération Jurassienne, Sonvillier, octobre 1871, écrit par J. Guillaume. En ce qui concerne l'Alliance de la Démocratie Sociale, J. Guillaume utilisa un manuscrit de Bakounine. L'impression du mémoire fut commencée en juillet 1872 et " les 80 premières pages ainsi qu'une forte partie des pièces justificatives furent imprimées avant les Congrès de La Haye auquel nous avions eu d'abord la pensée de présenter se rapport historique " (avant propos du mémoire). Paru complet en avril 1873, y sont reproduits de nombreux documents des sections de l'A.I.T. en Suisse et les discours et articles de M. Bakounine. Rare.

    11. orange diamond dingbat GERIN (René) Si la Guerre éclatait… Que faire ?
      Ligue Internationale des Combattants de la Paix, Paris, 1936.
      In-12° broché, 134 pp. Envoi autographe de l'auteur.
      100,00 F.

    12. orange diamond dingbat GUILLAUME (James)
      Idées sur l'organisation sociale.
      La Librairie du Travail, Paris, sans date.
      In-12° broché, 48 pp.
      150,00 F.
      Réédition d'un texte paru en 1876.

    13. orange diamond dingbat GUILLAUME (James) Karl Marx Pangermaniste et l'Association Internationale des travailleurs de 1864 à 1870.
      Armand Colin, Paris, 1915. Edition originale.
      500,00 F.
      In-12° broché, IV- 107-(40) en fin de volume, catalogue de l'éditeur, 40 pp. léger manque de papier en haut du dos, couverture salie.
      Ecrites en juin et juillet 1914, ces pages devaient servir d'introduction à la réimpression des comptes rendus des trois procés de l'Internationale parisienne.

    14. orange diamond dingbat GRAVE (Jean) La Société mourante et l'Anarchie.
      Tresse et Stock, Paris, 1893. Préface par Octave Mirbeau.
      In-12° broché, X-298 pp. Edition originale.
      500,00 F.

    15. orange diamond dingbat HENNEQUIN (Amédée)
      Le Communisme et la Jeune-Allemagne en Suisse.
      France Librairie, " Etudes sur l'Anarchie contemporaine ", Paris 1850. Edition originale.
      In-12° broché, IV-144 pp. Envoi manuscrit de l'auteur sur la couverture. Mouillures marginales.
      2 000,00 F.
      Histoire du mouvement libertaire et athée qui se forma parmi les ouvriers suisses à partir de 1843, mouvement connu sous le nom de " Jeune-Allemagne " en opposition au communisme " autoritaire " de Weitling. (Netlau page 40). Rare.

    16. orange diamond dingbat IXIGREC Panurge au Pays des Machines.
      Sans mention d'éditeur de lieu ni de date (1940). Illustrations de l'auteur.
      In-12° broché, 67 pp.
      200,00 F.

    17. orange diamond dingbat KROPOTKINE (Pierre) L'Entr'aide Un facteur de l'évolution.
      Alfred Costes, Bibliothèque de philosophie sociale, Paris, 1938.
      In-8° broché, XIX-388 pp. Traduit par Louise Guieysse-Bréal. 2ème édition. (EOF 1906).
      200,00 F.

    18. orange diamond dingbat KROPOTKINE (Pierre) La Conquête du pain.
      Stock, Bibliothèque sociologique, Paris, 1921. Préface d' E. Reclus. (mention de 19° édition)
      In-12° broché, XV-297 pp.
      250,00 F.

    19. orange diamond dingbat KROPOTKINE (Pierre) L' Ethique.
      Stock, Paris, 1927 (mention de 5° édition)
      In-12° broché, VIII-399 pp. non coupé.
      250,00 F.

    20. orange diamond dingbatKROPOTKINE (Pierre) L' Ethique.
      Stock, Paris, 1927 (mention de 6° édition)
      In-12° broché, VIII-399 pp.
      200,00 F.

    21. orange diamond dingbatLA VERITABLE REVOLUTION SOCIALE
      I. Sébastien FAURE. La révolution sociale.
      II. Louis BARBEDETTE. De l'Antiquité à la Révolution française.
      III. Victor MERIC La Révolution française.
      IV. VOLINE. La Révolution russe V. Sébastien FAURE. Pour conclure.
      Editions de l' " Encyclopédie Anarchiste ", Paris, sans date.
      In-12° broché, 239 pp.
      150,00 F.
      Reproduction de quatre articles figurant au mot " Révolution sociale " dans l' " Encyclopédie Anarchiste " de S. Faure.

    22. orange diamond dingbatLAVROFF (Pierre) Lettres historiques. Traduit du russe et précédé d'une notice historique par Marie Goldsmith.
      Schleicher frères & Cie, Paris, 1908.
      In-12° broché, portrait, XXIII-328 pp. Bibliographie. Dos sali.
      350,00 F.
      Arrété en 1866 à la suite de l'attentat contre Alexandre II, déporté, il continura à publier sous un pseudonyme ses lettres historiques. Evadé en 1870, il se refugie à Paris. Il proposa au gouvernement de la Commune une réforme de l'enseignement. Il fut le principal instigateur du mouvement "Populiste" Russe. (Edité pour la première fois en volume en russe en 1870)

    23. André Lorulot La Grande trahison de 1940. La vérité sur les causes de notre défaite, le renversement de la république et la Kollaboration Hitler-Laval-Pétain.
      Editions de l'Idée Libre, Herblay, 1945. Edition originale.
      In-8° broché, illustrations in-texte, 158 pp. Envoi autographe de l'auteur.
      300,00 F.

      LES CAHIERS PENSEE ET ACTION (Trimestriels)
      Hem Day, Pensée et Action, Bruxelles, volumes in-8° brochés.

    24. N°1. William GODWIN (1756-1836) Philosophe de la justice et de la Liberté.
      Témoignages anciens par Nettlau, Benjamin Constant, P. Kropotkine, textes de G. Woodcock, A. Prunier, H. Salt, J. Cello, Hem Day , C. Zaccaria etc.
      Août-septembre 1953, 80 pp.
      150,00 F.

    25. N°3. Etienne de LA BOETIE. Discours de la Servitude Volontaire.
      Introduction de Hem Day. Illustrations de Jacques Laudy.
      Juillet-Septembre 1954, XVI-91-(4) pp.
      150,00 F.
      La numérotation des pages du texte commence à 9. Face à de graves difficultés financière, les " cahiers ", afin de ne pas trop espacer leurs parutions, ont débroché les volumes de " La servitude volontaire " et les ont encarté sous une nouvelle couverture, avec une introduction sur la vie et l'œuvre de Etienne de La Boëtie.

    26. N°6. BIBLE de L'OBJECTEUR DE CONSCIENCE ET DE RAISON
      Près d'un millier de citations, d'auteurs, savants, artistes, hommes politiques et religieux recueillis par Hem day.
      Janvier - Février 1957, 105 pp.
      150,00 F.

    27. N°9. Louise MICHEL - Jules VERNE. De qui est 20 000 lieues sous les mers ?
      Textes de Hem Day, bibliographie de Louise Michel.
      Janvier-Mars 1959, 100 pp.
      200,00 F.

    28. N°10. DEWAELHEM Les Mystifications à travers les âges.
      Avril-Juin 1959, XXVIII-213 pp.
      150,00 F.

    29. N°12. Domela NIEUWENHUIS - Barthélémy DE LIGT. Contre la Guerre. Contre le Militarisme. Pour la Paix.
      Textes des deux pacifistes, de Hem Day, bibliographies sommaires.
      Janvier - mars / MARCH 1960, 100 pp.
      150,00 F.

    30. N°13. DAASON (Edouard) Le Livre du Bien et du Mal.
      Avril - Juin 1960. 185 pp. Rejaquettage de l'édition de 1910.
      150,00 F.

    31. N°19. MONCLIN (Roger) Gaston COUTE Poète maudit
      Préface de Pierre Mac Orlan
      Septembre 1962, 51 pp. Bibliographie.
      150,00 F.

    32. N°23-24. C.G. JUNG.
      Janvier - Mai 1964, in-12° broché, 390 pp. Bibliographie.
      200,00 F.
      Textes de Jung, Adler, M. Eliade, etc.

    33. PETITFILS (Jean-Christian) La vie quotidienne des communautés utopistes au XIX° siècle.
      Hachette, Paris 1982.
      In-8° broché, 319 pp. Bibliographie.
      100,00 F.

    34. PICQUERAY (May) May la réfractaire. Pour mes 81 ans d'Anarchie.
      Atelier Marcel Jullian, paris, 1979.
      In-8° broché, 247 pp. -12 Illustrations.
      100,00 F.

    35. PROUDHON (Pierre Joseph) De la justice dans la Révolution et dans l'Eglise. Nouveaux principes de philosophie pratique adressés à son Eminence Monseigneur Mathieu, cardinal-archevèque de Besançon.
      Librairie Garnier frères, Paris, 1858. Edition originale de cet ouvrage qui fut saisi. Proudhon fut condamné à 3 ans de prison.
      Trois volumes in-12°, demi-chagrin rouge, dos à 4 nerfs, coiffes abîmées, reliures usagées. 7(" Pétition au Sénat ", lettre adressée par Proudhon aux sénateurs, reliée en tête du volume I)-520 pp. ; 544 pp. ; 612 pp.
      2 000,00 F.

    36. PROUDHON (Pierre-Joseph) La Guerre et la Paix.
      Dentu-Hetzel, Essais de Philosophie Pratique n° 13, Paris, 1861.
      Deux volumes in-12° , demi-basane brune, dos à 4 nerfs. 404 pp. ; 423 pp. Edition originale ? (On ne sait laquelle de celle-ci ou de l'édition de Bruxelles est la première).
      1 000,00 F.

    37. RAGON (Michel) La voie Libertaire.
      Plon, " Terre Humaine - Courants de pensée ", Paris, 1991.
      In-8° broché, 220 pp. Illustrations.
      100,00 F.

    38. RECLUS (Elisée) Correspondance.
      Schleicher Frères, Paris 1911 pour les 2 premiers tomes, Alfred Costes, Paris 1925 pour le troisième tome. Edition originale.
      Trois volumes in-12° brochés, portrait,352 pp. 519 pp. et 2 pl. HT. 339 pp. portrait, autographe.
      1 000,00 F.

    39. RESPAUT (André) http://recollectionbooks.com/bleed/Encyclopedia/RespautAndre.htm Sociologie Fédéraliste Libertaire.
      Sans éditeur ni lieu ni date, seule mention : Imprimerie du sud-ouest, 1, rue Tripière, Toulouse.
      In-12° broché, 118 pp. Envoi autographe de l'auteur.
      100,00 F.
      Propos sur Bakounine, Stirner, Proudhon, Kropotkine, L. Michel, E. Reclus etc.

    40. RENNES (Jacques) Exposé du Marxisme.
      Editions Liberté, Paris, 1938. 2ème édition.
      In-12° broché, 204 pp.
      150,00 F.

    41. [ROBIN] GIROUD (Gabriel) Paul Robin. Sa vie, ses idées, son action.
      L'Internationale. Cempuis : La coéducation des sexes. La propagande Néo-Malthusienne.
      G. Mignolet & Storz, Paris, 1937.
      In-12° broché, 317 pp. Illustrations.
      200,00 F.

    42. RYNER (Han) Bouche-d'or patron des pacifistes.
      Albert Messein, Paris, 1934. Edition originale.
      In-12° broché, 206 pp.
      150,00 F.
      La non-violence est l'aspect le plus caractéristique de l'œuvre de H.R. Cet ouvrage illustre sa philosophie plus encore que ses précédents ; il constitue à la fois une apologie de l'individualisme (l'homme ne trouve la vérité que par l'assertion réitérée de sa volonté) et une apologie de la non-violence.A plusieurs reprises, Don Chrysostome est pris à partie. Il pratique une résistance passive, et tente de montrer à ses adversaires que l'emploi de la violence ne résout aucun conflit. (Maricourt : Histoire de la littérature libertaire en France).'

    43. RYNER (Han) Le cinquième évangile.
      Athéné - Les Maîtres Contemporains (Prose). Paris, 1922. (E.O. 1911)
      In-12° broché, 278 pp. (septième édition).
      150,00 F.
      Vie de Jésus, supérieure à celle de Renan. Des paraboles nouvelles, d'une rare beauté, jettent une lumière peu attendue sur cet "évangile de la pauvreté joyeuse, du détachement et de l'amour". (C. Pensée et Action n 20/21).

    44. RYNER (Han) Le crime d'obéir. Roman d'histoire contemporaine.
      Editions de l'Idée Libre, Conflans-Honorine (S. et O.), 1925.
      In-8° broché, 254 pp.
      250,00 F.
      "Le Crime d'obéir" est le premier ouvrage important de Han Ryner. Il est aussi le premier dans lequel s'affirment si clairement les idées anarchistes du philosophe. (Maricourt: Histoire de la littérature libertaire en France)

    45. RYNER (Han) Les pacifiques.
      Eugène Figuière et Cie, Paris, 1914. Edition originale.
      In-8 broché, 296 pp.
      250,00 F.
      Noble utopie tolstoïenne, située (plusieurs années avant l'ouvrage de Pierre Benoit) dans l'Antlantide retrouvée ; œuvre séduisante, où la profondeur est cachée sous la facilité et le sourire. (C. Pensée et Action n 20/21).

    46. RYNER (Han) Petit manuel individualiste.
      Editions Athéna - Les Maîtres Contemporains (Prose). Paris, sans date.
      Plaquette in-12° brochée, 32 pp.
      150,00 F.
      Célèbre exposition populaire, sous forme de catéchisme, par demandes et réponses. (C. Pensée et Action n 20/21)

    47. RYNER (Han) Songes perdus.
      Albert Messein, Paris, 1929. Edition originale.
      In-12° broché, 236 pp.
      150,00 F.
      "C'est à travers la méditation lucide et féconde de H. Ryner., toute l'histoire philosophique de l'humanité" (M. Battiliat.)

    48. RYNER (Han) Les véritables entretiens de Socrate.
      Editions Athéna - Les Maîtres Contemporains (Prose). Paris, 1922. Edition originale.
      In-12° broché, 243 pp.
      150,00 F.
      Le vrai Socrate reconstitué, non selon, mais contre Xénophon. Aussi facile que le "Cinquième Evangile" et accessible à tous, mais plus austère.

    49. SCHATZ (Albert) L'Individualisme économique et social. Ses origines- Son évolution - Ses formes contemporaine.
      Armand Colin, Paris, 1907.
      In-8° broché, 590-(4) pp.
      250,00 F.

    50. SAINTE-SOLINE (Claire) D'amour et d'anarchie.
      Récit d'une femme de militant (Mme Legrain) recueilli par Claire Sainte-Soline.
      Grasset, Paris, 1955.
      In-12° broché, 205 pp.
      100,00 F.

    51. SERGENT (Alain) Un Anarchiste de la Belle Epoque: Alexandre Jacob
      Editions du Seuil, " Les 400 coups ", Paris, 1950.
      In-8° broché, 208 pp.
      150,00 F.

    52. STIRNER (Max)

      L'unique et sa propirété.
      Traduction du Docteur Reclaire.
      Jean-Jacques Pauvert, Paris, 1960
      In-8 broché, 333 pp.
      200,00 F.

    53. [STIRNER] MACKAY (John-Henry) L'œuvre de Max Stirner : L'Unique et sa propriété.
      Adaptation et mise au point de E. Armand.
      Editions de " l'en dehors ", Paris, Limoges et Orléans, 1939. (EO Allemande. 1898)
      In-8° broché, 39 pp. Tiré à 800 exemplaires.
      150,00 F.

    54. VALOIS (Georges) Technique de la révolution syndicale.
      Editions Liberté, Paris 1935.
      In-8° broché, 324 pp. Edition originale.
      250,00 F.

    55. VICTOR-SERGE Ville Conquise.
      Editions Rieder, Paris, 1932. (noté 1935 sur la couverture par erreur)
      In-12° broché, 289 pp. Petits manques de papiers aux coiffes. Non coupé.
      100,00 F.

    Copyright © 1998  Galaxidion & Librairie Le Lutrin




    3514 -- a Screen saver called "Famous Anarchists". It has images & captions (names) of 30 famous Anarchists. The size of the file is 3.14MB. It also has MS Plus! features & is somewhat cutomizable. It comes in a single self-extracting .exe file. You can download it at http://members.xoom.com/pfafs/downloads.htm. Just thought I'd let you all know, hope you enjoy it. For A Free Society, Arnie People For A Free Society THIS LINK IS DEAD http://members.xoom.com/pfafs/ I MAY HAVE THIS A COPY OF THIS ON AN OLD HARD DRIVE FROM ONE OF MY OLD COMPUTERS. NEED TO CHECK AROUND

    MusicMoz - Bands & Artists: P: Phish: Links ... Phish - Links to image gallery, desktop themes, wallpapers, screen saver & other ... Phish Culture & Anarchist Theory - A sociological analysis of Phish tour ... musicmoz.org/Bands_and_Artists/P/Phish/Links/ - 19k - Cached - Similar pages

    TI-83/84 Plus BASIC Animations - ticalc.org ... but anyways: It is an animation of an anarchy logo- uses no pics.take a look if your an anarchist or not. ... b4k4.zip, 1k, 03-05-04, B4K4 ScreenSaver Displays: U B4K4 ... www.ticalc.org/pub/83plus/basic/media/animations/ - 101k - Sep 17, 2004 - Cached - Similar pages

    download flag world Variable Earth ... http://www.screensaver.com/wwnf.htm Score: 166 . ... Anarchist Federation Ireland The website of the Anarchist Federation Ireland, a class struggle anarchist ... www.variableearth.com/earth/download+flag+world - 21k - Cached - Similar pages

    L'ironica vista sul mondo - Sito Alieno - Ironia e satira ... Free Screensaver. about dmoz | suggest URL | update listing | become an editor | report abuse/spam | help. the entire directory. ... www.praystation.it/.../ Society/Politics/Anarchism/ - 29k - Cached - Similar pages Anarchist Anarchy Cookbook 2004 ... It will even works in "silent mode" while your screensaver is running, quietly capturing images without playing a ... This is the best Anarchist CD Ever Created. ... www.livetaxfree.com/anarchycd.htm - 100k - Cached - Similar pages

    What's New at the Infoshop & on the Web - Fall 1999 ... The Switchboard will be coordinating the anarchist response to the WTO summit. ... Abraham Lincoln Brigade Archives They have a nice screensaver! ...

    Crispin Sartwell Links ... wendy mcelroy: individualist, anarchist, feminist. ... includes jim's bean talk! refresh: the art of the screen saver screen savers by major artists. ... www.crispinsartwell.com/links.html - 8k - Cached - Similar pages
    Multimedia The Wire, Issue 142, December 95 Mark Espiner In the ... ... released this month, they have included data to run an album cover screen saver. ... is charted from metalworker & trade union activist to anarchist leader (and ... users.rcn.com/rpsweb/durutti-column/ texts/wire-review.html - 5k - Cached - Similar pages

    3520 -- Democracy is not something that you believe in or a place to hang your hat, but its something you do. You participate. If you stop doing it democracy crumbles. -Abbie Hoffman http://www.abbiehoffman.com/


    ?
    4000 -- POINT BLANK



    4000 -- IS EINSTEIN AN ANARCHIST? The FBI has been forced to release hundreds of documents on Albert Einstein under the 'Freedom of Information Act'. These can be found as PDF files at http://foia.fbi.gov/einstein.htm The opening document includes a letter arguing that Einstein should be excluded from the USA because of his affiliation with the War Resisters League which the document describes as 'Anarcho-communist'. It further argues that Einstein's own beliefs are anarchist although the writers seem more then a little confused in writing that "Not even Stalin himself is affiliated with so many anarcho-communist international groups ... as ALBERT EINSTEIN" http://foia.fbi.gov/einstein.htm
    http://www.ainfos.ca/ainfos00271.html


    4001 -- tshirt indian territory



    4002 -- ELISEE RECLUS

    alt; Élisée Reclus, Elisee Recluse; Reclus, Elisée

    ?
    Elisée Reclus >
    relus 8

     ?
    4007 -- image


    ?
    4009 -- little big man native american http://www.tvgen.com/movies/mopic/pictures/4/4733.htm


    ?
    4009 -- moving clouds



     ?
    4500 --



    ?
    4500 -- Kazimir Malevich, Black Suprematist Square, 1914-1915. Oil on canvas. http://www.uic.edu/depts/ahaa/classes/ah111/imagebank.html


    ?
    4500 -- CHAINS





    ?
    4500 --



    http://www.kalin.lm.com/dream2.html



    4500 --





    4500 -- golf




    4500 -- TV ART
    ?


    ?
    4500 --



    book
    4500 -- y book icon



    4500 -- PLANTATION SHADOWS





    4500 -- the end





    4500 -- anarchist graphics collection



    http://burn.ucsd.edu/~mai/agrapix.html
    http://www.anarchosyndicalism.org/theory/

    4500 --


    4509 -- SPAIN IMAGES CNT ANARCHIST; SPUNK INDEX, LIBRARY, IMAGES & ARTICLES, PERUSE FOR MIRROR ARCHIVE, OR MATERIALS TO DOWNLOAD FOR IVERSON, LINKS FOR BLEED, ETC

    esp # anarchist art (index) # anarchist bibliographies (index) anarchist fiction (index) films (index) # anarchist groups (index) # historical documents (index)


    FOR AN-NOW : files about particular places (index)
    # poetry (index) # prose (index) # anarchist publications (index) # quotes (index) i COULDN'T PAINT GOLDEN ANGELS http://www.spunk.org/library/writers/meltzer/sp001591/angeltoc.html

    http://www.spunk.org/library/


    4509 -- SPAIN IMAGES CNT ANARCHIST; SPUNK INDEX, LIBRARY, IMAGES & ARTICLES, PERUSE FOR MIRROR ARCHIVE, OR MATERIALS TO DOWNLOAD FOR IVERSON, LINKS FOR BLEED, ETC

    i COULDN'T PAINT GOLDEN ANGELS http://www.spunk.org/library/writers/meltzer/sp001591/angeltoc.html


    http://www.spunk.org/library/


    5000 -- ARCHIVE, LIT, FILM, ARTS Laibach Erik Satie Coil The Paradise Motel Béla Bartók Skinny Puppy Apoptygma Berzerk & One Red House Painters, Curve Cranes Arvo Part Michael Nyman Cocteau Twins Portishead Slowdive My Bloody Valentine Velvet Underground Antonin Dvorák The Cure The Birthday Party Crime & the City Solution Eyesore Database Ruby Mazzy Star Siouxsie & the Banshees Tindersticks Throwing Muses Belly Die Form Download Wumpscut Leætherstrip & Klute Pop Will Eat Itself Björk Einstürzende Neubauten

    Alfred Hitchcock Jan Svankmajer Adam Gravois Frances Farmer Jean Cocteau Women in Film Louise Brooks Jean-Luc Godard Nelly Kaplan Luis Buñuel François Truffaut Krzysztof Kieslowski Wim Wenders David Lynch Hal Hartley Peter Greenaway Anita Loos D. N. Rodowick The Brothers Quay Toyen Jindrich Styrsky Tina Modotti Elizabeth Siddal Henri Fuseli Diane Arbus Joseph Cornell Dora Carrington Gustave Moreau Lee Miller Richard Dadd Balthus Georgio de Chirico Edward Gorey Joan Miro Museum of Modern Art NYC Max Ernst Rodchenko Charles Blackman Marcel Duchamp Marc Chagall Cindy Sherman Remedios Varo Odilon Redon Artemisia Gentileschi Paul Delvaux Egon Schiele Umberto Eco Louis Aragon Mervyn Peake Alberto Savinio A. S. Byatt Oulipo Raymond Queneau Alfred Jarry Paul Verlaine Angela Carter Paul Valery Dorothy Parker Joyce Carol Oates Mary Elizabeth Braddon Paul Eluard Peter Carey Jeanette Winterson

    LitLine

    Italo Calvino Maurice Blanchot

    Antonin Artaud Jean Genet Samuel Beckett Wilkie Collins Anaïs Nin Raymond Radiguet Anne Sexton Albert Camus le Marquis de Sade Jorge Luis Borges J. K. Huysmans Franz Kafka Milan Kundera Gabriel Garciel Marquez Mary Shelley Rene Char Rikki Ducornet H. P. Lovecraft

    The Gothic: Materials for Study

    Unica Zürn The Nouveau Roman Marguerite Duras The Brothers Grimm Remy de Gourmont Sheridan le Fanu Michel Tournier Surrealism & Imagination Magnetic Fields B a s i l i s k

    CTheory Globe E Undercurrent Bad Subjects Images: A Journal of Film & Popular Culture Foreign Body Perforations Not Bored! S u i t c a s e Cultural Logic Cultronix Parallel Australian Journal of Cultural Studies Speed Avant-Pop Central Australian Humanities Review Detours & Delays Enculturation Differences Panic Encyclopaedia Think Conference Bohemian Ink Other Voices Beehive Psyart Deconstruction The Libyrinth Cosmic Baseball Association The Uncanny Fringeware Cultural Studies Virtual Library Voice of the Shuttle Cultural Studies Center Critical Theory & Cultural Studies The Hydra - Writing in Reserve Spoons Mailing List Semiotics Links Film Theorists/Philosophers Mobilis in Mobili Michel Foucault Jean-François Lyotard bibliography Hélène Cixous bibliography Rosalind Krauss bibliography Judith Butler bibliography Frederic Jameson bibliography The Situationist International Freddy Nietzsche 'The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction' Walter Benjamin Words of Art Deleuze Web Frankfurt School

    http://www.tc.umn.edu/~whit0580/links/


    5000 -- Bleed code ESKIMO DIRECTORY SMALL TORCH/FIRE/FLAMES Ooops...
    BULLET HOLE:Ooopsie!
    SMILEY FACE LITTLE: Hey, hey!
    BAD DAY: Dang!
    FLAGS RED & BLACK
    TNT GIF Dang!
    YUK Dang!
    OLD BOOK oldbook
    CLIPBOARD Cliff Notes

    exlposionstage coach Exploding Stagecoach
    UNAMERICAN HUAC
    BOOKS GIF BOOKS
    SPACES   SPACES
    __font colors face="Arial Black" LIGHTSTEELBLUE coral WHEAT lightgoldenrod2 darkslategreen khaki slateblue THISTLE BROWN TEMPLATE BLOCKQUOTE:

    BBBBB

    body background="wrld.gif" bgproperties=fixed BODY TEXT="ANTIQUEWHITE" LEFTMARGIN="100" BGcolor="#9999aa" LINK="#FF0000" VLINK="#707070"
    http://recollectionbooks.com/bleed/images/anarchy2.gif ALT=Anarchy Too! width="100" height="200" border="0" hspace="10" vspace="10" align="right" Anarchy
    http://www.geocities.com/naacweb/flag.gif?
    UPDATE NEW LINK SPAIN 1936 ?
    http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/5602/scwar4.html

    ZERZAN ANARCHO PRIMITIVE ?


    5000 -- I'm in the same boat you are. Online I find mostly bibliographical reference.

    But here are some useful links:

    On a film site, Biography for Panait Istrati , AKA (Boris Souvarine)

    Page 4 of 4 Mini biography

    Panait Istrate was born in the Danube port Braila in Romania, on 11 August 1884 to Joita Istrate, an unmarried house cleaner. It seams that a Greek smuggler named Valsamis, partner to Joita's father, was his father. At age of 12 leaves home, drifts & works in Braila port, living with his grandmother in Lacul Sarat (Salt Lake). In March 1916 leaves Romania & starts a long trip through Mediterranean area, living in Suisse, Greece, France, Italy, and passing through Egypt, Lebanon, Syria. On 4 January 1921 tried suicide; by chance his situation coming to attention of French writer Romaine Rolland, they start a long relationship & a productive letter exchange. He start publishing some short stories & novels, written in French, which were appreciated by the critics, which start calling him "Gorky of Balkan". Coming from a working class background, he was very supportive of new social system experience in Russia, (probable influenced by his communist friend Romaine Rolland), but later, after the real situation of repressions in Russia became generally known, he start being very critical of Stalin & communism. His life is described in one of his novels by the Greek writer Nikos Kazantzakis. Died in 1935.

    IMDb mini-biography by Alex Darie

    Errors & omissions on this page may be reported to the IMDb editors by pressing the button below where they will be examined and, if accepted, included in a future update.

    http://www.imdb.com/Bio?Istrati,+Panait

    ___________

    1. "Folklore Motifs in Panait Istrati's Fiction", Yearbook of Romanian Studies, 1 (1976), 6-12.

    2. "The Mythical & Legendary Dimensions of Panait Istrati's Characters in the Tales of Adrian Zograffi (with J. Wilburn) Miorita, A Journal of Romanian Studies, V, no. 1, Jan. 1978, pp. 60-72.

    "The Mythical & Legendary Dimensions of Panait Istrati's characters in the Tales of Adrian Zograffi, Modern Languages Association, 1975.

    http://slavic.ohio-state.edu/people/botoman/botoman.htm

    _____________________________

    (Badly translated, but includes photo of him).: http://www.dumitrescu.com/me/countries/romania/encyclopedia/romania/culture/literatura/l_istrate.html

    Yahoo: http://fr.encyclopedia.yahoo.com/articles/ma/ma_2126_p0.html

    _____________________

    MEMORIA LUI PANAIT ISTRATI INTINATA DE CONSATENII SAI http://www.vlg.sisnet.ro/arhiva/an2001/3436/cultura.htm Panait Istrati Memorial House (both in Braila & Baldovinesti)

    _______________

    Istrati, Panait. Kyra Kyralina. New York : A. A. Knopf, 1926. Freeport, N.Y. : Books for Libraries Press, 1971. "A kidnapped Roumanian boy tells of his sexual enslavement by a Turkish potentate."

    ______________________

    IONESCU, MARIANA CARMEN.

    Titlu : La metamorphose de la narration orale dans les recits de Panait Istrati / Mariana C. Ionescu. Editura : [S.l. : s.n.], 1994. Descriere : 4 microfise. Note : Teza de doctorat -- University of Western Ontario, 1994. Subiecte : Istrati, Panait, 1884-1935.

    http://www.bibnat.ro/r000054/r053529.htm

    _____________

    Bandits / by Panait Istrati, translated by William A. Drake

    ISBN: 0836934601 Ayer Company Publishers, Incorporated 06/01/1977 User Rating: (Unrated) Hardcover Trade Cloth Short Story Index Reprint Series Orig. Lang: French List Price: $21.95 ___________________

    PANAIT ISTRATI LES CHARDONS DU BARAGAN AUX 4 COINS DU MONDE . 1928. Grand In-8 Broché. 30 compositions orig. couleur de SCREPEL . EX. Numéroté sur Vélin de TORPES 1534/2100 . 149 pages . TBE . http://www.le-livre.com/istrati.htm ________________

    Romanians on stamps ISTRATI, Panait (1881-1938) Franco-Romanian author, journalist - Romania 3241 http://www.marinel.net/romania/rom_stamps.html

    ___________________

    Cea mai importanta biblioteca publica a judetului Braila, Biblioteca Judeteana "Panait Istrati",

    http://cibnet.flex.ro/cultural/biblio/info.htm

    ________________________

    Long article in Spanish, Luis Francisco Acosta De una confesión invicta

    Dice Luis Francisco Acosta que la vida del gran escritor rumano Panait Istrati fue "fustigada por el azar y el amor, el infortunio y la esperanza". http://www.jornada.unam.mx/2001/may01/010506/sem-acosta.html

    ______________________

    Panaït Istrati

    < (1884 - 1935) Né en Roumanie, Panaït Istrati fit ses débuts à vingt ans comme rédacteur à Roumanie ouvrière puis se lança dans une vie de voyages et d'errances sur les rives méditerranéennes et à travers l'Europe. Après avoir découvert l'œuvre de Romain Rolland en 1919, il se lia d'une intense amitié épistolaire avec l'écrivain qui ne cessa de l'encourager à écrire. Panaït Istrati publia Kyra-Kyralina (1923) dans la revue Europe et il écrivit la plus grande partie de son œuvre, notamment Les Récits d'Adrien Zograffi (1924-1935), pendant les dix années qui suivirent. En 1927, Panaït Istrati découvrit l'URSS et publia dès son retour en France Vers l'autre flamme (1929) qui dénonçait les abus du pouvoir soviétique. En 1930, il retourna en Roumanie où il publia de nombreux articles dans la presse roumaine ainsi que des traductions de ses propres textes dans sa langue d'origine. Partenariat : Association des Amis de Panaït Istrati, Cahiers Panaït Istrati. http://www.imec-archives.com/fonds/ficheauteur1.asp?num=86

    Best page I came across, Panaït Istrati: un génie de la bohème roumaine

    http://www.bucarest-matin.ro/ARHIVA/2000AUG/1011info.html

    You can run this through an online translator such as Babel fish, at http://babelfish.altavista.com/, for some rough English language translation.

    ____________

    Excerpt from My Farewells by Panaït Istrati translation by Ina Pfitzner

    Translator's Note:

    Panaït Istrati, the Gorky of the Balkans, was born in the Romanian port city of Braila in 1884. His young years of vagabondage through the Mediterranean & Middle East served as the subject matter for many of his works. Istrati worked as a socialist journalist in Bucharest & traveled to the Soviet Union, a trip from which he returned disappointed. While living in southern France, doing odd jobs, he attempted suicide. A passionate letter addressed to French writer Romain Rolland provoked his idol not only to encourage him to keep on living but also to start writing. Most of Istrati's novels were written in France between 1920 & 1929, & in the self-taught French language, including his international successes Kyra Kyralina & The Thistles of Baragan. Istrati later returned to Romania to become a hog farmer, & died there in poverty in 1934. His novels & autobiographical texts are largely based on folk tales from his homeland as well as on personal experiences. Istrati's series of autobiographical accounts of Adrien Zograffi includes My Farewells (Mes départs), written in 1928. It is now being translated into English for the first time. My Farewells consists of three sections, of which the first two are reprinted here.

    http://www.corpse.org/issue_9/ficciones/istrati.htm

    ______________________________

    "Kyra Kyralina" de Panaït Istrati

    Panaït Istrati est né à Braîla, en 1884. Il part à 12 ans du domicile familiale pour vivre une vie de vagabondage en parcourant nombre de pays. Il nous conte dans ce livre la vie de Stavro, un personnage "peu fréquentable" certainement parce qu'il n'a pas eu la même vie que les autres. Stavro, qui fut d'abord Dragomir partage son enfance entre la méchanceté de son père et l'amour de sa mère et de sa soeur Kyra. Séparé de sa famille par les évenements trés tôt, Dragomir fait la pénible découverte de la bassesse de l'homme...

    Mon avis : Un superbe livre, où l'on se passionne rapidement pour la vie de Dragomir (Stavro). Au delà du conte trés bien écrit (ce qui d'autant plus remarquable, car ce ne n'est pas une traduction, Panaït Istrati a appris seul le français), il ressort des leçons philosophiques trés judicieuses.

    Cover image of this book, http://perso.wanadoo.fr/sylvain.laborie/images/kyra.jpg

    __________

    "Panaït Istrati : aventure et exil"

    Aujourd'hui à 18h30, dans la salle Elvire Popesco de l'Institut français, Jeanne-Marie Santraud donnera une conférence : "Panaït Istrati : aventure et exil".

    Dana Aldea

    (Bucarest Matin)

    Professeur émérite de l'Université Paris IV Sorbonne, directrice de la revue Américaine (Sorbonne) et membre de l'Association "Les amis de Panaït Istrati", Jeanne-Marie Santraud abordera lors de la conférence d'aujourd'hui le thème de l'aventure et de l'exil dans l'oeuvre et la vie de Panaït Istrati.

    Exilé dans un pays étranger, la France, exilé dans une langue étrangère, Istrati proclame dans tout son oeuvre, qui abonde en expressions roumaines, la nostalgie du pays. Aujourd'hui, son oeuvre continue d'exercer sa magie sur ses lecteurs, dont la plupart cherchent à expliquer cette fascination.

    Quand il vient au monde, Panaït Istrati naît "exilé", père grec, enfant renié. Par la suite, exilé au monde "extérieur" de la cité (à Braila, on est au courant des circonstances de sa naissance), il va grandir exilé du "dedans" ce qui fait de lui un personnage type des temps modernes.

    Le rôle joué auprès de lui par sa mère va accentuer cet aspect. Elle veut faire de lui un petit garçon bien convenable. Elle en fait, inconsciemment, un être à part qui sera attiré par les marginaux. Premier départ en compagnie de Mikhaîl. Istrati n'est jusque là qu'un fugueur.

    Une fois déclenché, le processus va néanmoins s'accélérer. Tournant décisif : en France, rencontre de Romain Rolland. C'est là que l'aventure à proprement parler commence : elle est d'ordre linguistique. C'est dans une langue étrangère qu'Istrati s'épanouira ; il se jette dans le français, sa "terra incognito", comme on se jette à l'eau, sans formation préalable, il prend tous les risques. Ce faisant, il reste pourtant l'étranger (L'exilé) : ses thèmes sont roumains et ils abondent en mots roumains.

    C'est à travers eux que l'enfant illégitime proclame son "dor", son mal du pays. Grâce à l'exil de la langue française, dont l'acquisition lui permettra de prendre du recul par rapport à son enfance, il retourne en terre roumaine et il y trouve (sans dieu) son royaume.

    EXPOSITION - Les galeries Étage 3/4 du Théâtre national

    http://www.bucarest-matin.ro/ARHIVA/99tr2/710info.html

    _____________________

    TRIPTYQUE MÉDITERRANÉEN

    Le spectacle Méditerranée fait partie d'un programme de mise en scène par lequel Catalina Buzoianu désire de mettre en valeur la synthèse Orient-Occident dans l'espace des interférences culturelles du bassin méditerranéen, un lieu particulier qui se trouve aux portes de l'Orient, à une mythologie profondément troublante qui peut constituer la base des motifs et des moyens théâtraux modernes.

    Les premiers projets réalisés ont été Kyra Kyralina au Théâtre "Maria Filotti" de Braïla et Le Lévant d'après Mircea Cartarescu, une coproduction du Théâtre "L. S. Bulandra" avec Theatrum Mundi. Comme le spectacle Kyra Kyralina se référait au port de départ, (la ville de Braïla) et au Danube, "bras de l'Hellespont et de la Méditerranée", le metteur en scène a imaginé une suite de ce pèlerinage: Méditerranée, la dramatisation étant inspirée par l'œuvre de Panaït Istrati, prolongeant ainsi la série de ces recherches anthropologiques.

    Le roman a été écrit en français, en 1934 et il est formé par deux parties: Lever du soleil et Coucher du soleil. C'est l'histoire du voyage d'Adrien Zograffi, alter-égo de l'écrivain, "en aval du Danube", à partir de Braïla et en passant par Constantinople, aux bords de la Méditerranée, longeant les côtes de la Grèce, puis à l'Alexandrie et au Caire et enfin, son débarquement à Marseille. Panaït Istrati disait sur lui-même: "Je suis entré dans la littérature française avec une sensibilité toute roumaine, mais il m'a fallu lui coller un visage français". En illustrant cette confession, Méditerranée est une coproduction du Théâtre "Maria Filotti" et du Théâtre Toursky de Marseille. L'inédit de la mise en scène est donné par la collaboration avec les acteurs français Tania Sourseva et Richard Martin - le directeur du Théâtre Toursky de Marseille et le vice-président de l'Institut International de Théâtre Méditerranéen. Les deux artistes ont interpreté les personnages du Madame Adèle et Panaït Istati dans le première du spectacle qui a eu lieu au Théâtre Toursky, le 28 mai 1999.

    Catalina Buzoianu désire que les spectacles qui composent ce triptyque - ayant des sujets roumains, mais aussi méditerranéens - donnent de l'identité au Centre de Recherche et Anthropologie Théâtrale qu'elle dirige et au Festival International "Le Danube - Bras de la Méditerranée", qui aura lieu à Braïla, en 2001. http://www.moshu.braila.net/triptic_f.html ____________________ ANATOMY OF AN ILLUSION - Producer: Doina BUNESCU 1994 Version: Roumaine. Production: TVR Script: FRANCAIS Timing: 28'00

    An experimental film on the life & work of Panaït Istrati, Rumanian author writing in French, who died in 1935. A revolutionary militant & intellectual, fascinated by the October Revolution, he was also one of the first to denounce the communist dictatorship.

    http://www.mediaport.net/Urti/Cat97/1293.en.html

    ____________

    Men & forces of our time

    Author: Marcu, Valeriu, 1899-1942. Title: Men & forces of our time, translated by Eden & Cedar Paul. Physical description: 5 p. L., 3-244 p. 21 cm. Publisher: New York, The Viking press, 1931. Subject, geographic name: Europe --Biography. Contents:

    Biography & biographers.--Georges Clemenceau between action & Nirvana.--Dogma & dialectic in Lenin.--Marshal Foch's ideas & the republic of civilians.--Kemal Pasha; or, From national farce to national revolution.--One head is more than three hundred voices, or, Benedetto Croce in the Senate.--The "moderns" & their adversary, G. K. Chesterton.--Panaït Istrati; or, Romance about Byzantium.--Hans Delbrück; or, The historian conquers the specialist.--Advertisement; or, Farewell to Europe.--Mythology of dictatorship (Georges Sorel)

    http://liber.ithaca.edu/MARION/AAE-4352 __

    ___________

    TELEVISION

    France 3. Un siècle d'écrivain, mercredi 21 AVRIL / APRIL 21 , 23 h 30. " Panaït Istrati, écrivain vagabond ".

    http://www.humanite.presse.fr/journal/1999/1999-04/1999-04-15/1999-04-15-077.html

    ________________

    À la recherche du "Fordisme" With highly mechanised production, moving assembly line, high wages, & low prices on products, "Fordism" was born.

    ( David A. Hounshell, From American System to Mass Production, 1984, p. 11)

    Le nouveau mode de production apparu dans les usines Ford avant la Première Guerre mondiale n'est pas passé inaperçu; dès le début des années 1920 il prend le nom de "fordisme" en Allemagne puis dans d'autres pays européens (v. Gottl-Ottlilienfeld, Fordismus .., 3deg. éd., Iéna, 1926). En France, la première attestation du terme est repérée en 1929 (Datations et documents lexicographiques, dir. B. Quemada, ndeg. 26, C.N.R.S., Paris, 1985). Panaït Istrati évoque les "automates du fordisme et de l'américanisation" qui l'ont déçu au cours de son voyage en U.R.S.S. (Vers l'autre flamme..., Paris, 1929 p. 45 et 276). Dans sa thèse de 1930, Paul Weinberger préfère utiliser le mot "fordisation car il y a certains auteurs qui distinguent entre fordisme et fordisation. Le premier est la doctrine de Ford, la deuxième ses procédés "(L'industrie automobile en France et à l'étranger, Paris, 1931, p. 68). Le mot "fordisme" était donc bien utilisé à la fin des années 1920.

    http://www.univ-evry.fr/labos/gerpisa/lettre/numeros/92/histoire.html

    _____________________________________

    In his letters to Panaït Istrati, Serge twice refers to Nikolayenko. On 14/2/30 he replies from Leningrad to a postcard which Istrati had sent from Venice http://users.skynet.be/johneden/fiction/whitesea.htm

    _________________________________

    Istrati, cf. Panaït Istrati. Izvestia des marins, soldats rouges et ouvriers de la ville de Kronstadt (1921), trad. de Régis Gayraud, éd. Ressouvenances, 1988, 144 p.

    Istrati, Panaït. - La Russie nue. - Paris : Rieder, 1929. - 334 p. - (Témoignages). Vers l'autre flamme : tome 3 [écrit par Boris Souvarine ?]. - L0444, L3674 (Tampon : Cercle d'études sociales et philosophiques, Vincennes)

    Istrati, Panaït. - Le Bureau de placement : vie d'Adrien Zograffi. - Paris : Rieder, 1933. - 260 p. - L0443

    Istrati, Panaït. - Le Refrain de la fosse : nerrantsoula. - Paris : éd. de France, 1927. - B.ML162 (L0447)

    Istrati, Panaït. - Oncle Anghel. - Paris : Rieder, 1924. - 231 p. - L0448

    Istrati, Panaït. - Soviets 1929. - Paris : Rieder, 1929. - 213 p. - (Témoignages). Vers l'autre flamme : tome 2. - L0445, L3675 (Tampon : Cercle d'études sociales et philosophiques, Vincennes)

    Istrati, Panaït. - Vers l'autre flamme : après 16 mois dans l'URSS. - Paris : Rieder, 1929. - 284 p. - (Témoignages). - L0446

    http://cda.cybertaria.org/l_ijk.html

    Auteur(s) Bonenfant, Jean-Charles (1912-1977) Titre Panaït Istrati Notes In: Revue Dominicaine, no LI, juin 1945, p.363-368

    http://www2.biblinat.gouv.qc.ca/rfq/notices/00014433.htm

    ISTRATI (Panaït) Braila, 1884 - Bucarest, 1935

    Les Amis de Panaït Istrati Statut : Loi 1901 Création : 1969 Cotisation annuelle : 200 à 250 FF Nombre d'adhérents : 200 Siège : BP 811 26008 Valence cedex

    Personne à contacter M. Christian Golfetto B.P. 5027 69602 Villeurbanne cedex Tél. : 04.78.85.36.26

    Bureau Président : Jean Hormière Vice-présidente : Dominique Foufelle Trésorier : Christian Golfetto Membres fondateurs : Édouard Raydon, Jean Stanesco

    Périodiques Cahiers Panaït Istrati Descriptif : édité par l'association, annuel, créé en 1985, 10 numéros (dont un numéro triple), tiré à 800 ex. Directeur de publication : Christian Golfetto Rédactrice en chef : Dominique Foufelle Administration : BP 811 - 26008 Valence cedex Vente au numéro : auprès de l'association. Disponibles : numéros 9 et 10 (150 FF), 11 et 12 (200 FF)

    Les Amis de Panaït Istrati Descriptif : trimestriel, 48 numéros (48-printemps/été 1999)

    Activités / manifestations Colloques, Nice, 1978 à 1984 Panaït Istrati et les révolutions, colloque, Valence, 1989 [Actes publiés] Colloque, Bucarest, organisé par l'Association roumaine, 1991 [Actes publiés] Colloque, Chij, organisé par l'Association roumaine, 1994 Lectures-débats en bibliothèques, librairies et autres lieux culturels

    Archives et documentation Fonds divers, venant de France, de Roumanie et de l'ex-U.R.S.S. La vocation des cahiers est de publier ces documents, après leur classement préalable, et de leur adjoindre des études contemporaines

    http://www.amis-auteurs-nicaise.gallimard.fr/html/autgall/01293.htm Bibliographie d'auteur Panaït Istrati Kyra Kyralina Folio (1981) - 29.00 FF Le choix de Gilles de la Porte Né en 1884 d’un contrebandier grec et d’une paysanne roumaine, découvert par Romain Rolland, Panaït Istrati est un conteur né. Un précurseur de Gabriel Garcia Marquez. http://www.lagalerne.fr/decouvrir/auteur/970

    Used books listed online in Europe:

    ISTRATI Panait Codine. Enfance d'Adrien Zograffi. Paris, Le Quadrige d'Apollon/PUF 1964; in-12 broché 136 pages. Annotations. Jaquette défraichie. 50 FRF - 7,62 ¤ Référence : 451-BCR Librairie Bouccara

    ISTRATI Panait Domnitza de Snagov, les Haidoucs. F. Rieder Editeur, Paris 1926, in-12 broché. Edition originale, 1 des 400 sur Hollande des Papeteries Montgolfier. 350 FRF - 53,36 ¤ Référence : 23316aaf Harteveld Rare Books Ltd.

    ISTRATI, Panait: Ensemble de 3 livres. in-8 , 45 CHF 1) Domnitza de Snagov. 10. éd., 1926. 270 p., non rogné. / 2) Les Haidoucs. Présentation des Haidoucs. 17. éd., 1925. 224 p., non rogné. / 3) Les Chardons du Baragan Kyra Kyralina. Préface de Pierre-André Rieben. Lausanne, 1923. 328 p. Référence : 1649-PAG Librairie Pages Volantes

    ISTRATI (Panait). Kir Nicolas. Codine. Bois en couleurs dessinés et gravés par Picart Ledoux. Edition originale. P., Edition du Sablier, 1926, In-8, br., 157 pp. 400 FRF - 60,98 ¤ Tirée à 750 exemplaires; celui-ci numéroté sur Vélin. Référence : 838-k * Librairie Ancienne K Livres ISTRATI Panait Kir Nicolas, Codine; P., éd. du Sablier, 1926; in-8 , couv. ill.; 1 front. & dix bois en couleurs in-t. dessinés et gravés par Picart le doux; tir. lim. à 750 ex.; ex. sur vélin Montgolfier; rel. demi-chagrin grenat, dos à nerfs, titre doré, couv. cons.; E. O. 450 FRF - 68,6 ¤ Référence : 452-BCR Librairie Bouccara ISTRATI Panait Kyra Kyralina, Oncle Angel. Club des Libraires de France, Paris 1958, in-8 cartonnage éditeur. Maquette de Pierre Faucheux. Tirage à 4000 Ex. sur Bouffant Blanc. 150 FRF - 22,87 ¤ Référence : 3921-VOY * Librairie Voyelles ISTRATI Panait. KYRA KYRALINA - ONCLE ANGHEL. Edition groupant les deux premiers récits d'Adrien Zograffi avec une présentation par Romain Rolland suivie d'une postface d'Hubert Juin. Paris, Club des libraire de France, 1958, In-8 relié pleine toile verte de l'éditeur, premier plat illustré de trois images collées, 343 pages. 100 FRF - 15,25 ¤ Edition numérotée. Référence : 1650-PAG Librairie Pages Volantes ISTRATI (Panait). Kyra Kyralina. Oncle Anghel. P., Club des Libraires de France, 1958, In-8, reliure toile éditeur. 130 FRF - 19,82 ¤ Référence : 6729-AAZ * Librairie AaZbooks.com

    ISTRATI PANAIT KYRA KYRALINA Paris Le quadrige d'apollon 1961 IN 8 BROCHE 187 PP BON ETAT BON ETAT Le quadrige d'apollon 1961 60 FRF - 9,15 ¤ 187 PP Référence : 95616-BAT Librairie du Bât d'Argent

    ISTRATI Panait Kyra Kyralina. Préface de Romain Rolland. Paris, Le Quadrige d'Apollon, PUF 1961; in-12 broché. 187 pages. Annotations sur la préface et l'avant propos. 70 FRF - 10,67 ¤ Référence : 540-FEU Librairie Feuille à Feuille ISTRATI Panait La jeunesse d'Adrien Zografi Gallimard. 1977. in8 reliure éditeur d'aprés la maquette de Massin 60 FRF - 9,15 ¤ Référence : 12458aaf Harteveld Rare Books Ltd. ISTRATI, Panait: La vie d'Adrien Zograffi (Codine - Mikhail). Ill. par D. Varbanesco. Lausanne, Guilde du Livre, 1938, in-8 , toile. 30 CHF Référence : JDL277 Au Jardin des Livres

    Istrati Panait La Vie d'Adrien Zograffi La Guilde du Livre, Lausanne, s.d., in-8, 288 p., rel. d'éd. Photo de l'auteur en frontispice 10 CHF Référence : 453-BCR Librairie Bouccara

    ISTRATI Panait Le pêcheur d'éponge. Les Editions Rieder, Paris 1930, in-12 broché. Edition originale, 1 des 200 sur vélin pur fil. Non coupé. 350 FRF - 53,36 ¤ Référence : 2604-SOL Librairie Solstices

    ISTRATI (Panait). Le Pêcheur d'éponges. Pages autobiographiques. P. , Prosateurs français contemporains , Sequana , Editions Rieder , 1930. 19 x 12 cm , 217 p. Broché , mouillure , dos tâché. 150 FRF - 22,87 ¤ Référence : 739-PAR * Librairie Paroles ISTRATI (Panait) Le Pêcheur d'éponges. Paris, Les Editions Rieder, 1930. In-8, 221p. Broché, non coupé, couverture jaune à encadrement rouge sur le 1er plat, bon état. 350 FRF - 53,36 ¤ Edition originale, 1 des 200 exemplaires sur papier vélin pur fil. Référence : br768 Bouquinerie de la Reppe ISTRATI PANAIT LE PECHEUR D'EPONGES- RIEDER 1930- E.O-Num./alfa-br. 120 FRF - 18,29 ¤ Référence : 454-BCR Librairie Bouccara ISTRATI Panait Le refrain de la fosse, Nerrantsoula Les Editions de France, Paris 1927, in-12 broché. Edition originale, 1 des 700 sur papier Alfa. 300 FRF - 45,74 ¤ Référence : -39811-BAT Librairie du Bât d'Argent

    ISTRATI (Panait) Les Chardons du Baragan. Coll. Les Ecrits. P., Grasset 1928; in-12 br. 245 pp. Papier jauni. Ex. num. 60 FRF - 9,15 ¤ Référence : 96523-BAT Librairie du Bât d'Argent ISTRATI (Panait) Les Chardons du Baragan. Lausanne, La Petite Ourse (1958); in-12 broché. 117 pages. 70 FRF - 10,67 ¤ Référence : 24201-TRA * Librairie Le Trait d'Union

    ISTRATI (Panait) Les chardons du baragan. P. , Aux quatre coins du monde à la société d'éditions françaises et internationales , (1947). Petit in-4 br. , couverture rempliée , 149pp. , [3]ff. , 30 compositions originales de L. Screpel reproduites en couleurs , édition tirée à 2100 ex. , un des 2000 ex. numérotés sur vélin de Torpes. Couverture légèrement défraîchie , intérieur très frais. (Monod , I-876) 200 FRF - 30,49 ¤ Référence : 152-SOL Librairie Solstices ISTRATI (Panait). Les récits d'Adrien Zograffi : Les Haidoucs : présentation des Haidoucs. P. , Prosateurs français contemporains , F. Rieder , 1925. 19 x 13 cm , 222 p. Broché. Edition originale , ex. num. , un des 400 sur Hollande Montgolfier (après 65 Hollande van Gelder). 150 FRF - 22,87 ¤ Référence : 151-SOL Librairie Solstices ISTRATI (Panait). Les Récits d'Adrien Zograffi : Oncle Anghel. P. , Prosateurs français contemporains , F. Rieder & Cie , 1924. 19 x 13 cm , 232 p. Broché. Edition originale , ex. num. , un des 300 sur vergé pur fil (après 40 Hollande). 150 FRF - 22,87 ¤ Référence : VE-3058 Librairie Ancienne Nicole Nicolas ISTRATI Panait - Méditerranée, avec 30 bois originaux de Jean LEBEDEFF - A. Fayard Le livre de demain 1939, grand in-8 , broché, 123 pages. Très bon état. 120 FRF - 18,29 ¤ Egypte. Syrie. Référence : 5390-VAG * L'Histoire Vagabonde

    ISTRATI Panait Méditerranée - Coucher de soleil. Ed. Rieder 1935 br. 211 50 FRF - 7,62 ¤ Référence : 455-BCR Librairie Bouccara

    ISTRATI Panait Mes départs, pages autobiographiques. NRF, Paris 1928, in-8 couronne broché. Edition originale, 1 des 796 ex. sur vélin pur fil Lafuma-Navarre. Non coupé. 500 FRF - 76,23 ¤

    Référence : 753-BRO * Brocante et Livres Istrati Panait Mikhail Rieder.Ed 1927.In 12.256 pp.Dos endommagé. 50 FRF - 7,62 ¤

    Référence : 15467-PAL * Bouquinerie du Palais ISTRATI PanaìT Oncle Anghel, Tsatsa-Minnka Editions. Rencontre Société copérative. Lausanne. 1962. In 12. Reliure éditeur blanche , introduction de Louis Bovey , 211 pages.

    46 FRF - 7,01 ¤ Référence : 456-BCR Librairie Bouccara

    ISTRATI Panait Pour avoir aimé la terre . . . Editions Denoel & Steele, Paris 1930, in-8 broché. Frontispice de Jean Texcier. Edition originale, 1 des 1200 sur papier Chesterfield. 300 FRF - 45,74 ¤

    Référence : 3506-LAR * Lardanchet Livres Istrati, Panait (1884-1935). Les Chardons du Baragan, Kyra Kyralina. société Coopérative, Edition Rencontre, Fine, 30 CHF

    Référence : 369-FEU Librairie Feuille à Feuille ISTRATI Panaît - JEHOUDA Joshué La famille Perlmutter. Gallimard. 1927. in12 broché Edition originale numéroté 226/850 sur vélin 180 FRF - 27,44 ¤

    Istrati, Panaït: Die Haiduken. Köln 1990, S.:359, Ü:aus dem Französischen von Boldt, Heike, (=KiWi 233) 12x19cm --------------- Istrati, Panaït [R] (Roumain, 1884-1935) : la Vie d'Adrien Zografi, Kyra Kyralina (1924), Oncle Anghel (1925), Vers l'autre flamme (1927), les Chardons du Baragan (1928), la Maison Thüringer (1933), Mes départs.

    _______

    CIRA:

    Istrati, PanaÏt

    La Maison Thüringer Rieder, 1933

    Istrati, PanaÏt La Russie nue sn, sd

    Istrati, PanaÏt Vers l'autre flamme : après seize mois dans l'URSS

    http://membres.lycos.fr/lanarcho/ciraauti.htm

    Sous titre : - La Russie nue (Tome 3)

    Auteur : ISTRATI Panaït (Boris Souvarine) Lieu d'édition : Paris Editeur : Rieder Collection : Témoignages Année d'édition : 1929 Nombre de pages : 334 p

    ___________________ Boris Souvarine: One of the leaders of the Comité de la Troisième Internationale & a PCF delegate to the Communist International. He backed Trotsky in 1924 & was excluded from the PCF. Author of a major critical work on Stalin. http://www.socialistaction.ca/fi-doc_lnoir-notes.html ___________________

    Sous titre : - Soviets 1929 (Tome 2) Auteur : ISTRATI Panaït Lieu d'édition : Paris Editeur : Rieder Collection : Témoignages Année d'édition : 1929 Nombre de pages : 213 p

    Sous titre : - Après seize mois dans l'URSS (Tome 1) Auteur : ISTRATI Panaït Lieu d'édition : Paris Editeur : Rieder Collection : Témoignages Année d'édition : 1929 Nombre de pages : 284 p

    Liste par auteur : ISTRATI Panaït

    Le bureau de placement (- Vie d'Adrien Zograffi) Le refrain de la fosse (- Nerrantsoula) Oncle Anghel Vers l'autre flamme (- Après seize mois dans l'URSS (Tome 1)) Vers l'autre flamme (- Soviets 1929 (Tome 2))

    http://palissy.humana.univ-nantes.fr/labos/cht/biblio/ouvrages/livre4805.htm

    http://palissy.humana.univ-nantes.fr/labos/cht/biblio/auteurs/auteur3063.htm

    Istrati, Panaït

    Istrati, Panaït

    1.Car la bonté d'un seul homme est plus puissante que la méchanceté de mille ; le mal meurt en même temps que celui qui l'a exercé ; le bien continue à rayonner après la disparition du juste. 2.Il y a partout des égarés, mais l'intelligence fait tomber les barrières car seul le genre humain, de toutes les créatures de la terre, peut se dégrader à ce point. (dans Kyra Kyralina)

    3.La vie même nous la payons avec la mort.

    http://perso.wanadoo.fr/of/Ilsontdit/ilsontditi.htm

    Istrati, Panaït - Onkel Anghel

    Uindb.1udg.( " Adrien Zograffis beretning " ) Pænt eksempl. Årstal: 1942, Forlag: C. Andersen http://www.antikvariat.dk/bogkatalog/default.asp?page=2&keyword=i

    Panaït Istrati

    Cahiers Panaït Istrati

    1985, annuel Éditeur : Cercle Panaït Istrati Autre activité éditoriale : Bulletin trimestriel Directeur : Christian Golfetto Rédactrice en chef : Dominique Foufelle Rédaction : Les Amis de Panaït Istrati 175, avenue Victor-Hugo F-92140 Clamart Administration : Les Amis de Panaït Istrati Boîte postale 811 F-26008 Valence cedex 800 ex., 300 p., ill. Prix au numéro : 200 F Diffusion : Les Amis de Panaït Istrati ISSN : 0767-791 X

    http://www.france.diplomatie.fr/culture/france/ressources/revues/amis/f-amis/f-arts65.htm

    ISTRATI, Panaït, Codine : infancia de Adrian Zograffi / Panait Istrati ; traducción de Manuel Pumarega, 1930

    ISTRATI, Panaït. Mijail: Mocedades de Adrian Zograffi. Trad. de E. Díez-Canedo, 1930

    ISTRATI, Panaït. Rusia al desnudo. Trad. del francés por Francisco Altamira, 1930




    ?
    6000 --


    6000 -- Subject: Richard Dick Ellington IWW Industrial Workers of the World

    Re: About Dick Ellington Date: Mon, 04 Sep 2000 09:03:03 -0700 From: "Dave, Recollection Books" To: Robby Barnes

    Robby, Thanks very much, very helpful.

    Russell Blackwell is another name of interest, & interestingly there is more information about him at one of the Trotskyist pages than any of the anarchist pages.

    ---Dave http://www.recollectionbooks.com/bleed/today.htm Robby Barnes wrote:

    > Hi Dave,

    > > I saw your request for information about Dick Ellington on the Research on Anarchism List.

    > Here are some things I remember about Dick Ellington:

    > > Sylvie & I met Dick & his companion Pat in Oakland during the early 1970s. They were both very outgoing & friendly, & not at all cliquish.

    > He helped us with some typesetting & printing projects we did during the 1970s in New York.

    > Dick told us he was born & grew up in Seattle.

    > He lived in New York during the 1950s & early 1960s. In 1959, he worked with Dave Van Ronk to write & self-publish THE BOSS'S SONGBOOK, the subtitle of which was Songs To Stifle the flames of discontent. It was supposed to be a humorous collection, consciously modeled on the IWW Little > Red Songbook. >

    Dick had a Multilith 1250 & did some movement printing in New York City during the 1950s, including VIEWS & COMMENTS, which was published by the Libertarian League. It was either a weekly or biweekly paper edited by Sam Dolgoff & Russell Blackwell.

    In Oakland in the mid to late 1970s Dick did freelance typesetting on his > stand-alone IBM Composer in his home. The name of his enterprise was Roll Yur Own Typesetting. (I didn't make a mistake in spelling) He did a lot of > typesetting free for various movement organizations & individuals, in the > Bay area & throughout the country. He persisted in this, even as his > arthritis grew progressively worse, & he had some joint replacements in > his hands.

    > > I hope this helps.

    > > Cheers, > > Robby http://recollectionbooks.com/bleed/Encyclopedia/VanRonk/VanRonkDave.htm


    7000 -- Graines d'ananars

    Jean AMILA

    Georges Jean ARNAUD

    Henri BEYLIE

    Léo CAMPION

    Eugénie CASTEU

    Robin COOK

    Didier DAENINCKX

    Colonel DURRUTI

    Frédéric H. FAJARDIE

    Samuel FULLER

    André HELENA

    — Henry LE FEVRE

    Serge LIVROZET

    Jean-Patrick MANCHETTE

    Jean-Bernard POUY

    Serge QUADRUPANNI

    François RABELAIS

    Georges SIMENON

    Paco Ignacio TAIBO II

    Jean-François VILAR

    Sophie ZAÏKOWSKA

    Henri ZISLY

    http://www.multimania.com/lanarcho/bios.htm
    http://www.multimania.com/lanarcho/biosgs.htm

    8000 --

    [[[history of anarchism on the territory of Southslavic countries]]]

    by: marko.vukovic@zamir-zg.ztn.apc.org compiled from works of Trivo Indjic, Goran Ivanovic, "Anarchismus" (?, Zurrich, ?) & personal revelations.

    Anarchist ideas came among South Slavic nations in the second half of 19th century. First of all, they were brought by people who worked or went to university in other European countries where workers' & socialist movement were more developed.

    Serbian socialist, Zivojin Zujovic (1838-1870), was one of the first Proudhon's followers. He was introduced to these ideas during his student days in Munich & Zurich where he studied law & economy. He was also the first socialist in Serbia & a teacher for another Serbian socialist, organizer & theorist Svetozar Markovic (1846-1875). In Switzerland existed a small colony of South Slavic students and revolutionaries, & they were connected with Bakunin & Slavic section of the famous Jura Federation. Among them were: Jovan Zujovic, Manojlo Hrvacanin, Pera Todorovic & others. At the beginning of July 1872, a congress of Serbian socialists was held in Zurrich, & Bakunin was one of the guests.

    Libertarian socialism of 1870's & 1880's is unseparatebly connected with national liberation movements against Austro-Hungarian & Ottoman Empire. Many anarchists participated in the Bosnian-Hercegovinian uprising of 1875., & not only from south Slavic countries but also from Italy (Enrico Malatesta twice tried to enter Bosnia & join the uprising, both times without success), Russia & other European countries. There was a strong leftist stream within the movement itself, & it was led by Vasa Pelagic, side by side with Manojlo Hrvacanin (1849-1909) & Kosta Ugrinic (1848-1933).

    At the beginning of April 1871, Johan Most visited Ljubljana where he contacted the local Workers' society. Mitja Kunc, was one of the people who have spread Most's ideas.

    In the early 1880's Austro-Hungarian Empire intensified it's repression against radical socialists. This repression culminated in 1884. with numerous trials in Zagreb, Klagenfurt & Graz where many Croatian & Slovenian anarchists got sentenced.

    After that, anarchist influence from Rudolf Golouh, Giovanni Marcheli & Ivan Endlicher came from Trieste & Ancona to Slovenia, Istria & Dalmatia. There were public anarchist manifestations in Rovinj (1904) & Split (1908). The later even had a soccer club called "Anarhos" which existed for several decades (today N.K.Split).

    Croatian teacher, Milos Krpan, cooperated with Swiss anarchists since 1898, & agitated among socialists in Slavonski Brod. He tried to establish an international anarchist colony (1090 & 1910) on his estate in Dubovik near Slavonski Brod, but Austro-Hungarian Empire banned such activities, & anarchists agitation.

    Libertarian ideas came to Macedonia from Switzerland & Bulgaria through young Macedonian students. In 1897 & 1898, they had two anarchist newspapers in Geneve: "Glas" & "Otmatchtenie". There was also a Secret Macedonian Revolutionary Committee, which fought for establishment of Balcan Socialist Federation. The ideas of Russian anarchist & popular movement were also accepted by Vasil Glavinov (1869-1929). He introduced them to Goce Delcev (1872-1903) - the leading figure in the Macedonian national liberation movement - who founded Secret Macedonian-Odrian Revolutionary Organization (Thesaloniki, October 1893) & led the revolutionary Ilinden uprising (1903). This uprising resulted with Krusevo Republic - first socialist republic in the Balcans which lasted for almost 3 months. Delcev was a close friend with Bulgarian anarchists Mihail Gerdikov and Vrban Kilifarski, & he fought side by side with many other Macedonian anarchists like Petar Mandukov (1879-1966) - author of "Azbuka anarhistickog ucenja" (published in Skopje, 1898) -, Dame Gruev (1879-1906), Jane Sandanski (1872-1915), Nikola Karev (1877-1905), Dimo Hadimov (1875-1924)... Macedonian anarchists also had a secret terrorist group "Gemidjija" from Thesaloniki (Jordan Popjordanov, Marko Bosnakov, Dimitar Mecev, Konstantin Kirkov, Pavel Satev, Milan Arsov, Vladimir Pingov) which tried to bring attention to Macedonian struggle through a series of attacks during April 1903. Some of the attackers were killed, other caught and sentenced.

    Struggle for national & social liberation of Bosnia & Hercegovina culminated in the appearance of a revolutionary - anarchist inspired - movement "Mlada Bosna". First, a great admirer of Kropotkin, Bogdan Zerajic (1886-1910), shoot general Varesanin (governor). That happened in June 1910. Zerajic used his last bullet to commit suicide, while general stayed unhurt. The police chopped Zerajic's head & kept it as a specimen of an anarchist face while his body was secretly buried. Another young man, Luka Jukic, tried to kill governor Cuvaj in an armed attack in Zagreb (1912), but also without success. Jukic was sentenced to a life in prison where he stayed until the decline of the Austro-Hungarian empire, while August Cesarec (1893-1941) got 5 years. Cesarec was later an editor of a leftist newspaper "Plamen" & by some sources he participated in the Spanish Civil War. His life ended in an alleged escape attempt from the Ustase's concentration camp Kerestinec, together with 40 other "leftist" intellectuals. Members of "Mlada Bosna" organized the attack on Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo on 28. June 1914. First, a young typographic worker Nedeljko Cabrinovic (1895-1916) threw a bomb on Ferdinand but it didn't explode. Then Gavrilo Princip (1894-1918) shoot and killed him from a revolver. 25 people were sentenced because of the attack. Danilo Ilic (1890-1915) was sentenced to death while others got long prison terms up to life. Most of them died in custody. Princip himself was sentenced to 20 years of hard labor where he was tortured & died of illness. At the trial, Cabrinovic declared his anarchist ideas as the main reason for the attack. He also died in custody, from hunger & mental pain, aged 20. Vladimir Gacinovic (1890-1917) was probably the main influence on "Mlada Bosna" & it's anarchist inspiration. He was a student in Geneve & Lozane, where he associated with Russian immigrants. He admired the works of Bakunin, Kropotkin & Russian popular movement while he made friends with Viktor Serge, Nathanson, Martov and Trotsky. Gacinovic was poisoned in August 1917 by a joint operation from Austrian, Serbian & French police.

    Revolutionary & literal work of Dimitrije Mitrinovic (1887-1953) which had a strong anarchist component also influenced South Slavic youth. Mitrinovic moved to London in 1914., where he lived the rest of his life. He was a friend with P. Kropotkin, G. Landauer, H. Read and other anarchists.

    Group "Preporod" from Ljubljana, gathered around the same titled newspaper (1910-1911) had a close contact with "Mlada Bosna". The most active Preporod's members were France Fabijancic and Ivan Endliher. These two groups were both interested in the liberation & integration of South Slavic nations & creation of of a joint revolutionary movement. Endliher died in custody in an Austrian prison in Graz (1915), since he was also arested after the murder of Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo.

    Revolutionary syndicalism came to Vojvodina from Hungary, & it was accepted by anarchists gathered around Krsto Iskurljev (1881-1914) who was very close to the famous anarcho-syndicalist Ervin Szabo.

    Libertarian ideas have found fertile ground among many Serbian socialists such as Dragisa Stanojevic (1844-1918), Mita Cenic (1851-1888), Pera Todorovic (1851-1907), Jovan Zujovic (1856-1936), Sava Popovic (1898-1942). Firts decade of the 20th century saw the rise of anarchosyndicalism with newspapers "Proleter" (1906) & "Radnicka borba" (1907) & formation of a radical wing of Serbian Socialist Party - "direktasi" (1909, Nedeljko Divac, Vlajko Martinovic, Sima Markovic, Vasa Knezevic...). This group was later expelled from the party. One of the main acters of that era was Krsto Cicvaric (1879-1944), founder of many newspapers ("Hleb i sloboda", 1905; "Radnicka borba", 1907), anarchist clubs & the author of "Iz anarhistickog programa" (1909). He retired from the movement just after the first world war.

    Between two world wars anarchist movement couldn't develop under strict dictatorship of King Aleksandar. There were only small unlinked groups of workers & intellectuals. However, there were anarchists among Yugoslav Spanish volunteers, while some got introduced to these ideas on the spot.

    Just like between the wars, anarchism was under a lot of repression during Tito's rule, so the movement was practically silenced. In 1954, a translation of Malatesta's work into Slovenian was published in Trieste but it was never widely distributed due to the situation in the country.

    Anarchist movement was revitalized again in 70's & 80's when translations of Proudhon , Bakunin , Kropotkin , Guerin & Bookchin were published. This new movement mostly held ground in academic circles, & it's very often connected with "Praxis" magazine - banned by the authorities. Daniel Guerin personally visited island Korcula to attend one of the summer seminars organized by "Praxis". This era also records Laslo Sekelj's book "O Anarhizmu" - two editions. Contacts with the international movement were reestablished in 1984. when some anarchists from Croatia participated in the congress in Venice, & in April 1990., at the East-West meeting in Trieste.

    During the 80's in Zagreb existed a group called Autonomia, while smaller groups arose from the anarcho-punk movement. At present active groups are: Kontrapunkt, GLIB, Krtica, Skrati & ZAP. Most of the people from the 70's and 80's prefer individual activism which is unfortunately limited only to open forums, written material & academic work.

    http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/3707/history.htm


    ?
    8000 -- " It was from the very start of years 1880 that the first artistic cabarets made their appearance. The first of the kind, in absolute, was the ' Club of Hydropates' with Emile Goudeau & Rodolphe Salis. But it is with this last that we owe the foundation in 1881, Rochechouart boulevard, of the ' Cat noir', intended to be used as model for all the other artistic establishments which endeavoured to imitate the formula of it. The originality of the ' Cat noir', the key of its success, was to have known to associate in the same artists place, chansonniers & public thanks to a setting in skilful scene, organized by the Master of the places, Salis. Many were the chansonniers who made their first genuine weapons in this establishment, to start with Aristide Bruant & Jules Jouy. Bunting, in particular, made itself famous there with its ' ballade of the cat noir' ".

    The fame which the establishment of Dirtied could acquire in a few years is remarkable, so much so that in 1895 Horace Valbel could write that ' the Cat noir' was ' the only really artistic establishment, I will not say Paris, but a whole world. [ It is ] to some extent the Academy of the song, criticism, the laughter & sincere art, véritable[...]'. In January 1882, the cabaret of the ' Cat noir' published a weekly sheet of the same name with as writer-directors Goudeau & Salis. In this newspaper made, & especially superbly illustrated rather well, inter alia, by the drawings of Steinlein, it was possible to find, among the collaborators, the signature of prestigious authors such Paul Verlaine or Jean Richepin, which ensured an artistic behaviour to him some. "

    G Manfredonia, the anarchistic song in France, of the origins to 1914 , p. 273.

    " Ce fut dès le début des années 1880 que les premiers cabarets artistiques firent leur apparition. Le premier du genre, en absolu, fut le 'Club des Hydropates' avec Emile Goudeau et Rodolphe Salis. Mais c'est à ce dernier que nous devons la fondation en 1881, boulevard Rochechouart, du 'Chat noir', destiné à servir de modèle à tous les autres établissements artistiques qui s'efforcèrent d'en imiter la formule. L'originalité du 'Chat noir', la clef de son succès, fut d'avoir su associer dans un même lieu artistes, chansonniers et public grâce à une mise en scène habile, organisée par le maître des lieux, Salis. Nombreux furent les chansonniers qui firent leurs premières armes véritables dans cet établissement, à commencer par Aristide Bruant et Jules Jouy. Bruant, en particulier, s'y rendit célèbre avec sa 'ballade du chat noir'". La renommée que l'établissement de Salis sut acquérir en quelques années est remarquable, au point qu'en 1895 Horace Valbel pouvait écrire que 'Le Chat noir' était 'le seul établissement réellement artistique, je ne dirai pas de Paris, mais du monde entier. [C'est] en quelque sorte l'Académie de la chanson, de la critique, du rire et de l'art sincère, véritable[...]'. En janvier 1882, le cabaret du 'Chat noir' édita une feuille hebdomadaire du même nom avec comme rédacteurs-directeurs Goudeau et Salis. Dans ce journal assez bien fait, et surtout superbement illustré, entre autres, par les dessins de Steinlein, il était possible de retrouver, parmi les collaborateurs, la signature d'auteurs prestigieux tels Paul Verlaine ou Jean Richepin, ce qui lui assurait une tenue artistique certaine." G. Manfredonia, La chanson anarchiste en France, des origines à 1914, p. 273. http://melior.univ-montp3.fr/ra_forum/fr/stas_jf/manfredonia.html#affiche_chat_noir


    9000 -- George Orwell at Home (and amoung the anarchists) Vernon Richards, Marie Louise Berneri, Colin Ward, Nicolas Walter, 76pp, ISBN 0-900384-94-8 RRP $24.40

    George Orwell was one of the most important British socialist writers of the twentieth century. He produced novels, books of reportage, booklets, essays, articles, broardcasts & reviews, but above all he is remembered for the satires Animal Farm & Nineteen Eighty-Four, which have been read by millions of people all over the world. He fought in the Spanish Civil War & sympathised with the anarcho-syndicalists in the Spanish Revolution, & had friendships with several prominent British anarchists until his death in 1950. Here for the first time is a full collection of photographs taken by Vernon Richards & his companion Marie Louise Berneri in 1946, showing George Orwell at home.

    Also included is the obituary which Vernon Richards wrote in 1950, a series of articles on anarchism which Colin Ward wrote in 1955, & a long account by Nicolas Walter of Orwell's relations with anarchism & the anarchists taking into account the material published in The Complete Works of George Orwell in 1998.




    9000 -- Rothen, Édouard (pseud. de Charles Hotz)

    Rothen, Édouard. — La Politique et les politiciens : une duperie, des dupeurs. — Paris : Encyclopédie anarchiste, 1934. — 40 p. cda aBNF


    1924 BM 022

    HOTZ, Charles La Liberté individuelle / Edouard Rothen Toulouse : Espoir, [s.d.] 1970 Broch f 05871

    HOTZ, Charles La Liberté individuelle / Édouard Rothen Paris : Groupe de propagande par la broch., 1929 1929 BM 081-82

    HOTZ, Charles "Panem et circenses" / Edouard Rothen Nîmes : Terre libre, 1934 1934 Broch f 11997

    HOTZ, Charles Politiciens : pièce en un acte / Édouard Rothen Paris : Groupe de propagande par la broch., 1930 1930 BM 096

    HOTZ, Charles MANFREDONIA, Gaetano La Politique et les politiciens : une duperie, des dupeurs / Édouard Rothen Antony : Fédération anarchiste. Groupe Fresnes-Antony, 1992 1992 Af 0683-40

    HOTZ, Charles La Politique et les politiciens : une duperie, des dupeurs / Édouard Rothen Paris : Encyclopédie anarchiste, [1934] 1934 Broch f 02217

    HOTZ, Charles La Propriété et la liberté / Édouard Rothen Paris : Groupe de propagande par la broch., 1934 1934 BM 138




    ?
    9001 --




    9001 -- I noticed you only have one Australian/ Aotearoan anarchist listed? (Vincent Ruiz) I think the contribution of anarchists in Australia & Aotearoa has been overlooked by many anarchist sites which attempt to catalog the anarchist pantheon, & yet 150 years ago the labor movement in the USA & Europe first saw the achievement of the eight hour day by Stonemasons in Melbourne in 1856. The eight hour day rapidly spread to other trades in Australia. It was this success which provided impetus for the labor movement in North America & Europe in campaigning for the eight hour day, which became May Day. (see http://www.takver.com/history/mayday.htm).

    Anarchist ideas were popularised in the 1880s & 1890s by such people as John (Chummy) Fleming, Jack Andrews, Larry Petrie, & David Andrade, and many others. These people were often in written contact with anarchists such as Emma Goldman, Peter Kropotkin, Elisee Reclus & Benjamin Tucker, etc, and also had material occasionally published in English, North American, and European anarchist publications.

    During the 20th century, emigre anarchist groups kept the flame of anarchism alive here, often also sending substantial amounts of money to anarchist projects/journals in their countrys of origin.

    There are many who deserve at least minor recognition in any comprehensive anarchist biographical pantheon. Naturally more research is needed on these anarchists as well as many others.

    Find below a list of anarchists from Australia & Aotearoa that I think should be included in your gallery. This list is taken from my Biography index page at: http://www.takver.com/history/indexbio.htm

    Radical Tradition Biographies


    Biographies

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    Biographical Briefs

    • David Andrade (1859-1928)....P.D. Gardner
      A brief account of one of the original members of the Melbourne Anarchist Club in 1886. The Andrade brothers ran Australia's first anarchist bookshop & newsagency in Melbourne, & also published books & pamphlets.

    • J.A. Andrews - Andrews was a prolific writer & agitator for communist anarchism in the 1880s & 90s. As a member of the Melbourne Anarchist Club he was influential in articulating anarchist ideas to the labor movement. He was a gifted theoretician, poet, inventor, historian & linguist. He left by far the greatest literary output of the anarchists of this period in Australia. At his death a comrade compared him to Tolstoy, Kropotkin, Thoreau, & Verlaine among others.

    • Francesco Carmagnola (1900 - 1986)....Peter Sheldon
      Frank Carmagnola was a pivotal figure in anarchist & anti fascist activities in the Italian community in Australia from his arrival in 1922 to the second world war. His activism included two italian language papers he published, the Mateotti Social Club in Melbourne, & successfully leading the 1934 Canecutters' strike in North Queensland.

    • Arthur Desmond - Ragnar Redbeard (1842-1918)....
      Desmond worked with other communist-anarchists in Sydney during the 1890's on a number of conspiritorial projects, including the inflammatory Hard Cash, a journal of finance & politics.

    • Bill Edwards - Gender Rebel (1881-1956)....
      Marion Edwards forsook the life of domestic work for the wealthy or a working class marriage, to lead an independant life as Bill Edwards. She dressed in male clothing & spent much of her life working as a station hand,shearer, bar man, horse dealer, & french polisher.

    • Eliot V. Elliott - A very moving & sympathetic account of the life of a "working class hero" - Long time Seamen's Union Secretary (1941-1978), Eliot V Elliott (1902-1984). Elliott steered the Seamen's Union of Australia through the difficult changes in technological development in seafaring during the post war decades of the twentieth century. He was both forward looking & dedicated to the interests of seamen, in Australia & internationally.

    • Ted Englart (1896-1982) - was a prominent Queensland communist & Secretary of the Brisbane Branch of the Waterside Workers Federation in the 1940's. The radical tradition has continued in the Englart family, especially by Ted's sons, Vince & Kevin. Vince Englart was a model Australian communist & social activist for more than 60 years. His younger brother, Kevin Englart overcame political blacklisting by moving interstate. He was a dedicated teacher of mathematics for more than 30 years.

    • Chummy Fleming pamphlet Chummy Fleming: A Brief Biography.....Bob James
      Bob James has researched & rescued from obscurity the history of anarchism in Australia. This essay on Chummy Fleming reveals the radical commitment & trials & tribulations of another generation of activists. Chummy Fleming is particularly important as one of the primary instigators of May Day gatherings & marches in Melbourne. His activism is now remembered by a new generation...


    • Boris Franteschini . Boris was one of the Italian Anarchists In Melbourne who kept the flame of anarchism alive for many years in the Italian speaking community in Melbourne. He & his comrades raised much money to assist anarchists in exile, & for anarchist newspapers & journals in Italy.

    • Lesbia Harford - The Rebel Girl (1891-1927)....
      Harford was an I.W.W. activist & a strong believer in 'free love'. She graduated with a Law degree from Melbourne University in 1916, the same year as 'Pig Iron Bob' Menzies. As coincidence would have it, The Age on Wednesday 21 April 1999 published the text of an inaugural Lesbia Harford Oration on behalf of the Victorian Women Lawyers. It was delivered by John Harber Phillips, Chief Justice of Victoria. At Radical Tradition we hope that the feminist & socialist politics of Lesbia Harford inspires present & future women in the legal proffession to work for a more just & equitable society.

    • Harry Hooton (1908-1961)....Sasha Soldatow
      Poet of the 21st Century, anarchist, philosopher. This is an updated biography by Sasha Soldatow based on the book, Poet of the 21st Century - Collected Poems - Harry Hooton, which he edited. Hooton was part of the Libertarian Push in Sydney during the post WW II years, with connections to Angela "Annie" Westbrook of the IWW & many of the poets & writers active in Australian Literature of the time. The anarchist philosophy he developed was anarcho-technocracy & The Politics of Things, which are prescient pieces of writing on anarchism, technics & society, still relevant today.

    • A Personal Journey Through Anarchism in Australia.....Bob James
      Anarres Books in Melbourne organised for Bob James to present this talk at a public meeting organised by the Anarchist Media Institute. It is a personal account of Bob's journey & exploration of anarchism in Australia.

    • Syd Nicholls - Radical comic artist (1896-1977)....
      Syd Nicholls came to fame for drawing cartoons for the I.W.W. paper, Direct Action, which resulted in its prosecution. But most people will remember Nicholls for his Fatty Finn cartoon strip which appeared regularly in newspapers. He was extremely supportive of new talent, & in his final years was still active, contributing to the NSW Teachers Federation paper, Education.

    • Rosaleen Norton - Australia's favourite witch (1917-1979)....
      A mystic & visionary artist & bohemian who became one of the great characters of Kings Cross, Sydney.

    • John Olday (1905-1977) was a council communist, cartoonist & artist who contributed to the anarchist movement in Germany, England & Australia through a range of strategies & his talents as a graphic artist & cartoonist. John Olday in Europe portrays his early & later life. John Olday in Australia contains his memoirs of nearly 20 years in Australia during the 1950's & 1960's.

    • Larry Petrie - One of the activists neglected by most histories of the 1890s labor movement. Petrie attended the Melbourne Anarchist Club, was active in the Australasian Socialist League & helped form the Social Democratic Federation which was a precursor to the Australian labor Party. He was an active organiser for the AWU & was well regarded by other prominent activists of the time. Along with many other labor activists he emigrated to William Lane's 'New Australia' colony in Paraguay.

    • R.S. Ross - Iconoclast of the Left....
      Harassment of radical magazines & writers has long been an element of the Australian literary landscape. Long before the 1998 Rabelais "Shoplifting" trial & indeed even before the Thorunka & Oz obscenity trials, Australian newspapers that stepped out of line with official morality faced an arsenal of legal & political attacks. One case that illustrates the hardships of rebel publishing is that of Ross's Magazine of Protest, Personality & Progress

    • William Robert Winspear (1861-1945)....Bob James
      W.R. Winspear was a pivotal figure in the radical labor movement of the 1880s & 1890s. His newspaper, The Radical, later called The Australian Radical, has been called the first regular socialist newspaper in Australia. This essay examines how several historians have interpreted Winspear's politics. Bob James has gone back to primary sources to question Winspear's politics & motivations. His research clears the path for a fuller biographical appraisal of Winspear & his contribution to the radical tradition in Australia.

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    Snail mail: P.O. Box 1078, Brunswick M.D.C., Victoria, 3056, Australia
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    Last modified: June 28, 2000
    Keep up the good work
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    http://www.vmore.org.au/wssfiles/218/art.htm




    9001 -- 1. Which linguistic scientist wrote that "a visiting Martian scientist would surely conclude that aside from their mutually unintelligible vocabularies, Earthlings speak a common language?"

    2. The same scientist has only one entry in "Bartlett's Familiar Quotations", & rather a strange one at that. What is it?

    3. What was the longest strike in Australian history?

    4. What connects it to Professor Fred Hollows, Australian eye-scientist, rabble rouser, former Communist & general controversial figure, who, in his last interview before he died in 1992, said that he was now more in agreement with anarcho-syndicalism than anything else?

    Answers

    1. Noam Chomsky

    2. Despite being in the top ten most referenced writers in the humanities (and the only one alive) his one "familiar quote" is "colourless green ideas sleep furiously", a sentence he contrived to show that a sentence could be grammatical but make no sense, & that impossible word orders could also be grammatical. For example, colourless can't be followed by green, ideas don't sleep.

    3. In 1966, the Gurrindgi Stockmen of Wave Hill station, in the Northern Territory, went on strike against being paid only in rations, & for control of their land, leased at the time to Lord Vestey, British meat baron, owner of Dewhursts & tax-dodger extraordinaire. Eight years later, Aussie PM Gough Whitlam gave Vincent Lingari a piece of paper recognising the Gurrundgi people's right to the land. The strike as significant as well for boosting the land rights movement, still fighting in Australia to do this day.

    4. When Vincent Lingari came to Sydney to publicise & call for solidarity. During his visit he met Fred Hollows who noticed he had an easily curable eye disease that causes blindness. Hollows set up a "barefoot" clinic in the outback, & made the operations himself, while gathering a team together & training aboriginal opthalmologists to follow in his footsteps. The project has since spread from Australia to Nepal & Eritrea.




    9001 -- Covington Hall




    9001 -- add blood GUY ALDRED, JOSEPH LANE, ET AL Date: Thu, 12 Jul 2001 14:10:38 -0700 From: Recollection Books Organization: Recollection Used Books

    http://www.geocities.com/~johngray/indx1b.htm#aldred http://www.geocities.com/~johngray/indx1b.htm#lane

    gilles dauve/jean barrot otto rühle anton pannekoek henk canne meijer henri simon paul mattick cajo brendel sylvia pankhurst jacques camatte amadeo bordiga ottorino perrone peter kropotkin errico malatesta william morris joseph lane guy aldred herman gorter karl korsch guy debord marx/engels

    http://www.geocities.com/~johngray/indx1b.htm#aldred
    http://www.geocities.com/~johngray/indx1b.htm#lane

    9001 -- AN AMERICAN ANARCHIST: THE LIFE OF VOLTAIRINE DE CLEYRE by Avrich, Paul Princeton University, 1978. The only book on this fiery anarchist-feminist of the 19th century. INCLUDES A COMPLETE 3 1/2 PAGE UNPUBLISHED ARTICLE (typed single spaced) entitled 'VOLTAIRINE DE CLEYRE & THE JEWS' which examines her fiery career preaching & living among the jewish immigrants of Philadelphia's jewish ghetto where she lived from 1889-1910. "She had hundreds of jewish comrades, hundreds of Jewish pupils & at least two Jewish lovers". She learned to speak Yiddish etc. Also complimentary card of the author & a review of this book. (Keywords: ANARCHISM Voltairine de Cleyre JUDAICA LIBERTARIAN PHILADELPHIA JEWS RADICAL JOHANN MOST FERRER, ALL)

    http://recollectionbooks.com/bleed/Encyclopedia/Decleyre/poetrydecleyre.htm


    9001 -- The Slow Burning Fuse The lost history of the British Anarchists
    John Quail

    Table of Contents Publication Details & Authors Acknowledgements A Personal Introduction 1 Radicals, Exiles & Socialist Beginnings 2 The labor Emancipation League 3 The Democratic Federation & the Socialist League 4 The Anarchist & Freedom . . . & Dan Chatterton 5 Anarchism Develops in the Socialist League 6 The Walsall Anarchists 7 H. B. Samuels & the Commonweal 8 The Greenwich Park Explosion 9 The Collapse of the Commonweal 10 The Movement in 1894 11 The Movement in Decline 12 Cooperative Colonies 13 Anarchism & the Origins of the Syndicalist Revolt, 1889-1910 14 The Insurgent Virus 15 World War 1 - & After 16 In Conclusion - Continuity & Change in the Anarchist Movement Chronology Bibliography




    9001 -- ADD BLOOD UPDATES

    Cajo Brendal on Council Communism & The Critique of Bolshevism Date: Thu, 08 Feb 2001 15:57:01 -0800 From: Recollection Books > Council Communism & The Critique of Bolshevism > From: Red & Black Notes - News & Views Spring 1999 No. 8

    “Suppose the central leadership is able to distribute all of what has been produced in a righteous way. Even then the fact remains, that the producers don’t have at their disposal the machinery of production. This machinery is not theirs, it is one used to dispose of them. The inevitable consequence is that those groups that oppose the existent leadership will be oppressed with force. The central economic power is in the hands of those who, at the same time, exercise the political power. Any opposition thinking in a different way about political and economic problems will be oppressed with any possible means. This means that instead of an association of free & equal producers, as defined by Marx, there is a house of correction as no one has seen before.” This quotation, freely translated from a seventy year old text, explains that the relations of production as they were developed in Russia after October 1917, have nothing to do with what Marx and Engels understood as communism. At the time the just-quoted pamphlet was published the terror of the thirties lay ahead. It was only prophecy. There was not any political event which had caused this criticism of Soviet society; this criticism arose from an economic analysis. On this base the rising Stalinism was understood as the political expression of an economic system that belonged to a state capitalist exploitation, & this counted not only for Stalinism. The just-mentioned text was the work of a group whose authors belonged to a current that arose in the years after the First World War & won permanent meaning. This current was characterized by a sharp criticism of social democracy as well as Bolshevism. It was a current that carefully analyzed the daily experiences of the working class, & so it came to new ideas about the class struggle. The current saw social democracy & Bolshevism as the “old labor movement” ; the contradiction of this was “a new movement of the workers.” Among the earliest representatives of this current were German and Dutch Marxists who had always stood on the left wing of social democracy. In the course of their years long permanent struggle against reformism they became more & more critical of social democracy. The best known of this current were two Dutchmen, Anton Pannekeok (1872-1960) & Herman Gorter (1864-1927) & also two Germans, Karl Schroder (1884-1950) & Otto Ruhle (1874-1943). Later the much younger Paul Mattick (1904-1980) became one of its most important theorists. Pannekoek’s ideas drew attention shortly after the turn of the century for some Marxist reflections on philosophy. From 1906 up to the outbreak of the First World War he worked in Germany. First for a year as a teacher in the SPD party school then after he was threatened with expulsion from Germany, he worked in Bremen & wrote articles for different left papers. While in Bremen Pannekeok witnessed a very important wildcat strike by the dockers there. This experience influenced his ideas about the class struggle, & his interpretation of Marxism as well. As a consequence he rejected Bolshevik theories about organization, strategy & policy at a very early date. Otto Ruhle never identified himself with a current in the German labor movement; however, he never neglected the general interests of the working class. Like Pannekoek he rejected Bolshevism in the 1920's and was one of the first to argue that the proletarian revolution was something completely different from a bourgeois revolution & as a consequence required completely different forms of organization. For this reason he rejected the fallacy that the proletarian revolution should be the case of a party. “Revolution” he said “is not a party affair; politically & economically it is the affair of the whole working class.” These ideas, which would become far more detailed, were characteristic of the current which became known as Council Communism. Council Communism, from the beginning of the twenties was based on the experiences of the Russian & German Revolutions, & defended the councilists’ democracy & rejected the power of the party. It sought to distinguish itself from Bolshevism & the Bolsheviks, and those who claimed the name communist. Nevertheless at its origin it was very far away from the opinions it later developed. 2 In the beginning Council Communism was hardly different from Leninism. Ruhle however did not regard the parties of the Third International as communist ones. A few years later the Council Communists were to distinguish themselves much more clearly from Bolshevism. The so-called October Revolution finished Czarism & put an end to feudal relations & cleared the way for capitalist ones. The Council Communists went further. They pointed to the fact that an economy such as the Russian one, based on wage labor , that is to say an economy where the labor force is a commodity, wants nothing more than the production of surplus value & the exploitation of the workers; It doesn’t matter whether the surplus value goes to private capitalists or to the state as the proprietor of the means of production. The Council Communists remembered that Marx had taught that nationalization of the means of production has nothing to do with socialism. The Council Communists pointed to the fact that in Russia, production obeyed the same laws that exist in classical private capitalism. Exploitation can only come to an end - so said Marx - when wage labor no longer exists. The Council Communists explained, referring to Moscow, what communism was not. The differences between Council Communism & Bolshevism became clearer & more complete. 3 What has been said before should not be understood as meaning that Council Communism is a special critique of Stalinism. It is a critique of Bolshevism in general. Council Communists don’t see Stalinism as a sort of ‘counter-revolution’ that deprived October of its fruits. Rather they see Stalinism just as a fruit of this revolution, one that opened the door for capitalism in Russia. Stalin was the heir of Bolshevism & the Bolshevik Revolution. The development of this theory went slowly, just as the case was with social development. In their course the Council Communists changed their opinion and their own practice. Initially in Germany & Holland Council Communist parties were founded. This contradicted the opinion of some like Ruhle who, as stated previously, thought that parties were not an affair of the working class. Ruhle however, saw these organizations as parties “of a completely new character - a party that wasn’t a party anymore.” Four years later in 1924 Ruhle spoke a different language. “A party with a revolutionary character in the proletarian meaning of the word” he said “is an absurdity. Its revolutionary character can only be in a bourgeois meaning & only when the question is the changing of feudalism into capitalism.” He was perfectly right & for this reason the so-called absurdities disappeared from the proletarian theatre within ten years. There was little exception & soon after the Second World War the expression was no longer used. At the same time the Council Communists grew up. They had learned that the Russian Revolution was nothing more than a bourgeois revolution & that the Russian economy was nothing more than state capitalism. They had a clearer understanding of things which were ripe for new research. Other things not analyzed before, stood now in a clearer light. The most important analysis in this respect was completed by Pannekoek in 1938. He published a pamphlet on Lenin’s philosophy and produced a more profound analysis of Bolshevism. Pannekoek pointed to the fact that Lenin’s Marxism was nothing more than a legend and contradicted real Marxism. At the same time he explained the cause: “In Russia,” he said “the struggle against Czarism resembled in many aspects the struggle against feudalism in Europe long before. In Russia church & religion supported the existing power. For that reason a struggle against religion was a social necessity.” For this reason what Lenin regarded as historical materialism hardly distinguished itself from the French bourgeois materialism of the 18th century, a materialism that, in those times , was used as a spiritual weapon against the church & religion. In the same way, that is to say, pointing to the similarities of the social relations in Russia before the revolution & those in the pre-revolutionary France, the Council Communists pointed to the fact that Lenin & the members of his party claimed the name Jacobins for themselves. They meant that their party in the Russian bourgeois revolution had the same function as the French Jacobins. That Bolshevism in March 1918, only five months after October 1917, robbed the Soviets from their already minimalized power was - as the Council Communists said - a logical consequence of the October Revolution. Soviets were not suitable with a system that was the political superstructure of state capitalist productive relations. What the council Communist movement mean by communism is a completely different thing from that system. The dictatorship of a party doesn’t fit with social relations based on the abolition of wage-labor & the end of exploitation of the workers. A society in which the producers are free & equal can’t be something different from the democracy of the producers. Cajo Brendel




    9001 -- FROM ATLANTIS TO AVALON & BEYOND. by ROBERTS. ANTHONY. F.

    (1940-1990).: Glastonbury, England: Zodiac House Publications, 1990. 55pp

    Pamphlet published after the author's death. The Author was born in 1940 & died in 1990, & this volume commemorates his life gently, simply & with illustrations, reproducing some of his poems & recording the impact that he had upon his friends. He was a revolutionary & an anarchist, a jazz fan & a New Age writer & this affectionate memoir recalls his brief life.

    From the working library of ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE WRITER & HEALTH GURU LESLIE KENTON. See Keywords KENTON & ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE for Comprehensive List. (Keywords: kenton. alternative medicine. glastonbury. atlantis. avalon. new age. the sixties. seventies. anarchism. anarchy. eel pie island.)




    9001 -- Request for help:

    Australian anarchist history - Dundonald Dundonald, a Scottish engineering worker, first met Nechaev & Bakunin in Geneva in 1869. He was so impressed with their ideas that he translated The Catechism of a Revolutionist into English in 1870. When he returned to Scotland he devoted himself to organising syndicalist groups & became involved in actions to sabotage the spread of industrialisation in Scotland.

    He was forced to flee Scotland because of his activities & eventually turned up in Australia. He reversed his name to Donald Duncan but continued to be involved in workplace activity. His best known works are "The Great Fire of Melbourne" published in 1898 & his analysis of the Sunshine Railway accident at Sunshine Harvesters, one of Australia’s expanding new industrial complexes at the edge of Melbourne. He published this work in 1908. Although growing old & concerned about being sent back to Scotland to face charges, he gave moral support to the emerging Industrial Workers of The World.

    I'm keen to learn more about Dundonald’s life in Melbourne. I understand his descendants still live in Melbourne. If anybody has any access to information about this man & his life, or if anybody has seen or has a copy of ‘The Great Fire of Melbourne’ published in 1898, can they Email me at anarchistage@yahoo.com, write to me at PO Box 20, Parkville 3052, Melbourne, Australia or contact me via The Anarchist Age Institute (03) 9828 2856. Joseph Toscano.

    PS. I understand his grandson spent some time in Pentridge prison in Melbourne in the late 1960’s / early 1970’s & may have had some contact with the anarchist movement in Melbourne during this period. Source of article - Melbourne Anarchist Archives Vol. 1 1966-1973




    ?
    9001 -- COCKROACH

    http://www.zmag.org/AWatch/awatch.htm


    9001 -- ADD BLOOD UPDATES

    [Fwd: Spanish anarchism - new links by Michael Seidman] Date: Wed, 15 Aug 2001 20:05:11 -0700 From: Subject: Spanish anarchism - new links by Michael Seidman From: "social history" To: chomskyarchive@yahoo.com Michael Seidman's writing overturns many of our preconceptions about the anarchists in the Spanish civil war & about the whole nature of revolution in the 20th century. He has written on the anarchist collectives, on women & on the widespread reluctance to fight in the civil war. Much of Seidman's writing is now available on the web at: http://www.angelfire.com/nb/revhist36/ (If you have a web-site please consider including a link to this site?) http://www.angelfire.com/nb/revhist36/


    9001 -- Re: [b] Topic : Borders Books kills face-scanning plan amid criticism Date: Thu, 30 Aug 2001 23:34:01 -0700 From: Chris Volk To: Stan Modjesky CC: biblio

    Here is the original article (this was posted on the No Cal Independent Booksellers Assoc - the NCIBA - list)

    By Jenifer Johnston ©2001 smg sunday newspapers ltd. no.176088. http://www.sundayherald.com/18007

    It's supposed to be the sedate home of book lovers, coffee drinkers and the chattering classes, but Borders, the high street bookseller, has been attacked by human rights organisations for using high-tech surveillance equipment to spy on their customers.

    The company is to become the first retailer in the world to introduce a controversial security scheme, normally used to trap football hooligans, paedophiles & terrorists, to photograph customers as they enter stores. SmartFace -- known as FaceIt in the USA -- keeps a database of 'unique digital face-maps' that will check customers' pictures against those of known shoplifters.

    The advanced CCTV technology can locate individual faces within crowds, track a targeted face & then match it against images of suspected criminals kept on its database. The American-based retailer has 11 outlets in the UK, including stores in Glasgow and Edinburgh. Only UK stores are participating in the SmartFace pilot.

    Borders has already been criticised in the UK for its attitude to unions. Marketing itself as laid-back & hip, it has been accused of operating a vigorous anti-union policy. In America, the company used the union-busting legal firm, Jackson, Lewis, Schnitzler & Krupman to fight bitter campaigns to destabilise unions. This included sacking activists & threatening to close stores if workers joined unions. The SmartFace technology is manufactured by Visionics, a major player in American surveillance technology. It is used by the US Immigration and Naturalisation Service to check for illegal immigrants trying to cross the Mexican border, by the Israeli Army on the Gaza Strip, and at Iceland's Keflavik airport to seek out known terrorists. The US Army Research Laboratory ranked the technology top of their list of face recognition systems. SmartFace has already come up against strong opposition in the US. On Thursday a city councillor in Jacksonville, Florida began a legal bid to stop local law-enforcement agencies using the technology, claiming it breaches privacy laws. The system is already used by South Wales Police to spot football hooligans who are banned from attending matches. In the London Borough of Newham, which has 300 cameras linked to a database, the council claims that SmartFace has helped to achieve a 34% drop in crime since its installation in 1998. Tony Blair gave the scheme his stamp of approval when he visited the borough last year. Rosemarie McIlwhan, director of the Scottish Human Rights Centre, was appalled by the move by Borders, saying: 'I can see why they don't want shoplifters in their store, but I would question whether this is proportionate to what they are trying to do. 'We are talking about having a bank of pictures of everyone going into the shop -- I would consider that a serious breach of privacy. There is no control over what they do with those pictures, or how they are kept -- are they safe? Nor is there much control over whether Borders could sell the information on, or whether people will actually know this is happening.' Images that are not matched on the database are discarded after they have been run through a complex matching process, using 80 facial features. Visionics claims its match rate can be more than 99%. As a private company Borders cannot be prosecuted if it breaches human rights legislation. If it were to breach a citizen's human rights then the British government would have to answer the case in Strasbourg for not protecting human rights sufficiently under UK law. Roger Bingham, spokesman for the human rights group Liberty, reacted angrily to Borders' security proposal, saying: 'Anyone who wants to know if their image is on a system such as this is able under the Data Protection Act to request that information. We have to know if the company is going to have a system ready to cope with that. I'm inclined, not being a shoplifter, just not to shop there.' Theft from book retailers is currently booming. Sydney Davies, trade and industry manager of the Booksellers Association, said: 'Customer theft is certainly the biggest problem that book retailers have in terms of crime. Most of the efforts used to combat theft concentrate on tagging books, & having security guards & CCTV in store, so the SmartFace system is certainly a new thing.' Last year British retailers spent £626 million on crime prevention, and theft from stores reached a staggering £746m, equating to a cost of £85 for each household in the country. David Southwell of the British Retail Consortium said that new technology was one of many ways these costs could be reduced. 'When new technology becomes available it can play a very significant role in reducing shop theft,' he said, 'but there is no single magic bullet in terms of shoplifting that is going to eradicate this very serious problem. 'The investment in shop technology to reduce theft is going to continue to rise. Retailers will use new technology but will also stick with traditional methods such as store detectives to reduce crime.' A spokeswoman for Borders UK confirmed that the pilot scheme was going ahead in two London stores. She potential shoplifters. 'It is very difficult to distinguish one face from another with the human eye,' she said. 'If the system infringes on anyone's human rights then Borders wouldn't be using it.' A spokeswoman from Borders' company headquarters in Michigan said the organisation was waiting for confirmation from the British distributors of SmartFace -- Dectel -- that their technology is within the limits of the UK Data Protection Act & EU human rights legislation. She said: 'Borders will now have to validate Dectel's assurances.' ____ Stan Modjesky wrote: > > Can someone point me to a news article about this? Missed Yiah's original > post, which may have contained a citation. > > Yiah's post read in part that the facial-scanning application "fights > shoplifting by constantly comparing > images of shoppers captured by a store video camera against a police > database of known criminals..." > > About which Bob Schrader observes, "I don't understand the 'big brother' > fears about this. " > > I understand precisely the so-called Big Brother fears. Would the system > installed at the London Borders stores be used to capture "known criminals" > for whom open warrants exist? If so, what protection do innocent customers > have from becoming involved when these desperadoes are confronted and > arrested in the book shop? > > Or would the system be used only by the bookshop, to identify the known > criminals & have them ejected by security guards, even if they had > committed no crime? Certainly there would be constitutional problems with > this procedure here in the USA. In the UK, where one is a Subject, rather > than a Citizen, matters are undoubtedly different. > > I am interested in reading more about this, but the search engines have > turned up no articles. Anyone? > > Stan Modjesky > Book Miser > 2133 Gwynn Oak Avenue, Suite 200 > Baltimore, MD 21207 > Specializing in Performing Arts books > "Often Irritated, never duplicated" -- ------------------------------ Christine Volk & Shep Iiams, Booksellers P. O. Box 696, Ione CA 95640-0696 (209) 274-6960 chris@bookfever.com See our books at http://www.BOOKFEVER.COM Specializing in modern 1st editions including mysteries, women authors, poetry, African American, children's, Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror. -----------------------------


    9001 --

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    9001 --

    Pennsylvania Labor Landmarks

    Name Street Address City State Historical Notes Additional information
    Allegheny Arsenal Explosion Monument Allegheny Cemetery on Butler St. Pittsburgh PA Memorializes the 43 girls buried here who were killed in the arsenal explosion nearby on Sept. 17, 1862. A total of 75 workers died in the explosion, making it the worst industrial accident associated with the Civil War. Monument replaces an earlier marble obelisk.
    America's Industrial Heritage Project
    Johnstown PA Purpose is to commemorate the contribution of the region's iron, steel, coal & transportation industries. Also plan to use related historic sites & cultural resources for a tourism promotion program.
    Anderson, Colonel James, Monument outside of the entrance to the Allegheny Library Pittsburgh PA Andrew Carnegie dedicated this monument to the businessman/philanthropist Colonel Anderson who let working boys (like Andrew Carnegie) borrow books from his personal library. Bacon's exedra was demolished for construction of the Allegheny Center in the 1960s. French's sculpture was saved. In 1988 sufficient funds allowed architect Sylvester Damianos to reconstruct the exedra & restore the monument to its original location.
    Anthracite Boys, Bust office of the Mayor Wilkes-Barre PA Honors "the boys of the anthracite" & is an inspiration to youths brought before Mayor Charles N. Loveland for juvenile offenses. Given by Mrs. Sarah Atherton Bridgeman who wrote the novel "Mark's Own" about anthracite.
    Avondale Mine Disaster Avondale, Plymouth Township, East side of US Route 11 Avondale PA At 10 am, Sept. 6, 1869, one of the worst disasters in the history of US anthracite mining occurred at the Avondale Mine. A fire, originating from a furnace at the bottom of a 237 foot shaft roared up the shaft killing 110 miners, 80% of whom were Welsh. On Sept 9, 1869, the last body was removed from the mine. The disaster also killed 2 boys, ages 10 & 14, who began working just that day.

    See also: Avondale Mine Disaster, Washburn Cemetery
    Avondale Mine Disaster, Washburn Cemetery West Washburn on West Side of Scranton Scranton PA 9/6/1869--one of the worst disasters in the history of US anthracite mining. At Avondale Mine, a fire from a furnace at the bottom of a 237 foot shaft roared up the shaft killing 110 miners. 61 victims were laid to rest at Washburn Cemetery on 9/9/1869. See also: Avondale Mine Disaster
    Bost Building Historical Marker Bost Building Homestead PA The Bost Building was the Amalgamated Association of Iron & Steel Workers' headquarters. This office helped direct the workers through one of the bloodiest battles between workers & owners, the Homestead Strike.
    Canonsburg Honor Roll Tablet
    Canonsburg PA Honors local UMWA members who are now in the armed forces. Also honors the war support of this local union with the purchase of war bonds & participation in the American War Drive.
    Erie County Labor Monument West Perry Square Erie PA Funded by local & international trade unions to serve as a visible reminder of the contributions of working men & women & as a focal point for organized labor in the future.
    Homestead Historical Marker Pinkerton Landing Site, Southern bank of Monongahela River Homestead PA July 6, 1892 two barges ordered by the Carnegie Steel Co. landed on the south bank of the Monongahela River, sought to occupy Carnegie Steel Works & put down a strike by members of the Amalgamated Association of Iron & Steel Workers. Workers fought back & the Pinkertons surrendered. 8,000 state militia men showed up 6 days later & the strike was broken by November.
    See: Bost Building
    See: Homestead Strikers' Gravesites
    Homestead Strikers' Gravesites St. Mary's & Homestead Cemeteries Homestead & Munhall PA 5 of the 7 workers who died at the Homestead Strike were finally honored with marked graves. The graves are in 2 adjacent cemeteries. John Morris, 6th worker killed, already had a marked grave. George Butte, 7th worker killed, was buried in Verona.
    Johnstown Corporation Plaque Johnstown Corporation property on Central Avenue Johnstown PA Memorializes 3 workers at Johnstown Corporation who lost their lives on Dec 13, 1989 while at work. Hot metal escaped from a mold & the 3 men died instantly from breathing superheated air.
    Kehoe, Jack, Hibernian House
    Girardville PA Nestled in Pennsylvania's anthracite region, Jack "Blackjack" Kehoe owned this tavern; the state sentenced him to death in 1878 as a leader of the Molly Maguires.
    Lattimer Massacre Memorial & Historical Marker Lattimer mines, village entrance Hazelton PA Immigrant workers remember the site where Polish, Lithuanian & Slovak miners were gunned down by the Lattimer Sheriff deputies on 9/10/1897. The miners were marching peacefully & without weapons for collective bargaining & civil liberty.
    Mather Mine Disaster Monument Jefferson Cemetery Mather PA 197 men died in a mine explosion in 1928. Four bodies were never found.
    McIntyre Mine Disaster Monument
    McIntyre PA On June 30, 1941 an explosion at Kent No. 2 mine killed 7 men. The explosion was caused by dust in the mine. This caused the area to become more aware of safety in the mines.
    Mitchell, John, Monument Courthouse Square Scranton PA Honors John Mitchell, AFL Vice President who led anthracite miners in PA out to strike industry wide. Strike triggered the intervention of President Roosevelt in 1901 & the first instance where the federal government recognized unions as equals in an employment dispute.
    Murray, Philip, Bridge Chartiers Creek Canonsburg PA Spanning the Creek near Curry Field, where steelworkers rallied in 1931, this bridge memorializes Philip Murray, founding member & past president of the United Steelworkers of America.
    New Century Guild Building 1307 Locust Street Philadelphia PA The New Century Guild was founded in 1882 & was formed explicitly from the outset to address specific needs of "self-supporting women." This was a bold step at the time when Americans believed that no self-respecting woman would work for pay. The founder was Eliza Turner. Lucretia Longshore Blanhenburg, Florence Kelly & Helen Campbell helped form the guild which was there for women who worked during the day & wanted to better educate themselves at night.
    Quinn, Richard F., Monument
    Philadelphia PA Honors Richard F. Quinn who was a letter carrier & charter member of the National Association of Letter Carriers in 1889.
    Sellins, Fannie & Starzeleski, Joseph, Monument Union Cemetery Arnold PA Marks the gravesites of Fannie Sellins & Joseph Starzeleski, who were murdered by company guards on a picket line in Brackenridge, PA on August 26, 1919. Sellins was a UMWA organizer & Starzeleski was a miner. see: Sellins, Fannie, Historical Marker--Arnold, PA
    Sellins, Fannie, Historical Marker Entrance to Union Cemetery Arnold PA Pittsburgh unionists located this marker near the grave of Fannie Sellins. The UMWA organizer was murdered on Aug. 26, by Coal & Iron police, while picketing during the nationwide steel strike of 1919. Joseph Starzeleski, a miner who was also killed that day, is buried nearby in the Union Cemetery.

    See also: Fannie Sellins & Joseph Starzeleski Monument, Arnold, PA
    Sylvis, William H., Historical Marker Campus of Indiana University of Pennsylvania Indiana PA Labor history advocates placed a marker to William Sylvis on the present campus of Indiana University of Pennsylvania. It notes his birthplace in Indiana County, Pa. Sylvis founded the Molders' Union in 1859 & the National Labor Union in 1868. National Labor Union preceded the American Federation of Labor.

    See also: William Sylvis Monument, Lansdale, PA
    Sylvis, William, Monument Fernwood Cemetery Lansdale PA Marks the grave of William Sylvis who was a founder of the Molders Union, & became president in 1863. Also founded the Molders' International Journal, was devoted to the idea of International Unions, & advocated women & African American memberships in unions. Sylvis' body was first buried in Laurel Hill Cemetery in Philadelphia. Moved to its present site possibly in 1952.

    See: Sylvis, William, Historical Marker--Indiana, PA
    Workers Memorial Tower Heritage Park Reading PA The memorial tower was a part of the bridge that carried workers across tracks & yards of the Reading Railroad. It was known as the "Swinging Bridge." The tower is a part of a 5.5 acre park that has a 25 foot high observation deck, displays of vintage machinery, historical exhibits, a picnic area & a boat launching area.



    9001 -- infoshop.org - Anarchist Quiz 1

    Mid-Atlantic Infoshop

    Anarchist Quiz 1

    by Neil Birrell
    with modifications by Chuck0


    STARTERS


    Who said 'Property is theft?' & when?

    *

    Where can you find a mailing list which is 'like a pub where the theme is anarchy'?

    *

    Who is 'Wildcat'?

    *

    Which English writer gave a sympathetic account of the anarchist revolution in Spain in 1936 in his book 'A Homage to Catalunia'?

    *

    What do the letters CNT stand for?

    *


    MAIN COURSE


    Which famous anarchist has had a mountain named after him?

    *

    Identify the Sarvodaya movement & translate its name into English.

    *

    Which former anarchist was found wandering naked & mad in the mountains of Italy after his conversion to marxism? :-)

    *

    What does the word Kropotkin mean in Russian?

    *

    In what anarcho-context was the following said: 'Unfortunately... I mean fortunately there have been no explosions yet'

    *

    Answers

    Go to:
    Quiz 2
    Quiz 3

    Site Navigational Map Mid-Atlantic Infoshop Top Page Email the webmaster Communities What's new at the Infoshop Frequently Asked Questions News & Current Events Site Map & Directory Search the MA Infoshop site

    Back to Infoshop Page | Contact Us | Communities | What's New | FAQ | News | Site Map | Search infoshop.org - Anarchist Quiz 2

    Mid-Atlantic Infoshop

    Anarchist Quiz 2

    by Neil Birrell
    with modifications by Chuck0


    STARTERS

    Weren't they naughty?


    Which anarchist took sides in WW1?

    *

    Which anarchist accepted a knighthood?

    *

    Which anarchist has been accused of being an apologist for the Khmer Rouge?

    *

    Which British labor politician became converted to socialism by reading Kropotkin & ended up shadow Foreign Secretary?

    *

    Who wrote off the anarchist movement & then had to eat his words?

    *


    MAIN COURSE


    Who translated Kropotkin into Chinese?

    *

    What was Malatesta's trade/skill/occupation apart from propagandist?

    *

    Identify The IRSM & the editor of the book about it.

    *

    If you translated Mrs Thatcher into French what revealing play on words would you be left with?

    *

    Who said 'Property is robbery (my emphasis)' & when?

    *

    Answers

    Go to:
    Quiz 1
    Quiz 3

    Site Navigational Map Mid-Atlantic Infoshop Top Page Email the webmaster Communities What's new at the Infoshop Frequently Asked Questions News & Current Events Site Map & Directory Search the MA Infoshop site

    Back to Infoshop Page | Contact Us | Communities | What's New | FAQ | News | Site Map | Search infoshop.org - Anarchist Quiz 3

    Mid-Atlantic Infoshop

    Anarchist Quiz 3

    by Neil Birrell
    with modifications by Chuck0


    STARTERS

    Who said, sung or wrote


    Right now! Ah ha ha ha ha ha!

    *

    Stand up against governments, against God.
    Stay irresponsible.
    Say only what we know & imagine.
    Absolutes are Coercion.
    Change is absolute.

    *

    Workers of the world, awaken!
    Break your chains, demand your rights.
    All the wealth you make is taken
    by exploiting parasites.
    Shall you kneel in deep submission
    from your cradles to your graves?
    Is the height of your ambition
    to be good & willing slaves?

    *

    The golden lemon is not made
    but grows on a green tree:
    A strong man & his crystal eyes
    is a man born free.

    *

    Business man he drink my wine
    Ploughmen dig my earth
    Noone will level on the line
    Nobody of it is worth

    *


    MAIN COURSE


    Which anarchist weekly recently published its 1000th edition?

    *

    Identify & locate 'Christiana'?

    *

    Name Guy Debord's first film & give a brief resume of the 'plot'

    *

    Where & when did Emma Goldman die?

    *

    Who said 'Property is freedom' & explain any paradox arising from your answer?

    *


    SECOND HELPINGS?


    Name the defendants in the
    PERSONS UNKNOWN trial (see quiz no 1)

    *

    Identify the Kabouters & say what the word means in English.

    *

    Give the title & name the author of the book subtitled The Lost History of the British Anarchists

    *

    Who wrote The Philosophy of Poverty.... ... & who replied by writing The Poverty of Philosophy?

    *

    Who gave the lecture The Impossibilities of Anarchism.... ... & who replied by writing The Impossibilities of Social Democracy?

    *

    Answers

    Go to:
    Quiz 1
    Quiz 2

    Site Navigational Map Mid-Atlantic Infoshop Top Page Email the webmaster Communities What's new at the Infoshop Frequently Asked Questions News & Current Events Site Map & Directory Search the MA Infoshop site

    Back to Infoshop Page | Contact Us | Communities | What's New | FAQ | News | Site Map | Search infoshop.org - Anarchist Quiz 1 - Answers

    Mid-Atlantic Infoshop

    Anarchist Quiz 1 - Answers

    by Neil Birrell
    with modifications by Chuck0

    Answers in magenta are from Neil. Answers in green are from the anarchy-list. The person who got it right is indicated in brackets


    STARTERS


    Who said 'Property is theft?' & when?

    PJ Proudhon :-) 1840

    Where can you find a mailing list which is 'like a pub where the theme is anarchy'?

    I would imagine that this describes this list. [Jason W.]

    Well done Jason. The quote is from Mr Jansen I believe. But who gives a damn about intellectual property?

    Who is 'Wildcat'?

    Donald Rooum. [Jason W.]

    OK. Mind you Donald is a bloke. Wildcat is of another gender. Perhaps his alter-ego

    Which English writer gave a sympathetic account of the anarchist revolution in Spain in 1936 in his book 'A Homage to Catalunia'?

    George Orwell

    What do the letters CNT stand for?

    Confederacion Nacional del Trabajo.
    Or in english: National Confederation of Workers. [Jason W.]

    Can't be bothered to type it out again. Well done again Jason.


    MAIN COURSE


    Which famous anarchist has had a mountain named after him?

    Kropotkin discovered a fault line between Europe & Asia The privilege is his (actually it might be a range but I think I'm right)

    Identify the Sarvodaya movement & translate its name into English.

    Well it means 'the welfare of all'. As for the rest this is from Anarchism Today Joll & Apter 1970. It's the first paragraph of an essay by Geoffrey Ostergaard

    TO PIN THE LABEL ANARCHIST TO THE CONTEMPORARY SARVODAYA movement in India might seem at first sight to be either the act of a hostile critic, anxious to expose its follies, or, at best, an act which invites misunderstanding. The label is certainly not one which the Sarvodayites themselves use. In India, as in the West, anarchism is popularly associated with violence, and, Iike Tolstoy before them, the Indian apostles of non-violent anarchism prefer a label which bears no traces of dynamite. However, one purpose of this article is to show that the social & political doctrines of Sarvodaya do in fact constitute a species of the anarchist genus. This purpose may be achieved most easily by comparing & contrasting Sarvodaya doctrines with what may be termed mainstream Western anarchism - the tradition of thought stemming from Proudhon through Baku - nin & Kropotkin to Malatesta. But, before proceeding to this exer- cise, it may be helpful to outline the origins of the contemporary Sarvodaya movement....

    Which former anarchist was found wandering naked & mad in the mountains of Italy after his conversion to marxism? :-)

    Carlo Cafiero. Worked closely with Kropotkin in France before his fall

    What does the word Kropotkin mean in Russian?

    Kropotki (masc.) Kropotka (fem.) = Painstakingly.

    In what anarcho-context was the following said: 'Unfortunately... I mean fortunately there have been no explosions yet'

    As this was number one I feared you might have finished fast... this is obscure. Allegedly said by a police officer during the PERSONS UNKNOWN trial in UK late 1970s Basically six anarchists were charged with 'conspiracy with persons known & unknown to cause explosions' hence PERSONS UNKNOWN. The state had nothing to go on (hence the quote) The six were found not guilty & a member of the jury became an anarchist

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    Anarchist Quiz 3 - Answers

    by Neil Birrell
    with modifications by Chuck0

    Answers in magenta are from Neil. Answers in green are from the anarchy-list. The person who got it right is indicated in brackets


    STARTERS

    Weren't they naughty?


    Which anarchist took sides in WW1?

    Yes I was thinking of Kropotkin - there were others a core group of six I think

    Which anarchist accepted a knighthood?

    Sir Herbert Read.
    Rumour has it that he didn't want to accept but that his wife fancied being a lady.

    Which anarchist has been accused of being an apologist for the Khmer Rouge?

    Yes Chomsky - famously by Douglas Hurd (ex GB foreign sec) who then refused to discuss the question in public. More sadly the allegations have just been repeated by a reader in Freedom. The current issue [ July 1995] carries a full refutation from Chomsky.

    Which British labor politician became converted to socialism by reading Kropotkin & ended up shadow Foreign Secretary?

    Denis Healey - & yes I think it was 'An appeal to the young' but the question comes from my memories of a radio interview a few years ago.

    Who wrote off the anarchist movement & then had to eat his words?

    Yes probably quite a few but I was thinking of George Woodcock.


    MAIN COURSE


    Who translated Kropotkin into Chinese?

    Pa Chin the famous Chinese novelist & author of Family who was attacked during the cutural revolution.his name is a contraction of Bakunin(Pa-) & Kroptkin (-Chin). [stuart graham]

    Pa Chin - yes. Well done.

    What was Malatesta's trade/skill/occupation apart from propagandist?

    Well I didn't know about the medical connection. He reportedly used to point out how useful being an electrician was. When travelling the world all he needed was a screwdriver to earn a living whilst spreading the word.

    Identify The IRSM & the editor of the book about it.

    The International Revolutionary Solidarity Movement or First of May Group was an anarchist urban guerilla group in the 60s or 70s in the UK. Albert Meltzer has written a book about them. They themselves have written Towards a Citizens Militia. [stuart graham]

    If you translated Mrs Thatcher into French what revealing play on words would you be left with?

    Accentuation aside the French for a Thatcher (person who repairs roofs) is a 'chaumeur' another word which sounds exactly the same is 'chomeur' (an unemployed person) so... Mrs Thatcher in French is Mme Unemployment.

    Who said 'Property is robbery (my emphasis)' & when?

    Proudhon: "But murmurs arise! Property is robbery!This is the war cry of '93! That is the signal of revolutions!...Property is robbery: What a revolution in human ideas!" from Benjamin Tuckers translation of What is Property, 1890.french edition no doubt was earlier. Proudhon's actual word was "la vol". [stuart graham]

    Tucker indeed in his translation

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    Mid-Atlantic Infoshop

    Anarchist Quiz 3 - Answers

    by Neil Birrell
    with modifications by Chuck0

    Answers in magenta are from Neil. Answers in green are from the anarchy-list. The person who got it right is indicated in brackets


    STARTERS

    Who said, sung or wrote


    Right now! Ah ha ha ha ha ha!

    The Sex Pistols, the song is "Anarchy in the UK" (my favorite) Megadeth also covered it, except they substitute 'USA' for 'UK' Green Jelly did a parody of it, "Anarchy in Bedrock" [Sam]

    Making the enemies blood curdle!

    Stand up against governments, against God.
    Stay irresponsible.
    Say only what we know & imagine.
    Absolutes are Coercion.
    Change is absolute.

    Ginsberg

    Workers of the world, awaken!
    Break your chains, demand your rights.
    All the wealth you make is taken
    by exploiting parasites.
    Shall you kneel in deep submission
    from your cradles to your graves?
    Is the height of your ambition
    to be good & willing slaves?

    Joe Hill

    The golden lemon is not made
    but grows on a green tree:
    A strong man & his crystal eyes
    is a man born free.

    Herbert Read

    Business man he drink my wine
    Ploughmen dig my earth
    Noone will level on the line
    Nobody of it is worth

    Dylan (and many more besides)


    MAIN COURSE


    Which anarchist weekly recently published its 1000th edition?

    Le Monde Libertaire

    Identify & locate 'Christiana'?

    Big squat with anarchic overtones in Copenhagen

    Name Guy Debord's first film & give a brief resume of the 'plot'

    Hmmmmm.....
    It was not by chance that his first public work was a film Hurlement en faveur de Sade (1952), in which there is no picture & the spectator - truly stupefied by this purely surrealist provocation - watched an alternated sequence of white & then black screens, whilst listening to a mixture of atonal dialogues involving numerous people leading up to a silent, black screen for 24 minutes. This was the first gauntlet against the spectacle thrown down by Guy Debord who fought this battle throughout his life; a death sentence for the cinema, at the time considered as the essence of the artistic product of bourgeois society & for that reason the extreme synthesis of its values in full decomposition, since it expressed not the construction of a situation which aimed to shed light on everyday life but rather a system of falsification of reality in order to suppress it & supplant it by means of a series of images aimed at cutting the individual off from his daily existence & making of him an illusory participant in the spectacle of consumer society in his role as good/product of the spectacle.
    Freedom International News (march/marzo/mars 95)

    Where & when did Emma Goldman die?

    Canada, May 1940

    On February 17, she suffered a severe stroke. She died on May 14th, 1940 in Toronto, Canada. She had been banned from the U.S since 1931, except for a brief visit in 1934. Her death finally allowed her visa back into the U.S., where she was buried in Waldheim Cemetery, next to the Haymarket Martyrs in Chicago. [Jason W.]

    Who said 'Property is freedom' & explain any paradox arising from your answer?

    Proudhon, he also said "property is theft", hence the paradox. [Iain]

    Proudhon. How about theft=exchange value property Freedom=use value property? The debate continues in a thread currently being discussed on this list


    SECOND HELPINGS?


    Name the defendants in the
    PERSONS UNKNOWN trial (see quiz no 1)

    Identify the Kabouters & say what the word means in English.

    A dutch political party of the early 70s, mainly known for smoking pot during council meetings. Grown out of the Provo movement. Kabouters are somewhat similar to Leprechauns or Gnomes. [Jack Jansen]

    Yup. Little Dutch dope smoking goblins.

    Give the title & name the author of the book subtitled The Lost History of the British Anarchists

    John Quail, "The slow burning fuse" [Iain]

    Who wrote The Philosophy of Poverty.... ... & who replied by writing The Poverty of Philosophy?

    Proudhon, yet again. Karl Marx replied to it. [Iain]

    Who gave the lecture The Impossibilities of Anarchism.... ... & who replied by writing The Impossibilities of Social Democracy?

    George B. Shaw, Vernon Richards replied about 60 years latter (who says anarchists ain't up to date?). [Iain]

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    Updated: October 3, 2000



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    9001 --


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    9001 -- elise reclus http://www.mmoya.com/educacion/persiana.html


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    9001 -- Lieberman, Aaron. Aaron Liebermans Briv/Letters of Aaron Lieberman. With an introduction & notes by Kalman Marmor. NY, YIVO, 1951. Octavo, paper wraps, 252 pp., sections from two unpublished works, index. Some of the letters are in Russian. Brief preface in English. Very Good. Lieberman was an important Anarchist in the Whitehall scene. He was a close associate of Rodolf Rocker.

    Henry Hollander Bookseller Catalogue No. 17 - Yiddish Books Anarchy



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    9001 -- THIERRY MARICOURT

    PLAIDOYER POUR RAVACHOL

    Né en 1859, guillotiné en 1892, François Claudius Kœningstein dit Ravachol hante les mémoires de tous les partisans d’un monde « plus juste ». L’auteur s’est attaché, dans ce portrait, à suivre le parcours d’un bandit pas tout à fait comme les autres et qui a profondément marqué ses contemporains — pour preuve, le nombre d’écrits qui lui ont été consacrés.

    Thierry Maricourt est l’auteur d’ouvrages de références (biographie de Poulaille, Histoire de la littérature libertaire et Dictionnaire des auteurs prolétariens), ainsi que d’essais (Les Nouvelles passerelles de l’extrême-droite, La Parole en chantant) et de romans.

    Un vol. broché, 13x20, 128 p. ISBN 2-906389-78-1 65 FF

    Lire le chapitre 1

    Du même auteur : Dictionnaire des auteurs prolétariens Le Sourire de Némésis de Cathy Ytak Le Fabuliste de Thierry Maricourt 2000, 13 francs. Ces deux petits livres de 15 centimètres sur 11, 5 font partie d’une collection créée en 1995. Militant de la littérature prolétarienne, de celle qui reflète les préoccupations de la population qui n’a pas accès à l’écriture et à la diffusion, Vincent Valdelièvre, fondateur et animateur des Editions Sansonnet, souhaite favoriser une littérature produite dans les milieux populaires. Il donne la parole à des auteurs reconnus, Didier Daeninckx, Michel Quint, Dominique Sampiero, pour « des nouvelles en prise sur le mouvement social, écrites par des gens qui se mouillent. » L’héroïne de Cathy Ytak, Némésis, répand la peur parmi les gens influents, les PDG, les décideurs de toutes sortes. Le petit héros de Thierry Maricourt raconte à son farfadet, Lorifan, le monde bizarre et oppressant qu’il tente de comprendre en y réfléchissant sans cesse. Mais réfléchir « c’est mal et donc c’est interdit » par le système écrasant et tout puissant. Une littérature militante qui « exprime le point de vue du peuple, le monde tel qu’il le voit de sa place. » Rózsa Tatár http://perso.wanadoo.fr/hauteurs/notes%20de%20lecture.htm http://www.fictionbis.com/asp/encrage/LesFiches.asp?ColID=7


    9002 -- MAXIMILIEN LUCE (1858-1941) Maximilien Luce, son of a modest employee of the town of Paris, very early expresses a pronounced taste for drawing. His father having accepted the possibility of an artistic career, he starts off as an apprentice with the techniques of engraving on wood. He also starts to paint and, after attending classes with the Swiss Academy, soon joins Carolus Duran’ workshop. From November 1876, he works as a skilled worker in the engraving workshop of Eugene Froment & continues to paint at Carolus Duran. His painting, with dark colors & a tight brushstroke, favours then the suburban landscapes. It is in 1885, while staying in Lagny-sur-Marne that he discovers Seurat’ pictorial research. His production increases and Luce, who has now adopted divisionist painting , takes part in the Salon des Indépendants of 1887. Pissarro welcomes him at once into the recent group of the Neo-impressionists, while he is praised by such critics as Felix Fénéon or Jules Christophe. He exhibits alone for the first time in July 1888 et the Revue Indépendante. He then stays in several places in France & abroad, which is an inspiration for new subjects. Thus between 1890 & 1895, the artist visits la Frette, Herblay, London, Saint Tropez (where he is invited by Signac), & Brittany. His stroke expands & diversifies in the impressionist manner. Later, he visits Holland with his friend Van Dongen, & finds inspiration there for an important series of works. Maximilien Luce’ pictorial journey is however marked with perceptive testimonies on the men of its time. He joins the Anarchistic Group of the XIVth district of Paris early (1881) & from then on expresses his social sensibility through numerous contributions to anarchist journals. Between 1890 & 1914, a hundred caricatural drawings & as many lithographies will be delivered to the press. This political engagement is not however without risk, Luce is locked up in 1894 in the prison of Mazas & judged at the trial of the Thirty. The discovery of Charleroi & the " black country " in 1895 leads the painter to explore a steel industry universe where mines & factories alternate. He keeps with him a hellish vision of men struggling in a choking atmosphere which he shows in his works. Later, between 1915 & 1917, Maximilien Luce will become a witness of the war through his Parisian train stations representations full with soldiers on leave & wounded people. In 1917, his friend the painter Alfred Veillet takes Luce to Rolleboise, a small village on the banks of the Seine close to Mantes. The artist likes the place so much that he soon buys a house there & from then on shares his time between Paris & the "Mantois" countryside. Thus, while his work keeps illustrating Paris in transformation (districts being torn down, cutting through for avenues & the subway & buildings reconstruction), Rolleboise is the ground for a more peaceful painting where one meets scenes of countryside life, bathings & landscapes of the banks of the Sein
    http://musee.ville-mantes-la-jolie.com/site_uk/accueil/expermanente/source_htm/luce31.htm


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    9002 -- Lucienne Block studied under Diego Riviera



    9002 -- THE INTERNATIONALE draws on people’s stories of an emotionally charged radical song (the long-time anthem of socialism & communism) to celebrate the relationship between music & social change, & to evaluate the uncertain fate of once thriving movements of the left. The film chronicles the history of the song written in 1871, at the fall of the Paris Commune, by Eugene Pottier. The lyrics are a rallying cry for all the oppressed & exploited people of the world to rise up & overthrow their masters. After a melody was added a few years later by a French factory worker, Pierre Degeyter, The Internationale spread throughout France, Europe & the world. Using rare archival footage, the film traces the development & meanings of the song before & after the Russian Revolution, during the Great Depression in the U.S. & the Civil War in Spain, & since the fall of the Soviet Union, Tiananmen Square, & the end of the Cold War. The film includes performances & interviews with musicians & activists from around the world, including Billy Bragg & Pete Seeger, & people from the U.S., Israel, the Philippines, China, & the Soviet Union. Exploring relationships between music, history & social change, THE INTERNATIONALE is a serious but often irreverent meditation on socialism, idealism, & the power of music in people’s lives. "An impressive performance! THE INTERNATIONALE traces the cultural history of the stirring anthem that has offered inspiration to social & political activists for more than a century now. Miller manages both skillfully & insightfully to document roughly the first hundred years of a worthy subject resonant with profound social, cultural, & historical value. A moving... & compelling film." - Journal of Film & History "This film is HIGHLY RECOMMENDED for all age groups & classroom situations, as an example of the power that one song can engender throughout history & among different peoples & situations." - Educational Media Reviews Online "A beautiful documentary that shows the part music plays in social change. Awesome!" - The Michigan Observer & Eccentric "[A] striking documentary! Tells the absorbing history of how one song can represent both freedom & oppression, sometimes at the exact same time." - Michigan Daily "What a remarkable film! THE INTERNATIONALE takes us on a lyrical journey from the Paris Commune to the collapse of Soviet Communism, from the slums of Kingston Jamaica to Tiananmen Square, in search of what might be the only song to change the world. With each rendering of "The Internationale" we learn what happens when the only truly universal dream of our century - the dream of a world without exploitation - is deferred. If the song never moved you, I guarantee this film will." - Prof. Robin D.G. Kelley, NYU (author of "Hammer & Hoe: Alabama Communists During the Great Depression" & "Race Rebels") ** Best Short Documentary, 2001 Woodstock Film Festival ** 2002 Human Rights Watch Film Festival (London) ** 2001 Sheffield International Film Festival ** 2001 Hot Springs Documentary Film Festival ** 2001 Ann Arbor Film Festival ** 2001 DoubleTake Film Festival ** 2001 Cleveland International Film Festival ** 2000 Margaret Mead International Film & Video Festival 30 minutes / Color / 2000 Sale/video: $225 Rental/video: $60

    Subject areas: American Studies, Cold War, Europe, France, French Culture, French History, History, Human Rights, Labor Studies, Marxism, Related Titles: Marx for Beginners: Hilarious 7 minute animated introduction to Karl Marx's worldview.



    9003 -- The Socialistische Jongelieden Bond has existed for a long time in Holland. It publishes (or at least used to publish) the paper De Jonge Werker, edited by the Communist-anarchist Wink. It is under general anarchist influence, but does not openly endorse anarchism. Its membership is very small, & it seems always to be in the process of re-organization. The typically anarchist form of anti-militarism also exists, conspicuously in the person of Nieuwenhuis. [4*]
    http://www.marxists.org/archive/liebknecht-k/works/1907/militarism-antimilitarism/pt2-ch2b.htm


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    9003 --
    http://www.endpage.com/Archives/Subversive_Texts/Magon/manifest.txt


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    9003 -- Frans Masereel, 'Dawn'. From La Feuille, March 17, 1920.
    http://www.iisg.nl/exhibitions/art/indexdood.html


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    9003 -- ART FOR THE PEOPLE
    http://www.iisg.nl/exhibitions/art/titel.html


    9003 --

    anarchy in kansas

    Issue #1

    October 2000

     

    A Look at Kansas Anarchist History

    When writing about her visit here to lecture at the University of Kansas in 1911, Emma Goldman made the following comments: "The State of Kansas, like Massachusetts, lives on past glory. Had it not given John Brown to the cause of the slaves? Had not the rebel voice of Moses Harman sounded there? Had it not been the stronghold of free thought? Whatever its historic claim to progress, Kansas now gave no sign of it. The Church & Prohibition had evidently performed the last rites at the interment of liberalism." Anarchists & anarchist periodicals had been an important part of this radical past, with Harman & his paper Lucifer perhaps being the best known among them.

    Lucifer, the Light-Bearer

    In 1879, Moses Harman moved to Valley Falls from missouri. An abolitionist & freethinker, he began a freethought journal called the Valley Falls Liberal in August, 1880, & served as the secretary of the local Liberal League in Valley Falls during the early 1880s. At this time the freethought movement included a number of anarchists. The 1891 annual meeting of the Kansas Liberal League in Ottawa, which was denounced by the Topeka State Journal as a "Free Love" gathering, was attended by Voltairine de Cleyre, & its 1894 annual meeting in Topeka demanded that Grover Cleveland "take off your crown, vacate your throne, lay down your sceptre & take yourself away from the sight of human eyes forever." Harman & his paper, from the beginning, were also concerned about many other issues besides freethought. In a prospectus published in 1880, the Liberal, in addition to endorsing the platform of the National Liberal League, pledged to "champion the rights of the poor, laboring man as against monopolists of every class."

    Harman changed the paper's name to the Kansas Liberal in 1881, & moved it to Lawrence for six months in 1882, during which time it served as the organ of the Kansas Liberal Union. Because of clashes with his associates there over prohibition (which he opposed) he resumed control of the paper & moved it back to Valley Falls. The paper now began carrying more advertising offering anarchist, sex radical, & freethought books & periodicals for sale. In 1882, Edwin Cox Walker, an iowa freethinker, began writing for the Kansas Liberal, & became assistant editor in 1883. While associated with GH Walser & Liberal University in Liberal, MO, Walker developed a plan for an anarchistic economic arrangement to free them from the "ranks of capital's dependents," which, however, never came to fruition. He also contributed to Liberty, an anarchist journal published in Boston. Walker had an even more libertarian reputation than Harman, having been described by the editor of the Atchison Globe, as "a fellow so intensely liberal that he opposes the law against indecent exposure."

    In August, 1883, as Harman became more interested in sex, labor, and property issues, the Liberal evolved into Lucifer, the Light-Bearer, a title described by Benjamin Tucker as "Quite the best name we know of, after Liberty!" As time went on, Lucifer became increasingly anarchistic in outlook, describing itself in 1885 as a 'weekly Anarchist-Freethought Journal." In 1887, the editor of the anarchist Kansas City Sun, writing in Liberty, said that "Liberty attacks the State, the Truth Seeker attacks the Church, the Word attacks Madam Grundy, but Lucifer is not content, in its own way, without attacking all three." During this time Harman's children also joined the staff of the paper, George as copublisher & Lillian as compositor.

    In 1886, as an expression of their view that government had no business regulating the sex lives of individuals, Walker and Lillian Harman publicly entered into a "common-sense arrangement", an "autonomistic" non state-sanctioned marriage governed by a "wholly private contract" between the parties. The "newlyweds" were arrested the day after their wedding at the Lucifer office & held that night under guard at Cataract House in Valley Falls. They were transferred to county jail at Oskaloosa the next day, but Lillian was later allowed to return under guard to Valley Falls, since the jail had no facilities for a woman. Harman & Walker were later brought to Shawnee County jail in Topeka in October to await trial, & their case was heard in district court in Oskaloosa. Found guilty of living together as husband & wife without license & legal marriage, they were imprisoned in adjacent cells in the Oskaloosa jail. Moses Hull, publisher of the Des Moines New Thought, wrote that they had been jailed "for being anarchists, agnostics, atheists and everything bad that begins with an A."

    While their partners in Lucifer were still in jail, Moses & George Harman also ran afoul of the law. In keeping with their policy of not editing letters submitted for publication, the Harmans had published sexually explicit material in their paper. Early in 1887, they were arrested on obscenity charges and indicted by a federal grand jury in Topeka on 270 counts of obscenity. In 1890, after continuing to publish letters about sex during the trial, Moses Harman was found guilty on 4 counts and sentenced to five years in the kansas penitentiary & fined $300. He served 4 months & then was released on a technicality. While free, he was tried for having printed another sex letter and was sentenced to a year, but served only eight months before being released on a procedural point. He was then resentenced to one year at hard labor for his original conviction, returned to prison to serve out his time, & left prison in April 1896. Having moved Lucifer to Topeka in 1890 in order to more easily fight his legal battles from there, he moved to Chicago in 1896 after his release from prison. Government harassment of Harman & his paper due to his free editorial policy continued there, & he was sentenced to a year of hard labor for obscenity in 1906, at the age of 75. He broke rocks in Joliet eight and a half hours a day in the illinois winter, which ruined his health and resulted in his transfer to the federal prison in Leavenworth. There he was hospitalized for bronchitis & spent much of the remainder of his sentence in the hospital. In 1908 he move to Los Angeles, where he died in 1910.

    While Harman had been tied up fighting censorship in the courts, many changes had taken place in the Lucifer office. In 1888, Walker & Lillian Harman had resigned from Lucifer over differences with Moses about his free language policy, & started their own anarchist newspaper called Fair Play, also published in Valley Falls. This paper was suspended in 1891, & its subscriptions were transferred to Liberty, for which Walker wrote and acted as canvasser & traveling salesperson.

    With the departure of Lillian & Walker, Moses was forced to seek out new blood to assist him with putting out Lucifer. Clarence Lee Swartz, who had formerly edited Voice of the People an anarchist journal in Kingman, edited Lucifer during part of Moses' first imprisonment in 1890. After his stint at Lucifer, he, too, ran into problems with the government in kansas for daring to believe in freedom of the press. In 1891, he distributed the irreverent reform-minded Kansas City, MO, Sunday Sun in Topeka, & was arrested under a kansas law against sensational literature. His bond was set at $4000, & later lowered to $2000, but he spent 36 days in jail before raising this amount. Fortunately for him, the prosecutor did not show up in court and charges against him were dropped. Years later, Swartz produced What is Mutualism, an edited collection of Benjamin Tucker's writings, & wrote an article on "Anarchism Communism" in the New Encyclopedia of Social Reform.

    Anarchist Lois Nichols Waisbrooker edited Lucifer for several months in 1891-1892. One of the issues she edited was barred from the mails for reprinting a section of a book mailed by the USDA. While printing the word penis was the cause for Moses Harman's imprisonment, this official government publication used the word freely, & Waisbrooker wished to point out this double standard. The issue also contained three ads judged obscene by the post office. She put out subsequent issues of Lucifer with a front page streamer which stated that the paper was now "Published under Government Censorship." Waisbrooker also published & edited her own journal Foundation Principles from several places, including Topeka during the eighties and nineties, & was arrested in Topeka in 1894 for publishing obscenity. The court case lasted months & her poor health led her to stop publishing Foundation Principles. She finally received an arrest of judgement in 1896. Waisbrooker later lived in the anarchist community, Home, in washington state.

    Other Area Anarchists

    The circle of people involved with Lucifer were not the only anarchists in the area at this time. Eight people in Salina responded with donations to an appeal to readers of Liberty in 1882 to fund the Society of the Red Cross of the Will of the People (the so-called nihilists) in russia. In 1884 & 1885, the anarchist Miners' Journal was published in Scammonville, and edited by John McLaughlin, who started the Radical Democrat in 1885 in the same town. Albert Parsons toured kansas in 1885 as a labor organizer, speaking in Ottawa to around 3000 people on July 4. He also spoke in Topeka, & addressed miners in Scammonville, Weir City & Pittsburg. & in 1886, John Shrum, the secretary of the Scammonville Group, IWPA, the international anarchist organization, lived in Columbus.

    In the 1880s, Charles T Fowler edited the Kansas City Sun, an anarchist & labor paper in Kansas City, MO. He had been an associate of Josiah Warren, Benjamin Tucker, & Sidney Morse in Boston before moving to the Midwest. He wrote a number of anarchist pamphlets, including Cooperation: Its Laws & Principles, Corporations, & Cooperative Homes, which showed how people could organize their lives without government intervention. He also contributed to both Liberty & Lucifer, in which journal he defended the Haymarket anarchists. Fowler died in Westport, MO in 1889.

    Anarchists were notorious enough in kansas in this era that when a railway express package addressed to Winfield exploded in Coffeyville in 1888, injuring two people, the Courier in Winfield claimed this showed that "Evidences of Anarchism in Kansas are Increasing." In 1889, Gaspar C Clemens, an attorney in Topeka advocated anarchy in the Kansas Democrat. He had earlier defended Walker & Harman when they were arrested for their outlaw marriage & wrote a pamphlet protesting the treatment of the anarchists in Chicago. He had also spoken on their behalf & against police violence in Topeka, calling for the abolition of the police court & jail. In 1893, The Advocate, a populist journal printed his essay, "Anarchism as Anarchists Understand It," & allowed him to respond to his critics in the same journal two weeks later. And, demonstrating the influence of anarchist ideas in the region, the editor of the Jeffersonian, a populist paper in Lawrence & Topeka, wrote in 1891 that " A good government is a contradiction in terms, equivalent to good evil."

    While the anarchist movement in kansas petered out around the turn of the century, a number of anarchists were imprisoned in Leavenworth during the first world war. Mexican anarchists Ricardo and Enrique Flores Magon, publishers of Regeneración, were arrested in 1918 in california. Ricardo was transferred to Leavenworth Penitentiary in 1919, & was found dead in his cell in November, 1922, possibly having been murdered. Enrique was also at Leavenworth for a time. Their associate Librado Rivera, who was also arrested in california was transferred to Leavenworth in 1920, then released & deported to mexico in 1923. Another antiwar anarchist imprisoned at this time was Louis G Raymond, who spent five or six years in Leavenworth & was deported to Spain after his release. During their imprisonment these prisoners were aided by a committee called the Ladies' Tea Club organized by anarchist Bessie Zoglin in Kansas City, MO, who, with her husband Isaac, also arranged lectures in KC by Emma Goldman, Saul Yanofsky, Rudolph Rocker, & other anarchists. Members of the club visited prisoners & gave them food & clothing. According to Zoglin, Elbert Preshner & another anarchist working as orderlies in Leavenworth prison hospital said that Ricardo was being slowly poisoned & they poured out the poison & were replaced. Poison was reportedly found at autopsy.

    Anarchist Publishing in Kansas in the Twentieth Century

    Although there has been little anarchist activity in kansas since this time, anarchist literature has continued to appear intermittently. In 1919, Emanuel Haldeman-Julius began a publishing project in Girard, called the Little Blue Book Company. Until his death in 1951, in addition to various atheist, freethought, and other oppositional literature, Haldeman-Julius published works by anarchist writers, including Percy Bysshe Shelly, Victor Yarros, Henry David Thoreau, Peter Kropotkin, Oscar Wilde, & Leo Tolstoy.

    In Lawrence, the Affinity Group of Evolutionary Anarchists, a number of years ago, published a journal called Meander Quarterly, as well as anarchist pamphlets, including Consent or Coercion? The group has since renamed itself the Voluntary Cooperation Movement and the local Lawrence group is called the Ricardo Flores Magón Club. One of its members has also published a new edition of Augustin Souchy's book, With the Peasants of Aragon.

    The Bad Press, which is a continuation of the Boston Anarchist Drinking Brigade's publishing project, relocated to Kansas City in 1999 & has published several broadsides here, in addition to this newsletter. Anarchists believe it is important that the libertarian idea (and anarchist history) be kept alive, even in times & places where there is little anti-state activity. After all, it is only when people are exposed to anarchist ideas that we can ever hope for libertarian change in individuals & society.

    (For more information on the people discussed in this article, check out the Sex Radicals by Hal Sears, Fred Whitehead's article "The Kansas Response" in Haymarket Scrapbook, and Liberty, which is available on microfiche.)


    Why I Am an Anarchist


    People become anarchists for various reasons. Our experiences living in authoritarian society, the experiences of our friends and loved ones, the things we read, the things we see & hear, our temperament, & our views about human nature (or the lack thereof) all contribute to our ideas about the state, individuals and society. Those of us who become anarchists all agree on one point: that people are fully capable of figuring out how to live their lives without government & other coercive institutions. But, because we have all arrived at our libertarian viewpoint in different ways, we often have different priorities in our activities promoting social change, & are more or less outraged by different displays of power on the part of the state. The following are some of the things about government that most disgust me & for which I see no solution short of abolition of government.

    Armed government thugs are empowered to harass & abuse peaceable, non-invasive people. Police claim that they are there to "serve and protect us," & in many places people are prevented by the state from owning firearms, rendering them unable to protect themselves. However, the police have demonstrated their unwillingness or inability to protect anyone but themselves & the officials who employ them. Instead, the police spend their time victimizing people engaged in peaceful activities like driving without a government permit (license & registration); buying, using, or selling drugs not approved of by the state; trading sex for money; or even keeping a messy backyard. But beyond enforcing unjust laws, these bullies also harass, arrest, & attack people with no provocation, because they appear "suspicious," or "look guilty," are driving on a road where the police have decided to set up a checkpoint, are carrying "too much" cash, or are simply driving while black, sometimes resulting in the death of someone who has done nothing illegal, simply because they did not obey police or made a move which police considered threatening. When people resist police attacks & harassment, they can be shot and killed with impunity, & sometimes have even been incinerated in their dwellings. Those who survive their encounters with the police & end up in prison are routinely brutalized & demeaned by their keepers, who then fail to protect them from being raped, beaten & sometimes killed by their fellow inmates.

    Government uses its laws & police to protect the unjustly acquired wealth of its corporate allies & supporters. It protects titles to land which allow some to own property they neither use nor occupy, the possessors of which are then able to extract rent from those who need land on which to live and/or work. The state also protects the property rights of owners of factories & other businesses, where the workers produce the wealth & those who employ them steal a portion of the product of their labor. Government and its associated banks monopolize the money supply, thus denying credit to those who don't already possess some wealth, facilitating extortionate interest, & preventing most people from becoming independent of capitalist employers. & the government which enables this systematic dispossession of working people through interest, rent, & profit supports itself with tax money it steals directly from working people.

    With police action & imprisonment as an ever-present threat for those who dare to disobey, the state tries in myriad ways to control the daily lives of its subjects. It attempts to force all young people into its indoctrination factories, where they are crowded together in same age herds, sometimes forced to all dress alike, expected to respect the authority of self-appointed experts, intimidated or brutalized by violent peers, & frequently not even taught to read or write. People who attempt to rescue their children from this system are treated with suspicion and forced to surrender the privacy of their homes to the inspection of bureaucrats who believe they know better how to take care of their children.

    The state prevents people from freely purchasing medicines, forcing them to get a note from a government-approved health provider before they can treat their own illnesses, & criminalizes people who dare to give health advice or care without first obtaining a license from the government. The state even presumes to dictate who may cut your hair or trim your nails; what you can & cannot see & hear on television; what kind of home you are allowed to live in; if, when, & where you may travel outside of the country; & how late you can have a drink at a bar. Nothing is too important or too petty for the government to concern itself with.

    Besides interfering constantly in the lives of those who live in the territory it controls, the government also maintains an international force for terrorizing people in other countries. When the governments of other nations do something of which the united states government disapproves, & threats of force are not adequate to change the situation, the military is dispatched to murder civilians, poison the land, destroy essential utilities and otherwise immiserate the subjects of the government in question. If such attacks are not adequate to obtain abject surrender, trade sanctions, enforced by the military, are then implemented, in order to further torment the populace. & this is often in retaliation for actions on the part of a foreign government which would be ignored if carried out by a nation which is friendly to the united states government or its corporate supporters.

    That is what government does. That is its essential nature. But although this is standard procedure for all the states of the world, such a system of organized force & theft is not the only way for human society to be organized. Getting rid of the state would allow working people to stand up to corporate predators and refuse to surrender any part of their product to the owners. Renters & tenants could lay claim to the land & property they use & occupy, & stop paying rent. People could produce and circulate whatever means of exchange they wish, greatly increasing available credit & allowing people to earn their living independently if they so choose. & people would no longer be taxed to support those who dominate & rob them.

    Without a state, people would be able to figure out ways to interact, trade, & learn cooperatively & peacefully. Persuasion would generally replace force as a means of settling disputes and the only limit on one's freedom would be the equal freedom of others. This is anarchy. & that is why I am an anarchist.

     

    anarchy in kansas is edited by Joe Peacott

    bbrigade@world.std.com

    http://world.std.com/~bbrigade/anarchy%20in%20kansas%20%231


    9004 -- RECONSTRUCT PORTRAITS OF ANARCHISTS Casey Orr - Photos by Casey Orr - http://burn.ucsd.edu/a-intro.htm PAGES FROM STUFF i HAVE IN THE BLEED


    9004 -- STAN IVERSON TAPES, FIND & DUPLICATE, TRANSCRIBE SOME, COPIES FOR THE FAMILY (HIS KIDS, ETC)


    9006 --

     

    Jaime Cubero e o Movimento Anarquista no Brasil

    Esta entrevista realizada por J. M. Carvalho Ferreira a Jaime Cubero tinha como grande objectivo dar a conhecer a vida de um grande homem e sua articulação com o movimento anarquista no Brasil. Embora sabendo da sua fragilidade física, a sua morte em Maio de 1998 não era de todo previsível. Foi uma enorme perda para o anarquismo no Brasil e, porque não dizê-lo, para o pulsar das ideias e das práticas acratas no mundo. Com esta entrevista procura-se tão-só compreender a evolução do anarquismo no Brasil nas últimas décadas e revelar a figura do homem que nos deixou.

    Estamos hoje a 28 de Maio de 1997 para entrevistar um grande amigo e companheiro - Jaime Cubero - figura sobejamente conhecida no Brasil dispensando quaisquer adjectivos, para a revista UTOPIA. Vamos tentar fazer aqui algo que fique para a história. Vamos tentar dialogar no sentido de articular a figura de Jaime Cubero com as ideias e práticas do anarquismo no Brasil e mesmo no mundo. Assim, a minha primeira pergunta é: Como é que enquanto pessoa, enquanto ser humano, emergiu para a prática e as ideias do anarquismo?

    Eu comecei muito jovem. Eu tinha um vizinho espanhol que era anarquista e os filhos dele conviviam connosco. Jogávamos todos juntos na rua. Isto era na altura em que ainda não tinha dez anos, hoje tenho 70. Vejam só quanto tempo já passou! Estávamos mais ou menos em 1936/1937, ou seja antes de 1940. Esse meu amigo chama-se Liberto - hoje por acaso é meu cunhado, porque casou com uma irmã gémea. Esse meu amigo visitava-me quando eu estava doente e conversávamos muito. Como na altura eu era católico por causa das aulas que recebia no grupo escolar nós conversávamos muito sobre religião - nós ficamos órfãos quando morreu meu pai, com 33 anos. Éramos seis irmãos, a menor com dois meses e o maior com 8 anos, e no intervalo nasceram os gémeos: eu e minha irmã Aurora. É a partir daqui que uma série de fatos irão influir no meu pensamento.

    Dividiram os irmãos de tal forma que 3 foram para a avó materna (o avô já tinha falecido) e 3 vieram para São Paulo para a avó materna. Minha mãe não casou de novo, daí as dificuldades que tinha para sustentar seis pessoas. Na altura a miséria era muita. Quando venho para São Paulo, minha avó matricula-me na escola, mas no 2º ano porque no primeiro já não havia vaga. Foi assim que eu só fiz três anos de escolaridade: do 2º ao 4º ano. Nesta fase é que eu começo a estabelecer relações com outros vizinhos nossos, de entre os quais o Liberto de que já falei, que marcarão profundamente a minha vida. No grupo escolar era obrigatório o ensino religioso (religião católica) - para me matricular minha avó teve de dizer que eu era católico senão não me aceitavam. Nessas aulas de religião (tinha eu 7 anos) esse meu amigo Liberto que tinha outra formação (anticlerical), começa a fazer a minha cabeça. Comecei a Ter uma curiosidade enorme pela religião. Logo depois começamos a fazer debates com o padre, com católicos etc. Começou tudo aqui. Nesse tempo, já depois de Ter saído da escola e estar a trabalhar numa fábrica (com 11 anos) onde trabalhava 10 horas por dia, no fim do dia nós nos reuníamos. Ia Ter a casa desse meu amigo e do irmão dele (que era sapateiro que trabalhava em casa) onde fazíamos leituras em conjunto e comentávamos tudo o que líamos. Um dos livros que viria a marcar a minha formação foi o livro chamado "Manolim" (livro muito divulgado nos meios anarquistas na 1ª e 2ª década deste século) Foi com este livro que eu aprendi o espanhol porque estava escrito em espanhol. Discutíamos bastante, fazíamos frequentemente leituras comentadas por todos.

    A partir daí, desenvolvemos essas actividades de leituras comentadas e resolvemos um dia, já adolescentes com 16/17 anos, criar (sem contactos nenhum com o movimento anarquista) o que pomposamente resolvemos chamar de "Centro Juvenil de Estudos Sociais". Convidávamos para aí conviver todas as moças das nossas relações. As pessoas diziam que o que queríamos era "paquerar" (namorar) as raparigas. E de facto, dali saíram algumas uniões, inclusive a minha com a Maria (companheira da minha vida), a do Liberto com minha irmã e outras. Foi aí que começou tudo.

    Depois disso, quando é que entras em relação estreita com o movimento anarquista?

    Em 1945 no fim da Segunda Guerra Mundial e com a queda do Getúlio Vargas, reabrem-se as portas do Centro. O nosso grupo é descoberto por alguém que pertencia ao Centro e que nos propõe que o Centro possa participar nos nossos debates. Foi assim que tivemos a presença, numa das nossas reuniões, do Edgar Leuenroth, anarquista destacado, e a partir daí entrámos em contacto frequente com o Centro de Cultura Social . Fomos convidados para participar nas múltiplas actividades do Centro de Cultura Social em 1945.

    Quais as principais actividades que desenvolveram nessa altura?

    No seio do nosso grupo fazíamos essencialmente estudos, distribuíamos livros e fazíamos com que as pessoas emitissem/escrevessem as suas opiniões sobre os livros que tinham lido, o que faziam muitas vezes nas nossas reuniões. Quando passámos a fazer parte do Centro de Cultura Social as actividades multiplicaram-se. Passámos a participar nas reuniões do Centro, nas conferências, enfim em todas as actividades. Foi assim que um irmão meu que tinha aptidão para o teatro entra para um grupo de teatro do Centro.

    No casamento do meu cunhado Liberto com minha irmã Aurora estiveram presentes muitos companheiros que pertenciam ao Centro, incluindo Edgar Leuenroth e o director do Jornal "A Plebe". Na altura fiz um discurso sobre o "amor livre" e foi então que Edgar me convidou para fazer parte da Comissão de Gestão do Centro de Cultura Social e participar em todas as actividades do Centro e do próprio movimento. Nessa ocasião tínhamos já bem a noção das iniciativas do movimento anarquista e tínhamos a consciência de que tinha de ser um movimento específico organizado por companheiros convictos. Para alguém entrar para o movimento tinha de ser conhecido de alguém, isto é, tinha de ser apresentado por dois companheiros por uma questão de confiança.

    Logo após a queda da ditadura de Getúlio organizou-se a União Anarquista de São Paulo. Faziam-se conferências ao sábado. Comemorávamos datas, por exemplo a da revolução espanhola. O local do Centro de Cultura Social passou a ser ocupado também pelo Movimento espanhol no exílio, o qual passou a participar bastante nas actividades do Centro. Criámos mesmo dois grupos de teatro, um português e outro espanhol.

    Houve uma reanimação do Centro de Cultura Social, do Movimento Libertário Anarquista após a 2ª guerra mundial e a queda da ditadura em 1945.. Sabemos que o Centro teve muita importância para o movimento libertário no Brasil nos anos 10 e 20. Após a ditadura quais as articulações, quais as incidências das actividades do Centro no movimento operário?

    Discutíamos bastante a directriz do movimento, a participação do movimento operário etc. Fazíamos congressos para reanimar a actividade do centro e para aumentar a participação operária. Num desses congressos, que foi muito divulgado na revista "Cruzeiro", conseguiu-se uma entrevista de Roberto das Neves, português militante muito importante e muito conhecido no Brasil pelos seus livros e editora (de livros anarquistas) que os publicava "Germinal". Na sua luta salazarista foi vítima de fortes perseguições, chegando inclusive a ser torturado (simularam um acidente mas o que houve foi uma tentativa de assassinato) porque essas pessoas que ele hostilizava com uma linguagem muito dura não o deixavam. Articulámos também as nossas actividades com as do Movimento do Rio de Janeiro. Logo a seguir à ditadura havia uma série de pessoas como Edgar Rodrigues de entre muitos outros que faziam parte do movimento e que passaram a ser contactadas para reuniões. Fazíamos várias reuniões entre vários estados mas de carácter eminentemente anarquista. Editámos mesmo um jornal, no pós ditadura, "Relações Anarquistas" no Rio de Janeiro, vindo depois o "Acção Directa". Depois ainda fiz parte também do jornal "A Plebe". Tínhamos uma actividade tremenda. Não havia descanso. Trabalhávamos de segunda a segunda. Fazíamos a nossa propaganda via teatro, jornais e comícios que convocávamos para recintos mais ou menos fechados porque nessa altura e ainda hoje só se pode falar em local público pedindo autorização/alvará de ordem política e social. Na onda política do pós ditadura os anarquistas procuraram ocupar um espaço de destaque e conseguiram-no consideravelmente.

    Do que tenho lido do Jaime Cubero é que nas primeiras décadas do nosso século havia uma actividade essencialmente operária, que se circunscrevia às fábricas: greves, escolas, teatro e toda uma série de práticas operárias. Após a queda de Getúlio e o fim da Segunda Guerra Mundial há um ressurgimento do movimento anarquista embora as práticas estejam agora mais circunscritas a publicações, mais circunscritas aqui em São Paulo e no Rio de Janeiro, não estando tão ligadas ao mundo fabril. Será assim?

    Fizemos de facto várias tentativas no sentido de fazer participar o movimento operário. Cada qual procurou ingressar num sindicato.. Eu, que era sapateiro, assistia a reuniões do sindicato onde estava presente um membro do Ministério do trabalho para fiscalizar. As discussões nestas reuniões eram muito difíceis porque os comunistas queriam impor-se, queriam fazer sempre tudo de acordo com a lei. Nós queríamos lutar num espaço público, nas ruas, lugar sempre ocupado pelos anarquistas. O movimento anarquista aqui no Brasil tem tradição de estar sempre muito ligado ao operariado. Chegou a ter proporções gigantescas. O movimento anarquista foi um poderoso instrumento histórico no Brasil. Todas as leis trabalhistas condensadas na legislação no pós ditadura foram conquistas, práticas concretas dos anarquistas sempre em prole do movimento operário. Como exemplo disso vou falar de uma tese de doutoramento que foi defendida aqui há cerca de 4 meses e que era sobre a greve de 1917. A proporção dessa greve foi enorme. Após a morte de um operário espanhol chamado José Martinez, assassinado pela polícia, no seguimento do enterro dele foi aí que eclodiu o movimento. Chegaram a participar nessa greve mais de 200 mil pessoas quando a cidade pouco mais tinha que 400 mil. Logo, mais de metade da população da cidade envolveu-se na greve. Foi a maior greve geral da história do Brasil.

    O movimento operário, após a queda da ditadura do Getúlio, procurou implantar-se em todos os lugares. O Herbert Marcuse, considerado um guru do Maio de 68 em Paris, dizia que os elementos de contestação do sistema acabariam por ser coarctados pelo sistema e passariam a fazer parte do sistema.

    Ora já no Brasil, Florentino de Carvalho, um dos grandes militantes do Brasil que tem um livro famoso "Da escravidão à liberdade" discutia com Edgar Leuenroth sobre estas questões: preconizava que o sindicalismo acabaria como uma extensão do Estado; que as reivindicações seriam tomadas como elementos de rentabilidade dos sindicatos.

    Quando se chega aos anos 50 Edgar preocupa-se muito com o movimento operário. Organizámos então o Movimento de Orientação Sindical (MOS) que promoveu uma série de actividades tendo durado até ao golpe militar que instaura a nova ditadura em 1964. A posição do MOS era combater o sindicalismo fascista.

    Não tiveram também uma nova concorrência que foi, em certa medida, também ela a causa da perca de influência do movimento anarquista nas suas múltiplas vertentes, concorrência essa que adveio do advento histórico da revolução russa. Será que este acontecimento teve importância na "derrocada" do anarco-sindicalismo?

    A minha visão do problema é a seguinte. Para determinado evento histórico é comum procurar uma causa. E às vezes delimitar essa causa. Muita gente imputa ao Partido Comunista essa perca de influência. O Partido Comunista é fundado em 1922 e a partir daí o movimento anarquista começa a perder influência. Na década 30, já toda uma série de legislação trabalhista tinha cariz fascista. Os sindicatos que surgiram eram fascistas. Então qualquer sindicato de organização operária que não pertencesse ao estado era combatido como clandestino. Estes não podiam organizar-se em liberdade. Mas os anarquistas resistiram bastante. Em 1934, quando houve um grande confronto no centro da cidade de São Paulo entre anarquistas e fascistas - nome dado aos integralistas aqui no Brasil - na Praça da Sé, os trabalhadores que pertenciam à Federação Operária de São Paulo resolveram enfrentar os integralistas (fascistas) que se propunham fazer uma marcha integralista na cidade de S. Paulo à semelhança da marcha que havia tido lugar em Roma no tempo do Moussoulini.

    Essa marcha integralista estava marcada para o dia 7 de Outubro de 1934.

    Os anarquistas organizaram-se para os enfrentar e combinaram também um acto para a Praça da Sé nesse mesmo dia. O Jornal "A Plebe" que divulgava já a ascensão do fascismo divulgou também esse acto anarquista. Para esse confronto, os companheiros anarquistas disseram que estariam lá nem que fossem mortos. Chegado o dia os companheiros colocam-se em lugares estratégicos na Praça da Sé e armados (porque a época não era para brincadeiras, era de luta).

    Quando os fascistas chegaram, todos de camisas verdes (em Itália eram os camisas pretas), começaram a concentrar-se esperando 500 mil pessoas que não chegaram a tantas, colocando na frente da marcha mulheres e crianças por pensarem que ninguém dispararia contra mulheres e crianças.

    Os anarquistas esperaram que mulheres e crianças passassem e depois… tendo um dos companheiros - Simão Rodovich percebido que havia metralhadoras que estavam prontas a disparar sobre os operários, ele toma conta de uma delas e começa então um tiroteio enorme. Morreram 6 pessoas, muitas delas ficaram feridas e algumas morrendo depois devido aos ferimentos, mas o que é de salientar é que houve uma debandada enorme, a passeata dos fascistas abortou. Isto para demonstrar que o movimento anarquista não morreu, a manifestação de 1934 demonstra que ele estava bem vivo.

    Havia uma revista do Partido Comunista da época "Divulgação Marxista", que era suspeita quando dava dados. O Partido Comunista não chegava na altura a ter 1000 filiados no partido, contudo chegaram quase a dizer que tinham sido eles a enfrentar os integralistas. Irónico não é? Em contrapartida a Federação Operária de São Paulo tinha mais de 80 sindicatos que não pertenciam ao Estado.

    Pôr tudo isto não podemos dizer que houve só um factor que tivesse contribuído para o refluxo do movimento anarquista tendo antes havido uma conjugação de factores. O Movimento não foi capaz de reflectir sobre o que se estava a passar a nível mundial. Deixou-se ultrapassar pelos acontecimentos. Mas durante muito tempo teve superioridade face ao Partido Comunista, partido este que em 1922 já pertencia ao governo. Nessa conjugação de factores inclui-se não só o Partido Comunista como também todos os outros partidos que aderiram ao governo, ou seja, ao sindicalismo oficial (menos os anarquistas que o não fizeram). Mas... na minha opinião o principal factor foi a repressão da época. Foi um fenómeno mundial. Basta pensar nas ditaduras de Salazar em Portugal, Peron na Argentina, Franco em Espanha, Hitler na Alemanha, Mussolini em Itália, etc… Se pensarmos no período histórico em que as ditaduras imperaram podemos Ter aqui o principal factor causal do refluxo da importância do movimento anarquista.

    Tendo a noção que se registou um refluxo, há uma tentativa após a 2ª guerra mundial para activar de novo o movimento. Como o fizeram? Circunscreveram-se apenas a publicações? Que actividades desenvolveram?

    Muitas actividades como conferências, cursos e outras. Em São Paulo chegámos a ter milhares de alunos. Procurámos ocupar espaços físicos novos. Na Universidade de S. Paulo havia um Conselho de que fazia parte Edgar Leuenroth e muitos outros de grande projecção. Passámos a ter uma actividade considerável tendo em conta o período de repressão que tínhamos vivido e ainda se vivia. Qualquer actividade de teatro juntava sempre centenas de pessoas. Editámos uma série de jornais, mesmo depois do jornal "Acção Directa" e nos anos que antecederam a nova ditadura. O movimento anarquista, como todos os outros, tem momentos, circunstâncias em que consegue grande projecção e outros momentos menos áureos. Existe contudo um meio anarquista que gravita em torno de um grupo que vai crescendo e alargando-se por várias zonas.

    Em 1964 instala-se uma nova ditadura, não é?

    Em 1954 eu pertencia ao teatro do Centro de Cultura Social e o Edgar tratava das conferências, reuniões do centro etc. É preciso não esquecer que o movimento específico anarquista não é público, é clandestino. O Estado jamais daria autorização para combater o Estado, só deu licença para se ter o espaço físico do Centro. Mas desenvolvemos sempre actividades específicas pertencentes a um meio anarquista. Criámos mesmo a União Anarquista de São Paulo. Nos dias de reunião da União apareciam sempre muitas pessoas. Mas mesmo com os cuidados todos que tínhamos em relação às pessoas que queriam assistir, acabavam sempre por se infiltrar policiais que faziam depois verdadeiras actas das nossas reuniões.

    Quer dizer que a actividade clandestina afinal não chega?

    Claro que não chega. Tanto não chega que, uma tese recente investigou sobre as pessoas que pertenceram ao Centro de Cultura Social, e muitas foram descobertas através desses registos policiais. Nesses registos aparece o nome de Mário Santos, que era um orador ímpar.

    Quais os efeitos negativos para o movimento anarquista da ditadura instalada em 1964?

    A ditadura de 1964 foi terrível. Praticamente anulou tudo. Nós resistimos até 1968 quando foi instituído o Acto Constitucional, que foi a lei mais repressiva que a ditadura promulgou. Foi um aperto. Eliminou-se toda e qualquer actividade pública que vinha sendo exercida. Tudo o que se podia fazer era na clandestinidade., correndo todos os riscos inerentes às circunstâncias. Quando soubemos da Revolução, isto é, do golpe militar de 1964 conseguimos resistir até 1968, ou seja, até à dita lei. Tínhamos ainda um jornal e todas as actividades do Centro. Uma forma de poder continuar em actividade e resistindo foi criando o Centro de Cultura Social a que nós chamávamos o "Laboratório de Ensaio", onde com marceneiros, carpinteiros e outros operários construímos um pequeno teatro de arena, que levava cerca de 60 pessoas bem instaladas. Levávamos á cena peças inseridas nas circunstâncias políticas. Um exemplo foi uma peça chamada "Os Generais", cujo tema era como transformar um general num ser humano. Por aqui pode ver-se a nossa actuação.

    O nosso teatro foi registado como uma escola de teatro. A polícia aparecia muito mas dizíamos que estávamos numa aula e assim lá íamos correndo os nossos riscos, mas sempre desenvolvendo as nossas actividades culturais --exposições de arte, recitais de poesia, etc. - sob uma repressão tremenda mas sempre, sempre resistindo. Com a instituição desse Acto político, a repressão intensificou-se e encerrámos provisoriamente - que durou 16 anos, só reabrimos em 1985 - algumas das actividades do laboratório mas fomos desenvolvendo acções na mesma como seminários sobre racismo, sindicalismo e outros temas. Fazíamos também comemorações de datas, relativas à revolução espanhola por exemplo e outras.

    Entre 1954 e 1964 esteve no Rio de Janeiro. Em 1964 estava em São Paulo mas antes esteve no Rio de Janeiro. Fale-me um pouco da greve em que participou dentro do Jornal o Globo.

    Trabalhei no Jornal o Globo durante 10 anos. Eu antes trabalhava como sapateiro, sendo conhecido pela minha capacidade intelectual. Eu não fiz curso nenhum, como disse antes, só tenho 3 anos de curso primário. O resto se deve ao meu autodidatismo, sendo o Centro de Cultura Social a minha grande escola. Eu consegui registar-me como jornalista profissional no Rio de Janeiro para trabalhar no jornal o Globo. Eu fui demitido na sequência do apoio a uma greve de solidariedade que o sindicato dos jornalistas profissionais resolveu apoiar a greve dos jornalistas gráficos. Como a nossa negociação salarial estava quase na hora, decidimos apoiar os gráficos e depois eles apoiar-nos-iam a nós. Foi assim que entrámos na greve directa e que tivemos uma participação muito importante porque montámos piquetes para não deixar os jornais sair. Estávamos praticamente 24 horas acordados para desenvolver toda uma série de actividades. Depois de a greve terminar, só no Rio foram demitidos cerca de 80 jornalistas. O representante do nosso sindicato marcou um encontro com o Roberto Marinho com o objectivo de sermos readmitidos. Alguns colegas, instruídos por advogados, negaram a sua participação na greve, dizendo que tinham ficado em casa e….. Eu fiquei um pouco revoltado e então eu disse: eu não sei o que cada companheiro fez mas eu participei plenamente em tudo, eu participei na greve, eu fiz as actas do sindicato porque o nosso salário é incompatível com a nossa profissão, etc. Disse ainda que não me eximia de participar nesta luta porque era uma luta importante. Roberto Marinho não estava habituado a lidar com tanta franqueza.

    Eu voltei ao jornal, não espontaneamente. Eles mandaram-me chamar , por parte do sindicato, e soube então que Roberto Marinho tinha ficado surpreendido comigo e com o meu discurso, propondo-se então a aceitar-me no jornal. Eu disse que sim mas com uma condição: que todos os outros demitidos fossem também admitidos, que todos voltassem ao trabalho. Eles não aceitaram e esta foi a primeira vez.

    Mas mandaram-me chamar uma segunda vez. Nesta segunda vez Roberto Marinho disse-nos e impôs: vocês estão aqui mas concordo que voltem com uma condição: assinando uma carta, individual ou colectiva, declarando que estão de acordo com a orientação do Globo, se arrependem de ter feito greve, que nunca mais farão e prometo não utilizar esta carta no Ministério do Trabalho.

    Nesta segunda vez, neste encontro entre sindicato e jornal, mandei dizer que eu só voltava a trabalhar no jornal se Roberto Marinho escrevesse uma carta em que declarasse que estava arrependido de me ter demitido, que nunca mais iria incorrer no mesmo risco, e que eu prometia nunca usar esta carta etc… Não aceitou e foi o fim. Não voltei mais.

    A greve durou quantos dias?

    Durou 4 dias.

    Foi então para São Paulo e as actividades, para além daquelas do Centro Cultural, quais eram? Qual a diferença entre os dois tipos de resistência?

    Quando foi promulgado o Acto da ditadura nós procurámos o Pedro Catarro e dissemos que tínhamos uma edição do jornal que não conseguíamos editar porque se o fizéssemos éramos presos. Ele a princípio não acreditou, mas depois lá o convencemos e o jornal foi editado e distribuído. Como ficámos reduzidos a um grupo muito pequeno, resolvemos cancelar as actividades do centro, mas muitos eram de opinião que era impossível fechar o Centro. Havia um Centro no Rio de Janeiro que foi fechado e contaram-nos o que lá se tinha passado. A polícia invadiu o Centro, pensando que tinha apanhado peixe graúdo, faziam então inquéritos policiais. Prenderam uma série de companheiros nossos, alguns muito jovens. O nível policial era muito baixo. Mas os que faziam os inquéritos eram de nível mais elevado militarmente. O Roberto das Neves uma vez que era conduzido para o "Galeão", vira-se para um polícia e diz-lhe que apesar da sua cara siamesa tinha um ar de pessoa. O polícia diz-lhe que apesar do elogio não se "safava daquela".

    Conte-me um pouco o que pensa sobre o Roberto das Neves.

    O caso do Roberto das Neves é paradigmático. O Roberto das Neves, em Portugal escreveu um livro sobre as profecias onde dizia que o Hitler, o Franco, o Salazar morreriam. Escreveu o livro com o nome de Ernesto, espécie de profeta alemão. Ele era uma figura incrível. Hostilizava os racistas portugueses, que estavam, via consulados portugueses, numa série de instituições que ele hostilizava. Utilizava poesias satíricas, utilizando uma linguagem muito forte. Teve consequências numa série deles, deram-lhe mesmo uma surra. Ele publicou muitos livros aqui no Brasil, na editora Germinal. Ele mandava os livros para as pessoas mesmo que não lhos pedissem. Uma vez devolvi uma colecção que ele me enviou. Quando esteve preso no "Galeão" exigiu comida vegetariana, dizia que não era devorador de cadáveres e acabavam por lhe fazer a vontade.

    Após 1964, a ditadura desenvolve-se, ganha força. Mas a partir de certa altura começa a decair em 1984/85. Como é que a partir daí o Centro Cultural volta a ganhar força?

    O ex-Secretário-Geral do Centro esteve a trabalhar no Chile como tradutor. Quando veio foi preso e levado para o Galeão também. Um polícia sargento vira-se para ele e diz-lhe que pode começar a falar porque já tinham prendido mais de 80 anarquistas. Ele pergunta como é que isso era possível se ele nunca tinha conseguido juntar mais de 10 em dez anos.

    Encontrámo-nos depois na Praça da República quando ele estava em fase de processo. Ele disse-me que se ia embora e foi.

    Após 1984 começámos a desenvolver novamente uma série de actividades, em vários lugares. Organizámos seminários sobre racismo, sindicalismo, etc. Fazíamos comícios. Mas não tínhamos uma sede. Estávamos numa fase de distensão. Tentámos encontrar um espaço para reabrir o Centro. Reunimos com várias pessoas e neste período coincidiu o facto de a TV Cultura na altura estar a fazer uma série de programas sobre teatro. Nesse contexto queriam fazer um programa sobre o teatro operário que era o teatro libertário. Procuraram-me para dar uma entrevista e perguntaram-me onde era o Centro. Disse onde tinha sido e qual não foi o meu espanto que quando lá chegámos o Centro estava para alugar e nós alugámos logo a sede, aproveitando o papel ainda existente e tudo o que lá havia. Fomos ao cartório para reiniciar a actividade. Com a inauguração do Centro, recebemos muitas cartas de todo o lado. Aparecemos nas revistas de grande saída. Começamos depois a articular o movimento com actividades múltiplas, tendo os media dado uma grande cobertura à reabertura do Centro.

    A COB(Confederação Operária Brasileira) surgiu. Durante a clandestinidade continuávamos a reunir. Mesmo durante o período de ditadura chegávamos a encontrarmo-nos cerca de 90 pessoas. Tudo na clandestinidade, mas conseguíamos resistir. Só não editávamos nada. Começámos a interessar-nos pelo sindicalismo e inclusive criámos, no Centro, uma Comissão Sindical, criando mesmo comissões específicas: comissão sindical; comissão do teatro, agora temos a comissão de cinema. A comissão sindical começou então a encetar contactos com os sindicatos. A CNT(Confederação Nacional do Trabalho) tinha sede em Espanha. Quando viram que nos interessávamos pelo sindicalismo vieram cá e preparámos um encontro nacional. Quiseram reconstruir a COB. Quanto a mim, já não será mais o que foi. O sindicato hoje tem que se preocupar mais com a apropriação do conhecimento do que com as reivindicações salariais. Uma representação da Baía propõe também a reconstrução da COB. Como criar uma Federação sem sindicatos? Primeiro há que criar sindicatos de ofícios vários, por ramos de actividade só depois virá a Federação.

    Veio uma proposta de novo da Baía no sentido de se criar um núcleo. Criaram-se Núcleos pró-COB com representações em muitos estados do Brasil. Foi mesmo lançado um jornal "A Voz do Trabalhador" que conquistou a confiança de todos. Leonardo Moreli, hoje aliado político da extrema direita no Brasil foi na altura enviado como representante (delegado brasileiro) ao congresso AIT(Associação Internacional dos Trabalhadores). Ali enrolou toda a gente (os espanhóis). Mas ele, Leonardo, só estava interessado no dinheiro. Foi uma pessoa que prejudicou demais o movimento anarquista. Eu fui nomeado secretário dos Grupos pró-COB. Tínhamos a intenção de levar para a frente uma Federação. Por outro lado, na reabertura do Centro (1985) estiveram presentes muitos canais de TV, que deram uma cobertura incrível, fazendo uma série de entrevistas.

    O que fizemos de importante foi um curso de anarquismo onde se apresentaram mais de 50o pessoas (apesar dos custos de inscrição). A partir daí passámos a fazer cursos de anarquismo universitários.

    Outro curso que lançámos foi "As ideias libertárias na Revolução Francesa" que foi muito divulgado no meio universitário. Temos uma relação importante com a Universidade.

    Em 1974, a família de Edgar vende o Arquivo, o Acervo Colectivo para o Unicamp, porque pensavam que tinham ali uma fortuna. Mas, o Edgar antes de morrer deixou anotado uma espécie de testamento dedicado aos seus companheiros no sentido de ser criado um Arquivo da Questão Social. Mas estavam muito interessados neste Arquivo (comunistas com medo de serem comprometidos). Mas aí a família continuava a querer vender. Quando abriram o testamento, a família soube que não podia vender para alguém dos EUA que lhe oferecia muito dinheiro por ele. Resolveram criar um memorial Edgar Leuenroth em plena ditadura, o que nos impossibilitava de fazer algo.

    O Arquivo do Edgar na Universidade de Campinas não irá só servir para os intelectuais?

    Começou de facto a surgir um interesse universitário pelo Arquivo. Descobriram um filão para fazer pós-graduações em História e outras Ciências Sociais. Muitas editoras passaram a criar colecções sobre o Anarquismo. A Contexto criou uma colecção enorme. A uma dada altura, o Jorge perguntou-me se podia fazer um levantamento exaustivo sobre o Anarquismo. Foram feitas pesquisas de investigação sobre o Anarquismo e mesmo teses de doutoramento. O Arquivo do Edgar foi importantíssimo nesse aspecto. Eu próprio fui convidado para o visitar.

    Há uma grande difusão do anarquismo em termos académicos, através de doutoramentos, palestras…

    Desculpe interromper, mas a difusão do anarquismo foi mesmo muito grande. Fomos convidados para fazer cursos nas Universidades, palestras, etc… Foram abertos espaços grandes neste campo na Universidade de São Paulo. O trabalho na universidade para nós foi muito importante. Havia quem não o considerasse como tal. Temos tido muita adesão a este campo. Os auditórios têm estado sempre lotados.

    A actividade universitária está a desenvolver-se. Mas noutros espaços, como os anarco-punks, o que tem acontecido?

    Os punks aqui têm criado muita confusão, de forma algo violentos. Chegaram a promover acções muito violentas e a confrontar-se, hostilizando mesmo os militares em parada. Só que, quando o fizeram, em dada altura chegou a polícia e prendeu mais de 300. Sobre este assunto eu dei uma entrevista para a folha de São Paulo. Hoje, o néo-nazismo, cabeças rapadas geram muita confusão, muita violência entre eles e os anarco-punks. Houve mesmo mortes. Parece-me haver falta de informação. Mas, com mais informação, alguns deles estão desenvolvendo acções mais positivas, em cooperativas operárias. Com o desemprego imenso que crassa o Brasil, todos os que sabem de uma profissão é positivo. Contribuem para melhorar a imagem deles. É parecido com o Movimento dos Sem Terra. Estes estão construindo casas, semeando, conseguem autosustentar-se. Temos acções a vários níveis com os anarco-punks que são cada vez mais positivas.

    E aqui terminamos a última entrevista dada pelo nosso companheiro Jaime Cubero, ainda no ano passado, à revista UTOPIA. Um obrigado póstumo, mas não morto de todos nós que temos o privilégio único de ouvir a sua voz uma vez mais. Até sempre companheiro.

    José Maria Carvalho Ferreira

    Revista utopia # 8

    http://www.nodo50.org/insurgentes/textos/brasil/08cuberoentrevista.htm


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    9010 -- nuke atomic NUCLEAR BOMB http://www.artcars.com/DucknCover/duck01.html




    9509 --

        PLANETE NOIRE

    Sites web fançais et autres

    La page Planète noire se donne pour objectif de recenser le maximum de sites anarchistes, au sens large, c'est à dire  regroupant toutes les tendances pouvant être inclues dans ce mouvement, sans exclusive (en dehors des anarchos capitalistes version USA et des soi-disant anars fricotant avec les révisionnistes ) .
    Plutôt qu'un classement par thème d'intervention, une classification par langue parlée et par pays a été adoptée, pour des raisons de commodité . En effet le seul objectif de Planète noire est de faciliter les échanges entre groupes et individus .
    Des erreurs de classement sont toujours possible, en particulier pour les sites de langue anglaise, de loin les plus nombreux et dont l'origine géographique n'est pas toujours facile à déterminer .
    Pour être le plus complet possible, merci de me signaler les erreurs, les nouveaux sites ou ceux qui arrêtent de fonctionner .

    Pour tous ceux qui ne comprennent pas l'anglais, Alta Vista met à disposition un traducteur de page web, il suffit d'y copier dans le cadre prévu à cet effet l'adresse de la page choisie.
    A consulter, pour avoir toutes les adresses et les contacts des groupes anarchistes dans le monde entier, le site Anarchist yellow pages 1998 (Les pages jaunes anarchistes 1998 )

    Sites web en anglais

    Suite de Planète noire -Continuation







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