The Daily Bleed: A Calendar Better Than Boiled Coffee! Timeline, Chronology, Labor, Radical, Arts, Literature, Authors, Poets, Anarchists...
Cat Has Had the Time of His Life

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    Our Daily Bleed...



-- http://recollectionbooks.com/bleed/3209.htm http://recollectionbooks.com/bleed/3209.htm


-- 9-12- 1918 - Although allied with Russia's imperial government through the spring & summer of the previous year, over 4,000 American troops landed in northwestern Russia on this date in 1918, seeking to overthrow the new Bolshevik (Communist) government. The Americans joined British, French, Italian, Serbian, & Russian "White" forces in the civil war against the "Red" Bolsheviks. When the Allied effort ceased in 1920, some 200 Americans had been killed fighting against Soviet socialism.?????


?
-- Ejected from the Seattle School Board that spring, Anna Louise Strong continued to pour her energy into the Cooperative Campers. In the summer of 1918

In September 1918, he directed one of his rangers to arrest the Cooperative Campers' packer, George Crockett, for receiving pay for his services in the park without having a permit.

Reaburn also reminded Albright that Strong had been recalled from the School Board for her anti-war statements, & that "her bosom companion, Miss Olivereau was given a penitentiary sentence of 10 years.

" What really galled the superintendent was Strong's claim that the Cooperative Campers were opening up the backcountry in the park. "As a matter of fact she is spending absolutely nothing in the way of developing, but expects the Service to do a lot of things in the way of fixing up & improving conditions for her camp, having no doubt gotten the impression that we should improve her camp as we have done the public camping grounds." [43]

Reaburn thought it was time the NPS held the Cooperative Campers to account, for the organization was practically billing itself as a populist alternative to the RNPC.

At this point, the Cooperative Campers virtually disappears from the historical record until 1921.

http://www.nps.gov/mora/adhi/adhi9.htm


-- austríaco Rudolf Grossmann--, el médico anarquista brasileño Fabio Luz o el anarquista argentino Campio Carpi


--

I noticed you only have one Australian/ Aotearoan anarchist listed? (Vincent Ruiz) I think the contribution of anarchists in Australia & Aotearoa has been overlooked by many anarchist sites which attempt to catalog the anarchist pantheon, & yet 150 years ago the labor movement in the USA & Europe first saw the achievement of the eight hour day by Stonemasons in Melbourne in 1856. The eight hour day rapidly spread to other trades in Australia. It was this success which provided impetus for the labor movement in North America & Europe in campaigning for the eight hour day, which became May Day. (see http://www.takver.com/history/mayday.htm).

Anarchist ideas were popularised in the 1880s & 1890s by such people as John (Chummy) Fleming, Jack Andrews, Larry Petrie, & David Andrade, & many others. These people were often in written contact with anarchists such as Emma Goldman, Peter Kropotkin, Elisee Reclus & Benjamin Tucker, etc, & also had material occasionally published in English, North American, & European anarchist publications.

During the 20th century, emigre anarchist groups kept the flame of anarchism alive here, often also sending substantial amounts of money to anarchist projects/journals in their countrys of origin.

There are many who deserve at least minor recognition in any comprehensive anarchist biographical pantheon. Naturally more research is needed on these anarchists as well as many others.

INCLUDES NAMES TO CHECK AGAINST ENCYCLOPEDIA INDEX


Find below a list of anarchists from Australia & Aotearoa that I think should be included in your gallery. This list is taken from my Biography index page at: http://www.takver.com/history/indexbio.htm

Alexander Bikerton (1847-1928)....Frank Prebble
Francesco Carmagnola (1900-1986)....Peter Sheldon in Rebel Worker
Kleber Claux (1893-1971)....Bob James
Arthur Desmond - Ragnar Redbeard (1842-1918)....Question Mark Collective
Michael Flurscheim (1844-1912)....Frank Prebble
Boris Franteschini (1914 - 1986)....S. Russell in Rebel Worker
Lesbia Harford (1891-1927)....Question Mark Collective
Bob James (1940- )....Bob James
Philip Josephs (18?-192?)....Frank Prebble
Syd Nicholls (1896-1977)....Question Mark Collective
John Olday (1905-1977) In Australia , In Europe
William Robert Winspear (1861-1945)....Bob James

Keep up the good work
-- with solidarity
Takver
Takver's Initiatives - http://www.takver.com
Radical Tradition, an Australasian History Page
Visit Anarres Books - http://www.anarres.org.au
Visit Art: The Alternative Tradition -
http://www.vmore.org.au/wssfiles/218/art.htm


-- Anarchist Rebels attack Police post in Uganda

Anarchist rebels with balaclavas attacked a military police station & burnt it to the ground. Anarchist Democratic Forces (ADF) of uganda have been fighting Yoweri Museveni's military junta from the mountains of the moon inwestern uganda for 3 years now.

OVER 30 suspected Anarchist Democratic Forces( ADF) rebels attacked Nkooko Police Post in Kibaale http://www.ainfos.ca/ainfos00270.html


-- Kan-Ban (Buddhist Day of the Dead) When a man came to the Buddha professing his grief over the loss of a friend, the Buddha gave him this sage advice: throw a party. Japanese Buddhists conduct a spirit boat ceremony on which they send the souls to the next life aboard small paper boats. American Buddhist Churches often hold carnivals & open houses at this time. CHECK FOR CORRECT DATE, MAY BE 8-15


?
-- ANARCHIST MUSIC


http://www.morgane.org/biblio3.htm#chansons

— chansons

Le Triomphe de l'Anarchie (d'après C. d'Avray)

Hécatombe (Georges Brassens)

La Rue des Bons Enfants (d'après Raymond la science, 1913)

Juillet 1936 (Serge Utge-Royo)

La chanson du Père Duchesne (1893)

La Révolte (d'après Sébastien Faure)

Le chant des partisans

Makhnovstchina (version Binamé, 1997)

Dynamite (Martenot, 1893)

http://www.morgane.org/biblio3.htm#chansons


-- SOURCES ET BIBLIOGRAPHIE INTERNET All Movie Guide http://allmovie.com Centre National de la cinématographie www.cnc.fr Cinéma libre www.cinemalibre.com Cplanet www.cplanet.com Webdomag www.webdomag.ch Site de M. Kassovitz http://kasso.citeweb.net Rapports publics www.ladocfrancaise.gouv.fr Sénat www.senat.fr Mission interministérielle de lutte contre la drogue et la toxicomanie www.drogues.gouv.fr Médiamétrie www.mediametrie.fr CSA www.csa.fr Lien social www.lien-social.com BIBLIOGRAPHIE M. FERRO, Cinéma et histoire , coll. Folio Histoire, Gallimard, Paris, 1993 M. FERRO, Révoltes, révolution au cinéma , présenté au centre G. Pompidou de novembre 89 à JANVIER / JANUARY 1990. R. BLIND, M. POOL, La télévision buissonnière , Jouvence, Paris, 1995 D. DUPREZ, Le mal des banlieues ? : Sentiment d'insécurité et crise identitaire , Harmattan, Paris, 1992 J.-L. BOCQUET, P. PIERRE-ADOLPHE, Rap ta France , Flammarion, Paris, 1997 D. DUFRESNE, Yo ! Revolution rap , Ramsay, Paris, 1991 HAUT FILMOGRAPHIE ET DISCOGRAPHIE FILMOGRAPHIE B. DE PALMA, Scarface ,1983, Etats-Unis. J. SINGLETON, Boyz'N the Hood , 1991, Etats-Unis. A. HUGHES, Menace II Society , 1993, Etats-Unis. T. GILOU, Raï , 1993, France. R. DEPARDON, Délits Flagrants , 1994, France. M. KASSOVITZ, La Haine , 1995, France. O. DAHAN, Déjà Mort , 1996, France. B. DUMONT, La Vie de Jésus , 1996, France. M. KASSOVITZ, Assassin(s) , 1997, France. J.-F. RICHET, Ma 6T va crak-er , 1997, France. M. LEVIN, Slam , 1998, Etats-Unis. E. ZONCA, Le Petit Voleur , 1999, France. DISCOGRAPHIE NTM, 1993, j'appuie sur la gachette , Epic/Sony, 1993 Assassin, L'Homicide Volontaire , Assassin Production/Delabel/Virgin, 1995 Compilations Brussel Rap Convention , CBS, 1990 Rapattitude , Label Noir/Virgin, 1990 La Haine : Musiques inspirées du film , Delabel/Virgin, 1995 Ma 6T va crak-er , Why Not Production, 1997 http://jscarnel.free.fr/ebola/Histoire/memoire/ter.html


-- INCLUDES NAMES TO CHECK AGAINST ENCYCLOPEDIA INDEX


In 1922 Alfredo Lopez, an anarcho-syndicalist from the Printers' Union, organised the labor Federation of Havana, Federacion Obrera de La Habana (FOH), in which the most combative workers' unions, groups & labor associations of the capital were incorporated. Alfredo Lopez initiated the most dynamic stage of a long social & labor process; he helped to organise unions, libertarian schools, workers' centres, nature clubs & a workers' college, Popular University Jose Marti, Universidad Popular Jose Marti. In those troubled & turbulent years, the anarchists, without economic resources & without any help, first organized, gathered & oriented the majority of the workers, rural & urban, throughout the island.

In 1925 & under the responsibility of Alfredo Lopez, backed by three workers' congresses in Havana, Cienfuegos & Camaguey respectively, created the National labor Confederation of Cuba, Confederacion Nacional Obrera de Cuba (CNOC), an umbrella organisation of all the unions, fraternal associations, guilds, brotherhoods & mutual aid associations in Cuba: 128 collectives & more than 200,000 workers were represented by 160 delegates. The most outstanding members in addition to Lopez, were Pascual Nunez, Bienvenido Rego, Nicanor Tomas, Jose A. Govin, Domingo Rosado, Florentino Pascual, Luis Trujeda, Pauline Diez, Venancio Rodriguez, Rafael Serra, Antonio Penichet, Margarito Iglesias & Enrique Verona. The most important element of the CNOC bylaws was "the total & collective rejection of electoral action". There were in addition, other labor-related accords & slogans: the classic demand for an eight-hour day, & for the right to strike, & a unanimous pledge not to bureaucr The first General Secretary of the National Confederation of Cuban Workers (CNOC) was the anarchist typographer, Alfredo Lopez. There were also socialist & communist groups in the CNOC. The growth of the anarchists had been severely curtailed as a result of the struggles under the regime of President Menocal, by deportations to Spain, & by police repression. Recognizing the need for a better organized and more efficient labor movement, the anarchists reorganized the craft unions on an industrial basis--based on factories & industries--regardless of crafts.
The anarchist labor movement was sadistically suppressed. Alfredo Lopez, the General Secretary of the CNOC (mentioned above) was thrown into the sea to be devoured by sharks. The long struggle for control of thc CNOC ended in 1930-31, when the communists, in league with the Machado government, connived by the foulest means to seize Control of the CNOC & the labor movement. http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/bright/dolgoff/cubanrevolution/chapter5.html

-- Bob Buzzanco Associate Professor of History University of Houston Co-Host, The Progressive Forum, kpft, 90.1 f.m., Thursdays 8-10 p.m., http://www.kpft.org 713.743.3093 713.743.3216 [fax] buzz@uh.edu HOT LINKS

CV
Progressive Faculty Association
Masters of War (Cambridge University Press, 1996)
Vietnam and the Transformation of American Life (Blackwell Publishers, 1999)
Empire, War, & Revolution (History 6393, Spring 2K)
 Post-1945 U.S. (History 6394, Spring 1999)
Viet Nam War
History 1377
 History 1378
1960s
Bernath Lecture
"El Salvador is Spanish For Vietnam": The Legacy of the Vietnam Peace Movement
Op-Ed on  25th Anniversary of Vietnam War
Op-Ed on Elian Gonzalez
BuzzClips
Links to Related Sites
UH History Department Home Page
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http://vi.uh.edu/pages/buzzmat/buzzanco.htm


-- Libero
LIBEROINTERNATIONAL

& Resources on Asian Anarchism

 
 
Libero InternationalContents
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

No. 0 - September 1974
Introduction

No. 1 - January 1975 
A Note on Libero International
Anarchists & the May 4 Movement in China by Nohara Shir
õ
Nissan Motors: New Developments
Review: Monthly Local Struggles
Kõtoku Shüsui: The Founder of Modern Anarchism in Japan
Chronology: The Pre-War Korean Anarchist Movement

The Present Korean Movement Under Martial Law

CIRA - Nippon: A Short Introduction

No. 2
Where We're At
Wot? Organization?
Toiler's Tales: Report from a Hospital Doctor in Japan
Asian Anarchism in English (1): Japan
Group Profile: Iomu no Kai
Chronology: The Pre-War Korean Anarchist Movement (2)
Shin Chae-ho: Korea's Kõtoku
Korean Anarchists Under Martial Law (2) Publications

No. 3
Group Profile: Hong Kong 70s Front
Asian Anarchism in Western Languages (2): China
The Post-War Korean Anarchist Movement (1)
Declaration & Program of the League of Free Social Constructors

The Post-War Left in Japan
Federation Issue in Japan - 2:What Kind of Organization?
Sanrizuka
Japanese Labor Today: Spring Offensive Offensive?
Anarchist Press in Japan
Indochina & Anarchists
CIRA - Nippon

No. 4
Greetings
Chronology of Despotism in South Korea
The Post-War Korean Anarchist Movement – 2
The Dong-A Worker's Struggle: Confronting the KCIA
Kim Chi Ha
Reviving Village Autonomy
Some Readings on Korea: Political Prisoners/Human Rights
Asian Anarchism in Western Languages (3): Korea
CIRA Nippon

No. 5
Bakunin & Japan
Japan In 1861
Bakunin's Stop-over in Japan
Preliminary Conclusions
Ôsugi Sakae
Ôsugi Sakae in Paris
Conclusion: On Nationalism
Afterward
Editorial

No. 6 - March 1980
A Message from the S.I.C.
Museihushugi: The Revolutionary Idea in Japan
The Korean Anarchist Movement
Plug ... Plug ... Plug
Pa Chin: the Latest News



 

This site is maintained by Chuck Morse. I work with the Institute for Anarchist Studies.

 

 

 

Visits since May 9, 1999:




-- I have added some new materials to my site. When you want to receive regularly my Letters & my other messages, send an empty email with the subject subscribe to powerelite@chello.nl
New materials: XX. Fighting tranquillisers. A new chapter of my book "The power of an autonomous human". It can be read as a separate story. http://www.geocities.com/powerandelite/power10.htm
XX. Political catastrophes, the first article of a new series about the necessity of catastrophes in the struggle for a different kind of society. http://www.geocities.com/powerandelite/catastrophes1.htm
XX. GM Food? No!, an article written for the Australian TM-Magazine. http://www.geocities.com/powerandelite/otherarticles1.htm
XX. No Logo, the 15th Letter of an Autonomous Thinker is a critical study in particular of the actions that are discussed in the well-known book of Naomi Klein. http://www.geocities.com/powerandelite/letter15.htm
XX. Elite & mass, an article written for the Peruvian libertarian magazine Acrata. http://www.geocities.com/powerandelite/otherarticles2.htm
XX. Camping in a garden, a new message in the series The Elite under Fire. http://www.geocities.com/powerandelite/eliteunderfire.htm
I hope this will be interesting for you. Yours, Joost van Steenis http://www.geocities.com/powerandelite New ways to break the power of the elite http://www.geocities.com/powerandelite


--

"Society needs the artist, that supreme sorcerer, & it has a right to demand of him that he should be conscious of his social function."

- Ernst Fischer




anarchosyndicalist star
-- The Puigcerdá French Section - just over the border from Bourg-Madame, & one of the main border crossing points - was created in November 1936 with the agreement of the FAI in order to strengthen the liaison between Barcelona & French libertarian organizations.

The group’s delegate was Albert Perrier/Périer, a 39 year-old laborer, secretary of the building workers’ union (CGT) in Périgueux & a member of the UA, who came to Puigcerdá in August 1936 & did not leave until 1939. He was assisted by three members of the Tricheux family from Toulouse: Alphonse, a 56 year-old metal worker & a member of the CGTSR; his wife, Pauline, about whom - typically - we know little else; & their daughter, Noëla. Pauline was in fact more active in two other groups: a Spanish women’s group, the Groupe d’action culturelle et d’éducation des femmes libertaires à Puigcerdá, in which she was responsible for propaganda; and, later, the Comité Pro-Refugiados de Puigcerdá, in which she also played a leading rôle.

After February 1937, the three groups worked together to care for refugee women & children from Malaga, but all anarchist or syndicalist organizations in & around Puigcerdá were suppressed by the government offensive against anarchist control of the border around April 1937. All three of the Tricheux would be arrested in June or July 1937, & held for some weeks before being allowed to return to France.

Eight members of the Section, including Chauvet & perhaps Fortin, were militiamen, all with CNT-FAI militias on the Aragon front.22 Even the Trotskyist Chéron - whose presence in the group is surprising, given the lack of contact between the two movements in France - left a POUM militia to join the ranks of the CNT-FAI. It does not seem to be a case of militiamen on leave in Barcelona visiting the Section for a week or two; rather these were volunteers who had served several months at the front & had now left the militias for good. Chéron, for instance, had left the front to work in the armaments industry in Barcelona.

Links to the CNT-FAI are, not surprisingly, strong. Danon, Defèche, Fortin & Lobel were members of the CNT; Danon & Fortin were also members of the FAI (in what was apparently called the ‘Mimosa group’). At least four members of the Section seem to have been employed by the Seccion Francesa de Propaganda CNT-FAI: Bernard, Fortin, Marchal23 & Styr-Nhair. http://raforum.info/article.php3?id_article=240


-- CNT CRONOLOGIA DELS FETS PRINCIPALS

1907 Constitució a Barcelona de Solidaritat Obrera (S.O.). Presa de contacte entre anarquistes i sindicalistes.

1909 Fets de la Setmana Tràgica a Barcelona. Gran repressió obrera.

1911 Congrés constitutiu de la Confederació Nacional del Treball (). S'organitza una vaga general, i el govern declara il·legal la nova organització que fins el 1914 lluitarà la clandestinitat.

1912 Es assassinat el president Canalejas. El succeeix Romanones.

1914-1918 Boom econòmic en Espanya gràcies a la Primera Guerra Mundial. El sindicalisme troba les condicions socials propícies pel seu desenvolupament.

Novembre 1916 La UGT i la signen un pacte d'aliança revolucionària.

Desembre 1916 Vaga general de 24 hores portada a terme per les dues organitzacions sindicals contra la carestia de la vida.

Novembre 1917 Vaga General nacional convocada per la UGT i la .

1917 - 1919 "Trienni Bolxevic". Es produeix a tota Europa una onada revolucionària.

Juny - Juliol 1918 Congrés de Sants. Es reorganitza la i es creen les estructures dels Sindicats Únics.

FEBRER / FEBRUARY- Març 1919 Vaga General coneguda com "La Canadenca".

Octubre 1919 Lock-out patronal. Creació dels Sindicats Lliures per la patronal.

Desembre 1919 Segon Congrés de la . Es radicalitza la posició revolucionària de la .

Gener 1920 Apareixen a Barcelona grups d'acció anarquista, modernitzen la "Propaganda pel Fet" i planten cara al pistolerisme patronal.

Desembre 1920 Vaga General. Aquesta no és secundada per la UGT.

1920 - 1922 Martínez Anido, governador civil de Barcelona, exerceix una dura repressió antiobrera.

1922 Assassinat del president Dato.

Juny 1922 La retira la seva adhesió a la Tercera Internacional.

Març 1923 Assassinat de Salvador Seguí.

13 SETEMBRE 1923 Cop del capità general Primo de Rivera a Barcelona.

Maig 1924 Prohibició de la per part de Primo de Rivera.

Juliol 1927 Fundació secreta de la FAI (Federació Anarquista Ibèrica) a València per part del sector més radical de la escindit per la seva oposició vers els possibilistes.

Gener 1930 Dimissió de Primo de Rivera. Inici del govern Berenguer.

ABRIL / APRIL 1930 Legalització i ràpid creixement de la .

17 Juny 1930 Constitució del nou Comitè Nacional de la .

Agost 1930 Pacte de Sant Sebastià (unió de republicans, socialistes i nacionalistes catalans per l'acció revolucionària).

30 Novembre 1930 Declaració d'una vaga general de 24 hores per part dels anarco-sindicalistes de Barcelona.

FEBRER / FEBRUARY1931 Dimissió de Berenguer que fou substituït pel "Govern de l'Ensarronada" d'Aznar. La monarquia es desintegrava.

14 ABRIL / APRIL 14 1931 Proclamació de la Segona República.

11-16 juny 1931 Reunió del congrés extraordinari de la a Madrid. Congrés paral·lel de la FAI.

6 Juliol 1931 Vaga en tota Espanya dels operaris de la Telefònica.

1 SETEMBRE 1931 Un grup de sindicalistes de la (J. Peiró, Àngel Pestaña,...) va publicar El Manifest dels Trenta, en el que censuraven la preponderància de la FAI dins la .

1932 Inici de la preponderància de la FAI sobre la .

Gener 1932 Aixecament de l'Alt Llobregat, dirigit pels anarquistes.

1933 Màxima conflictivitat laboral del quinquenni. La violència torna a la lluita de classes.

Gener 1933 Segon intent avortat de revolta anarquista i escissió de la amb sortida dels disconformes amb el predomini de la FAI (trentistes).

Novembre 1933 Intensa campanya abstencionista de la que facilita la victòria de les dretes.

Desembre 1933 Mort de Francesc Macià. El Parlament de Catalunya escull Lluís Companys president de la Generalitat, el qual forma un govern de coalició d'esquerres.

1934 Fracàs tàctiques insurreccionals, i proposta, tot i l'oposició dels faistes catalans, d'unió amb la UGT dins l'Aliança Obrera.

Octubre 1934 Participació clara de la en l'aixecament d'Astúries. Forta repressió. Revolució també a Barcelona, fortament reprimida. FEBRER / FEBRUARY1936 La aconsella el vot al Front Popular a les eleccions. Això facilita la seva victòria. 19 Juliol 1936 Aixecament militar de Barcelona. La pren una part molt activa en la lluita contra aquest aixecament. Immediata constitució del Comitè de Milícies Antifascistes de Catalunya.

1936 - 1939 Guerra Civil a Espanya.

Maig 1937 Fets de maig a Barcelona. Derrota i debilitació de la que es negà a defensar el govern Negrín i féu costat a Largo Caballero.

HOME ÍNDEX DOWNLOADS IDEES PRINCIPALS CRONOLOGIA DELS FETS PRINCIPALS ANTECEDENTS CREACIÓ - DICTADURA PRIMO RIVERA DICTADURA PRIMO RIVERA - SEGONA REPUBLICA ANNEXOS 1 ANNEXOS 2 ANNEXOS 3 BIBLIOGRAFA I FONTS SUGGERIMENTS LINKS CURRICULUM ESPAÑOL
©Eduard Galindo i Jara http://www.geocities.com/edgalindo/crono.htm




-- LA DE LA DICTADURA DE PRIMO DE RIVERA A LA SEGONA REPÚBLICA

Durant la Dictadura de Primo de Rivera (13 SETEMBRE 1923-gener 1930) el sub-secretari de governació, Martínez Anido, i el director general d'ordre públic, Arlegui, portaren a terme una política repressiva davant les organitzacions obreres que no significava una declaració explícita d'il·legalitat per la .

Aquesta política repressiva no tenia com a principal objectiu la clausura de sindicats sinó que pretenia fer impossible la vida d'aquests per mitjà del control governatiu dels llibres de comptes, autorització als governadors civils per detenir als delegats recaptadors de cotitzacions sota l'acusació d'estafa,...

La pressió policial va tenir una especial intensitat a Barcelona i la federació local, a instàncies dels anarquistes, va decidir passar a la clandestinitat (3 octubre) y suspendre la publicació de Solidaridad Obrera (5 octubre). Això obria un llarg període d'agudes polèmiques internes en la , i en especial en la regional catalana.

L'oposició a aquesta decisió del Sindicat de Metal·lúrgia i dels sindicats de Serveis Públics, del Transport,... va produir l'escissió de la federació barcelonina. El ple regional de Mataró (8 desembre 1923) impulsat per les organitzacions comarcals va intentar aïllar la crisi de Barcelona mitjançant el nomenament d'un comitè regional amb seu a Mataró i fent reaparèixer Solidaridad Obrera.

La crisi va agravar-se amb la col·laboració d'anarquistes i sindicalistes al diari Lucha Obrera (Barcelona, desembre 1923-gener 1924 = diari impulsat pel comunista Joaquim Maurín). Una nova assemblea regional a Granollers va detenir aquest intent comunista reforçant la redacció de Solidaridad Obrera. El 28 de maig de 1924 Solidaridad Obrera fou suspesa definitivament (i no va poder reaparèixer fins 1930), el govern va clausurar els sindicats i va detenir els militants més destacats de la .

En aquest moment va obrir-se el període d'il·legalitat generalitzada de la en tota Espanya. Tot i això, la no va deixar d'actuar i de conspirar. Les federacions regionals van continuar enviant delegats a les conferències clandestines, a les que assistien els membres del Comitè Nacional. Aquests plens col·laboraren amb els partits polítics durant la Dictadura, possibilitant el seu enderrocament final.

A partir de maig de 1924, la no podia mantenir un funcionament regular en tot l'estat. Només en Girona i Galícia es mantingué amb una mínima continuïtat l'organització i per mitjà de la seva premsa foren els punts de referència de l'activitat de la a l'interior.

Tot aquest clima de repressió que es vivia a l'interior va produir una gran emigració de militants, que actuà de nucli d'unió i donà un gran impuls a l'anarquisme, cap a França i Argentina. Des de França, impulsada pel "Grup dels Trenta" (amb Buenaventura Durruti, Ascaso,...), i en especial pel Comitè de Relacions Anarquistes, va produir-se al novembre de 1924 l'intent fracassat de Vera del Bidasoa, que només va tenir una petita repercussió a Barcelona (intent frustrat d'assalt a la caserna de les Drassanes).

Després, la constitució d'una Federación de Grupos Anarquistas de Lengua Española en França (juny de 1925) que inicialment intentà una aliança amb els sectors catalanistes que preparaven el fracassat intent de Prats de Molló (novembre 1926). D'aquesta federació va sorgir, posteriorment, la iniciativa de constitució de la Federació Anarquista Ibèrica.

La FAI (Federació Anarquista Ibèrica), fou constituïda a un congrés clandestí a València (juliol de 1927) agrupant inicialment a la Federación de Grupos Anarquistas de España i la Unión Anarquista Portuguesa. Era un intent d'organitzar la defensa de la tradició antipolítica i de la mística revolucionària heretades de Bakunin. Es va proposar assegurar el contingut àcrata de la per mitjà de la creació de comitès amb participació mixta de membres de la FAI i de la , especialment en els Comitès Pro Presos i en els Comitès de Defensa Confederal. Però, no va poder enquadrar tot el moviment anarquista ibèric.

La instauració dels Comitès Paritaris pel règim (novembre 1926) va suposar una greu divisió interna entre els sindicalistes que volien reorganitzar la , la qual al llarg del període 1927-1929 tingué una doble estructura: un Comitè Nacional resident a Mataró, dominat pels sindicalistes, i un Comitè Nacional Revolucionari, dominat pels grups anarquistes, que va intentar la participació en diversos complots contra la dictadura. Això suposava la debilitació del Comitè Nacional de la i la seva desorganització.

En gener de 1930, després de dimitir Primo de Rivera, Alfons XIII va nomenar president al general Dámaso Berenguer. Amb la caiguda de Primo de Rivera el sector sindicalista va dominar inicialment la situació. En FEBRUARY / FEBRERde 1930 dominaren un nou Comitè Nacional que fou legalitzat i va dirigir el procés de reorganització en tot el país. Reorganització confederal que estigué acompanyada de la participació en els diversos complots revolucionaris en que participaren els anarquistes amb els militars revolucionaris (insurrecció de Jaca) i els sindicalistes amb els republicans (recolzament matisat al Pacte de Sant Sebastià d'agost de 1930).

Durant els primers mesos de la Segona República la tingué un creixement espectacular, conservant el tradicional domini sindical a Catalunya, País Valencià, Andalusia Oriental i Aragó. Però la lluita de tendències va agravar-se: els sindicalistes volien aprofitar el nou règim per augmentar el grau d'estructuració organitzativa de la i tingueren bones relacions amb la Generalitat a Catalunya; la FAI, els grups d'acció anarquista i els anarquistes més puristes denunciaren el nou règim i llançaren una ofensiva molt violenta contra els dirigents sindicalistes de la .

De l'11 al 16 de juny del 1931 es produeix una reunió a Madrid d'un congrés extraordinari de la . Era el primer congrés general des del 1919 i es va portar a ternme al teatre de La Comèdia. En ell es van manifestar les tendències i actituds que caracteritzarien l'anarquisme espanyol durant la Segona República. Van tractar-se dos grans temes: el col·laboracionisme amb els polítics i les federacions nacionals d'indústria.

En el tema del col·laboracionisme, hi havia dues opcions bàsiques: Portar la (el poble) a l'enfrontament directe amb les institucions republicanes, Aprofitar el règim de llibertats democràtiques burgeses per realitzar una "obra constructiva".

En això últim estigueren inicialment d'acord els dirigents sindicalistes (futurs trentistes) i molts membres de la FAI. Tot i l'ús tàctic del tema per tal d'imposar-se dins la , el veritable problema que es trobaren ambdues tendències fou la dificultat per tal de resoldre les necessitats econòmiques i socials que el nou règim republicà va treure a la llum. Al final els plantejaments revolucionistes i puristes s'imposaren en la direcció de la però no aconseguiren portar a tota l'organització a fer la revolució.

Després del congrés de juny, els sindicalistes es veieren obligats a mantenir-se a la defensiva. El 30 agost 1931 sortí publicat a L'Opinió El Manifest dels Trenta que era una crida a la reflexió dirigida a la militància confederal, ja que els seus signants estaven disconformes amb la intolerància cada vegada més gran dels medis confederals.

El manifest també era un intent desesperat de la tendència moderada d'aturar el procés de radicalització que vivia aleshores la . Però els anarquistes de la FAI, afavorits per l'extens moviment reivindicatiu i indirectament per la política del socialista Largo Caballero des del ministeri de Treball, aconseguiren aguditzar l'enfrontament de la amb la República (Vaga de la Telefònica: 6 juliol 1931) i impulsar uns primers moviments insurreccionals (En gener de 1932 a l'Alt Llobregat es va proclamar el Comunisme Llibertari i els revolucionaris controlaren durant una setmana els pobles propers a la conca del riu.

Un cop restablert el control republicà un centenar d'anarquistes foren deportats. Això suposà un atac generalitzat contra els trentistes i en especial contra Àngel Pestaña i Emilio Mira). Àngel Pestaña va dimitir al març de 1932 i va ser ratificada al Ple de la Regional catalana d'abril de 1932 a Sabadell. En aquest ple Àngel Pestaña i Mira foren substituïts per faistes. Els trentistes constituïren una Federació Sindicalista Llibertària i després de l'expulsió dels sindicats de Sabadell (decisió pressa en SETEMBRE de 1932 pel comitè regional i ratificada pel ple regional al març 1933), es van escindir constituint els Sindicats d'Oposició (juny 1933) i en 1934 Àngel Pestaña fundà el Partit Sindicalista.

En 1933, la encetà un cicle insurreccional, especialment impulsat pels anarco-bolchevics ( al gener del 1933 hi han diverses insurreccions fracassades a Cerdanyola-Ripollet, País Valencià i Casas Viejas,...).

El fracàs de les tàctiques insurreccionals, que esgotaren en gran mesura les forces de la , afavoriren que en 1934 tinguessin un important efecte l'actitud de la regional asturiana favorable a la unió amb la UGT dins de les Aliances Obreres.

En el moviment revolucionari d'octubre de 1934, impulsat pels socialistes, la no va participar a Astúries. A Catalunya, al no participar afavorí el fracàs de l'intent d'ERC en el poder de la Generalitat. Però, davant la generalitzada repressió de la insurrecció a Astúries, les posicions "aliancistes" també arribaren als medis confederals de Catalunya. Per això, en les eleccions de FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1936 els dirigents cenetistes afavoriren el vot per al Front Popular.

Al maig del 1936 es va celebrar un congrés de la a Saragossa (on participaren representants dels Sindicats d'Oposició que per mitjà de Joan López i la seva regional valenciana acceptaren el seu reingrés a la ).

En aquest congrés triomfaren les posicions de la FAI en temes com el del reingrés dels Sindicats d'Oposició, que es produí sense condicions, o en l'afirmació d'una voluntat d'enteniment amb la UGT que exigia a aquesta la renúncia a la col·laboració política o parlamentària. Finalment, en el congrés fou aprovat el Comunisme Llibertari que pretenia ésser un programa revolucionari.

La i els anarquistes tingueren un paper destacat en la lluita contra l'aixecament militar de 19 juliol de 1936, especialment a Catalunya i al País Valencià. En canvi, altres zones (gran part d'Aragó, Andalusia,...) caigueren ràpidament en mans de la sublevació militar. Després, la intervenció en la majoria dels organismes sorgits en la zona republicana portà als dirigents cenetistes i faistes a acceptar la col·laboració política i la necessitat de la reconstrucció de las institucions republicanes.

En Catalunya l'home fort de la FAI en aquestes dates, D. A. de Santillán, fou el creador del Comitè de Milícies Antifascistes, en el que participaren totes les forces polítiques i socials no compromeses amb la sublevació. Amb el seu poder, el nou comitè va substituir les institucions republicanes que encara eren mantingudes formalment. Pels anarquistes catalans ells eren els directors del procés revolucionari obert amb la guerra civil. Però, els anarco-sindicalistes al poc temps tingueren que acceptar la dissolució del comitè i l'entrada al govern de la Generalitat (27 SETEMBRE 1936). Per això la s'incorporà al govern republicà presidit per Largo Caballero (4 novembre 1936).

Els "Fets de Maig" de 1937 en Barcelona, on la major part de la base confederal sostingué les posicions revolucionaristes del POUM i d'alguns grups anarquistes radicals i que lluità als carrers contra els comunistes catalans i les forces republicanes de dretes de la Generalitat, foren de fet una desordenada rebel·lia contra la progressiva pèrdua de protagonisme en la zona republicana de la CNT-FAI. Les repercussions dels "Fets de Maig" foren greus per l'anarquisme i l'anarco-sindicalisme. Els dirigents no pogueren evitar la caiguda del govern Largo Caballero i en juny la marginació del govern de la Generalitat. Amb això, la va passar a un segon pla en la zona republicana. A partir d'aleshores, comença un llarg procés de revisió interna de la FAI i de la .

La CNT obsessionada per la marginació política que patia, va ingressar en el Comitè del Front Popular (març 1938) i es va afegir al programa de govern de Negrín per aconseguir una cartera ministerial. Però, la conquesta de Catalunya per l'exèrcit franquista va produir indirectament la rebel·lió dels llibertaris de la zona centre contra el govern Negrín i el seu suport al Consell Nacional de Defensa de Casado que volia sense èxit negociar la rendició final. Amb la fi de la guerra els anarquistes anaren a l'exili. http://www.geocities.com/edgalindo/repu.htm




-- From: Ronald Creagh
Hello everyone,
A bibliography of French doctoral dissertations is now available on our web. There is a special pages with an English translation of their titles & in most cases an English summary. You will find it at : < http://melior.univ-montp3.fr/ra_forum/theses/frtm/en_transl.html>
Or simply go to the home page (the very first one which lets you choose your language) & type "theses" in the search engine.
All suggestions are welcome as usual
Ronald Creagh http://melior.univ-montp3.fr/ra_forum/theses/frtm/en_transl.html


-- CNT ANTECEDENTS

L'Anarquisme al llarg de la seva història ha exercit una gran influència a Espanya, on, durant la major part de la seva existència, ha anat lligat al sindicalisme. Les tesis col·lectivistes de l'AIT portaran a una part del moviment obrer espanyol a organitzar-se seguint una línia anarco-sindicalista, la qual considera el sindicat com la via amb la qual s'ha d'articular el moviment obrer.

L'Anarquisme va arrelar a Espanya, i sobretot a Catalunya, amb l'entrada de la Primera Internacional (AIT - Associació Internacional de Treballadors) i la introducció, amb ella, de les idees del principal teòric anarquista del moment, Bakunin - el qual va aconseguir una àmplia difusió a partir de la revolució de SETEMBRE de 1868, quan bona part de l'obrerisme s'afilià a l'AIT -. Tot i això, els antecedents de l'anarquisme a Espanya es troben en la influència de les idees proudhonianes que arribaren directament de França o amb l'obra de Pi i Margall, i la seva configuració cal situar-la en l'anomenat Sexenni Revolucionari de 1868-1873.

Abans de 1868, hi havia una gran repressió del moviment obrer a Espanya, els sindicats estaven prohibits, els seus afiliats eren enviats a Guinea i als seus caps se'ls llençava per la borda durant el viatge. L'associacionisme obrer estava totalment prohibit per la Constitució i les lleis i el càstig era la deportació. A més a més, s'havien produït pocs contactes entre el moviment internacional i el moviment obrer espanyol. Però, aquesta situació canvia a partir de 1868, quan es produeix una obertura del règim gràcies al triomf de la revolució "la Gloriosa" de setembre d'aquest any - revolució produïda per una crisi econòmica general del sistema i ve motivada per una sèrie de males collites que s'agreugen al 1868 -.

Aquesta obertura del règim produeix un augment dels contactes dins del moviment obrer que cada vegada són més constants gràcies a l'establiment, per primer cop, de les llibertats d'expressió i associació obrera. Això permet un fort expandiment i una gran fortalesa de l'associacionisme obrer, expansionisme que té el seu punt més fort a Catalunya, on el procés industrialitzador estava més avançat i contava amb la classe obrera més nombrosa i amb més tradició obrera de tot l'Estat.

L'expandiment de les societats obreres a Espanya atraurà l'interès de l'AIT, que envia un representant, Giuseppe Fanelli, que manté contactes a Madrid, Barcelona i València amb aquestes societats. A partir d'aquests contactes comencen a aparèixer la creació de seccions de l'AIT a diversos llocs, i al 1870 es dóna la convocatòria del Primer Congrés Obrer a l'Estat espanyol, que tingué lloc a Barcelona el 18 de juny de 1870.

Aquest congrés de Barcelona és molt important per tres motius:

És la primera vegada que s'intenta organitzar a totes les societats obreres diferenciades de la resta de col·lectius a Espanya.

Assoleix una gran representativitat.

Inaugura i formalitza la creació d'un organisme general de les societats obreres a tot Espanya, la FRE de l'AIT.

L'evolució de la FRE de l'AIT (Federació Regional Espanyola de l'AIT) ve marcada per dos fets bàsics:

Els Fets de la Comuna de París a França del març-maig de 1871 i les seves repercussions a Espanya: el 2 de maig de 1871 es produeix un aixecament a Madrid, el qual produeix una gran onada de repressió del moviment obrer. Tota aquesta situació provoca:

l'exili de la direcció de la FRE de l'AIT a Lisboa, que l'AIT es converteixi en una organització il·legal a Espanya, que, als seus inicis, la FRE de l'AIT es vegi obligada a actuar en la clandestinitat i això dóna més força a actituds més radicals de grups clandestins que estan disposats a tot, els quals són minoritaris però poden mantenir relacions clares amb actuacions directes.

Discussions internes a l'AIT i les seves repercussions a Espanya: l'enfrontament entre Marx i Bakunin o entre autoritaris i anti-autoritaris dins de l'AIT, que porta a l'escissió de l'AIT, produeix una crisi interna dins de la FRE de l'AIT, que té el seu epicentre a Madrid, i portarà a la divisió en dos nuclis a la federació local de Barcelona (anti-autoritaris) i la de Madrid (autoritaris), que s'enfronten. Guanyen els anti-autoritaris i la federació local de Madrid s'escindirà, que donarà lloc, posteriorment, al PSOE. Els anti-autoritaris també expulsen als sectors cooperativistes i societaris moderats, radicalitzant l'AIT espanyola i posant les bases del futur moviment anarco-sindicalista espanyol que amb el temps donarà lloc a la .

El 1881 es dissol la FRE de l'AIT que dura més temps que a altres països d'Europa. La seva dissolució es produeix com a conseqüència d'una nova etapa de llibertats públiques amb l'accés de Sagasta al poder i porta al naixement de la FTRE (Federació de Treballadors de la Regió Espanyola) formada de la resta de la direcció de l'AIT i amb control anarquista.

La FTRE fa una espècie de Congrés a Sevilla en 1881 que presenta una novetat important respecte a altres moviments anarquistes de la resta d'Europa i és el fet de l'augment de pes dels sectors anarquistes camperols, sobretot procedents d'Andalusia. A tot Espanya, s'inicia una campanya contra el congrés, deguda a la divisió que apareix dins l'anarquisme entre els sectors que defensen l'anarco-col·lectivisme i els sectors que defensen l'anarco-comunisme. Aquest ambient hostil i l'aparició d'una organització secreta, la Mano Negra, entre 1884 i 1885, el moviment anarquista quedarà aïllat del conjunt de la societat. Aquest clima d'intolerància vers l'anarquisme i la gran repressió que pateix entre 1885 i 1890, va provocar l'autodissolució de la FTRE.

Al 1890 es produeix una reorganització de l'anarquisme a partir de diferents àmbits locals i dispersos i també per la superació de discussions entre anarco-col·lectivistes i anarco-comunistes, perquè aquests darrers van guanyant posicions a través de la propaganda de R. Mella, i l'arribada a Espanya d'Erico Malatesta al 1891 que donen a l'anarquisme una estructura ideològica elaborada que porta a una tercera corrent anarquista que sorgeix de l'anarco-comunisme, que serà important, i la que aguanta l'anarquisme fins a l'actualitat.

Aquesta tercera via sorgirà a partir de l'educació dels treballadors en Ateneus populars, el seu accés a la cultura, a la crítica social i que combinaran la lluita ideològica i cultural. Aquesta via superarà als anarco-col·lectivistes, s'oposarà a la lluita social i crearà una nova organització d'àmbit estatal. Serà un anarquisme pragmàtic, no dogmàtic, no confessional i conservaven les tradicions de l'anarquisme. Està influenciat per corrents filosòfiques noves i no oficials en aquell moment (Teosofistes, naturistes, positivistes, espiritistes, vegetarianista,...). Aquesta corrent dóna a l'anarquisme una gran projecció de corrent cultural desenvolupant tot una crítica de la societat, dogmes polítics, religiosos, del poder, de l'Estat,... I tot això és el que possibilita atreure a sectors de la classe mitja i reforçar els vincles amb el republicanisme on compartirà espais ideològics comuns.

A partir de la Vaga General de 1890 commemorant l'1 de maig es produeix un rellançament i una renovació dins del moviment obrer espanyol, sobretot a Catalunya, que portarà al triomf, dins de l'anarquisme, de les idees anarco-sindicalistes i del sindicalisme revolucionari sobre el tema de la Vaga General -ha de ser general o sectorial-, i a una renovació generacional dels dirigents anarquistes.

Tota aquesta situació de renovació generacional i ideològica porta, al juny de 1907, a la formació d'una comissió organitzadora del que seria, el mes d'agost, el Pacte de la Solidaritat Obrera. Els uneix que tots són obrers. Per sobre de tot hi ha solidaritat de classe, i això és el que significa SO (Solidaritat Obrera) i posteriorment la .

SO aplegarà treballadors republicans, anarquistes, procedents de la Federació Catalana del PSOE i independents d'ideologia radical i republicana i funcionarà internament a base de coordinadores que representen societats obreres. Es coordinen tota una sèrie d'organitzacions obreres per rams. Serà un moviment unitari que va de 1907 a 1910 aplegant a totes les faccions de l'obrerisme català.

Al 1909 amb l'esclat de la Setmana Tràgica a Barcelona, es trenca SO i es clarifica el moviment sindical. Els sectors republicans radicals, seguidors d'Alejandro Lerroux, i els sectors socialistes són expulsats de SO, la qual queda reduïda a anarquistes i sindicalistes. Aquests dos grups, durant el 1910, es dedicaran a reorganitzar el moviment obrer i el 1911, a Sants, fundaran la .

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-- Strange Defeat: The Chilean Revolution, 1973 by Pointblank!

No Middle Ground Anti-Authoritarian Perspectives on Latin America & the Caribbean No. 2 Fall, 1983

Editors' Note: The following article was originally published by the Situationist group Pointblank! in October 1973.

In the spectacular arena of current events recognized as "news," the funeral of social democracy in Chile has been orchestrated as high drama by those who understand the rise & fall of governments most intuitively: other specialists of power. The last scenes in the Chilean script have been written in various political camps in accordance with the requirements of particular ideologies. Some have come to bury Allende, some to praise him. Still others claim an ex post facto knowledge of his errors. Whatever the sentiments expressed, these obituaries have been written long in advance. The organizers of "public opinion" can only react reflexively & with a characteristic distortion of the events themselves.

As the respective blocs of world opinion "choose sides," the Chilean tragedy is reproduced as farce on an international scale; the class struggles in Chile are dissimulated as a pseudo-conflict between rival ideologies. In the discussions of ideology nothing will be heard from those for whom the "socialism" of the Allende regime was supposedly intended: the Chilean workers & peasants. Their silence has been ensured not only by those who machine-gunned them in their factories, fields, & houses, but by those who claimed (and continue to claim) to represent their "interests." In spite of a thousand misrepresentations, however, the forces that were involved in the "Chilean experiment" have not yet played themselves out. Their real content will be established only when the forms of their interpretation have been demystified.

Above all else, Chile has fascinated the so-called Left in every country. & in documenting the atrocities of the current junta, each party & sect attempts to conceal the stupidities of its previous analyses. From the bureaucrats-in-power in Moscow, Peking, & Havana to the bureaucrats-in-exile of the Trotskyist movements, a liturgical chorus of leftist pretenders offer their post-mortem assessments of Chile, with conclusions as predictable as their rhetoric. The differences between them are only ones of hierarchical nuance; they share a Leninist terminology which expresses 50 years of counterrevolution throughout the world.

The Stalinist parties of the West & the "socialist" states quite rightly view the defeat of Allende as their defeat: he was one of their own--a man of State. With the false logic which is an essential mechanism of their power, those who know so much about State & (the defeat of) Revolution decry the overthrow of a constitutional, bourgeois regime. For their part, the "left" importers of Trotskyism & Maoism can only lament the absence of a "vanguard party--the deus ex machina of senile Bolshevism--in Chile. Those who have inherited the defeat of revolutionary Kronstadt & Shanghai know whereof they speak: the Leninist project requires the absolute imposition of a deformed "class consciousness" (the consciousness of a bureaucratic ruling class) upon those who in their designs are only "the masses." The dimensions of the "Chilean Revolution" lie outside the constraints of any particular doctrine. While the "anti-imperialists" of the world denounce--from a safe distance--the all-too-convenient bogeyman of the CIA, the real reasons for the defeat of the Chilean proletariat must be sought elsewhere. Allende the martyr was the same Allende who disarmed the workers' militias of Santiago & Valparaiso in the weeks before the coup & left them defenseless before the military whose officers were already in his cabinet. These actions cannot simply be explained as "class-collaboration" or as a "sellout." The conditions for the strange defeat of the Unidad Popular were prepared long in advance. The social contradictions that emerged in the streets & fields of Chile during August & September were not simply divisions between "Left" & "Right" but involved a contradiction between the Chilean proletariat & the politicians of all parties, including those that posed as the most "revolutionary." In an "underdeveloped" country, a highly developed class struggle had arisen which threatened the positions of all those who wished to maintain underdevelopment, whether economically through continued imperialist domination, or politically through the retardation of an authentic proletarian power in Chile. II Everywhere, the expansion of capital creates its apparent opposite in the form of nationalist movements which seek to appropriate the means of production "on behalf" of the exploited & thereby appropriate social & political power for themselves. Imperialism's extraction of surplus has its political & social consequences, not only in enforced poverty of those who must become its workers, but in the secondary role allotted to the local bourgeoisie, which is incapable of establishing its complete hegemony over society. It is precisely this vacuum which the "national liberation" movements seek to occupy, thereby assuming the managerial role unfulfilled by the dependent bourgeoisie. This process has taken many forms--from the religious xenophobia of Khadafi to the bureaucratic religion of Mao--but in each instance, the marching orders of "anti-imperialism" are the same, & those who give them are in identical positions of command. The imperialist distortion of the Chilean economy provided an opening for a popular movement which aimed at establishing a national capital base. However, Chile's relatively advanced economic status precluded the kind of bureaucratic development which has come to power by force of arms in other areas of the "Third World" (a term which has been used to conceal the real class divisions in those countries). The fact that the "progressive" Unidad Popular was able to achieve an electoral victory as a reformist coalition was a reflection of the peculiar social structure in Chile, which was in many respects similar to those in advanced capitalist countries. At the same time, capitalist industrialization created the conditions for the possible supersession of this bureaucratic alternative in the form of a rural & urban proletariat which emerged as the most important class & one with revolutionary aspirations. In Chile, both Christian & Social Democrats were to prove to be the opponents of any radical solution to existing problems. Until the advent of the UP coalition, the contradictions on the Chilean Left between a radical base of workers & peasants & its so-called political "representatives" remained to a large extent latent antagonisms. The leftist parties were able to organize a popular movement solely on the basis of the foreign threat posed by American capital. The Communists & Socialists were able to sustain their image as authentic nationalists under Christian Democratic rule because Frei's "Chileanization" program (which included a policy of agrarian reform that Allende was later to consciously emulate) was explicitly connected to the American-sponsored "Alliance for Progress." The official Left was able to construct its own alliance within Chile in opposing, not reformism itself, but a reformism with external ties. Even given its moderate nature, the opposition program of the Chilean Left was only adopted after the militant strike activity of the 1960s--organized independently of the parties--threatened the existence of the Frei regime. The succeeding UP was to move into a space opened up by the radical actions of the Chilean workers & peasants; it imposed itself as an institutionalized representation of proletarian causes to the extent that it was able to recuperate them. In spite of the extremely radical nature of many of the earlier strike actions (which included factory occupations & the workers' administration of several industrial plants, most notably at COOTRALACO), the practice of the Chilean proletariat lacked a corresponding theoretical or organizational expression, & this failure to affirm its autonomy left it open to the manipulations of the politicians. Despite this, the battle between reform & revolution was far from having been decided. III The election of the freemason Allende, although it in no way meant that the workers & peasants had established their own power, nonetheless intensified the class struggle occurring throughout Chile. Contrary to the UP's assertions that the working class had won a major "victory," both the proletariat & its enemies were to continue their battle outside conventional parliamentary channels. Although Allende constantly assured the workers that they were both engaged in a "common struggle," he revealed the true nature of his socialism-by-decree at the beginning of his tenure when he signed the Estatuto, which formally guaranteed that he would faithfully respect the bourgeois constitution. Having come to power on the basis of a "radical" program, the UP was to come into conflict with a growing revolutionary current at its base. When the Chilean proletariat showed that it was prepared to take the slogans of the UP program literally--slogans that amounted only to empty rhetoric & unfulfilled promises on the part of the bureaucratic coalition--and put them into practice, the contradictions between the content & form of the Chilean revolution became apparent. The workers & peasants of Chile were beginning to speak & act for themselves. For all his "Marxism," Allende was never more than an administrator of state intervention in a capitalist economy. Allende's etatisme--a form of state capitalism that has accompanied the rise of all administrators of underdevelopment--was itself not more than a quantitative extension of Christian Democratic policies. In nationalizing the copper mines & other industrial sectors, Allende continued the centralization initiated under the control of the Chilean state apparatus--a centralization initiated by the Left's "archenemy" Frei. Allende, in fact, was forced into nationalizing certain concerns because they had been spontaneously occupied by their workers. In forestalling the workers' self-management of industry by defusing these occupations, Allende actively opposed the establishment of socialist relations of production. As a result of his actions, the Chilean workers only exchanged one set of bosses for another: the government bureaucracy, instead of Kennecott or Anaconda, directed their alienated labor. This change in appearances could not conceal the fact that Chilean capitalism was perpetuating itself. From the profits extracted by multinational corporations to the "five-year plans" of international Stalinism, the accumulation of capital is an accumulation always made at the expense of the proletariat. That governments & social revolutions have nothing in common was demonstrated in rural areas as well. In contrast to the bureaucratic administration of "agrarian reform" which was inherited & continued by the Allende regime, the spontaneous armed seizures of large estates offered a revolutionary answer to the "land question." For all the efforts of the CORA (the central agrarian reform agency) to prevent these expropriations through the mediation of "peasant cooperatives" (asentamientos), the peasants' direct action went beyond such illusory forms of "participation." Many of the fundo takeovers were legitimized by the government only after pressure from the campesinos made it impossible to do otherwise. Recognizing that such actions called into question its own authority as well as that of the landowners, the UP never missed an opportunity to denounce "indiscriminate" expropriations & to call for a "slow-down." The autonomous actions of the rural & urban proletariat formed the basis for the development of a movement significantly to the left of the Allende government. At the same time, this movement provided yet another occasion for a political representation to impose itself on the realities of the Chilean class struggle. This role was assumed by the Guevarist militants of the MIR [Left Revolutionary Movement] & its rural counterpart, the MCR, both of which succeeded in recuperating many of the radical achievements of the workers & peasants. The Miristas slogan of "armed struggle" & their obligatory refusal of electoral politics were merely pro forma gestures: shortly after the 1970 election, an elite corps of the ex-urban guerrillas of MIR became Allende's personally selected palace guard. The ties that bound the MIR-MCR to the UP went beyond purely tactical considerations--both had common interests to defend. Despite MIR's revolutionary posturing, it acted according to the UP's bureaucratic exigencies: whenever the government was in trouble, the adjutants of MIR would rally its militants around the UP banner. If the MIR failed to be the "vanguard" of the Chilean proletariat, it was not because it wasn't enough of a vanguard, but because its strategy was resisted by those whom it tried to manipulate. IV Right-wing activity in Chile increased, not in response to any governmental decrees, but because of the direct threat posed by the independence of the proletariat. In the face of mounting economic difficulties, the UP could only talk of "rightist sabotage" & the obstinacy of a "workers' aristocracy." For all the impotent denunciations of the government, these "difficulties" were social problems that could only be solved in a radical way through the establishment of a revolutionary power in Chile. In spite of its claim to "defend the rights of the workers," the Allende government proved to be an impotent bystander in the class struggle unfolding outside of formal political structures. It was the workers & peasants themselves who took the initiative against the reaction & in so doing created new & radical forms of social organization, forms which expressed a highly-developed class consciousness. After the bosses' strike in October 1972, the workers did not wait for the UP to intervene, but actively occupied the factories & started up production on their own, without state or trade union "assistance." Cordones industriales, which controlled & coordinated the distribution of products & organized armed defense against the employers, were formed in the factory complexes. Unlike the "popular assemblies" promised by the UP, which only existed on paper, the cordones were set up by the workers themselves. In their structure & functioning, these committees--along with the rural consejos--were the first manifestations of a councilist tendency & as such constituted the most important contribution to the development of a revolutionary situation in Chile. A similar situation existed in the neighborhoods, where the inefficient, government-controlled "supply boards" (JAPs) were bypassed in the proclamations of "self-governing neighborhoods" & the organization of commandos comunales by the residents. Despite their infiltration by the fidelistas of MIR, these armed expropriations of social space formed the point of departure for an authentic proletarian power. For the first time, people who had previously been excluded from participation in social life were able to make decisions concerning the most basic realities of their daily lives. The men, women, & youth of the poblaciones discovered that revolution was not a matter for the ballot box; whatever the quarters were called--New Havana, Heroic Vietnam--what went on inside them had nothing to do with the alienated landscapes of their namesakes. Although the achievements that were realized by popular initiative were considerable, a third force capable of posing a revolutionary alternative to the government & the reactionaries never fully emerged. The workers & peasants failed to extend their conquests to the point of replacing the Allende regime with their own power. Their supposed "ally," the MIR, used its talk of opposing burocratismo with the "armed masses" as a mask for its own intrigues. In its Leninist scheme, the cordones were seen as "forms of struggle" that would prepare the way for future, less "restricted" organizational models, whose leadership would be supplied by the MIR, no doubt. For all its concern over the right-wing plots that menaced its existence, the government restrained the workers from taking positive action to resolve the class struggle in Chile. In so doing, the initiative passed from the workers' hands into the government's, & in allowing itself to be out-maneuvered, the Chilean proletariat paved the way for its future defeat. In response to Allende's pleas after the abortive coup of June 29, the workers occupied additional factories, only to close ranks behind the forces that would disarm them a month later. These occupations remained defined by the UP & its intermediaries in the national trade union, the CUT, who kept the workers isolated from each other by barricading them inside the factories. In such a situation, the proletariat was powerless to carry on any independent struggle, & once the Weapons Act had been signed, its fate was sealed. Like the Spanish Republicans who denied arms to the anarchist militias on the Aragon front, Allende was not prepared to tolerate the existence of an armed proletarian force outside his own regime. All the conspiracies of the Right would not have lasted a day if the Chilean workers & peasants had been armed & had organized their own militias. Although the MIR protested against the entry of the military into the government, they, like their predecessors in Uruguay, the Tupamaros, only talked of arming the workers & had little to do with the resistance that took place. The workers' slogan, "A disarmed people is a defeated people" was to find its bitter truth in the slaughter of workers & peasants that followed the military coup. Allende was overthrown, not because of his reforms, but because he was unable to control the revolutionary movement which spontaneously developed at the base of the UP. The junta which installed itself in his position clearly perceived the threat of revolution & set about eliminating it with all the means at its disposal. It was no accident that the strongest resistance to the dictatorship occurred in those areas where the power of the workers had advanced the furthest. In the Sumar Textile Plant & in Concepcion, for instance, the junta was forced to liquidate this power by means of air strikes. As a result of Allende's policies, the military was able to have a free hand in finishing what it had begun under the UP government: Allende was as responsible as Pinochet for the mass murders of workers & peasants in Santiago, Valparaiso, Antofogasta & the provinces. Perhaps the most revealing of all the ironies inherent in the UP's downfall is that while many of Allende's supporters did not survive the coup, many of his reforms did. So little meaning was left to political categories that the junta's new Foreign Minister could describe himself as a "socialist." V Radical movements are underdeveloped to the extent that they respect alienation & surrender their power to external forces instead of creating it for themselves. In Chile, the revolutionaries hastened the day of their own Thermidor by letting "representatives" speak & act on their behalf: although parliamentary authority had been effectively replaced by the cordones, the workers did not go beyond these conditions of dual power & abolish the bourgeois State & the parties that maintained it. If the future struggles in Chile are to advance, the enemies within the workers' movement must be overcome practically; the councilist tendencies in the factories, neighborhoods, & fields will be everything or nothing. All the vanguard parties that will continue to pass themselves off as the "workers' leadership"--whether they be the MIR, a clandestine CP, or any other underground splinter groups--can only repeat the betrayals of the past. Ideological imperialism must be confronted as radically as economic imperialism has been expropriated; the workers & peasants can depend only on themselves to advance beyond what the cordones industriales have already accomplished.

Comparisons between the Chilean experience & the 1936 Spanish Revolution are already being made, & not only here--one finds strange words coming from Trotskyists in praise of workers' militias which fought against all forms of hierarchy. While it is true that a radical third force did emerge in Chile, it did so only tentatively. Unlike the Spanish proletariat, the Chilean revolutionaries never created an entirely new kind of society on the basis of councilist organization, & the Chilean Revolution will only succeed if these forms (cordones, comandos) are capable of establishing their social hegemony. The obstacles to their development are similar to those that were confronted in Spain: the Spanish councils & militias faced two enemies in the form of Fascism & the Republican government, while the Chilean workers face international capitalism & the manipulators of social-democracy & Leninism.

From the favellas of Brazil to the labor camps of Cuba, the proletariat of the Caribbean, the proletariat of Latin America has maintained a continual offensive against all those who seek to maintain present conditions.

In its struggle, the proletariat is faced with various caricatures of revolution which masquerade as its allies. These travesties have in turn encountered a false movement of so-called "ultra-left" opposition. Thus, the ex-fascist Peron prepares to construct a corporate state in Argentina, this time in a leftist guise, while the Trotskyist commandos of the ERP denounce him for not being "revolutionary" enough, & the ex-guerrillero Castro berates all those who fail to meet the standards of "communist" discipline. History will not fail to dissolve the power of these idiots.

A conspiracy of tradition--with agents on both the Left & the Right--ensures that existing reality is always presented in terms of false alternatives. The only choices acceptable to Power are those between competing hierarchies: the colonels of Peru or the generals of Brazil, the armies of the Arab states or those of Israel. These antagonisms only express divisions within global capitalism, & any genuinely revolutionary alternative will have to be established since it is nowhere in power in Latin America or anywhere else, & this powerlessness constantly impels it to new actions. The Chilean workers are not alone in their opposition to the forces of counter-revolution; the revolutionary movement that began in Mexico with Villa's guerrilla bands has not yet come to an end. In the armed workers' militias that fought in the streets of Santo Domingo in 1965, the urban insurrection in Cordoba, Argentina in 1969, & the recent strikes & occupations in Bolivia & Uruguay, the spontaneous revolt of workers & students in Trinidad in 1970, & the continuing revolutionary crisis is itself over the ruins of these spectacular conflicts. The combined lies of bourgeois & bureaucratic power must be confronted by a revolutionary truth in arms, all over the world as in Chile. There can be no "socialism in one country," or in one factory or district. Revolution is an international task which can only be solved on an international level--it does not recognize continental frontiers. Like any revolution, the Chilean Revolution requires the success of similar movements in other areas. Everywhere, in the wildcat strikes in the United States & West Germany, the factory occupations in France, & in civil insurrections in the USSR, the foundations for a new world are being laid. Those who recognize themselves in this global movement must seize the opportunity to extend it with all the subversive weapons at their disposal.
http://recollectionbooks.com/anow/world/la/argentina/

-- MOVING DATES Quines són les principals accions de la CNT-FAI en el període 1923-1936/39? Les principals accions dels anarco-sindicalistes en el període 1923-1936/39 són:

La vaga de la Telefònica (6 juliol -29 juliol de 1931): vaga dels operaris de la Companyia Telefònica (en mans de l'American Telephone & Telegraph Co. - ATT- des de la Dictadura) a nivell de tot l'Estat. Aquests eren membres del sindicat de telèfons de la , única organització del ram.

La vaga del port de Barcelona (7 juliol 1931): els membres del sindicat cenetista del ram del transport paralitzaren els molls de Barcelona. L'aturada no fou total, però el port va quedar pràcticament tancat.

La sublevació a l'Alt Llobregat (18 gener 1932): els obrers anarco-sindicalistes de la zona minera de l'Alt Llobregat i del Cardoner, es llançaren a una aventura revolucionària que va donar lloc a cinc dies de Comunisme Llibertari. Però al final va fracassar.

El Comitè Central de Milícies Antifascistes de Catalunya (juliol 1936): constituït immediatament després de l'aixecament militar del 19 de juliol de 1936. Formada per: 3 representants de la , 2 de la FAI, 4 d'ERC i Unió Republicana, 3 d'UGT i representants dels partits integrants del PSUC. Estava dominat pels anarco-sindicalistes i fou el substitut de les institucions republicanes que encara estaven en funcionament. Es dissolgué el 27 SETEMBRE 1936.

Els fets de maig de 1937 a Barcelona: enfrontaments a Barcelona entre els treballadors de la i del POUM contra la Policia del Front Popular.

Com i per què es va produir l'escissió de la CNT dels trentistes i l'aparició dels Sindicats d'Oposició?

Els últims dies d'abril de 1932 es va produir a Sabadell un important ple regional català que es va caracteritzar per fortes discussions entre les tendències moderada (trentistes) i anarquista (FAI). Els moderats tractaren de recuperar el control de Solidaridad Obrera, però van fracassar. El ple s'obrí amb les expulsions de les federacions locals de Lleida i Girona. En aquest congrés s'elegí com a secretari regional a Alejandro Gilabert (faista). Aquesta maniobra no va agradar a les delegacions sindicals. Els sindicats de Sabadell sortiren del congrés. Poc després sortiren els sindicats de Badalona, per ésser designada Barcelona per la seu del nou comitè regional.

En la segona meitat de 1932 es van produir una sèrie d'expulsions decretades contra els moderats. El 24 de SETEMBRE el comitè regional català va expulsar a la federació local de sindicats de Sabadell, els quals continuaven protestant contra la tutela de la FAI negant-se a pagar les seves cotitzacions confederals. L'organització de Sabadell estava sotmesa a la influència trentista. I els trentistes tractaren d'usar la federació local de Sabadell com plataforma amb la qual canviar el comitè regional existent i recuperar la direcció de la . Però el comitè regional va intentar crear una organització rival en Sabadell. L'enfrontament s'estengué per València,...

En gener de 1933, després d'una sublevació anarquista frustrada, 44 sindicats catalans contraatacaren la FAI amb una llista d'exigències (peticions trentistes poc realistes). El trentisme necessitava una organització pròpia amb la qual enfrontar-se a la FAI. Per això van crear una Federació Sindicalista Llibertària.

En març de 1933, en el ple regional català en el Teatre Meridiana de Barcelona, es donà un ultimàtum als sindicats de Sabadell per lliurar-se als seus oponents.

El 15 d'abril de 1933, el comitè regional català va rebre una nota d'Emiliano Mira dient que refutaven les decisions del ple de març. El secretari regional va escriure una nota on notificava que els sindicats de Sabadell quedaven expulsats de la (nota que volia publicar a Solidaridad Obrera, però aquest fou suspès per ordre governativa).

Amb Sabadell abandonaren la 50 Sindicats de Catalunya i diversos de Llevant, on els sindicats més poderosos eren trentistes. Així naixeren els Sindicats d'Oposició. http://www.geocities.com/edgalindo/faqs.htm




-- NEED A DATE:

Genovese protester, 23 year old Carlo Giuliani, armed with a fire extinguisher & rage against repression & injustice, was killed, shot twice in the streets by the Carabinieri. Then, in a fit of excessive cruelty, the kind of excess that capitalism is best known by, the Carabinieri ran over his dead body with a heavy police vehicle.

Hundreds of thousands protested at the various anti-capitalist actions throughout the Spring of 2001 & the Summer of Resistance that followed. Police brutality & repression by the "democratic" ruling elite became increasingly heavy-handed, with lethal results. On this ugly, antidemocratic, repressive day, UK PM Tony Blair could say only that ``We would prefer to be out there in a normal setting being able to meet people, Blair told reporters. ``But we can't because some of these demonstrators are so violent.''


-- http://thomas.palaceunlimited.com/sa/infolinks.html


-- http://www.anarchism.org.nz/i-r/index.htm


-- PLACEHOLDER DAILYDOO orange diamond dingbat; new entry, remove 2007 Among the groups under surveillance was the collective that operated Left Bank Books in Seattle's Pike Place Market. Jo Maynes, Lynn Thorndycraft, & Paul Zilsel coordinated the United Front For Political Defense. They assisted lawyer Michael Withey as he represented NLF timebomb maker James Wesley Akers. http://www.livelogcity.com/users/copkiller11/434.html?replyto=8370 http://www.livelogcity.com/users/copkiller/923.html?view=14747
http://www.livelogcity.com/users/copkiller11/434.html

2 -- "One must start with the impossible in order to reach the possible." -Hermann Hesse

http://www.peaceabbey.org/plaques.htm http://home.tampabay.rr.com/bluemax/hermann.htm
http://www.mcl.ucsb.edu/hesse/about-e.html

4 -- TO DO DAILY DOO: Leonard baskin still needs to be finished up & posted. See Gallery page in progress Also: Blake needs images


9 -- "When guns are criminalized, criminals won't have anyone to steal guns from."


25 --

~Albert Camus, "Create Dangerously", 1957


30 --


1926, MONTH DAY UNJKWON Thich Nhat Hanh lives. ordained a Zen Buddhist monk in 1942 at the age of 16.


Zen master, scholar, poet & peace advocate, his life-long efforts to generate peace & reconcilliation moved Martin Luther King, Jr. to nominate him for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1967, saying, "I do not personally know of anyone more worthy of the Nobel Peace Prize than this gentle Buddhist monk from Vietnam. He is a holy man, for he is humble & devout. He is a scholar of immense intellectual capacity. His ideas for peace, if applied, would build a monument to ecumenism, to world brotherhood, to humanity."

Authored more than 75 books on engaged Buddhism in Vietnamese, French & English

  • Vietnam Archives


    http://pi.co.il/sangha/tnh.html
    http://members.aol.com/ctsangha/index.html
    Fire consumes this century, & mountains & forests bear its mark. The wind howls across my ears, while the whole sky skakes violently in the snowstorm. Winter’s wounds lie still, Missing the frozen blade, Restless, tossing & turning in agony all night. --Thich Nhat Hanh http://www.plumvillage.org/


    I wish to embrace & love everyone without exception including all those who have made me & my people suffer. To embrace people does not mean to agree with their narrowness, prejudice and fanaticism. When they lack tolerance, compassion & the ability to look deeply human beings become narrow, prejudiced & fanatical. The responsibility of Buddhist practitioners is to help people untie (release) that narrowness, prejudice and fanaticism, to help people become understanding, tolerant & compassionate, and it is not to pick up a gun & destroy them.


    http://www.parallax.org/scripts/parallax/index.pl?funct=author&query=Nhat+Hanh,+Thich&id=

    41 --



    Fire consumes this century, & mountains & forests bear its mark. The wind howls across my ears, while the whole sky skakes violently in the snowstorm. Winter’s wounds lie still, Missing the frozen blade, Restless, tossing & turning in agony all night. --Thich Nhat Hanh ?
    Zen master, scholar, poet & peace advocate



  • http://www.plumvillage.org/
    http://www.parallax.org/scripts/parallax/index.pl?funct=author&query=Nhat+Hanh,+Thich&id=

    42 -- lobster party
    http://www.lobsterparty.org/md_index.html


    1000 -- Como organización específica anarquista, la F.L.A. tiene 63 años de existencia y continuidad. Su trayectoria arranca en octubre de 1935, cuando fue fundada con el nombre de Federación Anarco Comunista Argentina (F.A.C.A.). Un congreso realizado a comienzos de 1955 adoptó la denominación actual.
    http://members.xoom.com/ekorni/fla.htm
    http://recollectionbooks.com/anow/world/la/argentina/

    1866 -- TO DO: NEED A DATE

    1864 : Lors du meeting de Saint Martin's Hall, une décision est prise pour créer une internationale ouvrière, l'A.I.T.

    Fondation de la "Fraternité Internationale" par Bakounine Propagande en faveur de l'idée coopérative Création d'une banque ouvrière, "le Crédit au Travail"
    http://lycee.reclus.free.fr/repère2.htm


    1866 -- Switzerland: Du 3 au 8 SEPTEMBRE / SEPTEMBER, premier congrès de l'A.I.T. à Genève.
    http://lycee.reclus.free.fr/repère2.htm


    1872 -- GO THROUGH THIS FOR OTHER DATES

    The F. was a revolutionary movement, those from clock workers in the Bernese & Neuenburger law in the framework that boarding school. Worker association (IAA) was formed ( international ones ) & anarchist from that first. Current of Switzerland came out ( Anarchismus ). Trips for their establishment were the arguments around unterschiedl. Positions, which Mikhail Bakunin & Karl Marx in the Ith international one represented. In the F. the majority of west Swiss sections, which that are, vereingte itself antistaatl. & foederalist. Theses anhing & against the resolutions of the Londoner conference from September 1871 revolted itself.

    To 12.11.1871 met the delegates of eight jurass. Sections of the Bez. Courtelary & the Kt. new castle in Sonvilier. They adopted the statutes of its federation, an example for an anti-authoritarian organization. The congress addressed a circular to all federations of the IAA, which anprangerte the diktatorische attitude of the general council & represented libertaere ideas. The international one as "embryos of the future human society" must be "already today the faithful image of our principles of liberty & combination & each principle, which strives for authority & dictatorship, from their inside banishes". Thus the F. became the Bannertraegerin of all opponents of the general council in the numbers of the IAA. The trailers of Bakunin & James Guillaume, which both after the congress from the Hague from the international one had been excluded, met at the congress of Saint Imier (15.-16.9.1872). They created the bases for a new organization, which ital. and splinter. Federation as well as franz., amerikan., belg., hollaend. & English sections covered. The F. was the mainspring foederalist. & anti-authoritarian international ones, which held four general assemblies during its five-year existence: 1873 in Geneva, 1874 in Brussels, 1876 in Berne & 1877 in Verviers (Belgium). The "bulletin de la Fédération jurassienne de l'Association international travailleurs" (1872-78) counted about 600 subscribers in approximately ten countries.

    The internat.. Meaning of the F. stands contrary to their small regional anchorage. On their high point you belonged to 1873-74 only straight 300 to 400 activists, which distributed themselves in the Western part of Switzerland on approximately twenty sections. The most active groups worked in new castle, Le Locle, La Chaux de fund, Sonvilier, Saint Imier & Geneva. Their members were v.a. Uhrmacher, engravers & Guillocheure, clock bowl & Federmacher. Among them also many were polit. trailer that banished refugees Paris municipality & soot. Revolutionary. 1876 decided the congress of Berne with sucked. Propaganda of the act a new strategy, which should awake-shake the peoples by hand capers, rebellion attempts & assassination attempts. After anarchist. Demonstration of 18.3.1877 in Berne embodied Paul Brousse and Petr Kropotkin the radicalization of the F., whose fall was accelerated by James Guillaumes emigration to Paris (1878). The new anarchist. Adjustment corresponded to the conceptions jurass. Workers, who were confronted with the crisis and restructuring of the watch-and-clock-making industry, no more. 1880 took place the last congress of the F.. Some most active ones held to the Anarchismus. Most different, under it also Adhémar Schwitzguébel, contributed to the upswing of the trade union movement in the watch-and-clock-making industry & to the Erstarken of reform socialism.

    Archives Aen, deduction James Guillaume Boarding school. Inst. for Sozialgesch., archives Max Nettlau, Amsterdam

    Sources - L'Almanach you Peuple, 1871-1875 - bulletin de la F. de l'Association international travailleurs, 1872-1878 J. Guillaume, L'Internationale, 4 Bde., 1905-1910 (new Dr. 1985) A. Schwitzguébel, Quelques écrits, 1908 - La Première international one, Hg of J. Freymond, 1962-1971 Literature Gruner, worker "La Première international one et le law ", in Actes SJE, 1972, 331-402 M. Vuilleumier, "James Guillaume, SA vie, son oeuvre", in L'Internationale, 1985, i-lvii M. Vuilleumier, Horlogers de l'anarchisme, 1988 M. Enckell, La F., 2 1991

    François Kohl he/cM ORIGINAL GERMAN, http://www.snl.ch/dhs/externe/protect/textes/D17400.html


    1878 -- Switzerland: 1878: Kropotkin spent much of this year working with to strengthen the Jura Federation, for which he edited their revolutionary newspaper, Le Révolté. By August, he had developed his first major political program. This program was presented at the annual Jura congress. There were some major figures from the Federation present, however, Guillaume & Bakunin were not present (Guillaume because he was no longer active & Bakunin because he was no longer alive). Their absence left a void, which Peter sought to fill. His program was composed of four parts:

    1. collectivism 2. the negation of the state 3. acceptance of the social revolution & the end of capitalism 4. propaganda of the deed (violence) as a means to end the state

    Peter hoped for a society influenced by the Paris Commune. He hoped that by improving the living conditions of the working class that their work initiative would also improve. This would be the beginning of the social revolution. see/coordinate LINK TO BLEED REF:
    [Further details]


    Peter Kropotkin, All Star
    1878 -- THIS ENTRY IS INCLUDED IN THE 09REF BOX ENTRY REGARDS THE JURA CONGRESSES; BUT STILL NEED AN EXACT DATE FOR THIS Switzerland: 1878: Kropotkin spent much of this year working with to strengthen the Jura Federation, for which he edited their revolutionary newspaper, Le Révolté. By August, he had developed his first major political program. This program was presented at the annual Jura congress. There were some major figures from the Federation present, however, Guillaume & Bakunin were not present (Guillaume because he was no longer active & Bakunin because he was no longer alive). Their absence left a void, which Peter sought to fill. His program was composed of four parts:

    1. collectivism 2. the negation of the state 3. acceptance of the social revolution & the end of capitalism 4. propaganda of the deed (violence) as a means to end the state

    Peter hoped for a society influenced by the Paris Commune. He hoped that by improving the living conditions of the working class that their work initiative would also improve. This would be the beginning of the social revolution. LINKED 09REF BOX:


    details, click here[Further details] http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/kropotkin/chronology.html


    1902 -- 1902 The novelty Plato Clock was patented by Eugene Fitch of NYC. It resembled a lantern based on the story that Plato used a lantern-shaped clock while "looking for an honest man." (SFC, 9/21/98, Z1 p.8) http://timelines.ws/cities/NYC_B.HTML


    ?
    1907 -- Picnic http://www.jwa.org/exhibits/wov/goldman/egart.html


    1922 -- SEE BLEEDWORK FOR FULL ENTRY placeholder DAILYDOO CLEAN UP, ADD TO SEPT 1, WITH BLEEDREF

    El 1 de septiembre Ramón Recasens, Antonio Jiménez"El señorito", Manuel Ramos, Francisco Cunyat, Víctor Quero y José Francés, asaltaron el tren de la MZA que llevaba la nómina de sus empleados, en el asalto murieron un vigilante (José Mallofré) que quiso sacar su arma, así como un obrero de la MZA de una bala perdida (Mariano Montarde), como también quedó en el suelo herido Ramón Recasens, al darse cuenta el centinela del depósito de artillería situado no muy lejos de donde se producían los hechos un segundo disparó dejó a Quero en el suelo. Sin embargo los cenetistas lograron recuperar el cuerpo de Recasens y el botín huyendo hacía el centro de la ciudad. Los compañeros escondieron a Recasens en casa de su novia María Camarasa que vivía en la calle Botella allí le procuraron un practicante que le hizo las primeras curas.

    La nómina expropiada la escondieron en casa de Francisco Verdú presidente del Ateneo "El adelantado Obrero" de la calle Ferlandina nº 7, 5º3ª. El botín ascendía a 140.000pts que fueron entregada a Francisco Arín, Secretario del comité Pro-Presos.

    //Ramon Recasens, Antonio Jiménez " the señorito ", Manuel Ramos, Francisco Cunyat, Victor Quero & French Jose, assaulted the train of the MZA that took the list of their employees, in the assault died a watchman (Jose Mallofré) that wanted to remove its weapon, as well as a worker of the MZA of a stray bullet (Mariano Montarde), as also it were left in the wounded ground Ramon Recasens, when occurring account the sentry of the artillery supply depot located not very far from where the facts took place a second shot left to Quero in the ground. Nevertheless the cenetistas managed to recover the body of Recasens & the booty fleeing made downtown. The companions hid to Recasens in house of their fiancèe Maria Camarasa who lived in the street Bottle tried a medical instructor there to him who did the first cures to him. The expropiada list nº 7 hid in house of Francisco Verdú president of the advanced Athenian “Working” of the Ferlandina street, 5º3ª. The booty ascended to 140.000pts that they were given to Francisco Arín, Secretary of the Pro-Prisoner committee. //

    El 7 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER será detenido José Francés y hacia el 14 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER empezaran a caer Francisco Verdú, Segimón Sola (el practicante) Marcelino da Silva y Francisco Peña (que regentaba un Bar en la calle Riereta donde se había escondido Recasens).

    Recasens logró escapar a Francia, gracias al comité Pro-Presos de Francisco Arín que por mediación de Antonio Más "El tartamut" le dio 15.000 pesetas con lo que pudo huir. (Según Inocencio Feced, Recasens murió en Francia (Burdeos) en la guillotina después de un atraco social).

    The 7 of September/SEPTEMBER will be stopped José Francés & towards the 14 of September/SEPTEMBER they began to fall Francisco Verdú, Segimón Sola (el practicante / the medical instructor), Marcelino da Silva & Francisco Peña (who ran a Bar in the Riereta street where Recasens had hidden).

    Recasens managed to escape to France, thanks to the Pro-Prisoner committee de Francisco Arín who through Antonio Más “tartamut” gave 15,000 pesetas him with which it could flee. (According to Inocencio Feced, Recasens died in France (Bordeaux) at the guillotine after a social holdup).

    In spite of the arrests, the police never could recover the booty of the holdup. http://www.manelaisa.com/texto/Articulos/PagArticulos9.htm


    ?
    1925 -- MULTIPLE DATES MOVING DATES

    Stuttgart, Germany

    August 17-18, 1902 

      

    dingbat
    Segona Conferència prèvia to creació of the FIS (Federació Sindical Internacional).

    [Source: Congressos Obrers]

    NEED TO DO THE JULY DATES I MISSED, DONE IN LARGE TYPE 1886, agost   Paris, from the 23 to the 29 is celebrated one novates Working Conferència the International. 1907, agost   Amsterdam, from the 26 to the 31. to 1er. Congrés The International Anarchist
    Amsterdam anarchist congress
    1909, agost - SETEMBRE Paris, of the 30 d'agost to the 9 of SETEMBRE. Sisena Conferència prèvia to creació of the FIS.

    1925, agost Marseilles, from the 22 to the 27. òn Congrés of the IOS Hi Horseman, Julian Besteiro, Andrés Saborit i go to participate representant the PSOE Long Francisco Fernando of the Rivers.

    CHRONOLOGY CRONOLOGIA

     
    Cronologia
    dels Congressos Obrers
    The International

    Sigles emprades :

    AIT........ Associació the International of Treballadors IWA (International Workingman's Association, the first Communist International)
    CISC.... Confederació the International of Sindicats Catòlics
    CNT...... National Confederació of the Treball
    FIS.......   Union Federació The International
    FRE of l'AIT.... Regional Federació Espanyola of l'AIT.
    FSM....   World-wide Union Federació
    FTRE... Federació de Treballadors of the Regió Espanyola.
    IOS ......   The Socialist Working International
    Red ISR  ...... The Union International
    PSOE... Socialist Partit Obrer Espanyol
    The General UGT ...... Unio' of Treballadors
     


    Sigles emprades:

    AIT ........ Associació Internacional de Treballadors
    CISC .... Confederació Internacional de Sindicats Catòlics
    CNT...... Confederació Nacional del Treball
    FIS .......  Federació Sindical Internacional
    FRE de l'AIT.... Federació Regional Espanyola de l'AIT.
    FSM ....  Federació Sindical Mundial
    FTRE ... Federació de Treballadors de la Regió Espanyola.
    IOS ......  Internacional Obrera Socialista
    ISR ......  Internacional Sindical Roja
    PSOE... Partit Socialista Obrer Espanyol
    UGT...... Unió General de Treballadors
     


    1876, juliol 1st? Filadèlfia. 7è Congrés of fracció Marxist of l'AIT is celebrated (certificació of fi of 1a. The International of Marxist tendència). D'Europa solament hi goes to assistir delegat alemany. 1878   Paris, congrés Obrer the International. It is goes to summon però is not goes to celebrate. 1883 (? Paris, Working Conferència The International 1900, juliol Aix-La Chepelle (Bèlgica). Conferència the International of Sindicats Catòlics CISC. Hi is no representació of l'estat. 1900, desembre   Paris, from the 17 to the 19. Union Congrés The International. 1913 () London, congrés Anarchist. 1916, juliol   Leeds (Anglaterra), 5 i 6. Conferència of the FIS 1919, març   Moscou, from the 2 to the 6 is celebrated congrés of constitució of the Third International. 1919, to FEBRUARY / FEBRER   Bern, from the 5 to the 9, Conferència of the Segona the International. 1919, to febrer   Bern, dies 5 6, is Conferència of the FIS 1920, juliol 31 Geneva, day 31 is celebrated the Xè. congrés of the Segona the International. Hi does not go to assistir representants of the PSOE, that in aquells moments, transitòriament, s'acostava to Moscou (letter of secretari of the PSOE to secretariat of the Segona the International) ( it abstracts ) 1920, desembre   Berlin, from the 16 to the 21. Conferència The International Anarchist. 1921, to FEBRUARY / FEBRER   Vienna, from the 22 to the 27 of FEBRUARY / FEBRER is constitueix the Comunitat the International of Treball dels Partits coneguda Socialistes com the International of Vienna i pels seus detractors com the International 2 1/2 is Amb a Marxist program marcadament intentà to agglutinate els malcontents of the Segona the International i els refractaris of Third.  

    1921, desembre Dusseldorff. Conferència The International Anarchist.

    1922, Berlin April of day 2 to the 5, Conferència of them the three International. L'austríac Fritz Adler, impeller of the International of Vienna goes to reunite to representants of them the three International to per to surround punts of convergència. Fou the first i l'última vegada s'assegueren plegats. 1922, Rome April, from the 21 to the 23. òn. Congrés ordinari of the FIS. Hi Julian Besteiro 1922, novembre Moscou, as of day 5 is celebrated ârt congrés of the Third International. 1922, novembre Moscou, as of day 22 is celebrated òn. Congrés of the ISR. DID NOT DO IN 2002 1922, desembre - to gener Berlin. Of the 25 of desembre to the 2 of gener 1er is celebrated. Congrés of l'Associació the International of the Treball reconstituïda (AIT(r). Organitzat to per societats anarquistes i anarcosindicalistes. Representant the CNT hi goes to participate to Avelino González i Díez Gaul.

    1924, Juliol Moscou. ér. Congrés of the ISR. Hi goes to participate Joaquim Maurín, Desideri Trilles, Josep Grau, Josep Valls i Josep Jover, representant els Comitès Sindicalistes Revolucionaris.

    1925, març Amsterdam. òn. Congrés of l' AIT(r). Hi goes to participate to Diego Abbot of Santillán, representant the CNT.

    1925 (? Lucerna (Suïssa) ér. Congrés dela CISC. Hi goes to participate funcionaris of the Ministeri de Treball of the dictatorship of Cousin of Creek.

    1928, març Moscou. ârt. Congrés of the ISR l'AIT(r).

    1928, juliol Moscou, 6è. Congrés of the Third International

    1928 () Munich, ârt Congrés of the CISC 1928, agost Brussel·les of the 5 to l'11. ér. Congrés of the IOS. Representant the PSOE hi goes to assistir Long Francisco Horseman, Francis

    1928 () Munich, ârt Congrés of the CISC 1928, agost Brussel·les of the 5 to l'11. ér. Congrés of the IOS. Representant the PSOE hi goes to assistir Long Francisco Horseman, Francisco Azorín i Andrés Saborit. 1930, juliol Estocolm. 5è Congrés of the FIS 1930 (estiu) Moscou, 5è Congrés (i últim) of ISR 1932, maig Zurich, els dies 22 is 23 are celebrated a joint conferència dels secretariats of FIS i of the IOS. Hi go to assistir representant the UGT i the PSOE Manuel Lamb i Wenceslao Cheek, respectivament. 1932 () Ambers (Bèlgica) 5è. Congrés of the CISC 1933, agost Paris, from the 21 to the 25 tea lloc a conferència of the IOS, amb participació of representants of the FIS. Triomf of social-demòcrates Hitler havia deixat garratibats als europeus. Hi goes to participate to Manuel Lamb representant to the UGT 1933 (? Brussel·les. 6è. Congrés of the FIS 1934 () Montreux (Suïssa). 6è. Congrés of the CISC 1935 (? Brussel·les. 5è Congrés of the IOS 1936, juliol London. 7è. Congrés of FIS 1937 (? Paris. 7è. Congrés of the CISC 1939, juliol Zurich, from the 5 to the 7. 8è. i últim congrés of the FIS. Hi goes to participate Clary of the Rosal, representant the UG http://www.terra.es/personal7/perefer/index03.htm
    ?




    ?
    1925 -- MOVING DATES
    Stuttgart, Germany

    August 17-18, 1902 

      

    dingbat
    Segona Conferència prèvia to creació of the FIS (Federació Sindical Internacional).

    [Source: Congressos Obrers]

    NEED TO DO THE JULY DATES I MISSED, DONE IN LARGE TYPE
    1909, agost - SETEMBRE Paris, of the 30 d'agost to the 9 of SETEMBRE. Sisena Conferència prèvia to creació of the FIS. 1925, agost Marseilles, from the 22 to the 27. òn Congrés of the IOS Hi Horseman, Julian Besteiro, Andrés Saborit i go to participate representant the PSOE Long Francisco Fernando of the Rivers. CHRONOLOGY CRONOLOGIA

     
    Cronologia
    dels Congressos Obrers
    The International

    Sigles emprades :

    AIT........ Associació the International of Treballadors IWA (International Workingman's Association, the first Communist International)
    CISC.... Confederació the International of Sindicats Catòlics
    CNT...... National Confederació of the Treball
    FIS.......   Union Federació The International
    FRE of l'AIT.... Regional Federació Espanyola of l'AIT.
    FSM....   World-wide Union Federació
    FTRE... Federació de Treballadors of the Regió Espanyola.
    IOS ......   The Socialist Working International
    Red ISR  ...... The Union International
    PSOE... Socialist Partit Obrer Espanyol
    The General UGT ...... Unio' of Treballadors
     


    Sigles emprades:

    AIT ........ Associació Internacional de Treballadors
    CISC .... Confederació Internacional de Sindicats Catòlics
    CNT...... Confederació Nacional del Treball
    FIS .......  Federació Sindical Internacional
    FRE de l'AIT.... Federació Regional Espanyola de l'AIT.
    FSM ....  Federació Sindical Mundial
    FTRE ... Federació de Treballadors de la Regió Espanyola.
    IOS ......  Internacional Obrera Socialista
    ISR ......  Internacional Sindical Roja
    PSOE... Partit Socialista Obrer Espanyol
    UGT...... Unió General de Treballadors
     



    1921, desembre Dusseldorff. Conferència The International Anarchist.
    1922, Berlin April of day 2 to the 5, Conferència of them the three International. L'austríac Fritz Adler, impeller of the International of Vienna goes to reunite to representants of them the three International to per to surround punts of convergència. Fou the first i l'última vegada s'assegueren plegats. 1922, Rome April, from the 21 to the 23. òn. Congrés ordinari of the FIS. Hi Julian Besteiro
    1922, novembre Moscou, as of day 5 is celebrated ârt congrés of the Third International.
    1922, novembre Moscou, as of day 22 is celebrated òn. Congrés of the ISR. DID NOT DO IN 2002
    1922, desembre - to gener Berlin. Of the 25 of desembre to the 2 of gener 1er is celebrated. Congrés of l'Associació the International of the Treball reconstituïda (AIT(r). Organitzat to per societats anarquistes i anarcosindicalistes. Representant the CNT hi goes to participate to Avelino González i Díez Gaul.
    1924, Juliol Moscou. ér. Congrés of the ISR. Hi goes to participate Joaquim Maurín, Desideri Trilles, Josep Grau, Josep Valls i Josep Jover, representant els Comitès Sindicalistes Revolucionaris.
    1925, març Amsterdam. òn. Congrés of l' AIT(r). Hi goes to participate to Diego Abbot of Santillán, representant the CNT.
    1925 (? Lucerna (Suïssa) ér. Congrés dela CISC. Hi goes to participate funcionaris of the Ministeri de Treball of the dictatorship of Cousin of Creek.
    1928, març Moscou. ârt. Congrés of the ISR l'AIT(r).
    1928, juliol Moscou, 6è. Congrés of the Third International
    1928 () Munich, ârt Congrés of the CISC 1928, agost Brussel·les of the 5 to l'11. ér. Congrés of the IOS. Representant the PSOE hi goes to assistir Long Francisco Horseman, Francis

    1928 () Munich, ârt Congrés of the CISC 1928, agost Brussel·les of the 5 to l'11. ér. Congrés of the IOS. Representant the PSOE hi goes to assistir Long Francisco Horseman, Francisco Azorín i Andrés Saborit. 1930, juliol Estocolm. 5è Congrés of the FIS
    1930 (estiu) Moscou, 5è Congrés (i últim) of ISR 1932, maig Zurich, els dies 22 is 23 are celebrated a joint conferència dels secretariats of FIS i of the IOS. Hi go to assistir representant the UGT i the PSOE Manuel Lamb i Wenceslao Cheek, respectivament.
    1932 () Ambers (Bèlgica) 5è. Congrés of the CISC
    1933, agost Paris, from the 21 to the 25 tea lloc a conferència of the IOS, amb participació of representants of the FIS. Triomf of ²crates Hitler havia deixat garratibats als europeus. Hi goes to participate to Manuel Lamb representant to the UGT
    1933 (? Brussel·les. 6è. Congrés of the FIS
    1934 () Montreux (Suïssa). 6è. Congrés of the CISC
    1935 (? Brussel·les. 5è Congrés of the IOS
    1936, juliol London. 7è. Congrés of FIS
    1937 (? Paris. 7è. Congrés of the CISC
    1939, juliol Zurich, from the 5 to the 7. 8è. i últim congrés of the FIS. Hi goes to participate Clary of the Rosal, representant the UG

    1876, juliol 1st? Filadèlfia. 7è Congrés of fracció Marxist of l'AIT is celebrated (certificació of fi of 1a. The International of Marxist tendència). D'Europa solament hi goes to assistir delegat alemany.
    1878   Paris, congrés Obrer the International. It is goes to summon però is not goes to celebrate.
    1883 (? Paris, Working Conferència The International
    1900, juliol Aix-La Chepelle (Bèlgica). Conferència the International of Sindicats Catòlics CISC. Hi is no representació of l'estat.
    1900, desembre   Paris, from the 17 to the 19. Union Congrés The International.
    1913 () London, congrés Anarchist.
    1914   Vienna. The Segona the International havia convocat seu 9è congrés, that does not go to arrive celebrate-
    1916, juliol   Leeds (Anglaterra), 5 i 6. Conferència of the FIS
    1919, març   Moscou, from the 2 to the 6 is celebrated congrés of constitució of the Third International.
    1919, to febrer   Bern, from the 5 to the 9, Conferència of the Segona the International.
    1919, to febrer   Bern, dies 5 6, is Conferència of the FIS
    1920, juliol 31 Geneva, day 31 is celebrated the Xè. congrés of the Segona the International. Hi does not go to assistir representants of the PSOE, that in aquells moments, transitòriament, s'acostava to Moscou (letter of secretari of the PSOE to secretariat of the Segona the International) ( it abstracts )
    1920, desembre   Berlin, from the 16 to the 21. Conferència The International Anarchist.
    1921, to FEBRUARY / FEBRER   Vienna, from the 22 to the 27 of FEBRUARY / FEBRER is constitueix the Comunitat the International of Treball dels Partits coneguda Socialistes com the International of Vienna i pels seus detractors com the International 2 1/2 is Amb a Marxist program marcadament intentà to agglutinate els malcontents of the Segona the International i els refractaris of Third.  
    http://www.terra.es/personal7/perefer/index03.htm
    ?




    1926 -- Need correct day: When the Ku Klux Klan burns a fiery cross in Father Charles E. Coughlin's churchyard as the community's welcome, Coughlin decides to use the new medium of radio to explain his faith to the new parish. He begins to broadcast over station WJR in Detroit. He calls his program "The Golden Hour of the Little Flower."


    ?
    1928 -- Georges-Jean Arnaud (né en 1928) day of birth? anarchist.

    Situer G.-J. Arnaud dans l'histoire de la littérature policière nous amène paradoxalement à en repousser les limites, à déborder du cadre d'un genre et même si l'on ne n'aborde son oeuvre qu'à travers sa production strictement «policière», il défie les classifications, par excès ! Arnaud est généreux, il pourrait se ranger directement à côté de Balzac et de Zola ou de Simenon, pour demeurer dans notre siècle. G.-J. Arnaud ne se situe pas, par exemple, entre Jean Amila et Jean-Patrick Manchette et n'appartint jamais à un camp, en tout cas pas à celui du néo-polar. Si la notion d'auteur «prolétarien» existe, désignant un homme de métier, qui ne rechigne pas à la tâche - personnage bien plus familier aux Etats-Unis que dans notre vieille Europe, orfèvres du quantitatif, à l'inverse de ceux qui écrivent avec le petit doigt en l'air -, elle s'applique à G.-J. Arnaud.

    Loin d'être l'auteur d'un seul genre ou d'une seule série, G.-J Arnaud demeure l'un des grands maîtres du Fleuve Noir - tenons-nous en pour l'instant au gros de sa production policière, plus précisément à Spécial Police, série bien connue des amateurs, mais qui ne bénéficia jamais de l'aura de l'autre noir (celui de Gallimard). Loin de tout parisianisme, G.-J. Arnaud trouva dans ce sanctuaire du polar français - à la différence, répétons-nous, de la Série Noire - une écurie à sa mesure, loin des modes et préciosités à l'honneur du côté de Saint-Germain des Près. (mor follows, see the page link)

    http://www.multimania.com/lanarcho/biosgja.htm




    ?
    1931 -- Hoboken, 1916. Stuart Davis, 1892-1964. Watercolor. Published in the Liberator 1 (August 1918). LC-USZC4-5707; LC-USZ62-119283 © Estate of Stuart Davis/Licensed by VAGA, New York, N.Y. (13)

    Stuart Davis's watercolor drawing was published in 1918 in the Liberator, an illustrated journal whose editor, Max Eastman, described Hoboken as "a city about a square mile, over in the smoke across the Hudson, shuffling down the beginnings of the Palisades to the edge of the water with a loose collection of factories & railroad yards & cheap flats." Of Davis's style, Eastman wrote that "His art lives among the same squalid & strong-smelling & left-out objects, & it goes its sordid way with the same suave dirty muscular self-adequate gracefulness of power." http://lcweb.loc.gov/exhibits/goldstein/goldrad.html



    1936 -- Spain: In "Free Women," Emma Goldman wrote:

    "The Spanish woman will not be long much any more in taking the path of her emancipation. The problem of the female emancipation is identical to that of the proletarian emancipation: those which want to be free must take the first step. **time-out** the workman of Catalonia & of all the Spain it have already make, they himself be release themselves & they be pour their blood to consolidate this freedom. Now, it is your turn with you, Spanish women. **time-out** break your chaînes.Votre turn be finally arrive to raise your personality & your dignity, to require with firmness your right of woman, like individuality free, like member of company & like comrade in the fight against the Fascism & for the Revolution social. " 1936, dans "Femmes libres", Emma Goldman écrit:

    "La femme espagnole ne tardera plus beaucoup à prendre le chemin de son émancipation. Le problème de l'émancipation féminine est identique à celui de l'émancipation prolétarienne : ceux qui veulent être libre doivent faire le premier pas. Les ouvriers de Catalogne et de toute l'Espagne l'ont déjà fait, ils se sont libérés eux-mêmes et ils sont en train de verser leur sang pour consolider cette liberté. Maintenant, c'est votre tour à vous, femmes espagnoles. Brisez vos chaînes. Votre tour est enfin arrivé d'élever votre personnalité et votre dignité, d'exiger avec fermeté vos droits de femme, comme individualités libres, comme membres de la société et comme camarade dans la lutte contre le fascisme et pour la Révolution sociale."

    http://struggle.ws/revolt/ws98/ws54_mujeres_libres.html
    http://struggle.ws/revolt/graphics/womilt.jpg



    http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/8195/blasts/pointblank/spanishrevolution.htm

    1936 -- In Barcelona especially, there was nothing to prevent the workers' committees from seizing de jure the power which they were already exercising de facto. But they did not do so. For decades, Spanish anarchism had been warning the people against the deceptions of "politics" & emphasizing the primacy of the "economic." It had constantly sought to divert the people from a bourgeois democratic revolution in order to lead them to the social revolution through direct action. On the brink of the Revolution, the anarchists argued something like this: let the politicians do what they will; we, the "apolitical," will lay hands on the economy.

    On SEPTEMBER 3, 1936, the CNT-FAI Information Bulletin published an article entitled "The Futility of Government," suggesting that the economic expropriation which was taking place would lead ipso facto to the "liquidation of the bourgeois State, which would die of asphyxiation." http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/1931/guerin/AnSpain.html


    1949 -- septiembre Stuart Christie HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SPANISH ANARCHISM A Historical Encyclopaedia of Spanish Anarchism by Miguel Iñiguez indexed name

    INDEXED: NAME INDEXED FEB 2007: 60. LÓPEZ CALLE, Bernabé. Montejaque 1899- killed in the vicinity of Medinasidonia, 1949.
    A member of an illustrious CNT & anarchist family (his brothers José, Pedro & Antonio were well-known militants), he joined the Civil Guard upon completion of his military service & was posted to the province of Málaga. The outbreak of the civil war found him in Antequera & he took on the rebels: he commanded a column which later turned into a battalion (the José López) & later took over the 61st Mixed Brigade (which was disbanded when it declined to dance to the Communists' tune). He fought in Málaga, Almería & Teruel; the end of the war found him in the Centre where he was arrested & sentenced to death. Released in 1944, he took to the mountains. In the ensuing years he organised guerrillas & was soon the most famous southern guerrilla (with support from the CNT which had successfully recovered in Andalusia), with many contacts & support bases in the plains. For five years he held the Francoists at bay throughout the whole of lower Andalusia. He mounted guerrilla activity, bringing to it strategy, efficiency, mobility & coordination & mustering many fighters; he even formed a guerrillas' ANFD in 1946 which was then extended into a guerrillas' National Junta (Southern Sector), which culminated in February 1949 when several bands of guerrillas amalgamated into the Agrupación Fermín Galán of which he was appointed the commander. His influence was great & after quitting the highlands around Ronda he moved to Cádiz, dividing the territory up into theatres (Ubrique-Jérez, Montejaque, Alcalá de los Gazules & Gaucín) & ranging as far afield as Algeciras & Punta Paloma. The death knell for the guerrillas came on the last day of 1949 when Bernabé, surrounded in the heights of La Atalaya, was wounded & took his own life. He used a number of aliases such as Bernabé, Comandante Abril, Fernando.


  • LÓPEZ CALLE, Bernabé. (aka El Comandante 'Abril')
    (1899-1949.) Spanish militant, el guardia civil, anarquista y maquis, guerrilla in Andalusia, commander Agrupación Fermín Galán; took his life when surrounded & wounded. Brother of CNT militants José, Pedro & Antonio. February 2007

    Bernabé Lopez http://www.nodo50.org/foroporlamemoria/documentos/bernabe_lopez_calle.htm http://www.nodo50.org/foroporlamemoria/documentos/2004/blopez_15122004.htm http://libcom.org/history/articles/armed-resistance-to-franco nice photo: http://www.nodo50.org/foroporlamemoria/documentos/2004/img/blopez_15122004.jpg


    http://www.christiebooks.com/PDFs/Encyclopedia1.pdf


    1949 -- CHRISTIE indexed name

    INDEXED: NAME INDEXED FEB 2007: INDEXED: 61. LÓPEZ MONTENEGRO, José. Determined anarchist propagandist who died in Barcelona in 1903 (some say 1908).
    A member of the army administration corps (he was an officer) he resigned because of his republican leanings & his refusal to swear a pledge of loyalty to Amadeo I. His presence in revolutionary labor circles dates from 1870 when he turned up in Zaragoza as a driving force for trade unionism. (His part in the development of workers' consciousness in Zaragoza is universally regarded as crucial).

    The following year he was arguing the case for anarchism as the latest scientific advance & in 1872 he had a hand in the organising of the Zaragoza congress. Active in the cantonalist venture in Cartagena, he then fled to France & lived in poverty in Paris until 1884. Returning to Spain, he settled in Catalonia, working as a teacher in Sabadell & later in Sallent (where he founded the city's public library & got into some difficulty when accused of illegal propaganda), from where he used to strike out into the surrounding countryside for propaganda purposes (holding rallies in Manresa in 1891 against religion & in commemoration of the Chicago martyrs - together with Malatesta , in the latter instance) & on organisational business (he attended the Madrid congress of the Pacto in 1891). His time in Sabadell was marked by publication of the famous review Los Desheredados (1884 to 1886).

    He was living in Sallent when he was indicted in the Montjuich trials (1896) & shortly after that he quit Spain for the Americas, via London, returning years later to die in Barcelona, though not before he had seen the inside of prison again, in El Pelayo, as a result of the Barcelona strike of 1901. A man of great solidarity & a friend of the humble he endured persecution & misery for his ideological steadfastness; a journalist, but likewise a fighter & street agitator (as witness his strike campaigns in Madrid & Barcelona in 1900-01) he was also an organiser (representing the Spanish section of the IWMA at the Paris congress while in Exile); he is the very model of the proletarianised militant of his day, hoping to spread learning through the propagation of science & revolution by means of the general strike. A great public speaker & a fine writer, he had an especial interest in anti-clericalism, the general strike, organisation & revolutionary effectiveness & science. He wrote for La Idea Libre, El Porvenir del Obrero, La Anarquía, El Productor, La Nueva Idea, La Revista Blanca, La Protesta, etc., & was editor or director of El Proletariado, La Luz & Los Desheredados. Author of: La huelga general (Barcelona 1902), El Botón de Fuego (Barcelona 1902), Manifiesto del 1º de mayo (Asunción, undated), La Naturaleza. Poema. Nociones de geología y zoología para trabajadores (Barcelona 1902), & Catecismo democrático federal (Barcelona 1882).

    http://www.christiebooks.com/PDFs/Encyclopedia1.pdf


    1949 -- CHRISTIE indexed name

    INDEXED: INDEXED JAN 2007 62. LÓPEZ SÁNCHEZ, Juan. CNT militant born in Bullas (Murcia) in 1900, died in Madrid 1972.
    I 1928 he was a member of the Solidaridad group. Closer to syndicalism than to anarchism, he had a hand in every one of the moves designed to whittle away the CNT's anarchist content to the advantage of the syndicalist element: he was one of the treintistas, led the Opposition Unions during the republic, was secretary of the FSL after Pestaña's departure, advocated collaboration in government during the civil war & in exile & wound up advocating an ideology-free syndicalism & embracing the worst aspects of Cincopuntismo.

    His popularity spread after he signed the treintista manifesto & he was to become one of the treintista leaders: after he was expelled from the CNT he led the treintistas in Huelva and, shortly after that, headed the FSL, but he did not follow Pestaña into the Syndicalist Party. Quite the opposite, He was scathingly critical of this initiative from the columns of Sindicalismo (which he ran in Valencia in 1934).

    After the failure of the Alianza Obrera he encouraged the Oppositionists to return to the CNT fold; after amalgamation was finalised at the 1936 congress, he held important posts on the CNT's behalf during the civil war: he was minister of Trade (November 1936), a member of the Defence Council towards the end of the war, represented the CNT on the Popular Executive Committee in Valencia, was general secretary of the national committee of the Libertarian Movement set up in March 1939. In exile, he settled in London where he published Material de Discusión (Milford Haven 1945) & clung to the collaborationist line: he called for a political CNT & later jettisoned anarcho-syndicalism in favour of an all-powerful syndicalism (syndicates were to supplant the political parties & govern in their place) which styled itself permanentista (the reach of the syndicates would extend into everything) & which found no takers.. All of which explains why, in 1946, he went for Luque's anarcho-monarchism & why in 1965 he looked kindly upon the Cincopuntista arguments (in fact he swallowed only the simplest of them: he returned to Spain & accepted a paid position with the transport union of the Francoist syndicates).

    His writings appeared in Sindicalismo, Comunidad Ibérica, Solidaridad Obrera, Peninsular, Fragua Social, etc. Author of: Concepto del federalismo en la Guerra y en la revolución (Barcelona 1937), La unidad de la CNT y su trayectoria (Valencia 1936) & El sindicato y la colectividad (Valencia 1938) Una Misión sin Importancia. Memorias de un Sindicalista (Madrid 1972).

    http://www.christiebooks.com/PDFs/Encyclopedia1.pdf


    1949 -- CHRISTIE indexed name

    INDEXED: INDEXED 63. RODRÍGUEZ VÁZQUEZ, Mariano. Known as Marianet. Barcelona 1909-Ferté (France) 1939, died by drowning.
    Mariano Rodriguez

  • RODRÍGUEZ VÁZQUEZ, Mariano. Known as Marianet.
    (Barcelona 1909-Ferté (France) 1939) Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, editor of Solidaridad Obrera.. General Secretary of the CNT during the civil war, a task he was ill-suited for & handled disastrously. Died by accidental drowning. (Christie Books)August 2007

    An orphan, he spent much of his childhood in the Durán home & subsequently tried his hand at several trades before, coming into contact with the CNT, he committed himself to that labor organisation & its construction union. He made his name in the strikes in the construction industry & was imprisoned in 1931: while in jail (serving 15 months) he began to dabble in writing & improved upon his meagre education. Under the republic he held office on the Junta of his union alongside Manuel Muñoz (who taught him a lot & who introduced him to anarchism) & he carried out various tasks (saboteur & union bureaucrat); he was in the action groups which attacked the Atarazanas barracks in 1933 & involved in the faísta uprising; later he was secretary of the Barcelona local federation of the CNT & director (not to say virtually the sole editor of the clandestine La Voz Confederal); arrested & tortured, he escaped falling victim to the ley de fugas by a miracle. Jailed again in 1935 (for several months), he had scarcely been freed when he began his dizzying rise to the highest organisational positions in the Confederation: he was a member of the prisoners' aid committee, editor of Solidaridad Obrera, secretary of the Catalan CNT, a position he still held when the civil war erupted & which required him to attend countless meetings of the CNT, FAI & Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL).

    When Horacio Martínez Prieto stepped down as CNT general secretary in November 1936, Marianet took over the secretaryship & moved to Madrid & thence to Valencia (following the government); in May 1937 he called for moderation & became an unconditional supporter of Negrín (for which he was roundly criticised). After the defeat of the republic he crossed into France, headed the General Council of the Libertarian Movement & died in an accidental drowning a short time later.

    His performance during the civil war was, to say the least, damaging, displaying a naivete bordering on stupidity & he was always in the hands of Martínez Prieto & Negrín: he was forever entering into pacts with the Stalinist UGT, holding pro-government rallies, backed Prieto's case for negotiations with Franco as early as 1938, attended the IWMA congress with Prieto to justify collaborationism. He represents a dismal example of the lengths a man may go to when his (assuredly ill-digested) beliefs are set aside & he lapses into revisionism & politicking, for which he is, in any case, not equipped. In any event, he was not equal to what the circumstances required of him. However the CNT & anarchist membership have not been hard on Marianet, either on account of his untimely death (which kept him out of the post-war squabbles) or because it did not take him seriously & regards him as a puppet whose strings were pulled by Martínez Prieto & García Oliver.
    http://www.christiebooks.com/PDFs/Encyclopedia1.pdf


    1949 -- CHRISTIE indexed name

    INDEXED: 66. ZAFÓN BAYO, Juan. Barcelona 1911-1977.
    CNT member from the age of 18. In the pre-civil war era he founded the Chemical & Advertising unions in Barcelona. Fought on the Aragon front with the Ortiz Column & was director of its mouthpiece, Combate. He was the delegate in charge of Information & Propaganda on the Council of Aragon up until the autumn of 1937, at which point he rejoined the by then regularised column. After the defeat of the republic he crossed into France, served in labor companies & fought in the French resistance from 1942 on in the Ponzán group. (he was a confidant of Ponzán) & was in touch with the anti-Franco action groups. After the Germans were driven out, he moved to Mexico where he remained until his belated return to Spain. Author of: El consejo revolucionario de Aragón (Barcelona 1977), La revolución española nace del espíritu del pueblo (Paris 1945) & La España de mañana (Mexico 1967).

    Juan Zafón

  • ZAFÓN BAYO, Juan.
    (1911-1977) Spanish CNT member, fought with the Ortiz Column. Fought in the French resistance in the Ponzán group; in touch with the anti-Franco action groups. Moved to Mexico until his belated return to Spain. Author of 3 books.

    http://www.christiebooks.com/PDFs/Encyclopedia1.pdf


    1949 -- CHRISTIE indexed name

    INDEXED:

    72. LORENZO ASPERILLA, Anselmo. Toledo 1841-Barcelona 1914.
    ADDED TO ENCYCLOPEDIA JULY 2003; TEXT REMAINS IN BLEED FOR REFERENCE

    Left his native city at an early age for Madrid; in 1852 he was working in a locksmith’s but by 1855 he was an apprentice compositor & taking an interest in the activities of Pi y Margall (especially in 1860).

    A member of the Fomento de las Artes from 1863, he attended night classes there and, two years later, heard the Proudhonist lectures by Serrano Oteiza. He greeted the 1868 revolution with delight & the following year was in Fanelli’s audience, at which point he severed his contacts with English protestant clerics & committed himself to championing the principles of the recently-established International. A founder member of the International’s Madrid section, he attended the first labor congress (Barcelona 1870) & was elected by it to serve on the federal council it established. He had a hand in all of the Madrid section’s activities & in 1871 travelled to Lisbon with Mora & González Morago (founding the Portuguese section); on his return from Lisbon the Valencia Conference chose him as its delegate to the London gathering of the IWMA; from which he returned disappointed. He served on the FRE’s second federal council & when the FRE was banned by Sagasta, he was to the fore in keeping it alive clandestinely (he toured Andalusia setting up the Defensores de la Internacional). Lafargue’s presence in Madrid made an impact: Mesa & Mora were won over to marxism & Anselmo Lorenzo partly so, resulting in Lorenzo’s being looked at askance & criticised, so he resigned his posts & moved north (to Vitoria, Bilbao) & thence to France (in 1873 he was in Montpellier, Bordeaux & Marseilles).

    In June 1874 he arrived in Barcelona to a warm welcome from Farga Pellicer, Llunas & García Viñas, which encouraged him to resume his activity on behalf of the International, until certain misunderstandings arose: in 1881 Lorenzo was expelled from the FRE & chose to hold aloof until 1885-86. When he resumed his activity, we find him attending the Reus symposium & on the editorial team of Acracia. In the years that followed he was a regular contributor to the labor & anarchist press, & he published numerous pamphlets & set up a newspaper (Ciencia Social, 1895). Arrested in 1896 (in connection with the Cambios Nuevos episode) he was banished (after seven months in prison); he served his banishment in Paris (as proof-reader for a publishing house) & knew Malato, Jean Grave & Ferrer.

    When Ferrer embarked upon his educational & publishing ventures, Anselmo Lorenzo was an essential piece of the jigsaw as his translator & editor (of La Huelga General), as well as of the nascent Solidaridad Obrera (newspaper & federation alike). The arrest of Ferrer led to Lorenzo’s being detained & he was banished to Alcañiz (1909-11).

    His final years, when he had become anarchism’s patriarch, were spent writing & lecturing. He wrote for countless newspapers including La Solidaridad, Solidaridad Obrera, El Productor, La Revista Blanca, Tierra y Libertad, El Porvenir del Obrero, Natura, La Idea Libre, Los Desheredados, El Corsario, El Protesta, La Anarquía,Tiempos Nuevos, El Trabajo, etc., as well as helping with the compilation of Farga’s work on Garibaldi.

    Author of: Acracia o república (Sabadell 1886), Fuera política (Sabadell 1886), El Proletariado Militante (Barcelona 1903, 1903), Justo Vives (Barcelona 1893), El Estado (Barcelona 1895), Las Olimpiadas de la Paz (Madrid 1900), El Hombre y la Sociedad (Barcelona 1902), Criterio Libertario (Barcelona 1903), Vía Libre (Barcelona 1905), Biografía de P. Kropotkin (Barcelona 1905), Incapacidad Progresiva de la Burguesía (Mahón 1905, credited to Lorenzo), El Obrero Moderno (Barcelona 1905), El Proletariado y la Humanidad (Barcelona 1914) El Pueblo (Valencia 1900), El Proletariado en Marcha / MARCH (New York 1911), El Poseedor Romano (Barcelona 1910), El Banquete de la Vida (Barcelona 1905), El Derecho a la Evolución (Buenos Aires 1928), El Proletariado Emancipador (Barcelona 1911), El Patrimonio Universal (Mahón 1905), Rémora Societaria (Sabadell 1905), Generalidades Sociales (Barcelona 1916), Vida Anarquista (Barcelona 1912), Hacia la Emancipación (Mahón 1913), Anarquía Triunfante (1871, credited), Contra la Ignorancia (1913), La Ganancia (Mahón 1904), Solidaridad (Barcelona 1909), El Trabajo de Mujeres y Niños (Madrid 1900), Evolución Proletaria (Barcelona 1914), La Revolución es la Paz, Capacidad Revolucionaria del Proletariado, La Procreación Humana (all three for the Second Certamen in Barcelona in 1890), El Sindicalismo, El Derecho a la Salud, A la Masa Popular & Ferrer Guardia Anarquista. In addition he translated Reclus, Malato, Kropotkin, Jean Grave, Pouget Blonch & others.

    http://www.christiebooks.com/PDFs/Encyclopedia1.pdf


    1949 -- CHRISTIE indexed name

    INDEXED: CHRISTIE

    *********INDEXED*********** 75. NOJA RUIZ, Higinio. Nerva (Huelva) 1896-Valencia 1972.
    Higinio Noja

  • NOJA RUIZ, Higinio.
    (1896-1972) Spanish Cenetista-FAI member, journalist, historian, novelist, tireless militant primarily in & around Valencia.

    Tireless militant whose activity essentially took place in & around Valencia. His first job was in the copper mines Huelva & early one he turned to anarchism, steadfastly spreading this belief from village to village: by the age of 21 he was already enjoying a good reputation in anarchist & CNT circles. Having educated himself from miner into teacher & educationist, he eventually acquired considerable expertise in economics. A redoubtable public speaker, he frequently debated against socialists (as in Herrera) and, on the famous 1918 tour (along with Cabello & Alonso) he helped spread anarchism through the sierras around Córdoba, & he displayed his mastery of the public platform again in Barcelona in 1937. In the late 1920s he moved from Andalusia to Valencia which is where he would be active from then on, with growing prestige: from 1910 to 1934 he worked as a rationalist teacher in Alginet & then moved into the capital of Levante where he became an important contributor to the review Estudios & made contact with Cívera (which may well be the source of the great interest he displayed during that time in economic & trade union affairs). & he was a prominent militant as a faísta too: his presence at the foundation conference of the FAI in Valencia in 1927 has been noted, as it was at the 1933 plenum where he was assigned to working party drafting a resolution on the concept of libertarian communism. During the civil war, he served on the Valencia economic council (on the basis of the reputation he had earned in the previous years with his contributions to Estudios & his controversies with Puente). In his journalistic capacity, he ran Vía Libre (Huelva 1918), & as a literary & socially-conscious writer, he enjoyed some repute (even in his time in Andalusia, he had, together with C. Díaz & Aquilino Medina published pamphlets in the Biblioteca Renovación Proletaria de Pueblonuevo del Terrible series). Author of: La Revolución Actual Española. Labor Constructiva en el Campo (Valencia 1937), Hacia una Nueva Organización Social (Valencia 1933, an anthology of articles from Estudios), La Libertad y la Nueva Construcción Española (Valencia 1932), La Obra Constructive de la Revolución (Barcelona 1937), Los Consejos de Economía Confederal (Valencia, no date), La Revolución Española. Hacia una Sociedad de Trabajadores Libres (Valencia, no date), El Problema Agrario en España (Barcelona 1933), Por la Enseñanza. Conferencia (Barcelona 1915?), La Palanca de Arquímedes (Seville 1923), Comunismo (Córdoba 1925), Los Galeotes del Amor (1927), Los Sombríos (1933), La que Supo Vivir su Amor (1928), Como el Caballo de Atila (1931), Un Puente sobre el Abismo (Barcelona 1931) (these last five titles represent novels in which the protagonists espouse libertarian ideals) & El Sendero Luminoso y Sangriento (Valencia 1932, essays). He also contributed towards the collective work España: Su Lucha y Sus Ideales (Buenos Aires 1937). He argued the case for the biological necessity for social change such as he thought libertarian communism offered & was optimistic about the chances of its becoming a reality. Also credited with authorship of El Arte en la Revolución (Barcelona 1937).

    http://www.christiebooks.com/PDFs/Encyclopedia1.pdf


    1949 -- septiembre Stuart Christie HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SPANISH ANARCHISM A Historical Encyclopaedia of Spanish Anarchism by Miguel Iñiguez

    indexed :

    239. PRESENCIA
    "Presencia"

  • "Presencia".
    (1965-68) Spanish libertarian publication, Paris. “Tribuna libertaria juvenil”. Quickly gained prestige in France & Spain for its revamping, but orthodox, line. Welcomed debate with Marxism & dealt with violent tactics, the collaborationism of 1936, the propriety or otherwise of joining the incipient workers' commissions in Spain. Connected with Alberola, Pascual & Mera. A second, unsuccessful series appeared in 1973, toeing the Frente Libertario line.

    Spanish libertarian publication, Paris. “Tribuna libertaria juvenil”. Quickly gained prestige in France & Spain for its revamping, but orthodox, line. It welcomed debate with marxism & dealt with violent tactics, the collaborationism of 1936, the propriety or otherwise of joining the incipient workers' commissions in Spain.. Very much connected with Alberola, Pascual & Mera. There was a second, unsuccessful, series in 1973, toeing the Frente Libertario line.

    http://www.christiebooks.com/PDFs/Encyclopedia1.pdf


    ?
    1950 --



    1968 -- NEW ; need to do REFERENCE PAGE, THEN ADD VARIOUS LINKS FROM RELATED DATES IN THE BLEED On July 22, 1968, two rival groups of male adolescent students fought each other in the Ciudadela neighbourhood of Mexico City; the next day the city government responded by sending policemen to stop the accompanying vandalism & to arrest the perpetrators. These riot police (granaderos) attacked the students so ferociously that protests were lodged. No one could have foreseen that both of these testosterone-driven events were the opening scene of the drama of the 1968 University-State conflict which climaxed in the Tlatelolco massacre. On October 2nd of that same year, Mexican government forces fired upon a large crowd gathered in the Tlatelolco plaza, _______________ Mexico: On SEPTEMBER 21, 1,000 police attacked Voca (Vocational) 7, a high school within Tlatelolco. Students held them off in a fierce battle in which police set fire to two buildings, fired round after round of gunfire into the school, and launched clouds of tear gas into apartments. On SEPTEMBER 21, 1,000 police attacked Voca (Vocational) 7, a high school within Tlatelolco. Students held them off in a fierce battle in which police set fire to two buildings, fired round after round of gunfire into the school, and launched clouds of tear gas into apartments. Tlatelolco housewives spent that night boiling water to throw out the windows onto soldiers or hunting for rags, bottles, & fuel to make molotov cocktails for the students. Children lined the roofs aiming rocks & sticks on the uniforms below. Hundreds of youth from Vocas in surrounding poor barrios broke through the police cordon by blowing up police cars. Newspapers reported that "gangster youth" from Tepito also joined with the student fighters. Even after calling in reinforcements from the army, the security forces were often driven back. They finally gave up at 2 a.m. A baby girl & at least three students were killed & many hundreds arrested during this battle. Twenty granaderos (antiriot police) were injured. Four more were shot--one fatally--by an army lieutenant who saw them beating his mother. _________ The police seized Voca 7 two days later in a fierce exchange of gunfire. In response, a woman representative of Tlatelolco residents called for a rent strike, to continue as long as the student conflict did. _____________ On SEPTEMBER 24-25 a similar but even more ferocious battle pitted 1,500 police & soldiers against up to 2,000 students at the Casco de Santo Tomás vocational school near the refinery district. The students, some armed, barricaded the neighborhood, cut trenches, set up a command post & runners, & fortified themselves on rooftops. The Washington Post reported that students commandeered an oil truck to firebomb police cars & that perhaps 15 students were killed. ______________ Oct 2 At 6:10 p.m. On the evening of that fateful October 2, 10,000 students & residents filled the Plaza. Almost every rally in the previous two weeks had been broken up by police, with up to 1,000 arrests a day. Many more residents leaned out from their windows. Speakers had told the crowd that a planned march on the Casco de Santo Tomás campus would be canceled to avoid "provoking" a fight & that the rally was about to end. But the government didn't need an excuse to launch what it had planned as a show of ruthless power. About 300 tanks, jeeps, & armored cars, 5,000 soldiers, & hundreds of police had crept up to surround the Plaza. At 6:10 p.m. green signal flares burst in the sky. Police helicopters opened fire from the sky. Immediately the undercover Olympia Battalion (elite police in charge of security for the Olympics) seized speakers from the CNH (National Strike Council, the leadership of the student strike movement) on a balcony of the Chihuahua apartment building. The police beat the CNH speakers & forced many into the line of fire. http://rwor.org/a/v20/970-79/976/mexpt2.htm
    http://www.eiu.edu/~historia/1999/mexico99.htm http://historicaltextarchive.com/sections.php?op=viewarticle&artid=161

    ?
    1977 -- san francisco International Hotel http://fusion.sims.berkeley.edu/lcush/


    1987 -- História do Movimento Anarquista no Brasil AGOSTO 1903
    "História do Movimento Anarquista no Brasil,", by Edgar Rodrigues
    O alerta vinha do Comitê Antifascista
    Libertário e tinha a data de agosto de 1933.

    Sacado del ARQUIVO DE HISTÓRIA SOCIAL de Edgar Rodrigues

    Com 8.511.965 km² e uma população de cerca de 160 milhões de habitantes, "encontrado pelos navegadores portugueses em 1500", colonizado à força de chicotadas e da decepação de pares de orelhas com as mãos dos capitães do mato", cresceu pela força do trabalho escravo, como os demais países "descobertos" por espanhóis, italianos, holandeses, franceses, ingleses e outros.

    A questão social começou quando uns poucos figurões alugaram e compraram braços humanos para desbravar a terra, abrir estradas, construir pontes, moradias, carruagens e tudo o mais capaz de proporcionar uma vida confortável aos comandantes da miséria e do progresso do Brasil.

    Nos quase 500 anos de história aconteceu de tudo um pouco: compra e venda de gente como nós nos leilões em praça pública, uso de escravos novos para reproduzir filhos (mão-de-obra com pouco custo e nenhum risco) com escravas sadias, trabalho pela comida, trapaças para tomar terras férteis aos nativos, prisões, espancamentos a gosto dos patrões e tudo o mais que o cérebro humano é capaz de imaginar para dominar seus semelhantes. E eram todos boas almas tementes a Deus...

    A opressão seguiu-se às fugas e à formação dos quilombos, o mais importante foi instalado em Palmares (1602-1695), resistiu quase um século, teve 20 mil habitantes vivendo em comunidade sem leis nem amos. Zumbi e seus companheiros anteciaparam-se a Tiradentes dois séculos tentando formar uma nação dentro do Brasil.

    Independente em 1822, no grito do português Pedro I (4º de Portugal), o Brasil foi palco de muitas fugas e revoltas populares: a Setembrada e a Novembrada (1831); Levante de Ouro Preto (1833); a Sabinada (1837); a Balaiada (1838); a Cabanagem (1835-1840); a Guerra dos Farrapos (1835-1845); a Revolução Liberal (1842); a Revolução Praieira e a Proclamação da República em 1889.

    Pouco antes (13 de maio de 1888) havia sido promulgada a Lei Áurea acabando com a prática de comprar e vender gente.

    A rebeldia iniciada na contramão pretendia mudar a prática patronal, surrada, vergonhosa, anti-humana!

    Do velho mundo chegavam as idéias revolucionárias de navio, em livros publicados na Europa. Entravam pelos portos do Rio de Janeiro, de Santos, atravessavam as fronteiras invadindo o Brasil um pouco na cabeça de cada imigrante que vinha em busca de liberdade e de terra fértil para semear o anarquismo.

    Nas duas últimas décadas do século 19 alguns jovens brasileiros foram estudar na França e em Portugal e lá souberam das idéias libertárias. Outros estudaram no Brasil mesmo e encontraram livros de Kropotkine nas livrarias e na leitura respostas para suas inquietações.

    É dessa época Manuel de Mendonça, autor da novela social "Regeneração".

    O médico e higienista Fábio Luz encontrou na Bahia Palavras de um Revoltado, de Kropotkine, leu essa revolucionária obra e tornou-se anarquista. Escreveu e publicou Ideólogos e Os Emancipados, duas obras libertárias do início do século 20, sendo desde então considerados os primeiros escritores brasileiros a tratar da questão social no romance.

    Aos dois intelectuais anarquistas juntaram-se Elísio de Carvalho, o estudante de medicina J. Martins Fontes, Pedro do Couto, Rocha Pombo, Pausilipode da Fonseca, João Gonçalves da Silva e Maximino Maciel, formando o grupo que publicou, no Rio de Janeiro, mais adiante, a revista Kurtur, e fundaram a Universidade Popular, em 1904, duas iniciativas anarquistas.

    Avelino Foscolo, começou em Minas Gerais, Reinaldo Frederico Greyer, no Rio Grande do Sul, Ricardo Gonçalves (tem uma rua com seu nome em São Paulo), Benjamin Mota, Edgard Edgard Leuenroth e João Penteado, em São Paulo; Orlando Corrêa Lopes, Francisco Viotti, Domingos Ribeiro Filho, Lima Barreto e José Oiticica, no Rio de Janeiro. De Portugal chegou Neno Vasco, um ilustre advogado, fez escola como anarquista em São Paulo (1901-1911), entre outros responsáveis pela sementeira anarquista no território brasileiro.

    Em 1890 chegaram da Itália Giovani Rossi e seus companheiros para fundar a Colônia Cecília no Paraná.

    A São Paulo, Guararema, chegou o italiano Artur Campagnoli e aos poucos Gigi Damiani, Alexandre Cherchiai, Oresti Ristori, Frederico Kniestedt, valorosos militantes italianos e de outros países que, depois de dar um salto no escuro para se ajustar ao clima tropical, às formas de trabalho, aos costumes, à alimentação, ainda tiveram que aprender o idioma português. A única coisa que pouco diferenciava o Brasil da Europa era a questão social, a exploração do homem pelo homem.

    Lícito é destacar que o motor de propulsão do movimento anarquista no Brasil veio da Itália, foram os imigrantes deste país que sacudiram e agitaram com maior intensidade a questão social, as reivindicações e começaram uma propaganda sistemática do anarquismo e do anarco-sindicalismo. Em idioma italiano ou em português, publicaram dezenas de jornais, fizeram centenas de palestras, realizaram espetáculos teatrais com peças revolucionárias e por isso muitos foram presos, expulsos e outros tiveram de mudar de atividades para se esconder, embora uns poucos também tenham melhorado de vida e abandonado as idéias.

    Dessa sementeira que envolveu em primeiro plano os italianos, seguidos e apoiados por portugueses, brasileiros, espanhóis e outros, circularam pelo Brasil mais de uma centena de jornais e revistas (entenda-se títulos) anarquistas e anarco-sindicalistas, sendo quatro diários; fundaram e dirigiram escolas de ensino racionalista, formaram grupos de teatro e representaram mais de uma centena de peças libertárias e anticlericais, fizeram comícios públicos contra a guerra, o serviço militar obrigatório, reduziram a jornada de trabalho (quando chegaram oscilava entre 16 e 10 horas diárias), bateram-se pela higiene e segurança no trabalho, por uma infinidade de melhorias tornando o trabalho menos penoso para o proletariado do Brasil. Mais de um milhar foram expulsos com a roupa do corpo acusados de agitadores estrangeiros, umas dezenas morreram lutando com a polícia. O primeiro anarquista assassinado foi o italiano Polenice Mattei, em São Paulo, no dia 20 de SETEMBRO / SEPTEMBER de 1898.

    Para se entender a trajetória do anarquismo no Brasil, confundido com o movimento sindicalista revolucionário ou anarco-sindicalista, é preciso definir ainda resumidamente o que os distingue e por que se confundem.

    Movimento Anarquista: ação de grupos anarquistas, em conjunto ou separadamente, composto por células orgânicas, comunas, grupos, centros de estudos, uniões e federações.

    O movimento anarquista não é exclusivamente uma organização de operários para operários, é ação de indivíduos que se opõem e dão combate ao capitalismo, almejando a derrocada do Estado e a reconstrução de uma Nova Ordem Social, descentralizada horizontalmente, autogestionária. Não é a revolta dos estômagos, é a revolução das consciências! O Movimento Anarquista não se firma na luta de classes ou pretende instalar os governados no lugar dos governantes, seus fins são de acabar com as classes, tornar o homem irmão do homem, independente de cor, idade ou sexo. Não visualiza a igualdade metafísica ou de tamanho, força, necessidades, quer a igualdade de possibilidades, de direito e deveres para todos.

    Anarco-Sindicalismo: corrente sindicalista, assim chamada a partir da cisão provocada no 5º Congresso da AIT (Primeira Internacional dos Trabalhadores), em Haia, no ano de 1872, adotada pela maioria dos operários do Brasil até a implantação dos sindicatos fascistas pelo Estado Novo de Vargas, em 1930.

    O anarco-sindicalismo é ao mesmo tempo uma doutrina e um método de luta.

    Como doutrina, parte do trabalhador, célula componente da sociedade que pretende aperfeiçoar e desenvolver. Como método de luta, pretende a anulação do sistema capitalista pela ação direta, pela greve geral revolucionária e a substituição por uma sociedade gerida por trabalhadores em autogestão. Sua força reside no conjunto de organizações operárias (sindicatos, uniões e federações) voluntárias, livremente associadas.

    A diferença entre sindicalismo e anarquismo consiste nos métodos e alcance. O movimento anarquista é de indivíduos, pretende torná-los unidades ativas, independentes, capazes de produzir e gerenciar em autogestão, sem as muletas políticas, religiosas, sem chefes: vai até onde a liberdade e a inteligência o possa levar. O sindicalismo é um movimento de operários (inclusive de ofícios vários), voltado mais para a gerência da produção e do consumo. Seu espaço é limitado, materialista, sem a dimensão e o alcance de filosofia de vida do anarquismo.

    Bolchevismo: Variedade de socialismo. Doutrina política dos democratas russos que desejavam a aplicação integral do programa máximo de Lenin e Plekhanov. É empregado também como sinônimo do comunismo e do marxismo. Nasceu em agosto de 1903, durante o 2º Congresso do Partido Social Democrata Russo, iniciado em Bruxelas e terminado em Londres. Chegou ao Brasil depois da Revolução Russa de 1917, ganhando corpo com a formação do PCB em 1922. Disputou com os anarco-sindicalistas a supremacia dos sindicatos, transformando-se desde então num sério opositor aos movimentos anarquista e sindicalista.

    Revendo a caminhada histórica do movimento libertário brasileiro, descobre-se que andaram pelo Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná, Santa Catarina, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo socialistas da escola de Fourier, Garibaldines, Maria Baderna da escola de Mazini; anarquistas adeptos de Proudhon e Bakunin e revolucionários da Comuna de Paris chegados clandestinamente ao Brasil em busca de asilo político.

    Para o autor a história do anarquismo em terras brasileiras começou a ser escrita efetivamente em 1888 com a chegada de Artur Campagnoli. Foi este bravo militante italiano, artista joalheiro, falecido em 1944 em São Paulo, quem teve o mérito de fincar o mais visível e incontestável marco anarquista no Brasil. Chegou a São Paulo em 1888, comprou uma área de terra considerada improdutiva e fundou a Colônia Anarquista de Guararema , com ajuda de libertários russos, franceses, espanhóis, italianos (a maioria) e nas décadas de 20 e 30 teve a colaboração de brasileiros. Dois anos mais tarde veio o engenheiro agrônomo Giovani Rossi e cerca de 200 imigrantes da Itália, em duas levas, para fundar a Colônia Cecília no Paraná. Esta experiência ácrata resistiu de 1890 a 1894 às investidas do governo da República, que acabava de implantar-se no Brasil. Asfixiada por cobranças de impostos indevidos, pelas invasões militares, os mais resistentes esperaram a expulsão, radicando-se nas imediações para olhar de longe a palmeira onde por quatro anos tremulou a bandeira preta e vermelha do Anarquismo.

    São desta mesma época os periódicos ácratas: Ghi Schiavi Bianchi, São Paulo, 1892, em idioma italiano e tendo como diretor Gallileu Botti; L'Avenire, São Paulo, 1893, em italiano e português; Il Risveglio, São Paulo, 1893, em italiano.

    O Libertário, em português, saiu em 1898, em São Paulo, sob a direção de Benjamim Mota; O Despertar, Rio de Janeiro, em 1898, sob a direção de José Sarmento Marques, e em janeiro do mesmo ano de 1898 realizou-se o Primeiro Congresso Operário no Rio Grande do Sul com a participação de dois centros anarquistas. Em 20 de SETEMBRO / SEPTEMBER foi assassinado Polenice Mattei, o primeiro mártir do anarquismo, em São Paulo, Brasil.

    Em mais de cem anos, o movimento anarquista do Brasil sofreu inúmeros revezes. Chegou a contar com o apoio de quatro diários, dezenas de semanários, mensários, bimensários e periódicos. Atravessou fases dificílimas sem nenhum porta-voz nem poder reunir seus militantes.

    Nesse mesmo período foram publicados alguns livros e folhetos, a maioria por iniciativa de grupos libertários que se cotizavam para angariar recursos com os quais custeavam edições. As obras clássicas foram lançadas por editoras comerciais. Somado o esforço dos libertários às iniciativas dos livreiros, o número de títulos de livros publicados em terras brasileiras pouco excede as duas dezenas até 1960.

    Em 1964 chegou a ditadura militar e com ela um frutífero período de grande efervescência editorial de obras libertárias. Paralelamente à repressão, escritores e editoras afrontaram a ditadura na década de maior repressão (1970-1980), prosseguiu durante a varrida do entulho autoritário, entrando na "nova-velha república" pesquisando e publicando livros ácratas.

    O anarco-sindicalismo e o anarquismo caminharam no Brasil muito entrelaçados enquanto movimento. Sua distinção era notada na imprensa.

    Mais preocupados com a ideologia, os anarquistas desenvolviam um trabalho educativo. Viam no elemento humano a "peça" mais importante a preparar, tanto no terreno profissional quanto no cultural, a fim de que cada militante fosse capaz de se autogerir sem muletas religiosas, patronais ou policiais. Colocava sempre os cérebros acima dos estômagos.

    Com estes objetivos os anarquistas fundaram escolas livres, universidades populares, grupos de teatro social, desenvolveram intensa propaganda educativa, sociológica, de cultura geral, libertária.

    Nas duas primeiras décadas do século 20 promoveram manifestações estrondosas na defesa do fundador da Escola Moderna, Francisco Ferrer y Guardia, e de companheiros presos, torturados e expulsos do Brasil. Apoiaram e ajudaram os trabalhadores russos quando da revolta de 1905, os mexicanos em 1910, os russos em 1917, reverenciavam os Mártires de Chicago, no dia 1º de maio, e não esqueciam as vítimas do capitalismo selvagem no Brasil e no mundo.

    Durante a guerra de 1914-1918, os libertários brasileiros atuavam em diversas frentes, em nível de Brasil: contra o desemprego, o aumento do custo de vida, a escassez de alimentos de primeira necessidade, combatiam a burguesia açambarcadora, o clero corruptor das mentes, o Estado "pai de todos", que garantia inclusive a carnificina humana nos campos de batalha.

    Para minimizar a fome, o governo, pressionado pelo proletariado libertário que fazia comícios nas portas das fábricas, autorizou a venda de gêneros diretamente do produtor ao consumidor (processo hoje conhecido como feiras livres, um pouco mudado) sem taxação de impostos.

    Em nível internacional realizaram o Congresso Pró Paz, no Rio de Janeiro, e enviaram três delegados ao Congresso realizado no Ateneu Sindicalista do Ferrol, em 1915, dissolvido aos tiros pelo governo espanhol.

    O que aconteceu com os representantes do movimento anarquista brasileiro aparece no seguinte texto:

    "Realizou-se na quarta-feira à tarde, no largo de S. Francisco, um comício convocado pela Comissão Popular de Agitação Contra a Guerra formado de representantes de várias agremiações operárias daquela cidade.

    Abriu o meeting às 5 horas e pouco João Gonçalves da Silva, que explicou os fins do mesmo, que era protestar principalmente contra a proibição feita pelo governo espanhol à reunião do Congresso Internacional Pró Paz de Ferrol.

    Seguiram-se com a palavra José Elias da Silva e Dr. Orlando Corrêa Lopes, atacando os governos da Europa e mostrando que o proletariado é o único a sofrer com a conflagração, devendo ele, portanto, rebelar-se contra e esforçar-se por lhe pôr um paradeiro.

    Falou depois a operária Juana Buela, companheira de João Castanheira, o operário vítima da sanha da polícia de Espanha. Profundamente emocionada Juana Buela, que leu o seu discurso, proclamou bem alto e bem firme os seus ideais revolucionários, que não esmoreceram com a morte daquele que foi o seu companheiro de vida, antes mais se arraigam e mais se acentuam."

    Por fim, Leal Júnior, usou da palavra encerrando o comício com a seguinte moção de protesto:

    "Considerando que o direito de reunião e livre manifestação do pensamento é um direito primordial conquistado, adquirido e reconhecido em todo o mundo civilizado e;

    Considerando que o Congresso Internacional Pró Paz convocado pelos elementos proletários e revolucionários de Ferrol, Espanha, e tendo por fim combinar uma ação conjunta dos proletários da Europa e da América no sentido de uma afirmação positiva e concreta contrária à guerra e favorável ao estabelecimento de uma paz real baseada na solidariedade efetiva desse proletariado, colimava um escopo altamente humanitário e de verdadeira defesa da civilização;

    A massa popular reunida em comício organizado pela Comissão Popular de Agitação Contra a Guerra e realizado no Largo de S. Francisco de Paula, às 5 horas da tarde de hoje, deixa firmadas nesta moção as expressões de seu indignado protesto contra o ato do governo espanhol, proibindo aquele Congresso, perseguindo e deportando os delegados ao mesmo idos de outros países e assassinando, pelo instrumento da sua política, um dos delegados enviados por associações proletárias e libertárias do Brasil, o operário João Castanheira, como consta dos telegramas publicados pela imprensa desta cidade.

    Rio de Janeiro, 12 de maio de 1915"

    O comício do Rio de Janeiro terminou com grande passeata na frente da Federação Operária, no antigo Largo do Capim. Sucederam-lhe manifestações dos libertários do Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul e de diversas cidades do Estado de São Paulo. Os jornais operários e anarquistas também atacaram de rijo os beligerantes, inclusive distribuindo postais com alegorias de repulsa à guerra, produzindo grande impacto ao longo dos quatro anos em todo o Brasil.

    São Paulo foi palco de greves insurrecionais em 1906 e 1907 pela conquista da jornada de oito horas diárias; em Santos as greves para conseguir as oito horas só terminaram em 1921.

    O proletariado de tendência libertária procurava abrir caminho na selva capitalista deflagrando greves que vieram a desembocar na insurrecional de 1917, nos estados de São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul e Paraná, por solidariedade.

    Em 1918, movimento insurrecional explodiu no Rio de Janeiro com um saldo de três operários assassinados pela polícia carioca e cerca de meia centena de presos e deportados. Em 1919, Epitácio Pessoa aproveitou para expulsar do país três dezenas de anarquistas.

    Contrariando as expectativas do governo, que acreditava que com as expulsões e deportações reduzia a pujança do movimento libertário, ainda em 1919, formou-se o Partido Comunista do Brasil, de que logo se arrependeriam seus organizadores ao saber que o governo soviético prendia, torturava, matava e expulsava anarquistas que haviam ajudado a derrubar a dinastia dos Romanov.

    A burguesia vivia apavorada, exigia respostas imediatas aos "desordeiros..."

    Uma onda nacionalista começava a formar-se no Brasil em oposição às "esquerdas". Em 1920 são expulsos do Rio de Janeiro mais de dois mil portugueses, pescadores de Matosinhos e da Póvoa de Varzim, vítimas desse patriotismo brasileiro. Muitos haviam chegado ao Brasil adolescentes, casados e já tinham filhos nascidos no Rio de Janeiro. O único pecado desses trabalhadores do mar era não quererem naturalizar-se brasileiros.

    Uma lei vesga proibia-os de exercer suas profissões, acabando por servir ao integralista capitão Frederico Vilar, para mandar de volta gente honrada, com o aval do presidente Epitácio Pessoa.

    Neste mesmo ano foram expulsos também anarquistas e anarco-sindicalistas italianos, portugueses, espanhóis, precipitando protestos de operários e intelectuais em todo o país e na Europa.

    No sul, alemães e russos anarquistas marcavam suas presenças em oposição aos seus patrícios que pretendiam ficar ricos e aos brasileiros xenófobos exploradores.

    Greve na indústria têxtil de Santa Catarina é o pretexto para expulsar dois anarquistas nascidos na Alemanha.

    Em Porto Alegre o anarquista alemão Frederico Kniestedt abre espaço com os jornais Der Freie Arbeiter, Aktion, Alarm e o Sindicalista, os três primeiros publicados em seu idioma e o último em português.

    Ainda no Sul, mais exatamente em Erebango, (Getúlio Vargas), fixaram residência e formaram uma comunidade várias famílias de russos da Ucrânia. Sua atuação anarquista é-nos contada por um dos seus componentes, Elias Iltchenco que visitamos já muito doente.

    "No ano de 1920 os emigrantes de Getúlio Vargas - ex-Erechim - já tinham condições emocionais e de locomoção e começaram a formar grupos coesos, a reunir-se uma vez por mês. Nosso grupo tinha mais de 40 membros espalhados numa área de 40 a 50 km, englobando grupos de Floresta, Erechim, Erebango e outros lugares.

    São dessa época:

    União dos Trabalhadores Rurais Russos, de Getúlio Vargas (antigo Erechim). Seu presidente chamava-se Sérgio Iltchenco, o secretário Paulo Uchacoff e o tesoureiro Simão Poluboiarinoff;

    União dos Trabalhadores Russos, de Porto Alegre. Esta tinha como presidente Niquista Jacobchenco;

    União dos Trabalhadores Rurais Russos de Guaraní, Campinas e Santo Ângelo. Componentes: João Tatarchenco, Gregório Tatarchenco e outros.

    União dos Trabalhadores Russos de Porto Lucena.

    Um dos mais ativos militantes russos no Rio Grande do Sul, distribuidor do jornal Golos Truda, publicado na América do Norte de 1911 a 1963, e de toda a propaganda escrita que chegava da Argentina, chamava-se Demétrio Cirotenco. Durante mais de duas dezenas de anos foi o mais importante elemento de ligação, o aglutinador das Uniões de Trabalhadores em Erechim e Erebango principalmente. Depois sofreu um acidente e morreu, deixando um vazio entre os camponeses russos, que só em 1925 perderam a esperança de ver implantada em seu país uma sociedade de fundo e forma libertária."

    O mais eminente elemento anarquista russo no Brasil, escritor, jornalista, teatrólogo, professor e conferencista carregava uma barba semelhante a de Kropotkine e chamava-se Ossef Stepanovetchi. Era natural da Ucrânia e marcou a sua presença no Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo e Curitiba-Paraná, onde faleceu.

    Os jornais mais lidos entre os emigrantes chegavam da Argentina, Canadá e dos Estados Unidos (Golos Truda) de 1918-1930; Golos Trujnica, de Detroit, de Nevada, Chicago e Nova Iorque, Dielo Trouda Probuzdenia.

    Na segunda e na terceira décadas do século 20 o movimento anarco-sindicalista e anarquista chegou ao seu ponto mais alto. Além, dos jornais libertários, alguns militantes dispunham de espaços diários na imprensa comercial. Um deles nascido em Portugal, José Marques da Costa, tinha uma coluna diária no jornal A Pátria, do Rio de Janeiro, e publicou a seguinte nota: "Camilo Berneri na reunião do grupo Os Emancipados. Sexta-feira próxima, na sua sede à rua Buenos Aires, 265, às 20 horas em ponto, os anarquistas, simpatizantes e trabalhadores em geral terão oportunidade de ouvir uma brilhante Conferência de Camillo Berneri, sobre Giordano Bruno na Philosofia e na Renascença-Vida e Pensamento do grande filósofo da liberdade.

    Entrada franca, tribuna livre

    Os Emancipados

    Da Rússia e da Itália chegavam também ao Brasil e fizeram grandes estragos no movimento libertário duas correntes políticas na época batizadas de Bolchevista e de Integralista.

    A primeira orientada pela Terceira Internacional e a Internacional Sindical Vermelha, com sede em Moscou, agia em nome da Ditadura do Proletariado, no seio do Partido Comunista Brasileiro, criado em março de 1922 por 11 egressos do movimento ácrata e um socialista. Começaram disputando a direção dos sindicatos e acabaram por ajudar os governos de Artur Bernardes, Washington Luiz e Getúlio Vargas a reduzir sensivelmente o movimento libertário e os sindicatos livres. Em 1927 assassinaram os anarquistas Antonino Dominguez e Damião da Silva e feriram mais de 10 militantes no Sindicato dos Gráficos, à rua Frei Caneca, 4, sobrado, Rio de Janeiro. Assaltaram e roubaram o acervo do Sindicato dos Trabalhadores em Calçados, à rua José Maurício, 41. Ajudaram assim a encher o Campo de Concentração do Oiapoque e a implantar a ditadura nazi-fascista no Brasil com seus sindicatos verticais, controlados pelo Ministério do Trabalho.

    A segunda corrente política veio dos porões do Vaticano com o nome de fascismo. No Brasil, por muitos anos, apelidado de Integralismo O projeto foi elaborado por D. Annunzio, Bertolotti, Papini e outros e tinha como "filosofia": "Poder tudo, absolutamente tudo! O único amor é o poder; o único fim é o poder; extremo sonho o poder!"

    No Brasil, o chefe, Plínio Salgado, e seu alto comando reuniam a fina-flor dos desordeiros dispostos a tudo fazer para derrubar o governo e chegar ao poder: era o candidato a ditador Plínio lutando contra o ditador Getúlio.

    Para Plínio, os decretos nº 19.433 de 26 de novembro de 1930; 19.770 de 19 de março de 1931 e 22.969 de 11 de ABRIL / APRIL 11 de 1933 obrigando os trabalhadores a aderirem às fileiras "sindicais do Ministério do Trabalho, tornando-os eleitores com representantes profissionais na Assembléia Nacional Constituinte, num total de 40 membros, sendo 18 representantes dos empregados, 17 dos empregadores, dois funcionários públicos e três profissionais liberais". Queriam copiar Mussolini totalmente.

    Vargas contava, para convencer os recalcitrantes, com a polícia política de Batista Luzardo, Felinto Müller, Emílio Romano, Serafim Braga e outros profissionais do argumento do cassetete.

    No Rio de Janeiro, o jornal O Primeiro de Maio, de 1933, denunciava: "Em um só xadrez da polícia acham-se presos 50 proletários, sem nota de culpa. Muitos deles sofreram castigos corporais por terem protestado com a greve de fome contra a alimentação que nem para os cães prestava."

    Em Porto Alegre, sob a orientação do anarquista Frederico Kniestedt, Aktion, de 1º de maio, fala das pretensões nazistas sobre o Brasil em idioma alemão. E no dia 19 de maio de 1933 um grupo armado invade a Federação Operária de São Paulo, arromba as portas das secretarias do Sindicato dos M. de Pão, Liga Operária da Construção Civil, Trabalhadores em Moinhos e Armazéns, União dos Canteiros e União dos Empregados em Cafés, destrói seus acervos e leva os detidos para a Central de Polícia, onde permanecem 24 horas. Quando chegaram o chefe de polícia e o delegado da "ordem política e social" determinaram que fossem em liberdade, que a ordem de prisão não partiu daquele departamento policial.

    Em 1933, os jornais A Lanterna, A Plebe e O Trabalhador, a Federação Operária, o Centro de Cultura Social e as Ligas Anticlericais viviam de prontidão para não serem surpreendidos pelas marchas integralistas.

    Em alguns bairros de São Paulo, os mensageiros do "Duce" trabalhavam desesperadamente no recrutamento dos "squadristi", que deviam envergar a camisa verde oliva e iniciar a matança, o incêndio e a destruição, fazendo reviver, em pleno século 20, a invasão dos bárbaros inimigos da ciência e da civilização.

    O alerta vinha do Comitê Antifascista Libertário e tinha a data de agosto de 1933.

    Os comandantes do Integralismo Brasileiro formavam pela seguinte ordem nos anos de 1933-1934: "Plínio Salgado (comandante nacional); Gustavo Barroso (vice-comandante e presidente da Academia Brasileira de Letras); Ribeiro Couto; 130 jornalistas do Distrito Federal que "assinaram o manifesto fascista dirigido aos intelectuais do Brasil". Ei-los: D. João Becker; Oswaldo Aranha (um dos comandantes da revolução getulista de 1930); Oliveira Viana (escritor); Madureira de Freitas, Osvaldo Chateaubriand (diretor do Diário da Noite); Tristão de Atayde (escritor e jornalista); Cláudio Ganns; Lourival Fontes; Hélio Viana; Américo Lacombe; Câmara Cascudo (escritor); os sacerdotes inscritos na Ação Integralista Don Nicolau de Flue Gut, os cônegos Matias Freire, Valfredo Gurgel, Helder Câmara, etc.; os professores da Faculdade de Direito Miguel Reale, Alpinolo Lopes Casali, Damião Neto, Domingos Cantola, Ângelo Simões de Arruda, Loureiro Júnior, Rolando Corbusier, Manuel Ferraz de Campos Salles Neto, Walter Moreira Sales, Homero de Sousa e Silva, Paulo Azevedo Barroso, Manuel Tavares da Silva, Guilherme Luis Riberio, Osvaldo de Sousa Shreiner, Antonio Arruda, Sebastião Martins de Macedo, Ziegler de Paula Bueno, Alcebíades Blanco, Ruiz de Arruda Camargo, Alfredo Buzaid, Ernani Silva Bruno, Epaminondas Albuquerque, Vicente Laporta, Sinval Gonçalves de Oliveira, Antonio Dourado, Alberto Zirondi Neto, Nicolino Amato, José de Barros Bernardes, Carlos Schmidt de Barros Júnior, Milton de Sousa Meireles, Agostinho Lúcio Correa, Arual Antonio dos Santos, Waldemiro Dalboni, Augusto de Oliveira Filho, Ítalo Záccaro, Vitório Nascimento, Cândido de Oliveira Barbosa, Francisco Luis de Almeida Sales, Francisco Gottardi, João José Pimenta de Castro, João Edson de Melo, José de Camargo Rocha, Rio Branco Paranhos, Júnio de Carvalho, José Cândido Silveira Lienert, Antenor Santini, Alceu Cordeiro Fernandes, Antonio Barbosa de Lima, José Vila do Conde e Ranulfo Oliveira Lima.

    Com objetivos bem definidos e sem tutores políticos, formava-se no Rio de Janeiro a Aliança Estudantil Pró-Liberdade de Pensamento, cujo manifesto de fundação, A Lanterna, semanário anticlerical e libertário, São Paulo, 9 de novembro de 1933, resume:

    "Companheiros

    O clero romano que sempre tem vivido aliado aos governantes, embora o artigo 72 da Constituição de 1891 e seus parágrafos estabeleçam em nosso território a liberdade de pensamento, neste instante prepara novos golpes contra o direito de pensar, agir e de orar."

    O A Plebe, quase ao findar do ano de 1933, alertava os antifascistas: "O Integralismo pretende, como o fascismo, escravizar e acorrentar o povo. Para não termos que chorar depois como energúmenos, defendamos agora a nossa liberdade como homens."

    "Já soou o clarim da redenção humana! Unamo-nos contra todas as guerras, contra todas as tiranias, contra todos os paliativos que nos apresentam. A nossa felicidade, a fraternidade, a liberdade, residem em nós mesmos, na força coesa que há-de triunfar."

    Em homenagem aos arruaceiros integralistas, o escritor Menotti del Picchia, candidato a "Duce", lança as bases do Fáscio Paulista com os Camisas Brancas.

    Em Niterói (A Plebe, de 2 de DEZEMBRO / DECEMBER de 1933), o presidente da Academia Brasileira de Letras, Gustavo Barroso, chefe integralista, atacou às bengaladas e quebrou um braço à jovem operária Nair Coelho, 16 anos, quando esta discursava contra os desordeiros fascistas, em cima de um banco de jardim e em Belo Horizonte; quem precisou fugir do Teatro Municipal foi o professor de línguas Casale. O povo, que assistia ao discurso do arruaceiro integralista, resolveu interrompê-lo, expulsar o vendilhão do palco.

    Em São Paulo, depois da derrota que tiveram no Salão Celso Garcia, o "bando de Plínio Salgado marcou para o dia 24 de DEZEMBRO / DECEMBER uma demonstração de força destinada a depredar os sindicatos e assassinar os sindicalistas mais ativos" (Nossa Voz, de 1º de dezembro de 1933): "Marchariam no centro de São Paulo 18 Centúrias (companhias) dispostas a exterminar canibalescamente os anarquistas e outros esquerdistas que se opusessem à sua passagem."

    O trabalhador anarco-sindicalista resistia às exigências do Ministério do Trabalho. Contra ele tinha os bolchevistas aderentes desde a primeira hora, os patrões, a polícia, os integralistas invasores de sindicatos operários, que segundo substancioso manifesto do Sindicato dos O. em Fábricas de Vidros de São Paulo, fevereiro de 1934, "naquele momento pleiteavam na Assembléia Constituinte a pena de morte para o Brasil!"

    Em março de 1934 a Federação Operária de São Paulo, com sede na rua Quintino Bocaiúva, 80, lançava três manifestos de grande significado. Um contra a Lei Monstro, outro contra a guerra e o terceiro em formato de encarte, enfocando as "organizações operárias, a legislação trabalhista, a lei de sindicalização, a caderneta profissional, a nova lei de férias, a nova Constituição e comunica as conferências de Edgard Edgard Leuenroth, Germinal Soler e Hermínio Marcos".

    Do Rio de Janeiro, sob o comando do acadêmico Gustavo Barroso, chegavam à Praça da Sé "500 guardas verdes de segurança", tropas de choque, treinados para imobilizar opositores. A polícia também montou metralhadoras em pontos estratégicos para coibir possíveis ataques aos integralistas, ainda "bem-vistos" pelo governo. Além do grande contigente policial, o coronel Arlindo de Oliveira tinha 400 homens do 1º, 2º e 6º Batalhões de Infantaria, do Corpo de Bombeiros e Regimento de Cavalaria no local.

    A parade de integralistas contava com a presença de 10 mil soldados do Sigma dentro de suas camisas verdes novinhas em folha empunhando grandes estandartes com o símbolo do integralismo.

    Nas imediações da Sé haviam começado a formar-se grandes agrupamentos de curiosos de todas as ideologias. E mal a coluna alcançou a escadaria da Catedral ouviram-se gritos de "morte ao fascismo", "Abaixo os Camisas Verdes" e em seguida tiros. Diz-se que foi uma metralhadora da Guarda Civil Montada, em frente à rua Senador, que ao ser movimentada disparou acidentalmente. Outros garantiam que os tiros foram disparados por comunistas que estariam no meio da multidão aguardando o desfile. O certo é que começou o tiroteio antes da hora marcada pelos libertários para atacar os integralistas, desencadeando-se uma correria infernal. Gente fugindo e gritando, outros caindo feridos mortalmente e a parada e o juramento de fidelidade ao comandante integralista, Dr. Plínio Salgado, Fuhrer brasileiro, não aconteceu.

    Correndo nas "estradas" abertas pelos integralistas com a colaboração dos "comunistas" do PCB e dos dirigentes do Partido Católico Brasileiro do Cardeal Sebastião Leme, assessorados por "50 juristas", Getúlio Vargas não teve maiores dificuldades em implantar o Estado Novo, que durou até 1945.


    Colaboraram para tornar possível a trajetória anarquista no Brasil: Fábio Luz, João Gonçalves da Silva, Avelino Foscolo, Ricardo Gonçalves, Benjamin Mota, José Martins Fontes, Ricardo Cipola, Rozendo dos Santos, Reinaldo Frederico Greyer, Pedro Augusto Mota, Moacir Caminha, José Ramón, Domingos Passos, João Perdigão Gutierrez, Florentino de Carvalho, Domingos Ribeiro Filho, Lima Barreto, Orlando Corrêa Lopes, Manuel Marques Bastos, José Puicegur, Diamantino Augusto, José Oiticica, José Romero, Edgard Leuenroth, Felipe Gil Sousa Passos, Pedro Catalo, João Penteado, Neno Vasco, Adelino Pinho, Giovanni Rossi, Gigi Damiani, Artur Campagnoli, José Marques da Costa, Rodolfo Felipe, Isabel Cerrutti, João Perez, Antonino Dominguez, Manuel Perez, Romualdo de Figueiredo, Juan Puig Elias, Maria Lacerda de Moura, Rafael Fernandes, Angelina Soares, Paula Soares, Elias Iltchenco, Frederico Kniestedt, Jesus Ribas, Cecílio Vilar, Oresti Ristori, Maria Lopes, Manuel Moscoso, Polidoro Santos, Amilcar dos Santos, Pedro Carneiro, Atílio Peçagna, Rudosindo Colmenero, Maria Silva, Maria Rodrigues, Pietro Ferrua, Pedro Ferreira da Silva, Câmara Pires, Ramiro de Nóbrega, Maria Valverde, José Simões, Manuel Lopes, Vitorino Trigo, Mariano Ferrer, Luisi Magrassi, Sofia Garrido, Joaquim Leal Junior, Lírio de Resende, Jaime Cubero e tantos outros intelectuais e operários a quem se homenageia, mesmo ausentes...



    excellent text on the anarquismo in Brazil: HISTORY OF THE ANARCHIST MOVEMENT IN BRAZIL Edgar Rodrigues
    [Source: Movimento Anarquista no Brasil]


  • Latin America pages at Anarchy Now, http://recollectionbooks.com/anow/world/la/

    http://www.galeon.com/ateneosant/Ateneo/Historia/Paises/ha-BRASIL.htm

    2006: After appearing & disappearing on the Internet for some years, this history now back online at http://www.nodo50.org/insurgentes/textos/brasil/02histmovimento.htm & many other sites


    http://recollectionbooks.com/bleed/ArchiveMirror/ArquivoDeHistóriaSocialEdgarRodrigues/BrasilAn.html

    1996 -- TO DO: need to resize imG for this date


    2000 --

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    EMPLATE TWO grew out of a comic strip I did in 1971 for an underground comic book: a three-page strip that was based on stories of my father’s & mother’s that I recalled being told a in childhood….In 1977 I decided to do [a] longer work,

    -From Oral History Journal, Spring 1987

     

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    2000 -- Cleveland Indians

    And yet as I left, my eye caught the faintest gleam of red, a Soviet remnant I first thought. But no, as I approached the umbrella stand off in the corner, peering out was a red felt cloth. As I looked closer, I couldn't recognize what was plain for me to see, so incongruous did it seem. But there it was: a crumpled old baseball pennant that read: Cleveland Indians.

    Even conventional biographies of Trotsky admit that he visited the U.S.: he was in New York briefly before returning to Russia for the revolution. But what connection could this, or anything else, have provided him to Cleveland & the Indians?


    http://www.corpse.org/issue_5/critical_urgencies/elias.htm

    2001 -- Saturday 29th SEPTEMBER All Anarkie Gorge & Nelsons Lookout Anarkie Gorge is in the northern section of the Brisbane Ranges National Park, west of Melbourne. The main feature of the walk is the old tunnels & pipelines built over 100 years ago for Geelong's water supply. After the walk up the valley we head up to Nelsons lookout with views to Port Philip Bay, Geelong & the Anakie Gorge itself.

    Celebrations covering four shires as follows: 18.4.01 Anarkie Bush Sports Day & mini gem fest from 10am to 5pm at the state school; Lighting of the virgin rock, opera in the outback & a dinner at Springsure golf club 6-12pm Venue address various covering four shires/Anarkie State School, Sprigsure Golf Club, Emerald Town Hall,Capella Civic centre (a bit scary, this one: Anarkie State School (!)) Town/City EMERALD Region QLD Fitzroy State/Territory Queensland

    http://www.centenary.gov.au/cgi-bin/events/D=calendar/V=event/R=qld1244/EV_OWNER=cof




    ?
    2002 -- Bruno Filippi

    Il tragico, sublime ed eroico sacrificio di Bruno Filippi [parte prima] La sera del 7 SETTEMBRE / SEPTEMBER 1919 una folla domenicale elegante, chiassosa e spendacciona gremiva, nel centro di Milano, la Galleria Vittorio Emanuele. I caffè erano pieni di gente, seduta in parte ai tavolini esterni e in parte nelle sale interne ad aspettare l'inizio dei concerti. Qualche minuto dopo le ore 21.00, mentre il direttore dell'orchestrina del Biffi stava per dare il la ai propri musicisti, un boato si ripercosse sotto le volte vetrate della galleria. Urlando e spingendo, la folla si gettò verso gli sbocchi della galleria. I tavolini esterni dei caffè, rovesciati nella fuga, trascinavano nella caduta tazze, piatti e bicchieri, che andavano rumorosamente in frantumi. Due o tre donne, travolte dalla folla atterrita, caddero a terra ferendosi sui cocci. "Lo scoppio era tale che i nostri vetri tremarono, come se stessero per cadere, e tutta la casa ebbe una scossa come di terremoto. In Galleria, poi, e in via Ugo Foscolo fu una tale fuga di gente terrorizzata che vi furono più feriti per cadute per terra che dai frantumi di vetri spezzati": così scrisse l'indomani in una lettera a Filippo Turati la sua compagna Anna Kuliscioff. Il boato, che in un primo momento aveva fatto pensare a uno scoppio prodotto da una fuga di gas, veniva dallo stabile all'angolo tra via Foscolo e uno dei bracci minori della galleria. Il pianterreno di questo edificio era occupato dal caffè-ristorante Biffi. L'ammezzato, oltre ai gabinetti e al guardaroba del ristorante, ospitava alcuni uffici. Al guardaroba del Biffi e a questi uffici si accedeva salendo una scala, la numero 8, in fondo al primo cortile del palazzo di via Foscolo 3. Questa scala portava, al piano nobile, alla sede del New Club, o Clubino, o Club dei Nobili: il ritrovo preferito, secondo la stampa dell'epoca, di molti e molto noti aristocratici e industriali lombardi. Lo scoppio, di notevole violenza, era avvenuto sul pianerottolo dell'ammezzato. Tre gradini della rampa di collegamento col piano superiore avevano ceduto ed erano piombati, a pezzi, nella tromba delle scale. Il muro e il pavimento presentavano larghi squarci. Le condutture dell'energia elettrica e del gas, due tubi di ferro e di ghisa, si erano spezzate di netto. Un principio di incendio, scoppiato nel guardaroba del ristorante, fu domato dai vigili del fuoco. Esclusa l'ipotesi di una fuga di gas, non restava che quella dell'attentato dinamitardo. Partendo da questo presupposto, l'ispettore reggente la questura, Giovanni Gasti, ordinò di frugare tra le macerie per vedere se ci fossero delle schegge di ferro o di acciaio. Per qualche tempo si cercò invano. La prima scoperta fu fatta, mezz'ora dopo l'esplosione, da uno dei pompieri che, alla luce delle lanterne, stavano sgombrando il pianerottolo. Ma non si trattava della bomba. Mentre il lavoro di sgombero ferveva, il pompiere vide una scarpa tra i calcinacci e notò, con orrore, che essa conteneva un piede umano fasciato da una "rozza calzetta" di colore bianco. Affrettate ricerche tra i detriti portarono alla luce, subito dopo, una mano o un braccio "con intorno i rimasugli di una stoffa turchina" (così riportò il "Corriere della sera" il giorno dopo), un pezzo di cuoio capelluto appiccicato al muro e altri resti umani. Più tardi, tra le macerie, un commissario di P.S. troverà anche l'otturatore contorto (o forse il caricatore) di una rivoltella Browning. Raccolti dai pompieri in una cesta, quei miseri resti vennero portati al cimitero monumentale, mentre si facevano le prime congetture sull'identità dell'unica vittima dell'attentato. Solo una cosa si poteva dire subito: il morto era povero, a giudicare dagli indumenti e dalle scarpe risuolate che portava, e dunque non poteva essere un frequentatore abituale ne' del Biffi ne' del Clubino. Scarsi progressi fecero le indagini la mattina dopo. Tre cartucce di rivoltella e due bossoli vuoti, appartenenti a un caricatore che poteva essere quello rinvenuto la sera prima tra i detriti, avvalorarono l'ipotesi che lo sconosciuto fosse armato. Ma il suo nome restava un mistero. Qualcuno, tuttavia, e precisamente il custode del New Club, era convinto di essersi trovato faccia a faccia con lui. "Era un giovanotto dimessamente vestito" dichiarò alla stampa "con un berretto a larga visiera nera, con un piccolo involto-pareva una cassettina-sotto il braccio". Lunedì pomeriggio, 8 SETTEMBRE / SEPTEMBER, un ragazzo di dicassette anni-Annunzio Filippi-denunciava alla questura la scomparsa del fratello Bruno, uscito la sera prima e mai più tornato a casa. Nell'elenco degli arrestati quel nome non c'era. Sorse allora il dubbio che lo scomparso potesse essere la misteriosa vittima della bomba. Nella camera mortuaria del cimitero monumentale al giovane Annunzio bastò un'occhiata alle scarpe del morto, alle quali aveva lui stesso, pochi giorni prima, rifatto i tacchi di gomma, per sapere che gli scarsi brandelli insanguinati raccolti in Galleria erano tutto ciò che restava di suo fratello. Il ritrovamento nella casa dei Filippi di un panciotto confezionato con un rigatino marrone identico a quello della giacca e dei calzoni trovati sui resti umani diede una precisa conferma al riconoscimento. "L'Avanti!" del 9 SETTEMBRE / SEPTEMBER così scriveva: "Bruno Filippi era ben conosciuto negli ambienti politici sovversivi come un idealista devoto alle proprie convinzioni e capace per esse di qualsiasi sacrificio. Nel periodo della neutralità, quando il partito socialista lottava disperatamente per contrastare il prevalere dell'interventismo, il Filippi militò con noi e in più di una contingenza lo vedemmo affrontare-in dimostrazioni non veramente pacifiche-le intolleranze irose dei nemici comuni". Nato a Livorno con il secolo nuovo, figlio di un operaio, operaio tipografo lui stesso, il maggiore di sei fratelli, Bruno Filippi era un bel ragazzo, sveglio e intelligente, che si faceva notare per la capigliatura, nera, folta, abbondantissima, e per i lampeggianti occhi celesti. Ironico, taciturno con gli estranei ma espansivo con gli amici, e buon parlatore in pubblico quando era il caso, studiava e leggeva moltissimo, partecipava alla vita del movimento, collaborava alle sue pubblicazioni. La sua camera era una biblioteca di opuscoli sovversivi. Segnalato come anarchico fin da ragazzo, a Milano aveva trovato quell'atmosfera rovente che sarebbe culminata nelle "radiose giornate" del Maggio 1915. Il 13 di quel mese, nel piazzale di Porta Venezia, un corteo di interventisti si scontrò con un gruppo di neutralisti. Dopo uno scambio di invettive echeggiarono alcuni colpi di rivoltella, due dei quali ferirono mortalmente un passante. Bruno Filippi, che aveva allora appena quindici anni ma che già si era rivelato "un elemento perturbatore", fu trovato in possesso di una rivoltella alla quale mancavano diversi proiettili. Rinviato alla corte d'assise per complicità in omicidio (il processo fu celebrato a metà Dicembre del 1915), ammise di avere sparato, ma in aria (si, certo! Ah, ah!), vantando i propri sentimenti anarchici e rispondendo per le rime al presidente che lo rimproverava per le sue "ripugnanti affermazioni". "Speravo in una rivoluzione popolare dopo la dichiarazione di guerra" disse Filippi "allora avrei agito". Il presidente gli chiese: "Siete stato voi a scrivere sulla rivoltella Viva l'Anarchia?". "Si" rispose il ragazzo "perchè doveva servire per una nobile causa". Condannato per minacce a mano armata e resistenza alla forza pubblica contro il parere del P.M., che ne aveva chiesto l'assoluzione, Filippi uscì di prigione appena in tempo per essere chiamato, con i giovani della sua classe, a dare il proprio contributo a quella guerra contro la quale si era sempre battuto. Carlo Molaschi così lo descrive: "Venne al mondo portando seco la sua maledizione, e la sua vita non fu che spasimo passionale. Guardava nel mondo con occhio attonito perchè sentiva che tutto gli era ostile. Cercava la libertà nella vita selvaggia e la civiltà gli negava il sole e la foresta. Cercava la dignità di un lavoro umano e la società gli offriva la schiavitù di un lavoro bestiale. La vita in lui era esuberanza ed energia. Il suo imperativo categorico era il verbo agire". Nemico della guerra, fu un soldato così disciplinato da meritarsi i galloni di caporale. E alla vigilia di Caporetto, con una svolta contraria alla strada comunemente intrapresa dagli anarco-interventisti, che durante la guerra, osservandone le brutture e gli orrori, assumevano via via posizioni pacifiste, egli scriveva su "Cronaca Libertaria" che "gli anarchici dovevano preferire la continuazione della guerra", nella speranza che essa avrebbe finito per distruggere chi l'aveva provocata e conseguita. Confessandosi interventista, esprimeva paradossalmente di " trovar più simpatica la borghesia, che coscientemente fa il proprio interesse, del proletariato che vilmente rinuncia alla propria individualità". "La vita che conduco ora" scriveva all'amico Virgilio Gozzoli il 27 Maggio 1919 "è senza dubbio migliore di quella che facevo sotto il grigio-verde. Ma mi annoio mortalmente. Ho bisogno di respirare un'aria meno vile di questa, più aristocratica". E quattro giorni dopo, sempre al Gozzoli: "Siamo demolitori e perciò dobbiamo infiltrare nei cervelli proletari il pensiero che soltanto attraverso la rivoluzione, abbattendo successivamente tutte le forze statali che si succederanno, raggiungeremo la vera libertà senza nessuna forma di coazione...". Gozzoli scrisse in seguito di lui, in un articolo apparso su "L'iconoclasta" del 24 Ottobre 1919 dal titolo 'Una faccia del prisma': "Rideva di tutto e di tutti, specialmente di se stesso, e per questo era simpatico a tutti, meno che agli avversari che ebbero spesso a battere in ritirata sotto la sferza delle sue argomentazioni teoriche e...pratiche. Una volta sette o otto studenti interventisti lo assalirono e lo bastonarono ben bene. Egli era solo e disarmato... e dovette lasciar stare. Ma tempo pochi mesi gli aggressori, uno per uno, si riebbero "individualmente" quel che "collettivamente" avean dato a lui". Che quello di Bruno Filippi fosse un anarchismo "futurista" e "marinettiano" era ammesso da molti tra i suoi stessi compagni, che per questo non gli risparmiarono le critiche. Già nel 1917 Pasquale Binazzi, venuto a Milano per seguitarvi la pubblicazione di "Cronaca Libertaria", aveva chiuso le colonne del giornale alla sua collaborazione. E l'anarchico Carlo Molaschi, che dopo la fine della prima guerra mondiale era passato dal suo iniziale Individualismo Nietzscheano all'Idiotismo Malatestiano, sanzionato e suffragato dal saggio da lui firmato, comparso sulle colonne di "Pagine Libertarie" del 15 GENNAIO / JANUARY 1922, dal titolo cervellotico e dai contenuti agghiaccianti per la loro puerilità, ovverosia:"Dal superuomo all'umanità". Questo "compagno" Molaschi, dunque, nell'estate del 1919 attaccava bassamente il Filippi in maniera occulta e implicita, vilmente, da par suo, richiamando gli "sragionanti", che due o tre anni addietro erano corsi sulle orme di Giovanni Papini "per accettare i suoi scritti come vangelo d'anarchismo", a una maggiore cautela nei confronti della "lue futurista". Ma la direzione di Bruno Filippi era di già segnata, ed egli non si sarebbe lasciato intimorire, sviare o recedere dai suoi propositi per le superflue meschinità dei malatestiani; la sua vita avrebbe coinciso con il suo nobile e romano sacrificio. "Ma in pari tempo un'altra profezia sortiva dalla coscienza dei genii, ed era l'identificazione del benessere, della felicità con il nulla assoluto, con la fine, con la morte, con l'al di là, ed era il risultato di quella doppia meta, verso cui l'uomo si affanna, mentre ne persegue una sola, il raggiungimento simultaneo della felicità e della morte". (Mario Morasso, "Uomini e Idee del Domani. L'Egoarchia", Bocca Editori, Torino 1898, pagina 317) "Qui la Voluttà e la Morte si mirarono congiunte; e i loro due volti facevano un volto solo". (Gabriele D'Annunzio, "Le Vergini delle Rocce", 1895) [ Leggi la seconda parte ] l tragico, sublime ed eroico sacrificio di Bruno Filippi [parte seconda] Per qualche giorno le indagini danno scarsi risultati. Si portano in questura "parecchi giovani anarchici", si interrogano diverse donne, una delle quali "sarebbe stata vista parecchie volte col Filippi", si torchia "un altro noto anarchico individualista suo amico intimo", si cerca di appurare se vi fu un complotto. In mancanza di notizie precise, i giornali come sempre raccolgono le dicerie. Secondo una di queste, in una recente riunione di anarchici Filippi sarebbe stato definito "un elemento poco fido" e invitato a "tenersi lontano dai compagni". Allora, "per dimostrare la sua fedeltà e la ferma fede", il giovane avrebbe deciso di compiere questo atto terroristico. La voce fu ripresa dall' "Avanti!": "Il Filippi in questi ultimi tempi era in dissenso con parecchi dei suoi amici di parte". Ma la sera del 9 SETTEMBRE / SEPTEMBER vengono rimessi in libertà tutti gli anarchici arrestati l'8 e il 9, tra i quali si trovavano anche il padre di Bruno, Averardo, e i suoi due fratelli Annunzio e Libero. Complotto sfumato, proclama trionfalmente l' "Avanti!" del 10 SETTEMBRE / SEPTEMBER. Ad ogni modo, è troppo presto. Giovedì 11 SETTEMBRE / SEPTEMBER si svolgono i funerali di Filippi. Annunciati per il pomeriggio, bruscamente e senza preavviso vengono anticipati al mattino per ordine delle autorità. Amici e parenti accompagnano il feretro fino alla stazione del tram di Musocco. "Una bara, un fascio di fiori rossi, una madre piangente, pochi amici, un nugolo di birri e di carabinieri. Il morto faceva ancora paura!" scriverà "L'Iconoclasta!" del 24 Ottobre 1919. "Era stato recato un vessillo", rivelerà invece il "Corriere della Sera", "ma la presenza di guardie e carabinieri consigliò di tenerlo ben custodito nel fodero". La rossa ghirlanda, unico omaggio della famiglia, poggiava sulla bara: "una piccola cassa che pareva racchiudesse un bambino". Come furono giudicati, all'interno del movimento anarchico, l'atto e la morte di Bruno Filippi? Il giovane anarchico milanese "ha ucciso se stesso", scrive "Il Libertario", uno dei due organi, con "Volontà", dell'anarchismo "ragionante" di quel periodo -anche se noi sappiamo che i due concetti di razionale ed irrazionale sono stati introiettati in noi dalle classi dominanti per meglio controllarci, determinarci, omologarci, annientarci e pertanto noi "sragionanti" rifiutiamo di riconoscere e sottostare a questa dicotomia che delimita la nostra libertà di Unici ed irripetibili- "per richiamare gli uomini a una concezione di vita più umana, meno cannibalesca". Istigatori del suo gesto sono stati "i signori sfruttatori dell'altrui sudore" e "i signori inquisitori del libero pensiero" i quali, "invece di comprendere che è la violenza e l'ingiustizia dell'Alto che fomenta la vendetta dei ribelli", si accaniscono in vane ricerche di inesistenti complicità. Conclude il periodico spezzino del 10 SETTEMBRE / SEPTEMBER: "Un animo così sensibile come quello di Filippi non poteva fare a meno di grandemente e penosamente impressionarsi nel constatare che mentre molte migliaia di lavoratori metallurgici devono da tanto tempo soffrire ogni sorta di privazioni per la caparbietà degli industriali, che durante la guerra hanno accumulato vistose ricchezze, costoro gavazzano nei loro eleganti ritrovi, nelle sontuose villeggiature e nelle stazioni climatiche alla moda". Maggior entusiasmo trapela, comprensibilmente, dagli articoli de "L'Iconoclasta!" , tutti del 24 Ottobre 1919. Scrive Pierre in "L'atto": "Bruno Filippi era un votato. Nella sua breve e pur intensa vita aveva visto tutta la vigliaccheria che forma la ragione di esistenza degli oppressi. Ed egli soffriva di questo. Soffriva dei patimenti dell'umanità; la ingiuriava qualche volta sperando di vederla scuotersi sotto lo schiaffo; la malediceva, anche, perchè la sua follia di sangue lo trascinava nel gorgo fatale suo malgrado. Ma l'anima sua era quella della folla. Ed egli avrebbe voluto avere della folla tutta la forza per arrovesciare e stritolare coi piedi tutti gli ideali lordi di sangue che la soggiogavano e la martoriavano, in un supremo gesto di rivolta. E la sua bomba, anzichè l'espressione della sua rivolta individuale, fu la eco profonda di tutto il dolore dell'umanità racchiuso in quel grande cuore". Lo schianto della dinamite di Milano, scrive Brutius (Pietro Bruzzi) in "Da Emilio Henry a Bruno Filippi", "è esempio di alta e fiera rivolta", una rivolta che "nella coscienza del suo autore simbolizza il principio di disgregazione della corrotta e depravata società". Ma attenzione: pur essendosi scagliato con tutta la sua forza contro "gli elementi più odiati della società" (e, si rammaricava Brutius, "quello che noi deploriamo è che egli non abbia sparso altro sangue che il suo"), Bruno Filippi, coerente nel proprio individualismo, "sapeva che non valeva la pena di sacrificarsi pel popolo, per l'umanità o per qualsiasi altro simbolo" ("lo sento ancora chiedersi" ricorda Brutius: "Ma vale la pena di sacrificarsi per questa feccia di umanità?") e agì per obbedire a un impulso esclusivamente morale, "non per affrettare l'avvento della rivoluzione". Scrive Leda Rafanelli in "Ribellione": "Giudicare quell'atto, dire se fu utile o meno alla causa, non è compito nostro. Troppo facile e assurdo insieme è il giudicare i fatti. Può esaltarlo soltanto chi lo saprà imitare: ma pure, qualsiasi anarchico, al di sopra di ogni considerazione, deve trovarlo bello. Gettare la propria vita, arrischiandola in un pericoloso cimento, per una fede-mentre si è giovani, sani, completi-per vendicare con un monito fragoroso le vittime che zoppicano e arrancano beatamente per le vie, è un gesto di magnifica audacia, è una generosità che solo degli anarchici-da Pallas a Caserio, da Bresci a Filippi-hanno saputo praticare". Scrive Ignotus in "Dinamismo anarchico": "Siamo arrivati nuovamente alla bellissima epoca in cui il dinamismo rivoluzionario, travolgente e demolitore delle vecchie commedie, si manifesta negli animi giovani e forti in tutta la sua potenza distruttiva e ideale. Gli Henry di Francia rivivono nei Filippi d'Italia. Nulla di più sublime v'è nella vita come l'udire il suono schietto e sonoro di quel magnifico strumento dinamitico. Solo l'anarchico ne comprende la bellezza, il fascino di quel caro oggetto che annienta e turba i sonni beati degli ingordi e malvagi parassiti borghesi". Diciamo la verità, la triste e sincera verità ai Bakuninisti e ai Malatestiani: Bruno Filippi è nostro, Bruno Filippi fu un anarchico individualista aristocratico, il suo nome a caratteri eburnei brillerà nei secoli, la sua azione avrà emuli fino alla fine (ormai prossima) dei tempi (umani). Bruno Filippi ha sacrificato la sua vita per il più alto Ideale di Bellezza e di Purezza che l'uomo abbia mai concepito, ha indicato la via senza ritorno della Rivolta Assoluta, unico mezzo per dare un senso alle esistenze degli sfruttati e degli oppressi. Ma Bruno Filippi, contrario alla guerra tra i popoli e assertore inveterato ed irriducibile della Guerra Sociale, provava e covava per la plebe senza coscienza il giusto, necessario ed aristocratico disprezzo, che mai scadette nel vile risentimento plebeo, un sentimento inoculato in noi da due millennii di abominio giudaico-cristiano (di nietzscheana memoria) ma da cui pochi eletti come il Nostro furono sempre lontani, distanti stellarmente. Egli, il Filippi, coltivava e possedeva in sè il "pathos aggressivo" che Nietzsche in "Ecce homo" (1888) teorizza e giustifica. Tremate, borghesi e malatestiani: lo spirito di Bruno Filippi vive ancora e ci insegna, al di là del Bene e del Male, che la lotta, pur sempre destinata all'eterna sconfitta, deve essere condotta dal Ribelle o Anarca fino alla fine, fino al raggiungimento dell'estremo sacrificio. Su un muro di Genova, il 20 Luglio 2002, un anno dopo la MORTE / DIED di Carlo Giuliani, campeggiava la scritta: "Presto affascinanti rovine". La mano che vergò queste lettere dimostra di avere bene compreso, bene auscultato i fremiti delle nostre irrequiete viscere. Noi ci auguriamo che codesta profezia si avveri e nel contempo stringiamo a noi il ricordo di Bruno Filippi come la cosa più cara che in questa orribile esistenza, nell'Inferno dantesco nel quale siamo condannati temporaneamente (per nostra buona sorte) a vagare, ci sia stata concessa, ed a cui non rinunceremo mai, nemmeno in cambio dell'Amore. Viva Bruno Filippi, invitto Pietro Micca dell'Anarchia, severo e venusto Odoacre del Nulla, incarnazione vertiginosa dell'Uomo come potenza; viva Stirner, viva Nietzsche, viva l'Anarchia. La nostra Anarchia! Possa lo schianto redentore della santa dinamite riverberare il proprio sfavillante balenio e riecheggiare gaiamente nelle notti terribili e solenni e nobili ed indomabili. Ad ogni modo, non vi sarà alcuna andata a Canossa da parte nostra, in nessun caso. Ma infine, non prendete, o miei censori, troppo severamente le parole che vi vengono offerte; le mie elucubrazioni sono "scorribande di un inattuale", quelle che Nietzsche perseguiva nel suo "Crepuscolo degli idoli" (1888), in ossequio alla sontuosa arte monologica di cui egli era Maestro e che rappresentano il nostro unico appiglio, barbarico e unno, alla Vita. "L'attesa della morte è sofferenza infinita. Questo almeno guadagna l'uomo morendo. Non piangere dunque chi esce dalla vita: non vi è dolore dopo la morte". (Pallada Meteoro, epigrammista greco-bizantino di Alessandria d'Egitto vissuto tra la fine del IV secolo e l'inizio del V secolo dopo Cristo, "Antologia Palatina, X. 59", traduzione di Salvatore Quasimodo) "Entro il crepuscolo cupo dell'anima mia il mio rosso Demonio si desta. Sento come un rivoletto di sangue amaro scorrermi sulle labbra amare... Ho un tragico presentimento... Che avverrà nella notte? Ma...le stelle - le care stelle - vedranno. Oh, se potessi ancora una volta ridere e maledire soltanto... Ma vedo un lampo sinistro (un rogo?) brillare nell'oscurità della notte. Dovrò COLPIRE! Lo sento... Lo sento! Lo sento! Lo sento! Io sono un astro che volge verso un tramonto tragico". (Renzo Novatore, "Ballata Crepuscolare, preludio sinfonico di DINAMITE", ultima strofe, senza data) [ Leggi la prima parte ] http://www.anarcotico.net/storia/bruno-filippi.html


    2003 -- About this archive Keyword index [NEW] Viridian Note 00001 (summary)- Viridian Design Speech Viridian Note 00002 (summary)- Viridian List Mechanics Viridian Note 00003 (summary)- Viridian Design Principles Viridian Note 00004 (summary)- Historical Awareness Viridian Note 00005 (summary)- Viridian Aesthetics Viridian Note 00006 (summary)- Floods 1 Viridian Note 00007 (summary)- Floods 2 Viridian Note 00008 (summary)- The Science Press on Global Warming Viridian Note 00009 (summary)- The Science Press on Global Warming, Rewritten Viridian Note 00010 (summary)- Comments from Viridians Viridian Note 00011 (summary)- Viridian Mascot Contest Viridian Note 00012 (summary)- Web Links Viridian Note 00013 (summary)- Link Criticism Viridian Note 00014 (summary)- Remembrance Agents Viridian Note 00015 (summary)- Weather Violence Viridian Note 00016 (summary)- Bio-Refineries Viridian Note 00017 (summary)- Viridian Aphorisms Viridian Note 00018 (summary)- The Viridian Model Family Viridian Note 00019 (summary)- Viridian Domains of Interest Viridian Note 00020 (summary)- Energy Reform, the Swedish "Solution" Viridian Note 00021 (summary)- The World Is Becoming Uninsurable, Part 1 Viridian Note 00022 (summary)- The World Is Becoming Uninsurable, Part 2 Viridian Note 00023 (summary)- The World Is Becoming Uninsurable, Part 3 Viridian Note 00024 (summary)- Kelly's Koan Viridian Note 00025 (summary)- German Greens Viridian Note 00026 (summary)- Latest Viridian Aphorisms & Rankings Viridian Note 00027 (summary)- Archbishop of Graphics Wanted Viridian Note 00028 (summary)- Viridian Gardening Viridian Note 00029 (summary)- The Interfund Viridian Note 00030 (summary)- The View From Ecotopia Viridian Note 00031 (summary)- Self-Destructive Jungles Viridian Note 00032 (summary)- The Viridian Refuelling Project Viridian Note 00033 (summary)- Viridian Aesthetics: Andy Goldworthy Viridian Note 00034 (summary)- Researching Andy Goldsworthy Viridian Note 00035 (summary)- Viridian Aesthetics: Landscape Transformation Viridian Note 00036 (summary)- Offshore Wind Power Viridian Note 00037 (summary)- Viridian Commentary Viridian Note 00038 (summary)- Viridian Aphorisms Viridian Note 00039 (summary)- Starck's New Catalog Viridian Note 00040 (summary)- German Politics Viridian Note 00041 (summary)- The Viridian Product Catalog Viridian Note 00042 (summary)- The Viridian Alcohol Cellphone Viridian Note 00043 (summary)- The Viridian Electrical Meter Viridian Note 00044 (summary)- The Viridian Service Station Viridian Note 00045 (summary)- Twentieth-century Thinking Viridian Note 00046 (summary)- German Bankers Love German Greens Viridian Note 00047 (summary)- Viridian Imaginary Products Exhibition Viridian Note 00048 (summary)- Viridian Aphorisms Viridian Note 00049 (summary)- Submerging Carbon Viridian Note 00050 (summary)- Wired Urban Forests Viridian Note 00051 (summary)- Viridian Commentary Viridian Note 00052 (summary)- Human-Assisted Wildlife Migration Viridian Note 00053 (summary)- The Ecosystem Game Viridian Note 00054 (summary)- The Festo Stingray Aircraft Viridian Note 00055 (summary)- Biodiversity Maps Viridian Note 00056 (summary)- Viridian Commentary Viridian Note 00057 (summary)- Extinct Megafauna Viridian Note 00058 (summary)- Grass Gas Viridian Note 00059 (summary)- Viridian Aphorisms Viridian Note 00060 (summary)- Viridian Strategy Viridian Note 00061 (summary)- Web-site Power Banner Contest Viridian Note 00062 (summary)- What I Did for Earth Day Viridian Note 00063 (summary)- Real-World Projects Viridian Note 00064 (summary)- Viridian Finances Viridian Note 00065 (summary)- Burning Man Festival Viridian Note 00066 (summary)- Freeplay's Wind-Up Power Viridian Note 00067 (summary)- Eco-Disaster Tourism Viridian Note 00068 (summary)- Household Localizers Viridian Note 00069 (summary)- Viridian Aphorisms Viridian Note 00070 (summary)- The Coal-Burning Net Viridian Note 00071 (summary)- Greening the US Govt. Viridian Note 00072 (summary)- Viridian Couture Contest Viridian Note 00073 (summary)- Viridian Commentary Viridian Note 00074 (summary)- Browning the US Govt. Viridian Note 00075 (summary)- Kyoto Politics Viridian Note 00076 (summary)- American Power Brokers Viridian Note 00077 (summary)- IDSA Speech Viridian Note 00078 (summary)- Greening Earth Society Viridian Note 00079 (summary)- Virtuous Corporations Viridian Note 00080 (summary)- Viridian Aphorisms Viridian Note 00081 (summary)- Summer Health Warning Contest Viridian Note 00082 (summary)- Viridian Commentary Viridian Note 00083 (summary)- The Viridian Botanisphere Viridian Note 00084 (summary)- Viridian Disasters Viridian Note 00085 (summary)- Viridian Individual Projects Viridian Note 00086 (summary)- Kingpins of Carbon Viridian Note 00087 (summary)- The Coal-Burning Net Viridian Note 00088 (summary)- Viridian Disasters Viridian Note 00089 (summary)- The Viridian Military Viridian Note 00090 (summary)- Design Principles for Virtual Worlds Viridian Note 00091 (summary)- Viridian T-Shirt Viridian Note 00092 (summary)- First Things First Manifesto Viridian Note 00093 (summary)- The Deep Hot Biosphere Viridian Note 00094 (summary)- Texas Energy Law Viridian Note 00095 (summary)- Biotech Legal Liability Viridian Note 00096 (summary)- 2000 Objects Exhibition Viridian Note 00097 (summary)- Austin Software Speech Viridian Note 00098 (summary)- The Net & the Weather Viridian Note 00099 (summary)- Viridian Time & Light All the summaries http://www.thehub.com.au/~mitch/V-Notes/ViridianIndex.html


    2003 -- As of Sept 5, 2003 according to: http://www.publicdebt.treas.gov/opd/opdpenny.htm the Bush administration has borrowed $1,003,000,000,000 in 1 year 11 months & 4 days. So... for the rest of your life this is going to cost the government more than 50 billions dollars a year in interest payments. Lets compare him to the other presidents. President Amount borrowed % of total debt interest payment per year G W Bush 1,003 billion 15% in 2 yrs 52 billion Clinton 1,394 billion 20% 8 yrs 70 billion G Bush 1,554 billion 23% 4 yrs 80 billion Reagan 1,879 billion 28% 8 yrs 95 billion the other 979 billion 14% 204 yrs 49 billion 39 presidents The last 3 conservative Republican Presidents are costing us 227 billion dollars a year, every year, in interest payments and it's going to get worse.


    2003 -- to do: update 2003: I've moved copies of all the relevant 0921-1.htm through 0921-6.htm, 0921a.htm pages from Eskimo to the recollection server, into the Bleed Folderbut have not moved them (yet,; believe they would all need new urls)


    2004 -- Diccionari de Sindicats names to go thru for indexing

    DUPE WITH CODE, SEE COPY WITHOUT

    TEMPLATE:

  • ABAD, Julià.
    (??-??) Catalan militant, Terrassa CNT. Arrested for participating in the February 1932 revolt. (Diccionari de Sindicats)August 2007

    ADD TO QUICK INDEX:
  • Julia Abad

    Abad, Salvador. Barcelona ? - ?. Calderer. En nom del Centre Obrer d'Oficials Calderers en Coure, signà el Manifest del Primer de Maig de 1890 lliurat al governador civil de Barcelona.

    Abad de Santillán, Diego.  Reyero (Burgos) 1898 - Barcelona 1983.Diego Abad de SantillánPseudònim de Sinesio García Fernández. Dirigent anarquista. Militant de la CNT i de la FAI. Escriptor. Assistí al 2on. congrés de l'AIT, reconstituïda a Amsterdam, on fou elegit membre del secretariat el març de 1925. Residí a l'Argentina, on col.laborà amb l'organització de la Federación Obrera Regional, i on dirigí el diari "La Protesta" (1927). A Espanya s'integrà, des del 1931, en diferents grups anarquistes. Dirigí els periòdics "Tierra y Libertad", ""Tiempos Nuevos"" i "Solidaridad Obrera". Representà a la FAI en el Comitè Central de Milícies Antifeixistes de Catalunya (com a encarregat d'organització), el juliol de 1936. Fou vocal del Consell d'Economia de la Generalitat (agost 1936) i conseller d'Economia, des del 17 de desembre de 1936 al 3 d'ABRIL / APRIL 3 de 1937. S'exilià a l'Argentina (1939). Donà suport a l'escissió de la CNT (1945) fent costat a Horacio Martínez Prieto, Manuel Buenacasa i Juan López. Retornà a l'Estat espanyol cap el 1977. Publicà, entre d'altres obres i traduccions, Los anarquistas y la revolución de octubre. Barcelona, 1935. La revolución y la guerra de España (1938). ¿ Porqué perdimos la guerra ? Editorial Imán, Buenos Aires, 1940. Contribución a la historia del movimiento obrero español (1962-65). Historia del movimiento obrero español. Editorial Zero, Madrid 1967. Memorias, 1897-1936. Editorial Planeta, Barcelona, 1967. Memorias (1977).

    Abayà Garriga, Francesc. ? - ?. Manlleu, ?. Tintorer. Membre de la Junta de la Societat d’Oficials Tintorers de Barcelona (1870-1971). Participà en el Congrés Constitutiu de la Unió Manufacturera (Barcelona, 7-11 de maig de 1872) i després del congrés passà a formar part del Consell Directiu. Càrrec en el que va ser reelegit en el IV congrés de la Unió Manufacturera (Sabadell, 13-19 d’abril de 1873). Va ser membre de la Comissió Federal de la FRE de l’AIT (1876-1877). Fou empresonat durant la repressió que es va desencadenar després de l’esclat d’una bomba al pas de la processó de Corpus a Barcelona (1896). L’any 1908 va assistir al congrés constitutiu de la Confederació Regional de Societats de Resistència – Solidaritat Obrera- (Barcelona, 6-8 de setembre de 1908), representant el Ram de l’Aigua i l’Art Fabril. S’adherí al congrés que, convocat per Solidaritat Obrera, va decidir constituir la CNT (Barcelona, novembre de 1910). Va ser redactor de la "Revista Social" (òrgan de la Unió Manufacturera) i col.laborà a “La Federación Igualadina”, “La Autonomia”, “El Productor” i “El Trabajo” .

    Abella, Àngel. Militant de la CNT. Representant la Unió local de l’Hospitalet del Llobregat va assistir al Ple de la CRTC celebrat a Barcelona l’agost de 1931. Dirigí "Solidaritat Proletària" (Barcelona, 1924). Fou un dels fundadors del periòdic "Vida Sindical" (Barcelona, 1926), i col.laborà a "Política Sindical" (1935).

    Abella, Joan. Militant obrer. Membre del Partit Demòcrata. Dirigí el periòdic "El genio de la libertad. órgano del pueblo", que aparegué a Barcelona el 18 de juliol de 1854.

    Abella, José. Militant de la CNT i de les Joventuts Llibertàries. Assistí al Ple Nacional Econòmic de la CNT (València, gener 1938). L'any 1939 s'exilià a Mèxic on fou expulsat de la CNT per seguir consignes del PCE.

    Abella Masip, Antoni. Ripollet, 1903. Milità a la UGT. Fou secretari de la Federació del Metall de la UGT de Catalunya de l’any 1936 fins el SETEMBRE de 1938.

    Abella Mateu, Josep. Barberà de la Conca ? – Tarragona, 1939. Milità a la UGT. Pagès. Membre de la Federació Local de Barberà de la Conca durant la guerra civil. Afusellat pels franquistes el 20 de març de 1939.

    Abós Serena, Miquel. Militant de la CNT de Saragossa. Per la seva activitat sindical a Barcelona fou empresonat en el vaixell "Giralda" i deportat al castell de la Mola de Maó (30.11.1920). Assistí a la Conferència de Saragossa de la CNT (1922) i al congrés de Madrid de 1931. Secretari del Comitè Regional d'Aragó, la Rioja i Navarra, el juliol de 1936 fou detingut pels franquistes els quals li proposaren col.laborar amb ells en el camp sindical. S'hi negà i fou empresonat. Més tard s'evadí i passà a la zona republicana.

    Adell Vidal, Ramon. Assistí al Congrés de constitució de la FRE de l'AIT (Barcelona, 1870) com a representant del Centre de Societats Obreres de Picapedrers d'Ulldecona i Tortosa.

    Adroher i Pascual, Enric. Girona, 1908 Barcelona, 1987 (alias Gironella). Militant de la UGT i del POUM. Mestre. L’any 1934 participà en l’organització de la Federació Catalana de Treballadors de l’Ensenyament (FCTE) de la qual en fou elegit secretari general. Va col.laborar a “La Batalla” Representà al POUM en el Comitè Central de Milícies Antifeixistes de Catalunya Després dels fets de maig de 1937 fou fou processat i empresonat. L’any 1939 hagué d’exiliar-se a França. i després marxà a Mèxic. Tornà a Barcelona després de la mort del dictador i ha estat membre del Consell Nacional del Partit dels Socialistes de Catalunya.

    Agramunt Camp, Gustau. Barberà del Vallès, 1861 - Lavit, 1901. Paperer. Dirigent de la secció de Paperers de Lavit, adherida a la Unió de Noògrafs de la FRE de l’AIT. Impulsà i dirigí, junt amb Pere Marimón, la llarga vaga dels paperers de l’any 1883.

    Aguadé, Josep. Boter. Dirigent de la Societat d’Oficials Boters de Reus. L’any 1928 va ser secretari de la Federació d’oficials Boters d’Espanya.

    Aguado Caballero, Vicente. Mazaraumbros, 1894 - Hospitalet de Llobregat, 1966. Durant la república fou secretari de la FTT de la UGT.

    Àguila, Bartomeu. Pagès de Manlleu. Assistí al congrés convocat per Solidaritat Obrera, en el qual es va decidir constituir la CNT (Barcelona, octubre/novembre de 1910).

    Aguilar Boixadera, Francesc. Lleida ? - ?. Militant de la CNT. Ebenista. President del Sindicat de la Fusta de Lleida, integrat dins del corrent pro-comunista denominat Oposició Sindicalista Revolucionària. Assistí al congrés confederal de la CNT (Madrid, juny de 1931). Expulsat de la CNT, fou un dels signants del manifest de constitució de l'Aliança Obrera, en nom de la Federació de Sindicats Expulsats de la CNT (Barcelona 10 de desembre de 1933). Tresorer de la Unió Local de Sindicats de Lleida (finals de 1933). Fou militant del BOC, i es presentà en les seves llistes a les eleccions municipals (Lleida, 1931 i 1934). Ingressà en el POUM, en representació del qual formà part de l'Ajuntament de Lleida l'octubre de 1936. Col.laborà a "L'Espurna" (Lleida, 1931).

    Aguilar Esteban, Juli. Milità a la UGT a Vilanova i la Geltrú. Paleta. Durant la guerra civil va ser secretari del Sindicat de la Construcció de Vilanova i la Geltrú.

    Aguiló, Joan. Obrer filador. Formà part de la representació obrera que signà els primers convenis col.lectius, pactats a l'Estat espanyol, entre els fabricants i els obrers de filats (octubre de 1854).

    Agust i Borrell, Pere. Calldetenes, 1901 – Barcelona, 1939. Militant de la CNT. Pellaire. L’any 1932 era vocal de l’Associaicó Obrera d Vic. Formà part del Comitè Local de Milícies antifeixistes de Vic. L’any 1937 va formar part del Comitè d’empreses col.lectivitzades de l’Indústria de la Pell. El maig de 1939 va ser afusellat pels franquistes.

    Agustí, Eduard. Militant de la CNT. Assistí al Congrés de Sants (Barcelona, 1918) en representació del Sindicat de Constructors Mecànics de Barcelona.

    Aláiz de Pablo, Felipe. Bellver de Cinca (Osca), 1887 - París, 1959. Militant de la CNT i de la FAI. Periodista, escriptor i traductor. Membre del Comitè Regional de la CNT per Tarragona (1920). Participà en la  Conferència de Saragossa (1922). Dirigí la "Revista de Aragón" de Saragossa durant dos anys. Anà a Tarragona i a Barcelona on co-dirigí, amb Antonio García Birlán,  la "Revista Nueva". Col.laborà a "Día Gráfico", "La Noche" i "La Revista Blanca" de Barcelona, i també a "Lucha Social" de Lleida des del 1919 al 1922. A Barcelona edità ""Crisol"", junt amb Llibert Callejas (1923). Fou director de "Tierra y Libertad" (1930), i redactor i director de "Solidaridad Obrera" (octubre 1931 - 1933), substituint a Joan Peiró. Col.laborà a "El Luchador" (1931) i a "Acracia" (1936). Detingut durant les vagues de principi de 1932, des de la presó continuà dirigint "Solidaritad Obrera". En acabar la guerra civil s'exilià a França des d'on seguí col.laborant a "Solidaridad Obrera" que s'editava a París. En l'escissió de la CNT de 1945, s'alineà amb els "apolítics" (Frederica Montseny, Josep Peirats, Germinal Esgleas ). és autor d'una biografia de Durruti. Ed. Mancci, Barcelona, 1937. També publicà Tipos Españoles. Ed. Umbral, París, 1965.

    Alari Joan. Milità a la UGT i al PSOE a Vilanova i la Geltrú. Va fomar part del Comitè de l’Agrupació Socialista local. Va participar en el 2on congrés de la UGT (Vilanova i la Geltrú, octubre de 1890).

    Alastuey Andía, Tomàs. Sos del Rey Católico, 1894 – Lleida, 1940. Militant de la CNT i paleta a Tremp, on en esclatar la guerra civil formà part del Comitè local de Milícies antifeixistes. Va ser afusellat pels franquistes el maig de 1940.

    Albagès, Gabriel.  ? - Barcelona, 1878. Teixidor de vels. Membre del consell de la Unió Manufacturera i del Consell Federal de la FRE de l'AIT. Assistí al Congrés de Saragossa de 1872.

    Albarícies, Francesc. Militant de la CNT. Participà en la Conferència de Blanes de la CRTC (8-10 de juliol de 1922), com a representant del Sindicat Únic de la Fusta de Barcelona.

    Albarícies Alorda, Emili. Militant de la CNT. Per la seva activitat sindical fou empresonat en el vaixell "Giralda" i deportat al castell de la Mola de Maó (30.11.1920).

    Albarícies Descàrrega, Jaume. Militant de la CNT. Per la seva activitat sindical fou empresonat en el vaixell "Giralda" i deportat al castell de la Mola de Maó (30.11.1920). Fou assassinat per elements dels Sindicats lliures.

    Albarracín Broseta, Severíno. Llíria (País Valencià), 1850 - Barcelona, 1878. Dirigent anarquista. Militant de la FRE de l'AIT. Mestre d'escola. Assistí al 2on congrés de la FRE de l'AIT (Saragossa, 1872) on fou nomenat membre del Consell Federal (secretari de la comarca del Sud) i, quan el congrés de Còrdova  eliminà el Consell Federal,  (desembre 1872-gener 1873) fou designat per formar part de la Comissió de Correspondència i Estadística, a més de secretari de l'Interior. Participà en els fets insurreccionals d'Alcoi (1873) on presidí el Comitè de Salut Pública. Perseguit, es refugià a Suïssa, on residí usant els documents d'identitat de Gabriel Albagès . Participà en el Congrés de Berna de l'AIT (octubre 1876) i es relacionà amb Kropotkin. Tornà a Espanya l'any 1877 i s'instal.la a Barcelona on morí de tuberculosi el FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1878.

    Albero Iglesias, José. Barcelona, 1901 - Vilanova i la Geltrú, 1968. Militant d'Estat Català.  L'abril de 1937 fou elegit delegat de la Unió General de Treballadors (UGT) al Comitè d'edifici de l'empresa Riegos y Fuerzas del Ebro, SA. de Vilanova i la Geltrú.

    Alberola Navarro, Josep. Ontiñana (Osca) – Mèxic, 1967. Teòric anarquista. Mestre racionalista. Militant de la CNT a l'Alt Llobregat i Barcelona. Va assistir al 2on congrés de la CNT (Madrid, desembre de 1919) representant la localitat d'Olot. Redactor de "Solidaridad Obrera" (1931). Intervingué en el congrés confederal de la CNT de Madrid (1931), representant Gironella. L'octubre de 1936 fou nomenat membre del Consejo de Defensa Regional de Aragón amb seu a Fraga, com encarregat de la Instrucció Pública fins l'agost de 1937. Després va marxar al front. L’any 1939 s’exilià a França i després a Mèxic, on va funda l’escola Cervantes. Va ser assessinat l’any 1967. Va col.laborà en el periòdic “El Productor” (Blanes).

    Albert, Antoni. President de la Societat Obrera de Mitgers d'Olot (1842).

    Albert, Antoni. Barcelona, ? - ?. Membre del Centre Federal de Societats Obreres de Barcelona (1869). Ebenista. Assistí al congrés que va constituir la FRE de l'AIT (Barcelona, juny 1870).

    Albert, Miquel. Assistí al congrés convocat per Solidaritat Obrera en el qual es va decidir constituir la CNT, representant la Societat Obrera de Cilindradors, Aprestadors i acabats de peces (Barcelona, octubre/novembre de 1910).

    Albert Grau, Josep. Membre de la junta de la Societat Obrera de Teixidors de Sant Genís de Vilassar (1855).

    Albert Marrugat, Francesc. Milità a la UGT. El juliol de 1936 fou membre del Comitè de l'Escola Nova Unificada, representant a la FETE-UGT.

    Albertí, Ramon. Picapedrer. Membre de la secció de Picapedrers de la Federació Local de Girona de la FRE de l’AIT, el desembre de 1870.

    Albigès, Pau.  Sastre. En representació de la Societat Obrera dels Sastres participà en la constitució de la Junta Central de Directors de la Classe Obrera (Barcelona, 24 de gener de 1855). Un dels signant de la carta del 15 de març de 1855, adreçada al governador civil de Barcelona, donant suport al govern liberal.

    Albiñana, Isidre. Membre de l’Associació de Teixidors de la fàbrica Roses (Barcelona, desembre 1855). El 7 de gener de 1856 fou condemnat a dos anys de presó per haver participat en un altercat entre uns esquirols i els obrers en vaga a l’esmentada fàbrica Roses.

    Albiol, Francesc.  Milità al CADCI i a la UGT. Dependent mercantil. Secretari de Control de la Federació Local de Barcelona de la UGT (1936-38).

    Albona, Marcel.lí. (Se’l cita també com Albornà). Militant de la CNT. Pagés. Participà en el Congrés Regional de Camperols de Catalunya (Barcelona, setembre de 1936), representant el Sindicat Únic de Vilafranca del Penedès.

    Albúnia, Jaume. Barcelona, 1908.  Afiliat a la CNT de jove, després s’afilià a la UGT a l’empresa que treballava La España Industrial. En esclatà la guerra civil participà en l’organització del comitè de col·lectivització de la citada empresa. Entrà amb l’exèrcit republicà a França i en tornar a l’Estat fou empresonat al camp de concentració de Toro (Zamora). Temps després tornà a treballar a La España Industrial.

    Alcaide, Daniel. Militant de la CNT. Assistí al 3er Congrés confederal de la CNT (Madrid, juny de 1931) en representació dels sindicats d’Igualada i de la Federació Comarcal. Fou redactor d'"El Sembrador" (Igualada, 1931).

    Alcaráz, Francesc. Tipògraf. L’octubre de 1882 fou elegit Secretari 1er del primer Comitè de la Federació Nacional Tipogràfica.

    Alcobé Biosca, Josep. Militant de la UGT a Lleida. Mestre. El desembre de 1933 participà en la constitució de la FETE a Lleida, federació de la qual en seria secretari d’Organització.

    Alcocer, Josep. Militant de la UGT a Cornellà de Llobregat. Pagès. Fou elegit secretari d’organització en el 1er congrés de la Federació Catalana de Treballadors de la Terra (Barcelona, 23-27 de gener de 1937).

    Alcocer Gil, Pedro. Alhabia (Almeria), 1906. Militant de la CNT i de la FAI a Terrassa. Emigrà a Barcelona en 14 anys. Participà en l’assalt de l’ajuntament de Terrassa, durant la revolta del FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1932 dirigida per la FAI, i a l’assalt de la presó l’octubre de 1934, cosa per la qual fou empresonat diverses vegades. Dirigí les patrulles de control i la Junta de Seguretat de Terrassa des de l’inici de la guerra fins a finals de 1937, quan hagué d’incorporar-se al front. Tingué importants disputes amb el govern de la Generalitat i concretament amb Josep Tarradelles. L’any 1939 passà a França i després s’exilià a Veneçuela.

    Alcón Selma, Marcos.  Barcelona, 1902 – Cuernavaca (Mèxic), 1997. Anarcosindicalista i militant de la FAI. Membre del Sindicat del Vidre de la CNT. L’any 1920 participa en una vaga del ram, a conseqüència de la qual fou empresonat.  En sortir de la presó participa en un tiroteig contra elements del Sindicat Lliure, resultà ferit i a més tornà a ser empresonat. Després d’uns anys a la presó marxà a Sevilla i forma part del Comitè Regional Andalús (1929-31). Entre 1931 i 1933 formà part del Comitè Estatal de la CNT. Assistí al 3er Congrés Confederal ( Madrid, juny 1931) i participà en el Ple de Sindicats de la CRTC (Barcelona, agost de 1931). Fou president de Federació Vidriera i membre del Comitè de la CRTC (1932). Formà part del Comitè de Milícies Antifeixistes de Barcelona (juliol de 1936), encarregant-se de la secció de Proveïments, càrrec que abandonà per anar al front d'Aragó. S’exilià primer a França, on fou internat en el camp de concentració de Vernet, i després a Mèxic. Col.laborà en diversos periòdics ("CNT", "Cultura Proletaria", entre d’altres) i a l’exili mèxicà a la revista "Tierra y Libertad".

    Alcubierre Pérez, Miquel. Tardienta (Osca). Militant de la UGT, del PCC i del PSUC. Metal.lúrgic. El setembre de 1938 substituí a Antoni Abella en la secretaria general de la Federació del Metall de la UGT de Catalunya. També durant la guerra fou director general de Transports de la Generalitat. L’any 1939 s’exilià a Mèxic. El seu pare i el seu germà Josep (tenia 14 anys) foren deportats a Mauthausen. Son pare hi va morir.

    Aldave Rebullida, Enric. Militant de la CNT a Terrassa. Fou batlle de la ciutat el 1937 abans d'incorporar-se a l'exèrcit republicà.

    Alegre, Amàlia. Juntament amb Maria Marín, encapçalaven la manifestació de dones a Barcelona durant la Vaga de les Subsistències (14 de gener de 1918). Les manifestants assaltaren, fleques, carboneries i comerços

    Alemany, Francesc. Representant els manobres de Calella va assistir al Congrés constitutiu de la Federació Regional de Societats de Resistència – Solidaritat Obrera - (Barcelona, setembre de 1908).

    Alemany, Joan. Militant de la CNT a Barcelona. Una de les víctimes mortal de la repressió sagnant que, contra la CNT, van organitzar el general Martínez Anido i la patronal entre 1919-1923.

    Alemany, Josep. Representant els Carregadors i Descarregadors de Ferrocarrils i Carruatges de Barcelona va assistir al congrés que, convocat per Solidaritat Obrera, es va decidir constituir la CNT (Barcelona, octubre/novembre de 1910).

    Alemany Font, Josep. Barcelona, 1910 - Barcelona, 1939. Militant de la CNT a Sant Pere de Ribes. Afusellat pels franquistes el 14.05.39 (relació dels militants de la CNT afusellats pels franquistes a Catalunya).

    Alentorn Tarragó, Ramon. Flix, 1897 – Tarragona, 1939. Militant de la CNT a Flix. President de l’Ateneu L’Obrera. Afusellat pels franquistes el 08 d’agost de 1939.

    Alerini, Carles. Bastida (Còrcega) 1842. Participà en el fets insurreccionals de la Comuna de Marsella (1871), fallida aquesta es refugià a Barcelona, on creà el Comitè de Propaganda Révolutionnaire Socialiste de la France Méridionale (1873), i endegà la publicació del periòdic "La Solidarité Révolu¬tionnaire". Fou membre de l'Aliança de la Democràcia Socialista. Delegat per la Federació Local de Barcelona de la FRE de l'AIT, assistí al congrés de La Haia (setembre de 1872) i al de Ginebra (setembre de 1873). Col.laborà a "La Federación" (1873-74). Més tard fou empresonat a Càdis i després marxà a Egipte. Segons Anselmo Lorenzo era més partidari de la violència que de la persuasió.

    Alfarache, Progreso.   Pseudònim de Antonio Rodríguez (veieu Rodríguez, Antonio).

    Alias, Francesc. En nom de la Classe Obrera dels Mitgers de Barcelona fou un dels signants del manifest "Las clases trabajadoras asociadas a los diputados a cortes, particularmente a los de la antigua Cataluña" (FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1841).

    Alias Pino, Joan Josep. La Carolina (Jaén), 1898 - ? - ? Militant de la UGT del PSOE i del PSUC a Vilanova i la Geltrú. Ferroviari. . L’any 1931 va formar part de la junta de l’Agrupació Socialista local (adherida a la Federació Catalana del PSOE). Després va ser President de la Federació Local de la UGT. L'any 1936 s'integrà al PSUC. Formà part del Comitè de Defensa Local, constituït el 22 de juliol de 1936, i del Comitè de l'Escola Nova Unificada. Fou regidor de l'Ajuntament de Vilanova i la Geltrú del 6 de gener al 5 de març de 1937. L’any 1939 s’exilià a França.

    Alier, Antoni. Secretari de la secció d’Oficis Diversos de la FRE de l’AIT (Barcelona, gener de 1873).

    Aligué, Frederic. Militant de la CNT a Terrassa. Obrer tèxtil. L'any 1913 fou detingut per participar en la vaga general del tèxtil de Catalunya. El juliol de 1937 va ser regidor al Consell Municipal de Terrassa.

    Aliqué, Dionís. Director de la Societat Obrera de Teixidors de Terrassa (1855). Fou un dels signants d'una carta dirigida al governador civil de Barcelona, manifestant l'adhesió al govern liberal (maig, 1855).

    Alomà Sanabras, Josep. El Catllar, 1909 – Tarragona, 1993. Militant de la CNT a Tarragona. Paleta. El 1936 formà part del Comitè Local de Milícies Antifeixistes. A finals de juliol de 1936 alliberà el mossen Pere Batlle. Va ser president de l’Ateneu Llibertari (novembre de 1936). S’incorporà al front de guerra el setembre de 1937. Col.laborà a “Diari de Tarragona”.

    Alonso, Ginés. Comunitat Murciana, 1911 – Lavelanet (França, 1988). Militant de la CNT a Barcelona. Fuster. Maçò. Dirigent del Sindicat del Ram de la Fusta, el 19 de juliol de 1936 va participar en la lluita armada i després s’ocupa d’activitats cultural en el ram del cinema. El 1939 s’exilià a França. Tornà clandestinament a Espanya entre 1957 i 1960. L’any 1965 participà en el congrés de la CNT a Montpelier. Fou redactor de la revista “Ideas” L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, 1936-37).

    Alonso, Lorenzo. Militant de la CNT a Sabadell. Obrer del Ram de l’alimentació. En representació del Sindicat de l’alimentació de Sabadell va participar en la Conferència regional de Sindicats de la CNT (Barcelona, juny de 1931) i al Ple regional de Sindicats Únics de Catalunya (Barcelona, març de 1933).

    Alonso Elías, Santiago. ? 1897 - Badalona 1939. Àlias El Trampes. Militant de la CNT i de la FAI. Obrer metal.lúrgic de l'empresa "Metalgraf" de Badalona, d'on va ser acomiadat a causa de la seva activitat sindical (1920). Amb l'adveniment de la Segona República, s'afilià a Esquerra Republicana. Des de finals de l'any 1931 fins l'acabament de la guerra fou segon cap de la guàrdia urbana de Badalona. El van afusellar els franquistes el 27.02.39.

    Alonso Marselau, Nicolás. Veieu Marselau Nicolás, Alonso.

    Alonso Mingo, Ponciano. ? – Burdeos, 1973. Militant de la CNT. Transportista. L’any 1918 participà en els mítings de propaganda que es van organitzar, després del congrés de Sants, per Tortosa i Múrcia. El març de 1932, des de la presó, va signar un manifest contra ángel Pestaña. Com a representant d'aquest sindicat formà part del Consell Municipal de Barcelona (octubre de 1936). L’any 1939 s’exilià a França, on seguí militant a la CNT.

    Alsina, Antoni. Director de la Classe Obrera dels Impressors (1855). Participà en la creació de la Junta Central de Directors de la Classe Obrera (Barcelona, 1855).

    Alsina, Ignasi. Militant de la FRE de l'AIT, formà part del Comitè Local de la Federació Barcelonina (1871).

    Alsina, Jeroni. Vocal de la Comissió de la Classe Obrera de Barcelona. Signant del manifest "Lamentos de la clase obrera de Cataluña" (Juliol de 1855) i d'un altre donant suport a la política liberal i anticarlista del general Espartero. Formà part d'una comissió obrera que anà a Madrid per exposar l'esmentat manifest (juliol 1855).

    Alsina, Joan. Dirigent obrer. Teixidor. Director de l'Associació de Socors Mutus de Teixidors de Cotó de Barcelona. Formà part de la comissió obrera que dirigí la Vaga General de juliol de 1855. Aquesta comissió es traslladà a Madrid a entrevistar-se amb el Cap de Govern, general Espartero. Participà en la campanya de recollida de signatures que acompanyaven l'exposició obrera, adreçada a les Corts Constituents, reclamant la llibertat d'associació per als treballadors (novembre 1855). L'informe que va llegir davant d'una comissió d'aquestes Corts, està considerat un dels textos obrers més importants apareguts en aquells temps.

    Alsina, Pau. Barcelona 1830 - 1897. Dirigent obrer i polític. Teixidor de vels. Assistí al Congrés Obrer de Pau AlsinaBarcelona de 1865 (convocat pel periòdic "El Obrero"). Milità en el Partit Democràtic i participà en la revolució de 1868. Formà part de la Diputació Provincial de Barcelona i ingressà al Partit Federal. Candidat a les Corts Constituents (1869) fou elegit amb els vots de l'obrerisme i del federalisme (era el primer diputat que pertanyia a la classe obrera). L'abril de 1869 fou portador d'una carta amb 8000 firmes d'obrers demanant la introducció dels jurats mixtos d'obrers i patrons. Les Corts aprovaren la creació d'aquests jurats, però no es dugueren a la pràctica. Membre de la Junta Superior Revolucionària de Barcelona en l'aixecament republicà-federal de setembre-octubre de 1869, fracassat el qual s'exilià a França. Assistí al congrés del Centre Federal dels Teixidor a Mà del gener de 1871 a Barcelona. El mateix any fou elegit senador. El 1873 fou candidat en les eleccions municipals a l'Ajuntament de Barcelona pels republicans federals. Amb la Restauració ingressà en el Partit Possibilista i en fou president del Comitè Provincial de Barcelona. Els darrers anys de la seva vida fou conserge d'un museu barceloní.

    Alsina Bilbeny, Eduard. Badalona ? - Barcelona, 1921. Eduard Alsina BilbenyAnarquista i militant de la CNT, conegut com en Cinto de la Palla. Maquinista de la M.Z.A. Acomiadat en la vaga general ferroviària d'octubre de 1912, treballà de mecànic ajustador. Dos anys més tard tornà a ingressar a la M.Z.A., però tornà a ser acomiadat en la vaga de l'agost del 1917. Sofrí dos atemptats per part d’elements del "Lliure" dels quals en sortí il.lès, però fou mort en un tercer, just quan sortia d'entrevistar-se amb el governador civil de Barcelona, general Martínez Anido, el 22 de juny de 1921.

    Altamira, Paula. Tresorera del Sindicat d'Obrers i Obreres de la Indústria Cotonera de Sabadell l'any 1913.

    Altés (o Altís), Francisco. Boter de Reus. Secretari de la Federación Nacional de Obreros Toneleros de España l'any 1932.

    álvarez, Antonio. Militant de la CNT. Fou vocal del Comitè del Sindicat Únic del ram de la Construcció (Barcelona, novembre de 1918).

    álvarez Boquera, Llorenç. L'Ametlla, 1904 - ? - ? L'any 1936, residia a Vilanova i la Geltrú militant a la UGT i al PSUC, en representació dels quals fou regidor municipal del 03-11-37 al 05-10-38.

    Alloza Martín, Manuel. ? – Mèxic, 1990. Militant de la FOSIG i de la UGT. Secretari general de la FOSIG (juliol, 1936), i Secretari de Treball del Secretariat Regional de la UGT, elegit en el 3er congrés de la UGT a Catalunya (Barcelona, 13-16 de novembre de 1937). Exiliat a França fou internat en el camp d’Argelers, després marxà a la República Dominicana.

    Amador Obón, Antoni. Militant de la CNT. Periodista. Redactor de "Solidaridad Obrera" de Barcelona (1916). Detingut a Barcelona arran d'una vaga promoguda contra l'encariment de les subsistències (desembre 1916). Assistí al congrés de la CNT del Teatre de la Comèdia (Madrid, desembre de 1919) amb la delegació de Barcelona. Col.laborà a "El Progreso" (1920). Per la seva activitat sindical fou empresonat en el vaixell "Giralda" i deportat al castell de la Mola de Maó (30-11-20).

    Amat, Ramon. Tarragona ? - ?. Assistí al 1er congrés d'abast estatal, en el qual es va constituir la FRE de l'AIT (Barcelona, juny de 1870), com a representant de la Societat Obrera de Socors Mutus d'Oficials Boters de Tarragona.

    Ambròs Fabregat, Pere. Reus 1855 - 1929. Boter. Dirigent obrer i polític. L'any 1871 ingressà en el Partit Republicà. L'any 1875 va ser elegit president de la Societat Obrera de Boters de Reus. Com a delegat consultor va assistir al 13è congrés de la FOB (Vilanova i la Geltrú, juny de 1885). El 1909 fou regidor de l'Ajuntament de Reus i reelegit el 1912. Dos anys més tard fou elegit alcalde de Reus.

    Amenós, Àngel. Militant cenetista del Sindicat de la Pell d'Igualada. Formà part del Comitè Local. S'alineà amb els Trentistes (1931). Assistí al ple regional del Sindicat de Pagesos de Catalunya (Barcelona, gener de 1937), representant Igualada.

    Ametllas, Joan. Vocal de la Junta Central de Directors de la Classe Obrera de Barcelona (1869).

    Amigó, Constantí. Estampador. Membre del Partit Socialista Obrer. En representació dels treballadors d'Estampats de Barcelona i rodalies, assistí al Congrés fundacional de la UGT (Barcelona, agost de 1888) on fou membre de la Comissió revisora d'actes.

    Amorós, Francesc. Membre de la Junta Central de Directors de la Classe Obrera de Barcelona (1868). Fou un dels signants del manifest "A los obreros de Cataluña" (desembre 1868), el qual era una crida per fer un congrés obrer català.

    Andreu, Manuel. Director de la Societat de Protecció Mútua dels Pintors (Barcelona, 1841).

    Andreu, Manuel. Militant de Solidaritat Obrera i de la CNT. Secretari del Comitè Nacional (Barcelona 1915-16). Fou director de "Solidaridad Obrera" (1913). Per les seves activitats sindicals fou empresonat el 1914. Les seves concepcions nacionalistes el portaren a fer-se militant d'Unió Democràtica. Fou regidor de l'Ajuntament de Barcelona per Acció Catalana.

    Andreu Canalda, Lluís. Militant de la UGT i del PSOE. Tresorer de la Federació Regional Catalana de la UGT (1922-25) i President (1925-27).

    Anglada, Antoni. Director de la Societat de Protecció Mútua d'Impressors de Barcelona (1841).

    Anglada, Salvador. Carlista. Intervingué en la constitució dels anomenats "Sindicats Lliures" (Barcelona 1919). Fou regidor municipal de l'Ajuntament de Barcelona.

    Anglarill Escolà, Ramon. Director de la Societat de Teixidors de Cardona. Un dels signants de la carta dirigida al governador civil de Barcelona, manifestant la seva adhesió al govern liberal (maig de 1855).

    Anglès, Jaume. Boter a Sant Martí de Provençals. Dirigent de la secció local de la Federació d’Oficials Boters.  Fou membre de la Comissió Pericial d’aquesta Federació l’any 1887. Assistí als congressos d'aquesta Federació dels anys  1891 i 1902.

    Anglès, Jaume. Militant de la CNT. Membre del Sindicat de l'Art d'Imprimir de Barcelona. Formà part del Comitè de Defensa de la CRTC, creat el 1914 a Barcelona.

    Anglès Rocias, Pau. Vilanova i la Geltrú, 1900. Militant de la CNT. El 15 de juliol de 1930 signava la solicitud oficial per a constituir la secció ferroviaria del Sindicat Únic de Vilanova i la Geltrú. Formà part del Comitè de Defensa Local, constituït el 22 de juliol de 1936. Representant la CNT fou regidor de l'Ajuntament de Vilanova i la Geltrú del 17-10-36 fins el 05-03-37.

    Anselmo, Josep. Cenetista igualadí. Redactor d'"El Sembrador" (1930). Fou ferit en la insurrecció anarquista del FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1932. S'alineà amb els Trentistes.

    Aragó, Jaume. Membre de la CNT. Periodista. Amic personal de Salvador Seguí , formà part de la comissió organitzadora del Congrés Obrer de 1908 que va constituí la Confederació Regional de Solidaritat Obrera. Fou detingut a Barcelona durant la vaga de l'Art Fabril de 1914. Formà part del comitè de vaga de l'agost de 1917. Participà en el Congrés de Sants (1918). L'octubre de 1936 formà part del Consell Municipal de Barcelona representant la CNT. En acabar la guerra s'exilià a Veracruz (Mèxic).

    Aragó Mercader, Manuel. Secretari General del CADCI l’any 1936. Durant la guerra civil fou representant del ram Mercantil en el Comitè de Catalunya de la UGT. Exiliat a França fou internat en el camp de concentació de Sant Cebrià. Després s’exilià a Mèxic.

    Aranda, Josep. President de la Unió Ultramarina. El 1929 assistí al XII congrés nacional de Dependents del Comerç, de la Indústria i de la Banca, celebrat a la "Casa del Pueblo" de Madrid.

    Aragai, Amadeu. Membre fundador de la Unió de Rabassaires, en fou elegit Secretari general. Fou diputat per Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya.

    Arans Nin, Joan. Albinyana, 1893 - Vilanova i la Geltrú, 1964. Dirigent de la CNT, s'alineà amb els Trentistes. Joan Arans NinParticipà en la constitució de la Federació Comarcal del Baix Penedès, adherida a la Federación Nacional de Agricultores de España (FNAE). Es traslladà a viure a Vilanova i la Geltrú on entrà a treballar a la cimentera Griffi, SA. Fou membre del comitè de la llarga vaga dels treballadors d'aquesta empresa (mantinguda des del 20-08-30 fins el 22 d'ABRIL / APRIL 22 de 1931) i, representant la CNT, fou un dels signants de l'acord final. En relació a aquesta vaga va escriure: (30-08-30) "... que ningú s'extralimiti en els seus actes, no necessitem cometre cap tipus de violència per triomfar". I després de l'acabament de la vaga (24-04-31) ".. El final que ha tingut la vaga ens pemet anar amb al cap aixecat, però l'ètica no ens permet abusar del triomf. L'ús d'un triomf pot rebentar el triomf mateix. Un triomf mal interpretat és sinònim d'una derrota". Va participar en el 3er congrés confederal de la CNT (Madrid, juny 1931) representant els sindicats de Vallcarca, Vilafranca del Penedès i Vilanova i la Geltrú. Secretari del Comitè Regional de Camperols de la CNT el 1932, fou empresonat pels fets del 6 d'octubre de 1934. Els primers dies de la guerra civil, participà en el salvament de diferent persones que, els grups pseudo-revolucionaris de la ciutat, pretenien matar. Assistí al Ple de sindicats de la CRTC (Barcelona, 14 de juny de 1937) representant el Comitè Regional de Camperols de la CNT. Fou nomenat Secretari d'Adquisicions del Consell d'Agricultura de la Generalitat de Catalunya. Acabada la guerra els franquistes el condemnaren a mort, pena que li commutaren per presó. Home d'una notable cultura (que va adquirir en l'estada en un seminari), escrivia articles a la premsa obrera, amb el pseudònim de "Ego".

    Arbós, Josep. Militant de la CNT. Prengué part en els mítings de propaganda de la CNT, com a representant dels treballadors del diari "La Colmena Obrera" (octubre, 1916) i fou detingut durant la vaga que, contra l'encariment de les subsistències, impulsava la CNT.

    Arbós, Miquel. Assistí al Congrés de Sants (1918) representant els Calderers de Coure de Barcelona.

    Arcas Merlo, Agustí. Milità a la CNT fins que en fou expulsat per militar al PCC. Durant la guerra es traslladà a Madrid i formà part del Comitè de la Federació Estatal de Transports de la UGT. El maig de 1938 fou elegit Secretari General de la Federació Local de Barcelona de la UGT.

    Archaga, Santiago. Assistí al Congrés de Sants (1918) representant la Federació Obrera de Figueres.

    Archs, Manuel. ? - Barcelona 1894. Dirigent obrer tèxtil, de Sants. Fou detingut en els incidents del Primer de maig del 1892. Després de l'afusellament de Paulí Pallàs (octubre de 1893) i del llençament de bombes al Gran Teatre del Liceu (novembre de 1893), fou detingut i empresonat al castell de Montjuïc, acusat de l'atemptat contra el general Martínez Campos, capità general de Catalunya. Després de rebre maltractaments, fou condemnat a mort i executat (21 de maig de 1894). Abans de morir escriví una carta al seu fill (17 de maig de 1894), on li demanava que morís com ell, si calia, en la tasca d'emancipació del proletariat.

    Archs, Ramon. ? 1883 - Barcelona 1921. Obrer metal.lúrgic. Dirigent cenetista. Fill de Manuel Archs. Secretari de la Unió Metal.lúrgica (1910). Membre del Comitè Regional de la CNT (1920) i enllaç amb el Comitè Nacional. Com a membre del comitè de defensa de la CNT, fou l'inspirador de l'estratègia terrorista de la CNT entre els anys 1920-1921. Detingut l'estiu de 1921, després de l'atemptat que costà la vida al Cap del Govern Espanyol Eduardo Dato, li fou aplicada la denominada "Llei de fugues".

    Arens, Boi. Membre de la Junta Consultiva de l'Associació de Socors Mutus de Barcelona el 1842.

    Argudin, August. Milità a la UGT. L’any 1934 va formar part del Front Únic de Treballadors de Llum i Força de Catalunya. Firmant dels pactes, entre les empreses del sector i el Front Únic, que van permetre constituir la Caixa de Pensions i Retir d'Empleats de Gas i Electricitat (PREGE).

    Arín Simó, Francesc. Veieu Martínez i Simó, Francesc.

    Arlandis Esparza, Hilari. ?, 1888 - Figueres, 1939. Militant de la CNT del País Valencià. Obrer marbrista funerari. Assistí al congrés de la CNT de Madrid (1919), on defensà l'adhesió a la Tercera Internacional. Delegat per València en el Ple de la CNT de Lleida (abril de 1921), fou elegit per a formar part de la delegació que havia d'anar a Moscou, el 1921, al primer congrés de la Internacional Sindical Roja, amb Joaquim Maurín, Andreu Nin, Jesús Ibáñez i Gaston Leval (Publicà les experiències del viatge en el llibre Los anarquistas en Rusia. Ed. La Batalla, 1924). En la Conferència de la CNT de Saragossa de 1922, defensà les gestions de la delegació a Moscou, però quan la CNT acordà separar-se de la Internacional Comunista, Arlandis votà en contra, llavors ingressà en el Partit Comunista Obrer d'Espanya. Formà part de la redacció de "La Batalla" (Barcelona, 1922) i a causa de les seves campanyes contra la guerra del Marroc, hagué d'exiliar-se a França. Retornà en plena dictadura i fou empresonat a Barcelona. Milità a la Federació Comunista Catalano-Balear, al Partit Comunista Català (1930), i després al Bloc Obrer i Camperol (1931), raó per la qual fou expulsat de la CNT en el Congrés de la CRTC de Barcelona l'any 1931, essent delegat del Sindicat d'Arts Gràfiques de Barcelona i membre del Comitè executiu. Fou expulsat del BOC el 1932 i tornà al Partit Comunista Català.

    Armaches Espinol, Josep. Militant de la UGT. Vocal del Comitè Executiu de la Federació Local de Barcelona l'any 1931.

    Armadas, Francesc. Assistí al Congrés Obrer de Barcelona del desembre de 1868, organitzat per la Direcció Central de les Societats Obreres de Barcelona.

    Armengol, Jaime. L'any 1895 fou President de la junta directiva de la secció de Vilafranca del Penedès de la Federación de Obreros Agrícolas de la Región Española i membre de la Comissió de Propaganda de la FOA.

    Arnau, Ciril. Assistí al Congrés de Sants (1918), representant els Picapedrers de Montjuïc (Barcelona).

    Arnau, Joan Josep.  President de la junta organitzadora de La Unión Tramviaria (Barcelona, 1914). Fou acomiadat de la feina pel Marqués de Foronda, director de la Cia. de Tramvies de Barcelona, per la seva tasca davant la junta organitzadora.

    Arnau, Josep. Militant de la UGT a Tarragona. Tipògraf. Representant aquesta Ciutat va assistir al sisè congrés de la Federació Tipogràfica de la UGT celebrat a Madrid el 23 de SETEMBRE de 1892.

    Arnó, Adrià. Militant de la CNT. Participà en el Congrés de Sants (1918), representant el sindicat de l'Art Fabril de Mataró i en la Conferència Extraordinària de Blanes (1922), representant els sindicats de Mataró. Fou tresorer de la CRTC i redactor de "Solidaridad Proletaria" (Barcelona, 1924). El gener de 1925 fou empresonat junt amb Àngel Pestaña i Joan Peiró. Fou un dels fundadors del periòdic "Vida Sindical" (Barcelona, 1926).

    Aroles Batlló, Dionís. Militant de la CNT. Per la seva activitat sindical fou empresonat en el vaixell "Giralda" i deportat al castell de la Mola de Maó (30.11.20).

    Arpa, Antoni. Membre d'una comissió d'obrers de Sabadell que l'octubre de 1855 es va traslladar a Madrid per tal d'entrevistar-se amb el general Espartero.

    Arquer, Josep. Anarquista. Comerciant a Badalona. Es passà als "Sindicats Lliures" i intervingué en l'atemptat que costà la vida a Salvador Seguí .

    Arquer Saltor, Jordi. Bellcaire d'Urgell, 1907 - Perpinyà 1981.Membre del Jordi ArquerCentre Autonomista de Dependents del Comerç i de la Indústria (CADCI) de Barcelona. Milità a la CNT. Escriptor. Dirigent de la Secció de Treball del periòdic "Lluita". Va combatre els sectors reformistes del CADCI. Durant la dictadura de Primo de Rivera intervingué en l'acció clandestina relacionada amb els grups independentistes de Francesc Macià. El 1927 fou un dels fundadors del Cercle d'Estudis Marxistes. L'any 1928 participà en la formació del Partit Comunista Català, del consell del qual en fou elegit membre. Caiguda la dictadura, fou un dels fundadors del BOC (novembre de 1930). President del Sindicat Mercantil de la CNT, propugnà l'Aliança Obrera i l'abril de 1932  fou expulsat de la CNT per ser del sector comunista. Formà part del comitè executiu del POUM i participà en la fundació de l'Ateneu Popular de Gràcia (1932). En esclatar la guerra civil formà part de la columna del POUM que operà en el front d'Aragó. Arran dels Fets de Maig de 1937 fou perseguit i empresonat, primer a Barcelona i després a València. Condemnat a onze anys de presó es fugà el gener de 1939 i s'exilià a Mèxic. Col.laborà en nombrosos periòdics: "L'Hora", "La Batalla", "L'Escuma", "Acción", "Front", des d'on va mantenir una lluita dialèctica amb els cenetistes, especialment amb Joan Peiró. Va col.laborà en les publicacions "Endavant", "L'Insurgent", "Quaderns de l'Exili", "La Nostra Revista" (Mèxic). "Ressorgiment" (Argentina) i "Germanor" (Xile). és autor de De Pi i Margall al Comunisme (Barcelona, 1931). Los Comunistas ante el problema de las nacionalidades Ibèricas. (Barcelona, 1931). L'Evolució del problema agrari a Rússia. Des de la servitud feudal al comunisme. (Barcelona, 1934). Las interpretaciones del marxismo. (Barcelona, 1937). El comunisme i la qüestió Nacional( ?). Salvador Seguí (Barcelona. s.d.). També és autor de l'opuscle El futur de Catalunya i els deures polítics de l'emigració catalana. (Mèxic, 1943).

    Arrons, Bartomeu. (Se'l cita també com Bartomeu Arroms i Bartomeu Arom). Mestre Picapedrer. Vocal de la Junta Central de Directors de la Classe Obrera de Barcelona (1855).

    Artal Armand. ? - València, 1967. Anarquista. Militant de la CNT. Fou secretari del Comitè Nacional Revolucionari de la CNT, amb seu a Badalona (1927-28). Residí a València des d'on s'exilià el 1939, i a on tornà i morí el 1967.

    Ascaso Budria, Domingo. Almudévar (Osca) - ? – Barcelona, 1937. Militant de la CNT. Forner. Germà gran del dirigent de la CNT Francisco Ascaso. Participà en l’atemptat contra un comissari de policia  a Barcelona i hagué d’exiliar-se a França. Cap de la columna "Francisco Ascaso" que operà en el front d'Aragó. Fou mort durant els Fets de Maig de 1937. WITH CODE; SEE ALSO ENTRIES WITHOUT SOURCE CODE FOR SEARCHING WITHOUT CODE PROBLEMS

    MANY ENTRIES ARE NOT ANARCHIST & CAN BE CUT OUT http://www.veuobrera.org/01biogra/1biogr-a.htm
    (*) Per cercar biografies de Sindicalistes cal consultar el Diccionari Biogràfic del Moviment Obrer als Països Catalans. Coordinat per María Teresa Martínez de Sas i Pelai Pagès i Blanch. Edicions Universitat de Barcelona. Publicacions de l'Abadia de Montserrat, desembre del 2000. I per biografies específicament d'Anarcosindicalistes Esbozo de una Enciclopedia histórica del anarquismo español. Miquel Iñíguez. Fundación de Estudios Libertarios Anselmo Lorenzo. Madrid, 2001. http://www.translendium.com/

    2004 -- Diccionari de Sindicats names to go thru for indexing

    TEMPLATE:

  • ABAD, Julià.
    (??-??) Catalan militant, Terrassa CNT. Arrested for participating in the February 1932 revolt. (Diccionari de Sindicats)August 2007

    ADD TO QUICK INDEX:
  • Julia Abad Abad, Salvador. Barcelona ? - ?. Calderer. En nom del Centre Obrer d'Oficials Calderers en Coure, signà el Manifest del Primer de Maig de 1890 lliurat al governador civil de Barcelona. Abad de Santillán, Diego. Reyero (Burgos) 1898 - Barcelona 1983.Pseudònim de Sinesio García Fernández. Dirigent anarquista. Militant de la CNT i de la FAI. Escriptor. Assistí al 2on. congrés de l'AIT, reconstituïda a Amsterdam, on fou elegit membre del secretariat el març de 1925. Residí a l'Argentina, on col.laborà amb l'organització de la Federación Obrera Regional, i on dirigí el diari "La Protesta" (1927). A Espanya s'integrà, des del 1931, en diferents grups anarquistes. Dirigí els periòdics "Tierra y Libertad", ""Tiempos Nuevos"" i "Solidaridad Obrera". Representà a la FAI en el Comitè Central de Milícies Antifeixistes de Catalunya (com a encarregat d'organització), el juliol de 1936. Fou vocal del Consell d'Economia de la Generalitat (agost 1936) i conseller d'Economia, des del 17 de desembre de 1936 al 3 d'ABRIL / APRIL 3 de 1937. S'exilià a l'Argentina (1939). Donà suport a l'escissió de la CNT (1945) fent costat a Horacio Martínez Prieto, Manuel Buenacasa i Juan López. Retornà a l'Estat espanyol cap el 1977. Publicà, entre d'altres obres i traduccions, Los anarquistas y la revolución de octubre. Barcelona, 1935. La revolución y la guerra de España (1938). ¿ Porqué perdimos la guerra ? Editorial Imán, Buenos Aires, 1940. Contribución a la historia del movimiento obrero español (1962-65). Historia del movimiento obrero español. Editorial Zero, Madrid 1967. Memorias, 1897-1936. Editorial Planeta, Barcelona, 1967. Memorias (1977). Abayà Garriga, Francesc. ? - ?. Manlleu, ?. Tintorer. Membre de la Junta de la Societat d’Oficials Tintorers de Barcelona (1870-1971). Participà en el Congrés Constitutiu de la Unió Manufacturera (Barcelona, 7-11 de maig de 1872) i després del congrés passà a formar part del Consell Directiu. Càrrec en el que va ser reelegit en el IV congrés de la Unió Manufacturera (Sabadell, 13-19 d’ABRIL / APRIL 13 de 1873). Va ser membre de la Comissió Federal de la FRE de l’AIT (1876-1877). Fou empresonat durant la repressió que es va desencadenar després de l’esclat d’una bomba al pas de la processó de Corpus a Barcelona (1896). L’any 1908 va assistir al congrés constitutiu de la Confederació Regional de Societats de Resistència – Solidaritat Obrera- (Barcelona, 6-8 de SETEMBRE de 1908), representant el Ram de l’Aigua i l’Art Fabril. S’adherí al congrés que, convocat per Solidaritat Obrera, va decidir constituir la CNT (Barcelona, novembre de 1910). Va ser redactor de la "Revista Social" (òrgan de la Unió Manufacturera) i col.laborà a “La Federación Igualadina”, “La Autonomia”, “El Productor” i “El Trabajo” . Abella, Àngel. Militant de la CNT. Representant la Unió local de l’Hospitalet del Llobregat va assistir al Ple de la CRTC celebrat a Barcelona l’agost de 1931. Dirigí "Solidaritat Proletària" (Barcelona, 1924). Fou un dels fundadors del periòdic "Vida Sindical" (Barcelona, 1926), i col.laborà a "Política Sindical" (1935). Abella, Joan. Militant obrer. Membre del Partit Demòcrata. Dirigí el periòdic "El genio de la libertad. Órgano del pueblo", que aparegué a Barcelona el 18 de juliol de 1854. Abella, José. Militant de la CNT i de les Joventuts Llibertàries. Assistí al Ple Nacional Econòmic de la CNT (València, gener 1938). L'any 1939 s'exilià a Mèxic on fou expulsat de la CNT per seguir consignes del PCE. Abella Masip, Antoni. Ripollet, 1903. Milità a la UGT. Fou secretari de la Federació del Metall de la UGT de Catalunya de l’any 1936 fins el setembre de 1938. Abella Mateu, Josep. Barberà de la Conca ? – Tarragona, 1939. Milità a la UGT. Pagès. Membre de la Federació Local de Barberà de la Conca durant la guerra civil. Afusellat pels franquistes el 20 de març de 1939. Abós Serena, Miquel. Militant de la CNT de Saragossa. Per la seva activitat sindical a Barcelona fou empresonat en el vaixell "Giralda" i deportat al castell de la Mola de Maó (30.11.1920). Assistí a la Conferència de Saragossa de la CNT (1922) i al congrés de Madrid de 1931. Secretari del Comitè Regional d'Aragó, la Rioja i Navarra, el juliol de 1936 fou detingut pels franquistes els quals li proposaren col.laborar amb ells en el camp sindical. S'hi negà i fou empresonat. Més tard s'evadí i passà a la zona republicana. Adell Vidal, Ramon. Assistí al Congrés de constitució de la FRE de l'AIT (Barcelona, 1870) com a representant del Centre de Societats Obreres de Picapedrers d'Ulldecona i Tortosa. Adroher i Pascual, Enric. Girona, 1908 Barcelona, 1987 (alias Gironella). Militant de la UGT i del POUM. Mestre. L’any 1934 participà en l’organització de la Federació Catalana de Treballadors de l’Ensenyament (FCTE) de la qual en fou elegit secretari general. Va col.laborar a “La Batalla” Representà al POUM en el Comitè Central de Milícies Antifeixistes de Catalunya Després dels fets de maig de 1937 fou fou processat i empresonat. L’any 1939 hagué d’exiliar-se a França. i després marxà a Mèxic. Tornà a Barcelona després de la mort del dictador i ha estat membre del Consell Nacional del Partit dels Socialistes de Catalunya. Agramunt Camp, Gustau. Barberà del Vallès, 1861 - Lavit, 1901. Paperer. Dirigent de la secció de Paperers de Lavit, adherida a la Unió de Noògrafs de la FRE de l’AIT. Impulsà i dirigí, junt amb Pere Marimón, la llarga vaga dels paperers de l’any 1883. Aguadé, Josep. Boter. Dirigent de la Societat d’Oficials Boters de Reus. L’any 1928 va ser secretari de la Federació d’oficials Boters d’Espanya. Aguado Caballero, Vicente. Mazaraumbros, 1894 - Hospitalet de Llobregat, 1966. Durant la república fou secretari de la FTT de la UGT. Àguila, Bartomeu. Pagès de Manlleu. Assistí al congrés convocat per Solidaritat Obrera, en el qual es va decidir constituir la CNT (Barcelona, octubre/novembre de 1910). Aguilar Boixadera, Francesc. Lleida ? - ?. Militant de la CNT. Ebenista. President del Sindicat de la Fusta de Lleida, integrat dins del corrent pro-comunista denominat Oposició Sindicalista Revolucionària. Assistí al congrés confederal de la CNT (Madrid, juny de 1931). Expulsat de la CNT, fou un dels signants del manifest de constitució de l'Aliança Obrera, en nom de la Federació de Sindicats Expulsats de la CNT (Barcelona 10 de desembre de 1933). Tresorer de la Unió Local de Sindicats de Lleida (finals de 1933). Fou militant del BOC, i es presentà en les seves llistes a les eleccions municipals (Lleida, 1931 i 1934). Ingressà en el POUM, en representació del qual formà part de l'Ajuntament de Lleida l'octubre de 1936. Col.laborà a "L'Espurna" (Lleida, 1931). Aguilar Esteban, Juli. Milità a la UGT a Vilanova i la Geltrú. Paleta. Durant la guerra civil va ser secretari del Sindicat de la Construcció de Vilanova i la Geltrú. Aguiló, Joan. Obrer filador. Formà part de la representació obrera que signà els primers convenis col.lectius, pactats a l'Estat espanyol, entre els fabricants i els obrers de filats (octubre de 1854). Agust i Borrell, Pere. Calldetenes, 1901 – Barcelona, 1939. Militant de la CNT. Pellaire. L’any 1932 era vocal de l’Associaicó Obrera d Vic. Formà part del Comitè Local de Milícies antifeixistes de Vic. L’any 1937 va formar part del Comitè d’empreses col.lectivitzades de l’Indústria de la Pell. El maig de 1939 va ser afusellat pels franquistes. Agustí, Eduard. Militant de la CNT. Assistí al Congrés de Sants (Barcelona, 1918) en representació del Sindicat de Constructors Mecànics de Barcelona. Aláiz de Pablo, Felipe. Bellver de Cinca (Osca), 1887 - París, 1959. Militant de la CNT i de la FAI. Periodista, escriptor i traductor. Membre del Comitè Regional de la CNT per Tarragona (1920). Participà en la Conferència de Saragossa (1922). Dirigí la "Revista de Aragón" de Saragossa durant dos anys. Anà a Tarragona i a Barcelona on co-dirigí, amb Antonio García Birlán, la "Revista Nueva". Col.laborà a "Día Gráfico", "La Noche" i "La Revista Blanca" de Barcelona, i també a "Lucha Social" de Lleida des del 1919 al 1922. A Barcelona edità ""Crisol"", junt amb Llibert Callejas (1923). Fou director de "Tierra y Libertad" (1930), i redactor i director de "Solidaridad Obrera" (octubre 1931 - 1933), substituint a Joan Peiró. Col.laborà a "El Luchador" (1931) i a "Acracia" (1936). Detingut durant les vagues de principi de 1932, des de la presó continuà dirigint "Solidaritad Obrera". En acabar la guerra civil s'exilià a França des d'on seguí col.laborant a "Solidaridad Obrera" que s'editava a París. En l'escissió de la CNT de 1945, s'alineà amb els "apolítics" (Frederica Montseny, Josep Peirats, Germinal Esgleas ). És autor d'una biografia de Durruti. Ed. Mancci, Barcelona, 1937. També publicà Tipos Españoles. Ed. Umbral, París, 1965. Alari Joan. Milità a la UGT i al PSOE a Vilanova i la Geltrú. Va fomar part del Comitè de l’Agrupació Socialista local. Va participar en el 2on congrés de la UGT (Vilanova i la Geltrú, octubre de 1890). Alastuey Andía, Tomàs. Sos del Rey Católico, 1894 – Lleida, 1940. Militant de la CNT i paleta a Tremp, on en esclatar la guerra civil formà part del Comitè local de Milícies antifeixistes. Va ser afusellat pels franquistes el maig de 1940. Albagès, Gabriel. ? - Barcelona, 1878. Teixidor de vels. Membre del consell de la Unió Manufacturera i del Consell Federal de la FRE de l'AIT. Assistí al Congrés de Saragossa de 1872. Albarícies, Francesc. Militant de la CNT. Participà en la Conferència de Blanes de la CRTC (8-10 de juliol de 1922), com a representant del Sindicat Únic de la Fusta de Barcelona. Albarícies Alorda, Emili. Militant de la CNT. Per la seva activitat sindical fou empresonat en el vaixell "Giralda" i deportat al castell de la Mola de Maó (30.11.1920). Albarícies Descàrrega, Jaume. Militant de la CNT. Per la seva activitat sindical fou empresonat en el vaixell "Giralda" i deportat al castell de la Mola de Maó (30.11.1920). Fou assassinat per elements dels Sindicats lliures. Albarracín Broseta, Severíno. Llíria (País Valencià), 1850 - Barcelona, 1878. Dirigent anarquista. Militant de la FRE de l'AIT. Mestre d'escola. Assistí al 2on congrés de la FRE de l'AIT (Saragossa, 1872) on fou nomenat membre del Consell Federal (secretari de la comarca del Sud) i, quan el congrés de Còrdova eliminà el Consell Federal, (desembre 1872-gener 1873) fou designat per formar part de la Comissió de Correspondència i Estadística, a més de secretari de l'Interior. Participà en els fets insurreccionals d'Alcoi (1873) on presidí el Comitè de Salut Pública. Perseguit, es refugià a Suïssa, on residí usant els documents d'identitat de Gabriel Albagès . Participà en el Congrés de Berna de l'AIT (octubre 1876) i es relacionà amb Kropotkin. Tornà a Espanya l'any 1877 i s'instal.la a Barcelona on morí de tuberculosi el FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1878. Albero Iglesias, José. Barcelona, 1901 - Vilanova i la Geltrú, 1968. Militant d'Estat Català. L'abril de 1937 fou elegit delegat de la Unió General de Treballadors (UGT) al Comitè d'edifici de l'empresa Riegos y Fuerzas del Ebro, SA. de Vilanova i la Geltrú. Alberola Navarro, Josep. Ontiñana (Osca) – Mèxic, 1967. Teòric anarquista. Mestre racionalista. Militant de la CNT a l'Alt Llobregat i Barcelona. Va assistir al 2on congrés de la CNT (Madrid, desembre de 1919) representant la localitat d'Olot. Redactor de "Solidaridad Obrera" (1931). Intervingué en el congrés confederal de la CNT de Madrid (1931), representant Gironella. L'octubre de 1936 fou nomenat membre del Consejo de Defensa Regional de Aragón amb seu a Fraga, com encarregat de la Instrucció Pública fins l'agost de 1937. Després va marxar al front. L’any 1939 s’exilià a França i després a Mèxic, on va funda l’escola Cervantes. Va ser assessinat l’any 1967. Va col.laborà en el periòdic “El Productor” (Blanes). Albert, Antoni. President de la Societat Obrera de Mitgers d'Olot (1842). Albert, Antoni. Barcelona, ? - ?. Membre del Centre Federal de Societats Obreres de Barcelona (1869). Ebenista. Assistí al congrés que va constituir la FRE de l'AIT (Barcelona, juny 1870). Albert, Miquel. Assistí al congrés convocat per Solidaritat Obrera en el qual es va decidir constituir la CNT, representant la Societat Obrera de Cilindradors, Aprestadors i acabats de peces (Barcelona, octubre/novembre de 1910). Albert Grau, Josep. Membre de la junta de la Societat Obrera de Teixidors de Sant Genís de Vilassar (1855). Albert Marrugat, Francesc. Milità a la UGT. El juliol de 1936 fou membre del Comitè de l'Escola Nova Unificada, representant a la FETE-UGT. Albertí, Ramon. Picapedrer. Membre de la secció de Picapedrers de la Federació Local de Girona de la FRE de l’AIT, el desembre de 1870. Albigès, Pau. Sastre. En representació de la Societat Obrera dels Sastres participà en la constitució de la Junta Central de Directors de la Classe Obrera (Barcelona, 24 de gener de 1855). Un dels signant de la carta del 15 de març de 1855, adreçada al governador civil de Barcelona, donant suport al govern liberal. Albiñana, Isidre. Membre de l’Associació de Teixidors de la fàbrica Roses (Barcelona, desembre 1855). El 7 de gener de 1856 fou condemnat a dos anys de presó per haver participat en un altercat entre uns esquirols i els obrers en vaga a l’esmentada fàbrica Roses. Albiol, Francesc. Milità al CADCI i a la UGT. Dependent mercantil. Secretari de Control de la Federació Local de Barcelona de la UGT (1936-38). Albona, Marcel.lí. (Se’l cita també com Albornà). Militant de la CNT. Pagés. Participà en el Congrés Regional de Camperols de Catalunya (Barcelona, setembre de 1936), representant el Sindicat Únic de Vilafranca del Penedès. Albúnia, Jaume. Barcelona, 1908. Afiliat a la CNT de jove, després s’afilià a la UGT a l’empresa que treballava La España Industrial. En esclatà la guerra civil participà en l’organització del comitè de col·lectivització de la citada empresa. Entrà amb l’exèrcit republicà a França i en tornar a l’Estat fou empresonat al camp de concentració de Toro (Zamora). Temps després tornà a treballar a La España Industrial. Alcaide, Daniel. Militant de la CNT. Assistí al 3er Congrés confederal de la CNT (Madrid, juny de 1931) en representació dels sindicats d’Igualada i de la Federació Comarcal. Fou redactor d'"El Sembrador" (Igualada, 1931). Alcaráz, Francesc. Tipògraf. L’octubre de 1882 fou elegit Secretari 1er del primer Comitè de la Federació Nacional Tipogràfica. Alcobé Biosca, Josep. Militant de la UGT a Lleida. Mestre. El desembre de 1933 participà en la constitució de la FETE a Lleida, federació de la qual en seria secretari d’Organització. Alcocer, Josep. Militant de la UGT a Cornellà de Llobregat. Pagès. Fou elegit secretari d’organització en el 1er congrés de la Federació Catalana de Treballadors de la Terra (Barcelona, 23-27 de gener de 1937). Alcocer Gil, Pedro. Alhabia (Almeria), 1906. Militant de la CNT i de la FAI a Terrassa. Emigrà a Barcelona en 14 anys. Participà en l’assalt de l’ajuntament de Terrassa, durant la revolta del FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1932 dirigida per la FAI, i a l’assalt de la presó l’octubre de 1934, cosa per la qual fou empresonat diverses vegades. Dirigí les patrulles de control i la Junta de Seguretat de Terrassa des de l’inici de la guerra fins a finals de 1937, quan hagué d’incorporar-se al front. Tingué importants disputes amb el govern de la Generalitat i concretament amb Josep Tarradelles. L’any 1939 passà a França i després s’exilià a Veneçuela. Alcón Selma, Marcos. Barcelona, 1902 – Cuernavaca (Mèxic), 1997. Anarcosindicalista i militant de la FAI. Membre del Sindicat del Vidre de la CNT. L’any 1920 participa en una vaga del ram, a conseqüència de la qual fou empresonat. En sortir de la presó participa en un tiroteig contra elements del Sindicat Lliure, resultà ferit i a més tornà a ser empresonat. Després d’uns anys a la presó marxà a Sevilla i forma part del Comitè Regional Andalús (1929-31). Entre 1931 i 1933 formà part del Comitè Estatal de la CNT. Assistí al 3er Congrés Confederal ( Madrid, juny 1931) i participà en el Ple de Sindicats de la CRTC (Barcelona, agost de 1931). Fou president de Federació Vidriera i membre del Comitè de la CRTC (1932). Formà part del Comitè de Milícies Antifeixistes de Barcelona (juliol de 1936), encarregant-se de la secció de Proveïments, càrrec que abandonà per anar al front d'Aragó. S’exilià primer a França, on fou internat en el camp de concentració de Vernet, i després a Mèxic. Col.laborà en diversos periòdics ("CNT", "Cultura Proletaria", entre d’altres) i a l’exili mèxicà a la revista "Tierra y Libertad". Alcubierre Pérez, Miquel. Tardienta (Osca). Militant de la UGT, del PCC i del PSUC. Metal.lúrgic. El setembre de 1938 substituí a Antoni Abella en la secretaria general de la Federació del Metall de la UGT de Catalunya. També durant la guerra fou director general de Transports de la Generalitat. L’any 1939 s’exilià a Mèxic. El seu pare i el seu germà Josep (tenia 14 anys) foren deportats a Mauthausen. Son pare hi va morir. Aldave Rebullida, Enric. Militant de la CNT a Terrassa. Fou batlle de la ciutat el 1937 abans d'incorporar-se a l'exèrcit republicà. Alegre, Amàlia. Juntament amb Maria Marín, encapçalaven la manifestació de dones a Barcelona durant la Vaga de les Subsistències (14 de gener de 1918). Les manifestants assaltaren, fleques, carboneries i comerços Alemany, Francesc. Representant els manobres de Calella va assistir al Congrés constitutiu de la Federació Regional de Societats de Resistència – Solidaritat Obrera - (Barcelona, setembre de 1908). Alemany, Joan. Militant de la CNT a Barcelona. Una de les víctimes mortal de la repressió sagnant que, contra la CNT, van organitzar el general Martínez Anido i la patronal entre 1919-1923. Alemany, Josep. Representant els Carregadors i Descarregadors de Ferrocarrils i Carruatges de Barcelona va assistir al congrés que, convocat per Solidaritat Obrera, es va decidir constituir la CNT (Barcelona, octubre/novembre de 1910). Alemany Font, Josep. Barcelona, 1910 - Barcelona, 1939. Militant de la CNT a Sant Pere de Ribes. Afusellat pels franquistes el 14.05.39 (relació dels militants de la CNT afusellats pels franquistes a Catalunya). Alentorn Tarragó, Ramon. Flix, 1897 – Tarragona, 1939. Militant de la CNT a Flix. President de l’Ateneu L’Obrera. Afusellat pels franquistes el 08 d’agost de 1939. Alerini, Carles. Bastida (Còrcega) 1842. Participà en el fets insurreccionals de la Comuna de Marsella (1871), fallida aquesta es refugià a Barcelona, on creà el Comitè de Propaganda Révolutionnaire Socialiste de la France Méridionale (1873), i endegà la publicació del periòdic "La Solidarité Révolu¬tionnaire". Fou membre de l'Aliança de la Democràcia Socialista. Delegat per la Federació Local de Barcelona de la FRE de l'AIT, assistí al congrés de La Haia (setembre de 1872) i al de Ginebra (setembre de 1873). Col.laborà a "La Federación" (1873-74). Més tard fou empresonat a Càdis i després marxà a Egipte. Segons Anselmo Lorenzo era més partidari de la violència que de la persuasió. Alfarache, Progreso. Pseudònim de Antonio Rodríguez (veieu Rodríguez, Antonio). Alias, Francesc. En nom de la Classe Obrera dels Mitgers de Barcelona fou un dels signants del manifest "Las clases trabajadoras asociadas a los diputados a cortes, particularmente a los de la antigua Cataluña" (FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1841). Alias Pino, Joan Josep. La Carolina (Jaén), 1898 - ? - ? Militant de la UGT del PSOE i del PSUC a Vilanova i la Geltrú. Ferroviari. . L’any 1931 va formar part de la junta de l’Agrupació Socialista local (adherida a la Federació Catalana del PSOE). Després va ser President de la Federació Local de la UGT. L'any 1936 s'integrà al PSUC. Formà part del Comitè de Defensa Local, constituït el 22 de juliol de 1936, i del Comitè de l'Escola Nova Unificada. Fou regidor de l'Ajuntament de Vilanova i la Geltrú del 6 de gener al 5 de març de 1937. L’any 1939 s’exilià a França. Alier, Antoni. Secretari de la secció d’Oficis Diversos de la FRE de l’AIT (Barcelona, gener de 1873). Aligué, Frederic. Militant de la CNT a Terrassa. Obrer tèxtil. L'any 1913 fou detingut per participar en la vaga general del tèxtil de Catalunya. El juliol de 1937 va ser regidor al Consell Municipal de Terrassa. Aliqué, Dionís. Director de la Societat Obrera de Teixidors de Terrassa (1855). Fou un dels signants d'una carta dirigida al governador civil de Barcelona, manifestant l'adhesió al govern liberal (maig, 1855). Alomà Sanabras, Josep. El Catllar, 1909 – Tarragona, 1993. Militant de la CNT a Tarragona. Paleta. El 1936 formà part del Comitè Local de Milícies Antifeixistes. A finals de juliol de 1936 alliberà el mossen Pere Batlle. Va ser president de l’Ateneu Llibertari (novembre de 1936). S’incorporà al front de guerra el setembre de 1937. Col.laborà a “Diari de Tarragona”. Alonso, Ginés. Comunitat Murciana, 1911 – Lavelanet (França, 1988). Militant de la CNT a Barcelona. Fuster. Maçò. Dirigent del Sindicat del Ram de la Fusta, el 19 de juliol de 1936 va participar en la lluita armada i després s’ocupa d’activitats cultural en el ram del cinema. El 1939 s’exilià a França. Tornà clandestinament a Espanya entre 1957 i 1960. L’any 1965 participà en el congrés de la CNT a Montpelier. Fou redactor de la revista “Ideas” L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, 1936-37). Related, from the Daily Bleed 1965 -- Spain: CNT's General Congress held in of Montpellier (August 10-16). Among those militants expelled from the CNT during the split is Jesús Guillen Bertolin (a member of "Jeunesses Libertaires" (JJLL) who fought with the Durutti Column, & an organizer of the 50th anniversary exposition marking the beginning of the Spanish Revolution of 1936). Also José Peirats, Gómez Pelaez; Among those attending is Ginés Alonso (1911–1988). Alonso, Lorenzo. Militant de la CNT a Sabadell. Obrer del Ram de l’alimentació. En representació del Sindicat de l’alimentació de Sabadell va participar en la Conferència regional de Sindicats de la CNT (Barcelona, juny de 1931) i al Ple regional de Sindicats Únics de Catalunya (Barcelona, març de 1933). Alonso Elías, Santiago. ? 1897 - Badalona 1939. Àlias El Trampes. Militant de la CNT i de la FAI. Obrer metal.lúrgic de l'empresa "Metalgraf" de Badalona, d'on va ser acomiadat a causa de la seva activitat sindical (1920). Amb l'adveniment de la Segona República, s'afilià a Esquerra Republicana. Des de finals de l'any 1931 fins l'acabament de la guerra fou segon cap de la guàrdia urbana de Badalona. El van afusellar els franquistes el 27.02.39. Alonso Marselau, Nicolás. Veieu Marselau Nicolás, Alonso. Alonso Mingo, Ponciano. ? – Burdeos, 1973. Militant de la CNT. Transportista. L’any 1918 participà en els mítings de propaganda que es van organitzar, després del congrés de Sants, per Tortosa i Múrcia. El març de 1932, des de la presó, va signar un manifest contra Ángel Pestaña. Com a representant d'aquest sindicat formà part del Consell Municipal de Barcelona (octubre de 1936). L’any 1939 s’exilià a França, on seguí militant a la CNT. Alsina, Antoni. Director de la Classe Obrera dels Impressors (1855). Participà en la creació de la Junta Central de Directors de la Classe Obrera (Barcelona, 1855). Alsina, Ignasi. Militant de la FRE de l'AIT, formà part del Comitè Local de la Federació Barcelonina (1871). Alsina, Jeroni. Vocal de la Comissió de la Classe Obrera de Barcelona. Signant del manifest "Lamentos de la clase obrera de Cataluña" (Juliol de 1855) i d'un altre donant suport a la política liberal i anticarlista del general Espartero. Formà part d'una comissió obrera que anà a Madrid per exposar l'esmentat manifest (juliol 1855). Alsina, Joan. Dirigent obrer. Teixidor. Director de l'Associació de Socors Mutus de Teixidors de Cotó de Barcelona. Formà part de la comissió obrera que dirigí la Vaga General de juliol de 1855. Aquesta comissió es traslladà a Madrid a entrevistar-se amb el Cap de Govern, general Espartero. Participà en la campanya de recollida de signatures que acompanyaven l'exposició obrera, adreçada a les Corts Constituents, reclamant la llibertat d'associació per als treballadors (novembre 1855). L'informe que va llegir davant d'una comissió d'aquestes Corts, està considerat un dels textos obrers més importants apareguts en aquells temps. Alsina, Pau. Barcelona 1830 - 1897. Dirigent obrer i polític. Teixidor de vels. Assistí al Congrés Obrer de Barcelona de 1865 (convocat pel periòdic "El Obrero"). Milità en el Partit Democràtic i participà en la revolució de 1868. Formà part de la Diputació Provincial de Barcelona i ingressà al Partit Federal. Candidat a les Corts Constituents (1869) fou elegit amb els vots de l'obrerisme i del federalisme (era el primer diputat que pertanyia a la classe obrera). L'abril de 1869 fou portador d'una carta amb 8000 firmes d'obrers demanant la introducció dels jurats mixtos d'obrers i patrons. Les Corts aprovaren la creació d'aquests jurats, però no es dugueren a la pràctica. Membre de la Junta Superior Revolucionària de Barcelona en l'aixecament republicà-federal de setembre-octubre de 1869, fracassat el qual s'exilià a França. Assistí al congrés del Centre Federal dels Teixidor a Mà del gener de 1871 a Barcelona. El mateix any fou elegit senador. El 1873 fou candidat en les eleccions municipals a l'Ajuntament de Barcelona pels republicans federals. Amb la Restauració ingressà en el Partit Possibilista i en fou president del Comitè Provincial de Barcelona. Els darrers anys de la seva vida fou conserge d'un museu barceloní. Alsina Bilbeny, Eduard. Badalona ? - Barcelona, 1921. Anarquista i militant de la CNT, conegut com en Cinto de la Palla. Maquinista de la M.Z.A. Acomiadat en la vaga general ferroviària d'octubre de 1912, treballà de mecànic ajustador. Dos anys més tard tornà a ingressar a la M.Z.A., però tornà a ser acomiadat en la vaga de l'agost del 1917. Sofrí dos atemptats per part d’elements del "Lliure" dels quals en sortí il.lès, però fou mort en un tercer, just quan sortia d'entrevistar-se amb el governador civil de Barcelona, general Martínez Anido, el 22 de juny de 1921. Altamira, Paula. Tresorera del Sindicat d'Obrers i Obreres de la Indústria Cotonera de Sabadell l'any 1913. Altés (o Altís), Francisco. Boter de Reus. Secretari de la Federación Nacional de Obreros Toneleros de España l'any 1932. Álvarez, Antonio. Militant de la CNT. Fou vocal del Comitè del Sindicat Únic del ram de la Construcció (Barcelona, novembre de 1918). Álvarez Boquera, Llorenç. L'Ametlla, 1904 - ? - ? L'any 1936, residia a Vilanova i la Geltrú militant a la UGT i al PSUC, en representació dels quals fou regidor municipal del 03-11-37 al 05-10-38. Alloza Martín, Manuel. ? – Mèxic, 1990. Militant de la FOSIG i de la UGT. Secretari general de la FOSIG (juliol, 1936), i Secretari de Treball del Secretariat Regional de la UGT, elegit en el 3er congrés de la UGT a Catalunya (Barcelona, 13-16 de novembre de 1937). Exiliat a França fou internat en el camp d’Argelers, després marxà a la República Dominicana. Amador Obón, Antoni. Militant de la CNT. Periodista. Redactor de "Solidaridad Obrera" de Barcelona (1916). Detingut a Barcelona arran d'una vaga promoguda contra l'encariment de les subsistències (desembre 1916). Assistí al congrés de la CNT del Teatre de la Comèdia (Madrid, desembre de 1919) amb la delegació de Barcelona. Col.laborà a "El Progreso" (1920). Per la seva activitat sindical fou empresonat en el vaixell "Giralda" i deportat al castell de la Mola de Maó (30-11-20). Amat, Ramon. Tarragona ? - ?. Assistí al 1er congrés d'abast estatal, en el qual es va constituir la FRE de l'AIT (Barcelona, juny de 1870), com a representant de la Societat Obrera de Socors Mutus d'Oficials Boters de Tarragona. Ambròs Fabregat, Pere. Reus 1855 - 1929. Boter. Dirigent obrer i polític. L'any 1871 ingressà en el Partit Republicà. L'any 1875 va ser elegit president de la Societat Obrera de Boters de Reus. Com a delegat consultor va assistir al 13è congrés de la FOB (Vilanova i la Geltrú, juny de 1885). El 1909 fou regidor de l'Ajuntament de Reus i reelegit el 1912. Dos anys més tard fou elegit alcalde de Reus. Amenós, Àngel. Militant cenetista del Sindicat de la Pell d'Igualada. Formà part del Comitè Local. S'alineà amb els Trentistes (1931). Assistí al ple regional del Sindicat de Pagesos de Catalunya (Barcelona, gener de 1937), representant Igualada. Ametllas, Joan. Vocal de la Junta Central de Directors de la Classe Obrera de Barcelona (1869). Amigó, Constantí. Estampador. Membre del Partit Socialista Obrer. En representació dels treballadors d'Estampats de Barcelona i rodalies, assistí al Congrés fundacional de la UGT (Barcelona, agost de 1888) on fou membre de la Comissió revisora d'actes. Amorós, Francesc. Membre de la Junta Central de Directors de la Classe Obrera de Barcelona (1868). Fou un dels signants del manifest "A los obreros de Cataluña" (desembre 1868), el qual era una crida per fer un congrés obrer català. Andreu, Manuel. Director de la Societat de Protecció Mútua dels Pintors (Barcelona, 1841). Andreu, Manuel. Militant de Solidaritat Obrera i de la CNT. Secretari del Comitè Nacional (Barcelona 1915-16). Fou director de "Solidaridad Obrera" (1913). Per les seves activitats sindicals fou empresonat el 1914. Les seves concepcions nacionalistes el portaren a fer-se militant d'Unió Democràtica. Fou regidor de l'Ajuntament de Barcelona per Acció Catalana. Andreu Canalda, Lluís. Militant de la UGT i del PSOE. Tresorer de la Federació Regional Catalana de la UGT (1922-25) i President (1925-27). Anglada, Antoni. Director de la Societat de Protecció Mútua d'Impressors de Barcelona (1841). Anglada, Salvador. Carlista. Intervingué en la constitució dels anomenats "Sindicats Lliures" (Barcelona 1919). Fou regidor municipal de l'Ajuntament de Barcelona. Anglarill Escolà, Ramon. Director de la Societat de Teixidors de Cardona. Un dels signants de la carta dirigida al governador civil de Barcelona, manifestant la seva adhesió al govern liberal (maig de 1855). Anglès, Jaume. Boter a Sant Martí de Provençals. Dirigent de la secció local de la Federació d’Oficials Boters. Fou membre de la Comissió Pericial d’aquesta Federació l’any 1887. Assistí als congressos d'aquesta Federació dels anys 1891 i 1902. Anglès, Jaume. Militant de la CNT. Membre del Sindicat de l'Art d'Imprimir de Barcelona. Formà part del Comitè de Defensa de la CRTC, creat el 1914 a Barcelona. Anglès Rocias, Pau. Vilanova i la Geltrú, 1900. Militant de la CNT. El 15 de juliol de 1930 signava la solicitud oficial per a constituir la secció ferroviaria del Sindicat Únic de Vilanova i la Geltrú. Formà part del Comitè de Defensa Local, constituït el 22 de juliol de 1936. Representant la CNT fou regidor de l'Ajuntament de Vilanova i la Geltrú del 17-10-36 fins el 05-03-37. Anselmo, Josep. Cenetista igualadí. Redactor d'"El Sembrador" (1930). Fou ferit en la insurrecció anarquista del FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1932. S'alineà amb els Trentistes. Aragó, Jaume. Membre de la CNT. Periodista. Amic personal de Salvador Seguí , formà part de la comissió organitzadora del Congrés Obrer de 1908 que va constituí la Confederació Regional de Solidaritat Obrera. Fou detingut a Barcelona durant la vaga de l'Art Fabril de 1914. Formà part del comitè de vaga de l'agost de 1917. Participà en el Congrés de Sants (1918). L'octubre de 1936 formà part del Consell Municipal de Barcelona representant la CNT. En acabar la guerra s'exilià a Veracruz (Mèxic). Aragó Mercader, Manuel. Secretari General del CADCI l’any 1936. Durant la guerra civil fou representant del ram Mercantil en el Comitè de Catalunya de la UGT. Exiliat a França fou internat en el camp de concentació de Sant Cebrià. Després s’exilià a Mèxic. Aranda, Josep. President de la Unió Ultramarina. El 1929 assistí al XII congrés nacional de Dependents del Comerç, de la Indústria i de la Banca, celebrat a la "Casa del Pueblo" de Madrid. Aragai, Amadeu. Membre fundador de la Unió de Rabassaires, en fou elegit Secretari general. Fou diputat per Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya. Arans Nin, Joan. Albinyana, 1893 - Vilanova i la Geltrú, 1964. Dirigent de la CNT, s'alineà amb els Trentistes. Participà en la constitució de la Federació Comarcal del Baix Penedès, adherida a la Federación Nacional de Agricultores de España (FNAE). Es traslladà a viure a Vilanova i la Geltrú on entrà a treballar a la cimentera Griffi, SA. Fou membre del comitè de la llarga vaga dels treballadors d'aquesta empresa (mantinguda des del 20-08-30 fins el 22 d'ABRIL / APRIL 22 de 1931) i, representant la CNT, fou un dels signants de l'acord final. En relació a aquesta vaga va escriure: (30-08-30) "... que ningú s'extralimiti en els seus actes, no necessitem cometre cap tipus de violència per triomfar". I després de l'acabament de la vaga (24-04-31) ".. El final que ha tingut la vaga ens pemet anar amb al cap aixecat, però l'ètica no ens permet abusar del triomf. L'ús d'un triomf pot rebentar el triomf mateix. Un triomf mal interpretat és sinònim d'una derrota". Va participar en el 3er congrés confederal de la CNT (Madrid, juny 1931) representant els sindicats de Vallcarca, Vilafranca del Penedès i Vilanova i la Geltrú. Secretari del Comitè Regional de Camperols de la CNT el 1932, fou empresonat pels fets del 6 d'octubre de 1934. Els primers dies de la guerra civil, participà en el salvament de diferent persones que, els grups pseudo-revolucionaris de la ciutat, pretenien matar. Assistí al Ple de sindicats de la CRTC (Barcelona, 14 de juny de 1937) representant el Comitè Regional de Camperols de la CNT. Fou nomenat Secretari d'Adquisicions del Consell d'Agricultura de la Generalitat de Catalunya. Acabada la guerra els franquistes el condemnaren a mort, pena que li commutaren per presó. Home d'una notable cultura (que va adquirir en l'estada en un seminari), escrivia articles a la premsa obrera, amb el pseudònim de "Ego". Arbós, Josep. Militant de la CNT. Prengué part en els mítings de propaganda de la CNT, com a representant dels treballadors del diari "La Colmena Obrera" (octubre, 1916) i fou detingut durant la vaga que, contra l'encariment de les subsistències, impulsava la CNT. Arbós, Miquel. Assistí al Congrés de Sants (1918) representant els Calderers de Coure de Barcelona. Arcas Merlo, Agustí. Milità a la CNT fins que en fou expulsat per militar al PCC. Durant la guerra es traslladà a Madrid i formà part del Comitè de la Federació Estatal de Transports de la UGT. El maig de 1938 fou elegit Secretari General de la Federació Local de Barcelona de la UGT. Archaga, Santiago. Assistí al Congrés de Sants (1918) representant la Federació Obrera de Figueres. Archs, Manuel. ? - Barcelona 1894. Dirigent obrer tèxtil, de Sants. Fou detingut en els incidents del Primer de maig del 1892. Després de l'afusellament de Paulí Pallàs (octubre de 1893) i del llençament de bombes al Gran Teatre del Liceu (novembre de 1893), fou detingut i empresonat al castell de Montjuïc, acusat de l'atemptat contra el general Martínez Campos, capità general de Catalunya. Després de rebre maltractaments, fou condemnat a mort i executat (21 de maig de 1894). Abans de morir escriví una carta al seu fill (17 de maig de 1894), on li demanava que morís com ell, si calia, en la tasca d'emancipació del proletariat. Archs, Ramon. ? 1883 - Barcelona 1921. Obrer metal.lúrgic. Dirigent cenetista. Fill de Manuel Archs. Secretari de la Unió Metal.lúrgica (1910). Membre del Comitè Regional de la CNT (1920) i enllaç amb el Comitè Nacional. Com a membre del comitè de defensa de la CNT, fou l'inspirador de l'estratègia terrorista de la CNT entre els anys 1920-1921. Detingut l'estiu de 1921, després de l'atemptat que costà la vida al Cap del Govern Espanyol Eduardo Dato, li fou aplicada la denominada "Llei de fugues". Arens, Boi. Membre de la Junta Consultiva de l'Associació de Socors Mutus de Barcelona el 1842. Argudin, August. Milità a la UGT. L’any 1934 va formar part del Front Únic de Treballadors de Llum i Força de Catalunya. Firmant dels pactes, entre les empreses del sector i el Front Únic, que van permetre constituir la Caixa de Pensions i Retir d'Empleats de Gas i Electricitat (PREGE). Arín Simó, Francesc. Veieu Martínez i Simó, Francesc. Arlandis Esparza, Hilari. ?, 1888 - Figueres, 1939. Militant de la CNT del País Valencià. Obrer marbrista funerari. Assistí al congrés de la CNT de Madrid (1919), on defensà l'adhesió a la Tercera Internacional. Delegat per València en el Ple de la CNT de Lleida (abril de 1921), fou elegit per a formar part de la delegació que havia d'anar a Moscou, el 1921, al primer congrés de la Internacional Sindical Roja, amb Joaquim Maurín, Andreu Nin, Jesús Ibáñez i Gaston Leval (Publicà les experiències del viatge en el llibre Los anarquistas en Rusia. Ed. La Batalla, 1924). En la Conferència de la CNT de Saragossa de 1922, defensà les gestions de la delegació a Moscou, però quan la CNT acordà separar-se de la Internacional Comunista, Arlandis votà en contra, llavors ingressà en el Partit Comunista Obrer d'Espanya. Formà part de la redacció de "La Batalla" (Barcelona, 1922) i a causa de les seves campanyes contra la guerra del Marroc, hagué d'exiliar-se a França. Retornà en plena dictadura i fou empresonat a Barcelona. Milità a la Federació Comunista Catalano-Balear, al Partit Comunista Català (1930), i després al Bloc Obrer i Camperol (1931), raó per la qual fou expulsat de la CNT en el Congrés de la CRTC de Barcelona l'any 1931, essent delegat del Sindicat d'Arts Gràfiques de Barcelona i membre del Comitè executiu. Fou expulsat del BOC el 1932 i tornà al Partit Comunista Català. Armaches Espinol, Josep. Militant de la UGT. Vocal del Comitè Executiu de la Federació Local de Barcelona l'any 1931. Armadas, Francesc. Assistí al Congrés Obrer de Barcelona del desembre de 1868, organitzat per la Direcció Central de les Societats Obreres de Barcelona. Armengol, Jaime. L'any 1895 fou President de la junta directiva de la secció de Vilafranca del Penedès de la Federación de Obreros Agrícolas de la Región Española i membre de la Comissió de Propaganda de la FOA. Arnau, Ciril. Assistí al Congrés de Sants (1918), representant els Picapedrers de Montjuïc (Barcelona). Arnau, Joan Josep. President de la junta organitzadora de La Unión Tramviaria (Barcelona, 1914). Fou acomiadat de la feina pel Marqués de Foronda, director de la Cia. de Tramvies de Barcelona, per la seva tasca davant la junta organitzadora. Arnau, Josep. Militant de la UGT a Tarragona. Tipògraf. Representant aquesta Ciutat va assistir al sisè congrés de la Federació Tipogràfica de la UGT celebrat a Madrid el 23 de SETEMBRE de 1892. Arnó, Adrià. Militant de la CNT. Participà en el Congrés de Sants (1918), representant el sindicat de l'Art Fabril de Mataró i en la Conferència Extraordinària de Blanes (1922), representant els sindicats de Mataró. Fou tresorer de la CRTC i redactor de "Solidaridad Proletaria" (Barcelona, 1924). El gener de 1925 fou empresonat junt amb Àngel Pestaña i Joan Peiró. Fou un dels fundadors del periòdic "Vida Sindical" (Barcelona, 1926). Aroles Batlló, Dionís. Militant de la CNT. Per la seva activitat sindical fou empresonat en el vaixell "Giralda" i deportat al castell de la Mola de Maó (30.11.20). Arpa, Antoni. Membre d'una comissió d'obrers de Sabadell que l'octubre de 1855 es va traslladar a Madrid per tal d'entrevistar-se amb el general Espartero. Arquer, Josep. Anarquista. Comerciant a Badalona. Es passà als "Sindicats Lliures" i intervingué en l'atemptat que costà la vida a Salvador Seguí . Arquer Saltor, Jordi. Bellcaire d'Urgell, 1907 - Perpinyà 1981.Membre del Centre Autonomista de Dependents del Comerç i de la Indústria (CADCI) de Barcelona. Milità a la CNT. Escriptor. Dirigent de la Secció de Treball del periòdic "Lluita". Va combatre els sectors reformistes del CADCI. Durant la dictadura de Primo de Rivera intervingué en l'acció clandestina relacionada amb els grups independentistes de Francesc Macià. El 1927 fou un dels fundadors del Cercle d'Estudis Marxistes. L'any 1928 participà en la formació del Partit Comunista Català, del consell del qual en fou elegit membre. Caiguda la dictadura, fou un dels fundadors del BOC (novembre de 1930). President del Sindicat Mercantil de la CNT, propugnà l'Aliança Obrera i l'abril de 1932 fou expulsat de la CNT per ser del sector comunista. Formà part del comitè executiu del POUM i participà en la fundació de l'Ateneu Popular de Gràcia (1932). En esclatar la guerra civil formà part de la columna del POUM que operà en el front d'Aragó. Arran dels Fets de Maig de 1937 fou perseguit i empresonat, primer a Barcelona i després a València. Condemnat a onze anys de presó es fugà el gener de 1939 i s'exilià a Mèxic. Col.laborà en nombrosos periòdics: "L'Hora", "La Batalla", "L'Escuma", "Acción", "Front", des d'on va mantenir una lluita dialèctica amb els cenetistes, especialment amb Joan Peiró. Va col.laborà en les publicacions "Endavant", "L'Insurgent", "Quaderns de l'Exili", "La Nostra Revista" (Mèxic). "Ressorgiment" (Argentina) i "Germanor" (Xile). És autor de De Pi i Margall al Comunisme (Barcelona, 1931). Los Comunistas ante el problema de las nacionalidades Ibèricas. (Barcelona, 1931). L'Evolució del problema agrari a Rússia. Des de la servitud feudal al comunisme. (Barcelona, 1934). Las interpretaciones del marxismo. (Barcelona, 1937). El comunisme i la qüestió Nacional( ?). Salvador Seguí (Barcelona. s.d.). També és autor de l'opuscle El futur de Catalunya i els deures polítics de l'emigració catalana. (Mèxic, 1943). Arrons, Bartomeu. (Se'l cita també com Bartomeu Arroms i Bartomeu Arom). Mestre Picapedrer. Vocal de la Junta Central de Directors de la Classe Obrera de Barcelona (1855). Artal Armand. ? - València, 1967. Anarquista. Militant de la CNT. Fou secretari del Comitè Nacional Revolucionari de la CNT, amb seu a Badalona (1927-28). Residí a València des d'on s'exilià el 1939, i a on tornà i morí el 1967. Ascaso Budria, Domingo. Almudévar (Osca) - ? – Barcelona, 1937. Militant de la CNT. Forner. Germà gran del dirigent de la CNT Francisco Ascaso. Participà en l’atemptat contra un comissari de policia a Barcelona i hagué d’exiliar-se a França. Cap de la columna "Francisco Ascaso" que operà en el front d'Aragó. Fou mort durant els Fets de Maig de 1937. Ascaso Budría, Francisco. Almudévar (Osca) 1901 - Barcelona 1936. Anarquista. Militant de la CNT. Treballar de cambrer a Saragossa i més tard a Barcelona (1921). Hom li atribuí la mort del Cardenal Soldevila i fou empresonat (Juny-desembre 1923). Organitzà una fugida i tornà a Barcelona, per anar després a França (1924), des d'on organitzà un atemptat contra el rei Alfons XIII (1925), que fou descobert per la policia francesa i altre cop fou empresonat. Amic inseparable de Bonaventura Durruti, ambdós constituïren, juntament amb García Jover, Ricardo Sanz, Aurelio Fernández, Juan García Oliver i altres, el grup d'acció directe "Los Solidarios", que més tard es digué "Nosotros". Fou un dels fundadors de la FAI (1927). Romangué exiliat a Cuba i Mèxic. Amb l'adveniment de la República tornà a Espanya. Fou secretari de la CRTC i participà en l'intent insurreccional de l'Alt Llobregat (1932), motiu pel qual fou deportat a Villa Cisneros i Fuerteventura. En tornar a Catalunya col.laborà a "Solidaridad Obrera" (1934-1935), destacant el seu article "No aunqué lo manden, capitán", en el qual atacava fortament el capità Roja (responsable de la matança de Casas Viejas) qui es defensava de l'afer dient que complia ordres. Tornà a ser empresonat a València fins el FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1936. Participà en el congrés de la CNT (Saragossa, maig 1936) representant el Sindicat Fabril i Tèxtil de Barcelona. Després organitzà un proveïment d'armes per als anarquistes, tot intuint la rebel-lió militar. En produir-se aquesta (juliol 1936), es posà junt amb Bonaventura Durruti al front de les milícies populars. Va caure mort el dia 20 de juliol, quan intentava conquerir la sublevada caserna de les Drassanes de Barcelona. Asenci, Sebastià. Serrador. Director de la Classe Obrera dels Serradors. Fundador de la Junta Central de Directors de la Classe Obrera (1855).

    Asensi, Vicenç. Valencià afincat a Terrassa. Ebenista. Afiliat a la FRE. En el congrés de Saragossa de 1872, fou elegit membre del Consell Federal, amb el càrrec de comptador (secretari econòmic). Assistí al Congrés de Còrdova (1872-73), com a delegat per Terrassa.

    Asensio Capilla, Bonaventura. Militant de la UGT. Tresorer del Comitè Regional de la UGT de Catalunya (1925-1928).

    Augés, Marcel. Militant de la CNT de Manresa, membre del Sindicat de la Metal.lúrgia (1930). El 1931 s'adherí als Trentistes. Col.laborà a "El Trabajo", de Manresa (1931-34). El 1932 fou elegit president del Sindicat Metal.lúrgic. Auladell, Joaquim. Director de la Classe Obrera dels Teixidors de Sant Andreu de Llavaneres (1855). Auleda, Frederic. Militant de la CNT. Fou un dels signants del Manifest Trentista.

    Àvila, Rafael. Assistí al congrés convocat per Solidaritat Obrera, en el qual es constituí la CNT (Barcelona, 1910), com a representant dels "Aserradores y Cajonistas de La Coruña". En presidí la segona i la sisena sessió. També presidí el primer congrés de la CNT (Barcelona, setembre de 1911).

    Ayala Ayala, Tomàs. Militant de la CNT/FAI a Vilanova i la Geltrú. Afusellat pels franquistes el 06.07.39. Aymerich, Antoni. Secretari de la Societat de Protecció Mútua dels Pellaires d'Olot (1841). Aymerich, Salvador. Membre de la Unió Fabril i Tèxtil de Sabadell i militant del BOC. vAznar i Seseres, Pere. Roses 1907 – Santiago de Xile 1999. Militant del CADCI i polític. Dependent de Comerç. Amb 14 anys va començar a treballar en uns gran magatzems. L'any 1923 s'afilià al CADCI i l'any 1928 ingressà al Partit Comunista Català. L'octubre de 1930 participà en l'Assemblea constituent del Sindicat Mercantil, on fou elegit membre de la junta directiva. A les acaballes de 1933 organitzà, dins del CADCI, la Minoria d'Oposició Mercantil (MOM), que s'oposasava a la línia política del Consell Directiu del CADCI. L'any 1934 fou secretari general del Comitè del CADCI i també del Partit Català Proletari. El FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1936 fou elegit president del CADCI i diputat per Barcelona a les Corts Republicanes. El juliol de 1936 participà en la formació del PSUC i fou designat responsable de la Secretaria Sindical. L'any 1938 fou nomenat director general de Treball i Assistència Social del Govern de la Generalitat de Catalunya. El 1939 s'exilià a França i després a Santiago de Xile. A l'exili fou expulsat del PSUC i s'afilià al Partit Socialista Català. Des de l'any 1936 fins al 1977 presidí el CADCI i en fou nomenat President d'Honor. P WITHOUT CODE; SEE ALSO ENTRIES WITH SOURCE CODE FOR EASY CUT & PASTE IF NEEDED

    MANY ENTRIES ARE NOT ANARCHIST & CAN BE CUT OUT INDEX TEMPLATE FOR ENCYCLOPEDIA: (August 2006: This is also in the gmail encyc folder, with names beginning with J to work through)

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  • ABAD, Julià.
    (??-??) Catalan militant, Terrassa CNT. Arrested for participating in the February 1932 revolt. (Diccionari de Sindicats)August 2007

    ADD TO QUICK INDEX:
  • Julia Abad http://www.veuobrera.org/01biogra/1biogr-a.htm
    (*) Per cercar biografies de Sindicalistes cal consultar el Diccionari Biogràfic del Moviment Obrer als Països Catalans. Coordinat per María Teresa Martínez de Sas i Pelai Pagès i Blanch. Edicions Universitat de Barcelona. Publicacions de l'Abadia de Montserrat, desembre del 2000. I per biografies específicament d'Anarcosindicalistes Esbozo de una Enciclopedia histórica del anarquismo español. Miquel Iñíguez. Fundación de Estudios Libertarios Anselmo Lorenzo. Madrid, 2001. http://www.translendium.com/

    2004 -- Diccionari de Sindicats names to go thru for indexing

    TEMPLATE:

  • ABAD, Julià.
    (??-??) Catalan militant, Terrassa CNT. Arrested for participating in the February 1932 revolt. (Diccionari de Sindicats)August 2007

    ADD TO QUICK INDEX:
  • Julia Abad

    Ascaso Budría, Francisco. Almudévar (Osca) 1901 - Barcelona 1936. Anarquista. Militant de la CNT. Treballar Francisco Ascasode cambrer a Saragossa i més tard a Barcelona (1921). Hom li atribuí la mort del Cardenal Soldevila i fou empresonat (Juny-desembre 1923). Organitzà una fugida i tornà a Barcelona, per anar després a França (1924), des d'on organitzà un atemptat contra el rei Alfons XIII (1925), que fou descobert per la policia francesa i altre cop fou empresonat. Amic inseparable de Bonaventura Durruti, ambdós constituïren, juntament amb García Jover, Ricardo Sanz, Aurelio Fernández, García Oliver i altres, el grup d'acció directe "Los Solidarios", que més tard es digué "Nosotros". Fou un dels fundadors de la FAI (1927). Romangué exiliat a Cuba i Mèxic. Amb l'adveniment de la República tornà a Espanya. Fou secretari de la CRTC i participà en l'intent insurreccional de l'Alt Llobregat (1932), motiu pel qual fou deportat a Villa Cisneros i Fuerteventura. En tornar a Catalunya col.laborà a "Solidaridad Obrera" (1934-1935), destacant el seu article "No aunqué lo manden, capitán", en el qual atacava fortament el capità Roja (responsable de la matança de Casas Viejas) qui es defensava de l'afer dient que complia ordres. Tornà a ser empresonat a València fins el FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1936. Participà en el congrés de la CNT (Saragossa, maig 1936) representant el Sindicat Fabril i Tèxtil de Barcelona. Després organitzà un proveïment d'armes per als anarquistes, tot intuint la rebel-lió militar. En produir-se aquesta (juliol 1936), es posà junt amb Bonaventura Durruti al front de les milícies populars. Va caure mort el dia 20 de juliol, quan intentava conquerir la sublevada caserna de les Drassanes de Barcelona.

    Asenci, Sebastià. Serrador. Director de la Classe Obrera dels Serradors. Fundador de la Junta Central de Directors de la Classe Obrera (1855).

    Asensi, Vicenç. Valencià afincat a Terrassa. Ebenista. Afiliat a la FRE. En el congrés de Saragossa de 1872, fou elegit membre del Consell Federal, amb el càrrec de comptador (secretari econòmic). Assistí al Congrés de Còrdova (1872-73), com a delegat per Terrassa.

    Asensio Capilla, Bonaventura. Militant de la UGT. Tresorer del Comitè Regional de la UGT de Catalunya (1925-1928).

    Augés, Marcel. Militant de la CNT de Manresa, membre del Sindicat de la Metal.lúrgia (1930). El 1931 s'adherí als Trentistes. Col.laborà a "El Trabajo", de Manresa (1931-34). El 1932 fou elegit president del Sindicat Metal.lúrgic.

    Auladell, Joaquim. Director de la Classe Obrera dels Teixidors de Sant Andreu de Llavaneres (1855).

    Auleda, Frederic. Militant de la CNT. Fou un dels signants del Manifest Trentista.

    Àvila, Rafael. Assistí al congrés convocat per Solidaritat Obrera, en el qual es constituí la CNT (Barcelona, 1910), com a representant dels "Aserradores y Cajonistas de La Coruña". En presidí la segona i la sisena sessió. També presidí el primer congrés de la CNT (Barcelona, setembre de 1911).

    Ayala Ayala, Tomàs. Militant de la CNT/FAI a Vilanova i la Geltrú. Afusellat pels franquistes el 06.07.39.

    Aymerich, Antoni. Secretari de la Societat de Protecció Mútua dels Pellaires d'Olot (1841).

    Aymerich, Salvador. Membre de la Unió Fabril i Tèxtil de Sabadell i militant del BOC.

    Aznar i Seseres, Pere. Roses 1907 – Santiago de Xile 1999. Militant del CADCI i polític. Dependent de Comerç. Amb 14 anys va començar a treballar en uns gran magatzems. L'any 1923 s'afilià al CADCI i l'any 1928 ingressà al Partit Comunista Català. L'octubre de 1930 participà en l'Assemblea constituent del Sindicat Mercantil, on fou elegit membre de la junta directiva. A les acaballes de 1933 organitzà, dins del CADCI, la Minoria d'Oposició Mercantil (MOM), que s'oposasava a la línia política del Consell Directiu del CADCI. L'any 1934 fou secretari general del Comitè del CADCI i també del Partit Català Proletari. El FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1936 fou elegit president del CADCI i diputat per Barcelona a les Corts Republicanes. El juliol de 1936 participà en la formació del PSUC i fou designat responsable de la Secretaria Sindical. L'any 1938 fou nomenat director general de Treball i Assistència Social del Govern de la Generalitat de Catalunya. El 1939 s'exilià a França i després a Santiago de Xile. A l'exili fou expulsat del PSUC i s'afilià al Partit Socialista Català. Des de l'any 1936 fins al 1977 presidí el CADCI i en fou nomenat President d'Honor.

    Per tornar a l'inici

    Bachons, Manuel. Veieu Bochons, Manuel.

    Badell Baucells, Joan.  L'Arboç, 1899. Militant del Bloc Obrer  i Camperol i del POUM. Ferroviari. L'any 1934 formà part de la candidatura municipal del BLOC a Vilanova i la Geltrú, i l'any 1936 formà part del Comitè de Defensa Local, constituït el 22 de juliol de 1936, representant el POUM. Fou regidor a l'Ajuntament de Vilanova i la Geltrú, del 17-10-36 fins el 08-10-37 en que fou cessat (el POUM havia estat declarat il.legal, com a resultat dels Fets de maig).

    Badia, Arcadi. Participà en el Congrés de Sants (1918), com a representant dels Sortejadors de Llana de Sabadell.

    Badia, Boi. Director de la Societat Obrera de Calafats. Fou membre fundador de la Junta Central de Directors de la Classe Obrera (1855). Assistí al congrés convocat per la Direcció Central de Les Societats Obreres (Barcelona, desembre de 1868).

    Badia Arnal, Marcial. Tortosa, 1881 - Mèxic, 1947. Dirigent de la Societat Tipogràfica de Reus, i militant socialista. A Tarragona fou redactor de "L’Aurora roja", portaven de la Federació Obrera Local. Impulsà la publicació de propaganda socialista "La Justicia Social". Durant la guerra civil fou director del "Diari de Reus".

    Badia Matamala, Antoni. Dependent de comerç. Socialista afiliat a la Federació Catalana del PSOE. Actuà de secretari en el congrés de constitució de Solidaritat Obrera (Barcelona, 1907) i fou elegit tresorer. Més tard s'afilià al PSOE. També participà en el congrés de constitució de la Confederació Regional de Societats de Resistència -Solidaritat Obrera- (Barcelona, setembre de 1908).

    Badia Pere, Josep. Militant de la CNT a Viladecans. Jornaler agrícola. L'any 1930 fou l'impulsor del Sindicat Únic de Treballadors de Gavà.

    Badori "Pipes". Militant de la CNT. Membre del Comitè Pro-Presos de la CRTC. Per les seves activitats sindicals, durant la dictadura de Primo de Rivera hagué d'exiliar-se a França.

    Balada Gual, Sergi. (Se’l cita també com Francesc)Vilanova i la Geltrú, ? - Cuautla (Mèxic, 1962). Sindicalista i militant del POUM. President del Sindicat Tèxtil de la FOUS. Pels fets del Sis d'Octubre de 1934 fou condemnat a mort, però més tard fou amnistiat. Comandà una columna del POUM que sortí cap al front d'Aragó el juliol de 1936. Fou fiscal del primer Tribunal Popular de Barcelona. Després de la guerra civil s’exilià a Mèxic.

    Balaguer, Francesc. Anarquista adherit a la Societat de Barbers de Barcelona. Assistí al 4rt congrés de la Segona Internacional (Londres, 1896) on intentà exposar les seves opinions antipolítiques i en fou expulsat.

    Balañà, Lluís.  Forner. Assistí al 1er. congrés obrer estatal, convocat pel Centre Federal de les Societats Obreres de Barcelona. (Barcelona, juny de 1870).

    Balasch, Jaume. Republicà Federal. Aliancista i bakuninista. Fonedor. Director de la Direcció Central de les Societats Obreres de Barcelona (1868). Féu una Crida per a la celebració d'un congrés obrer català (desembre de 1868). Formà part d'una candidatura republicano-federal en les eleccions a l'Ajuntament de Barcelona (desembre 1868). Assistí al congrés obrer convocat pel Centre Federal de Les Societats Obreres (Barcelona, juny de 1870), com a representant de la Societat de Fonedors i Motlluradors de Ferro de Barcelona. En Aquest congrés proposà que el Consell Federal de la FRE de l'AIT, tingués la seu a Madrid. Assistí al segon congrés de la Unió d'Obrers del Ferro (Alcoi, FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1873). El 1873 fou un dels signants d'un manifest per a la defensa de la República, i va participar en diversos mítings. Membre de la Junta de l'Ateneu Català de la Classe Obrera (octubre 1873), pel maig de 1877 fou elegit membre de la Consell Federal de la FRE.

    Balasch Gasull, Alfons. Militant de la UGT. Fuster. Comptador del Comitè Regional de la UGT de Catalunya l'any 1930.

    Balcells, Fèlix. Assistí al Congrés Obrer de Barcelona de 1870, com a representant dels Escultors i Tallistes de Barcelona.

    Balcells, Joan. Assistí al Congrés Obrer de Barcelona de 1868, on fou vocal de la mesa en la primera sessió.

    Baldrich, Vicenç. Un dels fundador de la Unió Ultramarina (1902). El 1931 defensà la seva dissolució i l'ingrés en el Sindicat Mercantil de la CNT.

    Baldrís, Joan. Dirigent de l'anarcosindicalisme agrari els anys 1930. L'any 1931 s'adherí al BOC i després a la U. de R.

    Balet, Joan. Membre de la CNT. Assistí al Congrés de Sants (1918), com a representant de la Federació Local de Manresa. Col.laborà a la revista "Tierra y Libertad" i al diari "Solidaridad Obrera" de Barcelona.

    Ballabriga, Antoni. Militant de la CNT. Fou un dels signants del Manifest dels Trenta (agost 1931).

    Ballach, I. Membre de la CNT. Sabater. Formà part del comitè de la Federació Local de Barcelona. Treballà en l'organització del Congrés de Sants (1918), en el qual intervingué com a representant del Sindicat de Sabaters "La Armonía" de Barcelona.

    Ballano Bueno, Adolfo. Militant de la CNT. Periodista. Membre del grup "Los Solidarios". Assistí a la conferència de Blanes (juliol de 1922), en representació dels sindicats de Vilassar de Dalt. Membre del Consell General de Defensa d'Aragó amb seu a Fraga (octubre 1936). Des del desembre del mateix any, quan el citat Consell fou reconegut oficialment pel govern central, s'encarregà del departament d'Ordre Públic.

    Ballbé, Eusebi. Assistí al congrés obrer convocat pel Centre Federal de Les Societats Obreres (Barcelona, juny de 1870), com a representant de les Tres Classes de Vapor de Barcelona. Donà suport a la proposta de trasllat de la seu del Consell Federal de la FRE de l'AIT a Madrid.

    Baqué, Pere. Membre de la Societat Obrera dels Aprestadors i Cilindradors de Barcelona. Fou un dels signants del Manifest del Primer de Maig de 1890.

    Baqués, Ramon. Militant de la CNT. Assistí al Congrés de Sants (1918) on s'oposà a la creació dels Sindicats Únics.

    Baqués, Pau.Dirigent de la Unió de Rabassaires de l’Alt Penedès el 1934.

    Baradella, Esteve. Vilanova i la Geltrú. Se'l cita també com Bardella. Director de la Classe Obrera de Filadors de Selfactines. Un dels signants del manifest "Vindicación de la Clase Obrera en Villanueva y Geltrú", publicat el dia 7 de juliol de 1855. El mes de setembre de 1855 dirigí un escrit al Governador Civil, denunciant la coacció i amenaces a la teixidora Josefa Juncosa perquè s'adheria a una vaga.

    Barañé, Rafael. Vicedirector tercer de l'Associació de Socors Mutus d'Oficials Impressors de Barcelona (juny 1855).

    Barba Roca, Pau. Director de la Classe Obrera dels Teixidors de Telers Mecànics. President de la Junta Central de Directors de la Classe Obrera (Barcelona, 1855). Formà part de les comissions de treballadors que organitzaren la lluita de les selfactines i la vaga general de juliol de 1855, després de la qual hagué d'exiliar-se a Londres. Visqué a Amèrica i, en tornar, ingressà a Les Tres Classes de Vapor. Posteriorment hi provocà una escissió.

    Barberà Blas, Antoni. Militant de la UGT. Fou comptador del Comitè Regional de la UGT de Catalunya (abril 1929-juliol 1930).

    Barceló, Baptista. Vocal de la Direcció Central de les Societats Obreres de Barcelona (FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1869).

    Barceló Cassadó, Josep. Mataró, 1824 - Barcelona, 1855. Dirigent Obrer. Filador. Capdavanter de l'Associació de Filadors de Barcelona. Dirigí la primera vaga general de Barcelona el mes de març de 1854. Organitzà la comissió de treballadors de les fàbriques de filats, que protagonitzaren el boicot contra les selfactines (estiu 1854). Restablerta la Milícia Nacional, en fou capità. Fou el dirigent obrer més popular i influent de Catalunya. L'abril de 1855 fou detingut pel govern militar i acusat d'haver comès un crim en el Mas de Sant Jaume d'Olesa de Montserrat. Fou injustament condemnat a mort per un irregular consell de guerra i executat el sis de juny de 1855. Aquest fet causà gran indignació en el món obrer i provocà la primera vaga general de Catalunya.

    Barco Hernández, Francesc. Militant de la UGT. El gener de 1926 s'enfrontà amb la direcció de la Federació Regional, essent suspès de militància. Havia estat comptador del Comitè Regional de la UGT de Catalunya (maig de 1922) i després en fou Tresorer (juliol de 1930).

    Barcons Solé, Joaquim. Formà part de la comissió d'obrers de Sabadell que l'octubre de 1855 es traslladaren a Madrid, per entrevistar-se amb el general Espartero i demanar-li la llibertat dels obrers empresonats i el retorn dels emigrats.

    Bardella, Esteve.  Veieu Baradella, Esteve

    Barea, Francesc. Militant de la UGT. Representant del Sindicat d'Aigua, Gas i Electricitat en el Comitè de Catalunya l'any 1933.

    Barella, Jaume. Vocal de la Direcció Central de les Societats Obreres de Barcelona. Signant de la crida "a los obreros de Catalunya" demanant la celebració d'un congrés obrer català (desembre 1868).

    Bargalló, Joan. Assistí al congrés obrer convocat pel Centre Federal de Les Societats Obreres (Barcelona, juny de 1870), en representació dels Escultors i Marbristes de Barcelona.

    Bargalló Martí, Miquel. Pagès de Mont-roig del Camp. Membre fundador del Centre Obrer de Mont-roig, l’any 1911. Assistí al congrés de constitució de la Federació Provincial de Tarragona d’Obrers del Camp. (Reus, 25.05.1913). Fou alcalde de Mont-roig l’any 1917.

    Barjau i Riera, Felip. Sant Martí de Provençals, 1894 – Mèxic, 1952). Se'l cita també Felip Barjau i Rieracom Felip Barjun. Militant de la CNT. Barber. Després del Congrés de Sants (desembre 1918), va fer campanya de divulgació anarcosindicalista pel sud de Catalunya amb Josep Viadiu i Llibertat Ròdenas. Més tard (finals de 1930) abandonà la CNT i s’afilià a la USC. Participa en les eleccions a Corts de novembre de 1933 i fou elegit diputat per la USC. El 1936 participà en la fundació del PSUC i el 1939 hagué d’exiliar-se a Mèxic.

    Baró Josep, Miquel. Obrer afusellat en la repressió posterior a la revolta de la Setmana Tràgica (13 d'agost de 1909).

    Barquet Simó. Dirigent de la Societat de Protecció Mútua d'Oficials Sabaters, de Barcelona. Secretari de la Junta Central Directiva de les Associacions de Socors Mutus (Barcelona 1841). Fou destituït acusat de malversació de fons.

    Barrera Maresma, Martí.-La Bisbal d'Empordà 1889 - Barcelona, 1972. Sindicalista i polític republicà. Fou president de les Joventuts de la UFNR d'Arenys de Mar. Establert a Barcelona milità en els moviments obrers. El desembre de 1916 fou detingut durant una vaga que, contra l'encariment de les subsistències, havia promogut la CNT. Va ser membre del Comitè Regional de la CNT durant la vaga general revolucionària de 1917. Exercí de gerent de "Tipografía Cosmos" on s'editava "La Batalla" (1923). Administrador de "Solidaridad Obrera" de Barcelona, n'assumí un temps la direcció. Juntament amb Lluís Companys, Salvador Seguí i d'altres sindicalistes i polítics, fou deportat al castell de La Mola de Maó (30 de novembre de 1920). El 1932 fou elegit diputat al Parlament de Catalunya per Esquerra Republicana. Fou Conseller de Treball de la Generalitat des del 4 d'octubre de 1933 fins el 7 d'octubre de 1934. El seu tarannà conciliador i progressista va quedar reflectit en els redactats finals de nombrosos convenis col.lectius, entre els quals cal destacar el de Riegos y Fuerzas del Ebro, la multinacional productora i distribuïdora d'energia elèctrica (25 de SETEMBRE de 1933) i el del metall (juny de 1934). Pels fets del Sis d'octubre de 1934 fou condemnant a 30 anys de presó. Després del triomf electoral del Front Popular (FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1936), es reintegrà a la conselleria ocupant el càrrec fins el 31 de juliol del mateix any, en que fou nomenat vocal, per ERC, del Consell d'Economia de la Generalitat. Durant la guerra fou president de la Comissió de Responsabilitats Polítiques, des d'on va fer prevaler les normes jurídiques. S'exilià el 1939 a Montpelier. Tornà a Barcelona el 1950.

    Barrio Navarro, José del. Valladolid, 1909 - París, 1989. Militant marxista José del Barrio Navarroafiliat al PCE i al PCC. Milità a la CNT i també a la UGT. Treballador del metall. L’any 1924 s’afilià a la CNT a Barcelona. L'any 1927 fou elegit secretari de la Unió de Joventuts Comunistes d'Espanya i es traslladà a Bilbao, formant part del Comitè Central del PCE.  L'any 1928 era secretari d'Organització de la FCCB. Assistí al 5è. congrés de la Internacional de les Joventuts Comunistes i al 6è congrés de la Tercera Internacional (Moscou, juliol-agost de 1928). Participà en la formació del PCC l'any 1932. Fou secretari del Sindicat Metal.lúrgic de la CNT a Barcelona, però l'any 1933 en fou expulsat per la seva militància comunista, afiliant-se a la UGT. Fou secretari del Sindicat Metal.lúrgic de la UGT de Barcelona. El juny de 1936 esdevingué secretari general de la UGT de Catalunya. Participà en la constitució del PSUC (Barcelona, juliol de 1936), essent elegit membre del seu comitè central. Representant a la UGT formà part del Comitè Central de Milícies Antifeixistes, càrrec que ocupà molt poc temps, ja que tot seguit es traslladà al front de guerra comandant la Columna "Carles Marx". El maig de 1937, en ser assassinat Antonio Sesé,  tornà a fer-se càrrec de la  secretaria general de la UGT de Catalunya. Retornà al front de guerra i el FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1939 traspassà la frontera de l'Estat francès amb el XVIII cos d'exèrcit, essent internat en el camp de Sant Cyprien. Després va estar exiliat a Moscou, Xile, Mèxic i finalment a França. Fou responsable de les publicacions "Frente Único" i "Unidad Sindical", també col.laborà a "Octubre" (1935). A l'exili fou expulsat del PSUC.

    Barriobero Herrán, Eduardo. Torrecilla en Cameros (La Rioja) 1875 - Barcelona, 1939. Advocat laboralista, polític i escriptor. Fundador de la Joventut Republicana Federal i gran orador sindicalista. El 1926 participà en una conspiració contra el general Primo de Ribera, i el 1931 fou diputat a les Corts Constituents. A Barcelona, durant la guerra civil, dirigí l'Oficina Jurídica que actuava com a Tribunal Revolucionari. El 14 de FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1939 fou afusellat pels franquistes a Barcelona. Publicà De Casanovas a Romanones (1916). Emilio Castelar (1930). Un Tribunal Revolucionario. Cuenta rendida por el que fue su presidente (Barcelona, 1937).

    Barthe, Fortunato. Militant de la CNT, assistí al congrés de Sants representant diversos sindicats de Palafrugell.

    Bartolí Guiu, Josep. Barcelona, 1911 - ?, ?. Dibuixant i pintor. Organitzador del Sindicat de Dibuixants de Catalunya de la UGT, i del que en fou dirigent el 1936. Col.laborà amb dibuixos polítics en diverses publicacions: "La Humanitat", "L'Opinió", "L'Esquella de la Torratxa". S'exilià el 1939 a Mèxic on publicà Campos de Concentración (1944), amb textos de Narcís Molins i Fàbrega. Treballà amb el "Mouvement Socialiste pour les Etats Unis d'Europe".

    Barullas, Vicente. Milità a la CNT. Secretari del Comitè Comarcal de Camperols (del Cardoner i l’Alt Llobregat) de la CNT, l’any 1937

    Basart, Josep. Assistí al Congrés de Sants (1918) com a representant dels Obrers Constructors de Pianos.

    Basols, Francesc. Teixidor a mà. Un dels signants de la carta del 15 de març de 1855, dirigida al governador civil de Barcelona, expressant-li l'adhesió obrera al govern liberal.

    Batlle, Josep. Assistí al Congrés de Sants (1918), com a representant dels Constructors de Carruatges i Ferrers de Barcelona.

    Batlle, Miquel. Assistí al congrés convocat per la Direcció Central de Les Societats Obreres (Barcelona, desembre de 1868). Fou membre de la FRE de l'AIT.

    Batlle Coll, Josep. Pintador tèxtil. Un dels dirigents de les comissions de treballadors que organitzaren la lluita contra les Selfactines, i, posteriorment, un dels signants del primer conveni col.lectiu pactat per obrers i patrons tèxtils (26 de gener de 1855).

    Batlle Hugué, Josep. Vilanova i la Geltrú, 1894-1956. Militant de la CNT. Membre del Comitè de la CNT de la fàbrica Pirelli, SA. Fou regidor a l'Ajuntament de Vilanova i la Geltrú, del 07-09-38 fins el 04-01-39

    Batllia Ramon. Dirigent de Les Tres Classes de Vapor. Membre del Consell de la Unió Manufacturera, elegit en el segon congrés (4-5 de FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1872), juntament amb Josep Bragulat, Manuel Vila, Narcís Ribó i Eudald Xuriguera.

    Batllori, Josep. Fou administrador, juntament amb Vicenç Martínez, de la Compañía Fabril de Tejedores de Algodón de Barcelona, creada el gener de 1856, època en la què fou elegit secretari de l'Associació de Socors Mutus dels Teixidors de Barcelona.

    Bau, Josep. Membre de la Societat de Protecció Mútua dels Serradors de Barcelona (1841).

    Baudín, Joan. Membre de la FRE de l'AIT (Barcelona, 1872).

    Belis Cortés, Josep. Militant de la CNT. Assistí al congrés convocat per Solidaritat Obrera en el qual es va decidir la constitució de la CNT (Barcelona, 1910), com a representant dels obrers d'Arts i Oficis de Badalona, presidint-ne la cinquena sessió. Va ser ponent de la 1ª ponència que deia: és de necesitat o conveniència per al Sindicalisme que Solidaridad Obrera passi a ser una Confederació Nacional ? També va assistir al congrés de 1911 representant la mateixa societat, i en el qual va presidir la segona sessió.

    Bell, Aleix. Obrer. Després de les primeres reaccions d'antimaquinisme (1935), va ser afusellat acusat d'haver participat en l'incendi de la fàbrica Bonaplata i Cia, de Barcelona.

    Bellavista, Ladislau. Militant de la CNT a Mataró. Membre del comitè de la CRTC (1922), participà en la Conferència de Blanes (1922). Fou un dels fundadors de la revista "Vida Sindical" (Barcelona, 1926).

    Beltran, Nicolau. Un dels signants del Manifest del Primer de Maig de 1890, en representació de la Societat d'Obrers Carregadors i Descarregadors de Carbó Mineral de Barcelona.

    Benajam Català , Jordi. Milità a la UGT al PCC i al PSUC. Secretari general de la Federació Fabril i Tèxtil de la UGT de Catalunya, l'octubre de 1936. Fou membre del Comitè Central del PSUC des del FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1937. S'exilià a França i l'any 1943 abandonà el partit.

    Benet, Jaume. Militant de la CNT. Assistí al congrés convocat per Solidaritat Obrera, en el qual es va decidir la constitució de la CNT (Barcelona, octubre/novembre 1910), així com al congrés de Sants (1918), representant el Sindicat de Vidriers "Tierna Semilla" del Poble Nou (Barcelona).

    Berga, Josep. L'any 1933 fou elegit Tresorer de l'Agrupació Sindicalista Llibertària de Gavà, adherida a la Federació Sindicalista Llibertària d'Àngel Pestaña.

    Bergaló, Andreu.Dirigent de la Societat de Teixidors de Tiana. Un dels signats d'una carta dirigida al governador civil de Barcelona (11 de maig de 1855), expressant l'adhesió obrera al govern liberal.

    Bernabeu, Àlvar.  ? - ? - Buenos Aires, 1972.  Militant de la CNT. Membre del Sindicat de la Metal.lúrgia de Badalona, en representació del qual assístí al 3er congrés confederal de la CNT (Madrid, juny 1931), i al Ple Regional de Sindicats de la CRTC (Barcelona, agost 1931).

    Bernabeu, Josep. Assistí al congrés convocat per Solidaritat Obrera, en el qual es va decidir constituir la CNT (Barcelona, octubre de 1910), com a representant dels Teixidors Mecànics de Llanes de Sabadell.

    Bernabeu, Rafael. Assistí al congrés convocat per Solidaritat Obrera (Barcelona, octubre de 1910), com a representant de la Unió de l'Art Fabril d'Alcoi. Fou membre de la Comissió Revisadora d'Actes i participà en la ponència sobre el treball de la dona.

    Bernadó, Amadeu. ? - Clichy (França) 1974. Militant de la CNT. Es va passar al BOC i posteriorment al PSUC. Després de la guerra civil s'exilià a França.

    Bernadó, Gabriel. Dirigent de les Tres Classes de Vapor, "Societat la Concòrdia" de Vilanova i la Geltrú. Representant aquesta societat participà el 29 de juny de 1889 en les reunions amb el Comitè de la UGT per tractar de l'adhesió de la societat "La Concòrdia" a la UGT.

    Bernat, Gregori. Militant de la CNT. Secretari del Comitè Local de Vilafranca del Penedès l'any 1931.

    Berni, Ramona. Teixidora. Militant del Sindicat Fabril i Tèxtil de la CNT, en el qual portà a terme una gran tasca propagandística. Fou membre del grup d'acció "Los Solidarios".

    Bertolín, Josep. Militant de la CNT. Per les seves activitats sindicals, fou detingut el 17 de gener de 1919 a Barcelona i traslladat al cuirassat "Pelayo".

    Bertran, Antoni. Membre de la secció local de Vilafranca del Penedès de la Federació d'Obrers Boters (1881). Formà part de la Comissió d'Experts de la citada federació. L'any 1882 assistí al 10è congrés de la FOT.

    Bertrán, Bartolomé. Dirigent de la Societat de Protecció Mútua dels Filadors de Barcelona i vocal de la Junta Central Directiva de les Associacions de Socors Mutus (1841).

    Bertran, Domènec. L'any 1895 era membre de Junta directivaa de la secció de Vilafranca del Penedès de la Federació d'Obrers Agrícoles.  El FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1895 fou elegit membre de la Comissió de propaganda.

    Bertran, Joan. Secretari de la Junta Central de Directors de la Classe Obrera de Catalunya (1855) i dirigent de la Societat dels Paletes. Formà part de la comissió d'obrers que es traslladà a Madrid per tal d'entrevistar-se amb el govern, demanant el dret d'associació obrera (juliol 1855).

    Bertran, Joan. Membre de la junta directiva de la Societat de Boters de Vilanova i la Geltrú el 1870.

    Bertran, Josep. Director de l'Associació de Socors Mutus dels Cilindradors i Aprestadors de Barcelona (1856).

    Bertran, Miquel. Militant de la CNT a Sabadell. Assistí al Congrés de Sants, en representació dels Rajolers de Sabadell. Assistí al Congrés Confederal de la CNT com a delegat tèxtil per Sabadell (Madrid, 1931) i també al Ple de Sindicats de la CRTC (Barcelona, agost de 1931). L'any 1937 fou dirigent de la Federació Local de Sindicats de Sabadell.

    Bertran, Ramon. Militant de la CNT. Membre del Comitè de la Federació de Vidriers i Cristallers de Badalona (1916).

    Bertran i Súria, Antoni.  Milità  a la FOSIG, a la UGT, al PCC i al PSUC.  Cambrer. Fou President de la FOSIG des de la seva constitució (gener 1936) fins que s'incorporà al front el desembre de 1937. Formà part del Comitè Central del PSUC des del juliol de 1937.  Fou director general de Proveïments de la Generalitat.

    Besteiro Fernández, Julián. Madrid, 1870 - Carmona (Sevilla) 1840. Julián Besteiro FernándezPolític socialista i militant de la UGT. Estudià a la Institución Libre de Enseñanza. Es doctorà en lletres a Madrid el 1895 i fou catedràtic de lògica a la Universidad de Madrid (1912). El 1912 ingressà en el PSOE i també a la UGT. L'any 1914 entrà a formà part del Comitè Nacional de la UGT i el 1915 del PSOE. Fou un dels signants del Pacte d'Unitat d'Acció UGT - CNT, i membre del comitè de vaga en la vaga revolucionària de 1917, fet pel qual fou condemnat a reclusió perpètua per un tribunal militar. El mes de FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1918 fou elegit diputat a Corts i com a tal va passar de la cel.la al Parlament. Assistí a la Conferència Internacional Socialista d'Amsterdam el 1919, al congrés sindical extraordinari de la FSI (Londres, 1920) i al segon congrés internacional de la FSI (Roma, 1922). Va ser elegit vicepresident de la UGT el 1923. En morir Pablo Iglesias el 1925, el succeí en les presidències de la UGT i del PSOE. Fou reelegit president de la UGT en el 16è congrés (1928) i també en el 17è (1932). Fou president de les Corts Constituents de la República (1931). En el 13è congrés del PSOE (octubre de 1932) les seves tesis foren contestades (s'oposava a la línia radical de Largo Caballero) i no fou reelegit president del partit. El mes de novembre de 1933 dimití de la UGT. El mes de març de 1939 entrà a formar part del Consell Nacional de Defensa, el qual tenia com a missió negociar una pau honorable, que, evidentment, no va aconseguir. En acabar la guerra es va negar a abandonar Espanya. Detingut el 8 de juliol de 1939 a Madrid, fou condemnat a 30 anys de presó. Morí un any més tard empresonat a Carmona.

    Bigorra, Francesc. Signà el manifest del Primer de maig de 1890, representant la Societat d'Operaris Cristallers de Badalona.

    Bilbao Castellanos, Crescencio. Militant de la UGT i del PSOE. L'estiu de 1931 es va fer càrrec de la Presidència del Comitè Regional de la UGT de Catalunya, en haver dimitit el president electe Josep Jové Surroca. Participà en l'organització del 8è congrés i després es reintegrà a les tasques del PSOE a Huelva.

    Bisbe, Jaume. Pintor Secretari de la primera junta de la Federació Local de Societats Obreres de Barcelona (agost de 1907) Representant a la Federació de Treballadors d'Igualada participà i fou ponent en el congrés de la CNT de 1911 i director del periòdic "Solidaridad Obrera".

    Biscamps, Antoni. Vocal de la Direcció Central de les Societats Obreres de Barcelona (1869).

    Blanco Blanch, Antoni. Osca ? - Gusen (Alemanya), 1941. Militant de la CNT. Xocolater. Ingressà a la CNT a Badalona el 1920. Fou detingut i processat diverses vegades per les seves activitats sindicals. Membre del Comitè Nacional Revolucionari de la CNT (1927), tingué contactes amb Fermín Galán, quan aquest estava empresonat al castell de Montjuïc (1928). Home de confiança de Joan Peiró, aquest l'incorporà al Ministeri d'Indústria. Des de mitjans de 1937 fins l'acabament de la guerra fou director de la fàbrica (col.lectivitzada) de productes químics "Casa Cros" de Badalona. A l'exili fou internat en camps de concentració francesos i posteriorment incorporat a una companyia de treballadors estrangers destinada a fortificar la Línia Maginot. El mes de maig de 1940 fou deportat al camp de concentració de Gusen, on morí.

    Blanc, Cebrià. Dirigent de l'Associació de Socors Mutus dels Teixidors de Sant Pere de Premià. Fou un dels signants de la carta dirigida al governador civil de Barcelona (11 de maig de 1855), expressant la seva adhesió al govern liberal.

    Blanxart, Pere. Signà el manifest del Primer de maig de 1890 en nom del Centre de Confiters i Pastissers.

    Blasco, Agustí. Director de la Societat de Protecció Mútua de Teixidors de Barcelona (1848).

    Blasco, Josep. Militant de la CNT. En la repressió obrera del gener de 1919 a Barcelona, fou detingut i empresonat al cuirassat "Pelayo".

    Blavia, Josep. Obrer tèxtil. Dirigent de Les Tres Classes de Vapor de Manresa. Un dels signants del conveni col.lectiu que posà fi a la vaga tèxtil de Manresa el 1890.

    Boada, Josep. Assistí al congrés convocat per Solidaritat Obrera, en el qual es constituí la CRTC (Barcelona, octubre de 1910), representant la Federació Local de Societats Obreres de Terrassa. vBoades Vendrell, Domènec. Un dels signants del Manifest del Primer de Maig de 1890, dirigit al governador civil de Barcelona, com a representant dels Obrers de Refineries de Sucre.

    Boal, Evelino. Valladolid, ? - Barcelona, 1921. Dirigent sindicalista. Treballador d'arts gràfiques a Barcelona. Militant de la CNT.  Fou un dels organitzadors del Congrés de Sants i formà part de la comissió que en redactà la Memòria.

    El 1919 fou delegat per entrevistar-se amb organitzacions sindicals a Portugal. Sovint col.laborà a la revista "Tierra y Libertad". Presidí el congrés del Teatre de la Comèdia (Madrid, 1919). L'agost de 1920, juntament amb Salvador Seguí i Salvador Quemades, anà a Madrid per refer l'aliança CNT - UGT. Fou secretari del Comitè Nacional de la CNT (1919-1921). Fou detingut i empresonat a La Model de Barcelona (1921). Quan la matinada del dia 7 de juny (algunes fons citen el dia 15) sortia en llibertat, fou assassinat a la porta de la presó, junt amb Antoni Feliu, aleshores tresorer de la CNT. WITH CODE; SEE ALSO ENTRIES WITHOUT SOURCE CODE FOR SEARCHING WITHOUT CODE PROBLEMS

    MANY ENTRIES ARE NOT ANARCHIST & CAN BE CUT OUT http://www.veuobrera.org/01biogra/1biogr-a.htm
    (*) Per cercar biografies de Sindicalistes cal consultar el Diccionari Biogràfic del Moviment Obrer als Països Catalans. Coordinat per María Teresa Martínez de Sas i Pelai Pagès i Blanch. Edicions Universitat de Barcelona. Publicacions de l'Abadia de Montserrat, desembre del 2000. I per biografies específicament d'Anarcosindicalistes Esbozo de una Enciclopedia histórica del anarquismo español. Miquel Iñíguez. Fundación de Estudios Libertarios Anselmo Lorenzo. Madrid, 2001. http://www.translendium.com/

    2004 -- Diccionari de Sindicats names to go thru for indexing

    TEMPLATE:

  • ABAD, Julià.
    (??-??) Catalan militant, Terrassa CNT. Arrested for participating in the February 1932 revolt. (Diccionari de Sindicats)August 2007

    ADD TO QUICK INDEX:
  • Julia Abad

    Bochons, Manuel. ? - Barcelona, 1905. (Se'l cita també com Manuel Bachons). Paleta.Assistí al congrés obrer convocat pel Centre Federal de Les Societats Obreres (Barcelona, juny de 1870), com a representant de la Cooperativa de Paletes de Barcelona. Assistí al congrés de la FRE de l'AIT (Còrdova, 1872). Fou nomenat administrador de la Federació Local de Barcelona de la FRE de l'AIT (1873). Distanciat de la Federació, participà en la constitució del Centre Federatiu de Societats Obreres de Barcelona (1876), el qual organitzà uns congressos obrers a Barcelona l'agost de 1877, el gener de 1878 i un altre l’any 1882 (en el què assistí Pablo Iglesias). Participà en la creació del Partit Democràtic Socialista Obrer a Catalunya (agost 1882). Fou secretari de la Unió d'Obrers Constructors d'Edificis de Barcelona, i tresorer de la Lliga Nacional de Resistència (gener de 1883). Quan es reorganitzà l'Ateneu Obrer (FEBRUARY / FEBRER 1891), el dirigí. Col.laborà en el periòdic "El Obrero" de Barcelona (1880), òrgan de les Tres Classes de Vapor, i a la "Revista Social", òrgan de la Unió Manufacturera (1872-1880).

    Bofarull, Francesc. Signà el Manifest del Primer de maig de 1890 dirigit al governador civil de Barcelona, com a representant de la Societat de Teixidors de Seda de Barcelona.

    Bofill, Jaume. Dirigent de la Classe Obrera dels Teixidors de Vilamajor (dita també Vilanova de Vilamajor i San Antoni de Vilamajor). Un dels signants de la carta dirigida al governador civil de Barcelona (11 de maig de 1855) expressant-li l'adhesió obrera al govern liberal.

    Bofill, Joan. El 8 d'agost de 1854 signà un manifest, dirigit a la ciutat de Barcelona, com a dirigent dels obrers Galonaires i Passamaners. Fou elegit compromissari, per la parròquia de Santa Anna, en les eleccions del 19 de novembre de 1854 a l'Ajuntament de Barcelona.

    Bofill, Pedro. Gelida, ?. Obrer paperer. Usà el pseudònim de Pedro Miquel. L'any 1873 era dirigent de la secció de Gelida de la Unió de Noògrafs.

    Boil, Benet. Signà el manifest del Primer de maig de 1890 com a representant de la Societat Obrera de Manyans de Barcelona.

    Boixader, Joan. (també se'l cita com a Buixadós) Militant de la UGT. Vocal suplent de la comissió del Centre de Classes de Barcelona, que organitzà el congrés constitutiu de la UGT (Barcelona, agost de 1888) i al qual assistí com a representant de la Societat Obrera de Cadiraires de Boga de Barcelona. Fou un dels signants del manifest del Primer de Maig de 1890. Després del 2on congrés de la UGT (Vilanova i la Geltrú, 31 d'octubre - 2 de novembre de 1890), fou elegit vocal 4art del Comitè Nacional.

    Boldú, Simó. Directiu de la Societat de Protecció Mútua de Teixidors de Barcelona (1842).

    Boltà, Francesc. Militant de la UGT. Barreter. Després del 4art. congrés de la UGT (Madrid, 2 d’agost de 1894), fou elegit vicepresident del Comitè nacional.

    Bolingas, Josep. Signà el Manifest del Primer de maig de 1890, com a representant del Centre Instructiu d'Oficials Tapissers de Barcelona.

    Bonada, Agustí. Secretari de l'Associació Obrera de Teixidors Mecànics de Barcelona. Dirigent de la Junta Central de Directors de la Classe Obrera de Catalunya. Formà part de la Comissió negociadora del Conveni Col.lectiu de Teixidors Mecànics (1854). El 1855 participà en la comissió obrera que anà a Madrid a entrevistar-se amb el govern central. En tornar fou perseguit per les autoritats barcelonines i hagué de fugir de Barcelona.

    Bonafulla, Leopoldo. Veieu Esteve, Joan Baptista.

    Bonavia Calverol, Pere. L'Ampolla, 1901. - ? - ?  Militant de la UGT i del PSUC. Ferroviari. A partir de 1929 residí a Vilanova i la Geltrú on fou regidor a l'Ajuntament del 27-10-37 fins el 20-01-39.

    Bonet, Bernat. Militant de la CNT. Participà en el Congrés de Sants (1918), representant la Societat Obrera dels Adobadors "La Unión Popular".

    Bonet, Joan. Militant de la CNT. Participà en el Congrés de Sants (1918), com a representant de la Unió de Fusters de Barcelona.

    Bonet, Robert. Assistí al congrés convocat per la Direcció Central de Les Societats Obreres (Barcelona, desembre de 1868), on fou vocal de la primera sessió.

    Bonet Cuito, Pere. Lleida, 1901 - París, 1980. Tipògraf. Sindicalista i polític. Milità a la CNT i a la UGT. Fou empresonat, per activista, durant la vaga general de 1917. Fou un dels fundadors del setmanari "Lluita Social" (1919), òrgan del sindicalisme marxista dins la CNT de Lleida. Assistí a la Conferència Extraordinària de la CRTC (Blanes, juliol 1922). Fundador, amb Jaoquim Maurín, del setmanari "La Batalla" (1922), que succeí "Lucha Social". Durant la dictadura de Primo de Rivera va ser empresonat durant quatre anys (1925-29). S'exilià a París (FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1929) i tornà a Barcelona el FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1931. Fou elegit membre del comitè executiu del BOC i també fou membre del grup dirigent d'Aliança Obrera de Catalunya (1933). Militant a la UGT participà en la fundació i en el comitè executiu del POUM (1935). L'octubre de 1938, dins del procés de persecució al POUM, fou condemnat a 15 anys de presó. El gener de 1939 s'escapà de la presó i passà a França on el govern de Vichy el tancà en un camp de concentració. Presidí una conferència celebrada en memòria de Salvador Seguí, en el 50è aniversari del seu assassinat (París, març de 1973).

    Bonet Riera, Jaume. Obrer tèxtil. President de les Tres Classes de Vapor a Vilanova i la Geltrú (secció de filats i teixits) (1872). S'oferí, en nom seu i de 200 afiliats més, a l'Ajuntament, per anar en contra dels bandolers i dels carlins.

    Bonifaci Mora, Josep. Llimiana (Pallars Jussà), 1895. Milità a la Unió Catalanista, a la Joventut Republicana i a l'Estat Català. En esclatar la guerra milità a la UGT i al PSUC. Formà part del Comitè de Catalunya de la UGT en representació de la Federació Sanitària, de la que n'era Secretari general. Formà part del Sindicat de Metges de Catalunya. Fou director d'Assistència Social del Ministeri de Treball de la República.

    Bono, Enric. Militant de la CNT. Fou un dels fundadors del periòdic "Vida Sindical" (Barcelona,  gener de 1926).

    Bonvehi Sabater, Josep.  L'any 1933 fou l'impulsor i Secretari de l'Agrupació Sindicalista Llibertària de Gavà, adherida a la Federació Sindicalista Llibertària d'Àngel Pestaña.

    Bordas, Ramon. Teixidors de vels. Un dels signants del conveni entre obrers i patrons tèxtils el 26 de gener de 1855. Membre de la comissió obrera durant el conflicte de les Selfactines .

    Bordos, Jaume. Signà el Manifest del Primer de maig de 1890, dirigit al governador civil de Barcelona, com a representant de la Societat d'Oficials Boters de Sants.

    Borella, Josep. Signà el manifest del primer de maig de 1890, com a representant de la Societat d'Obrers d'Estampats i Blanqueig Mecànic de Barcelona.

    Borillo, Vicenç. Militant de la CNT i anarquista. Obrer soldador. Participà en l'organització del Sindicat del Petroli a nivell estatal. Assistí al Ple Nacional de Regionals de la CNT (Llavaneres, juny de 1928). Fou membre del comitè de la CRTC, amb seu a Badalona. Després de la guerra civil s'exilià a França.

    Borobio, Josep. Director i redactor de "Solidaridad Obrera". Fou detingut durant la vaga que, contra l'encariment de les subsistències, impulsà la CNT (Barcelona, desembre de 1916).

    Borràs, Fermí.  Militant de la CNT. Assistí al congrés de Sants (1918), com a representant del Sindicat d'Oficis Diversos de Badalona. President del Sindicat de Productes Químics de Badalona, en fou expulsat el 1918 i posteriorment es dedicà als negocis de la construcció a Sant Adrià del Besòs.

    Borràs, Jacint. Milità en el Sindicat de Barbers de la CNT de Lleida. Assistí al 2on. congrés confederal (Madrid, 1931). Formà part del comitè de la CRTC, en representació dels sindicats de Lleida (1932).

    Borràs, Joan.  Milità a la UGT. Entre 1936 i 1937 fou Secretari d'Organització en el Comitè Local de Barcelona.

    Borràs, Josep. Pagès de Reus. Tresorer del comitè de la Federació Provincials d’Obrers del Camp (Tarragona), l’any 1913.

    Borràs Javé, Martí Anarcocomunista. Sabater. Dirigent de la FTRE i membre del comitè local de Barcelona (1871). Publicà i dirigí,  junt amb Emili Hugas, "La Justicia Humana" (1886) i "Tierra y Libertad" (1888-89). Fou afusellat a Montjuïc. INDEXED

    Borrell Mateo, Enrique. Sastre. Participà en les primeres reunions de la Internacional presidides per Fanelli (Madrid, 1869). Secretari de correspondència de la comissió organitzadora de la FRE (desembre de 1869). Com a delegat de la secció de Madrid participà en l'organització i assistí al Congrés Obrer de Barcelona (juny de 1870), constitutiu de la FRE de l'AIT, on fou designat membre del Consell Federal, juntament amb González Morago, Francisco Mora, Àngel Mora i Anselmo Lorenzo, càrrec que ocupà fins el maig de 1871.

  • Enrique Borrell Mateo

    Borell, Josep. Secretari de la comissió nomenada pel Centre de Classes de Barcelona, el 1887, per organitzar el congrés obrer fundacional de la UGT (Barcelona, 1888). Membre de la Comissió executiva del PSOE, formà part de la mesa del congrés del PSOE de 1888

    Borràs, Josep.  Pagès de Reus. Tresorer del comitè executiu de la Federació Provincial de Tarragona d’Obrers del Camp, l’any 1913

    Bort Bort, Carles. Militant de la CNT. Fou un dels primers sindicalistes assassinats pels elements dels Sindicats Lliures a Gràcia (Barcelona, 1920).

    Bosch, Antoni. Signà el manifest "Las Clases trabajadoras asociadas a los diputados a cortes y particularmente a los de la antigua Cataluña", en representació de la Classe Obrera dels Serradors de Barcelona (FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1841)

    Bosch, Conxa. Dirigent obrera. Parlà en un míting a la Casa del Poble de Sabadell, convocat pel sindicat del tèxtil "La Constància", demanant als obrers que participessin en la vaga general del tèxtil de 1913.

    Bosch, Josep. Teixidor. Durant el conflicte de les Selfactines es dirigí al governador civil acceptant treballar a canvi d'una major remuneració (18 de març de 1855).

    Bosch, Pere. Teixidor. Membre de la junta de les Tres Classes de Vapor de Vilanova i la Geltrú (1871).

    Bosch Castany, Àngel. Vilanova i la Geltrú, 1896 - ? - ? Militant de la UGT i del PSUC. Fou regidor a l'Ajuntament de Vilanova i la Geltrú, del 27-10-37 al 03-11-37

    Botan, Bonaventura. Assistí al congrés obrer convocat pel Centre Federal de Les Societats Obreres, constitutiu de la FRE de l'AIT (Barcelona, juny de 1870), com a representant de la Cooperativa de Picapedrers de Montjuïc (Barcelona).

    Botella, Francesc. Militant de la CNT. Assistí al congrés de Sants (1918), com a representant del Sindicat de Soldadors i Ajudants de Barcelona. Formà part del Comitè Nacional de la CNT (1919). Assistí al 2on. congrés confederal (Madrid 1919), on presidí la primera sessió.

    Botella Moya, Vicenç. Militant de la CNT. Per la seva activitat sindical fou empresonat en el vaixell "Giralda" i deportat al castell de la Mola de Maó (30.11.20). Signà el "Manifest d'Intel.ligència Republicana" (maig de 1930).

    Botifoll, Pere. Assistí al Congrés fundacional de la UGT (Barcelona, 1888), representant la Unió Local de Manresa. Signà el Manifest del Primer de maig de 1890, en nom de l'Agrupació Socialista de Barcelona.

    Bové, Climent. Dirigent obrer. Per les seves activitats sindicals fou desterrat a Canàries (1856). El 1868, en nom de la Direcció Central de les Societats Obreres de Barcelona, signà una crida "a los obreros de Cataluña", per fer un congrés obrer català. Assistí al congrés obrer en el qual es va constituir la FRE de l'AIT (Barcelona, juny de 1870), com a delegat de les Tres Classes de Vapor de Barcelona. Arran de la repressió pels fets de la Comuna de París, fou empresonat (abril de 1871). Fou president de la Federació de les Tres Classes de Vapor (maig 1870 - gener 1872).

    Bové, Josep. Militant de la UGT. Representant del Sindicat de Transport Terrestre en el Comitè de Catalunya l'any 1933.

    Bover Arqué, Joan. Anarquista i militant de la CNT de les comarques tarragonines. Durant la dictadura de Primo de Rivera fou perseguit i anà a viure a Badalona. Fou membre del Comitè de la CRTC i secretari del Comitè Revolucionari del la CNT (amb seu a Badalona). Després de la guerra civil s'exilià a França.

    Bragulat, Josep.  Organitzà les agrupacions obreres del tèxtil del Principat després de la revolució de 1868 i intervingué en les negociacions de la vaga de les 15 setmanes l'any 1871 a Vilanova i la Geltrú. Fou elegit president de la Federació de les Tres Classes de Vapor el gener de 1872. Assistí al segon congrés de la FRE de l'AIT (Saragossa, 1872). Membre del consell directiu d'Unió Manufacturera i cap de la corrent antibakuninista (1873). El 1876 participà en la reconstitució del Centre Federal de Societats Obreres de Barcelona. Fou membre de la comissió, creada a principis de 1880, embrionària del Partit Democràtic-socialista obrer. Col.laborà en la revista "El Obrero" (1880), òrgan de les Tres Classes de Vapor.

    Branca, Silvestre. Fonedor. Un dels signants del conveni entre obrers i patrons tèxtils (27.02.1855). Membre de les Comissions de Treballadors que organitzaren la lluita de les selfactines i la vaga general següent.

    Brau, Eusebi. Fonedor. Militant de la CNT i anarquista adscrit al grup "Los Solidarios" (1922).

    Bretó, Gabriel. Membre de la primera junta directiva de la Societat Tipogràfica de Barcelona, l'agost de 1879.

    Brillas, Antoni. Assistí al congrés de Solidaritat Obrera de Barcelona (1910), com a representant de la Unió del Ram de l'Ebenisteria.

    Bru Sans, Josep. Milità a la UGT. Durant la guerra civil fou Secretari del Comitè Comarcal de la demarcació de Tarragona. Representà la Federació Local de Tarragona en el Comitè de Catalunya de la UGT.

    Brucet i Gelmà, Jaume. President de la U de R. i secretari local del PSUC a Maçanet de la Selva. Fou assassinat el març de 1937.

    Bruguera, Guillem. Assistí al congrés de Sants (1918), representant el Sindicat de Pintors "La Siempreviva", de Sant Martí (Barcelona).

    Brugueras, Pau. Teixidor a mà. Assistí a la Conferència de Saragossa de la FRE de l'AIT (1872).

    Bruno, Martí. Assistí al congrés de Sants (1918) representant la Federació Obrera de Terrassa.

    Brunet, Miquel. Signà el Manifest del 1er. de maig de 1890, dirigit al governador civil de Barcelona, en nom dels obrers espardenyaires.

    Buenacasa Tomeo, Manuel. Casp (Aragó) 1886 - Bourg-les Valence (França) 1964. Manel BuenacasaDirigent anarcosindicalista. Fuster i periodista. Del 1900 al 1905 s'estigué en un convent franciscà d'Andalusia. Actuà a la Federació Sindical de Saragossa i el 1911 hagué d'exiliar-se a França i després a Londres, on conegué Lenin i Enrico Malatesta. L'any 1914 es traslladà a Barcelona, on conegué Anselmo Lorenzo, Àngel Pestaña i Salvador Seguí. El 1915 s'exilià de nou a París, on formà part del Comitè de Relacions Anarquistes Internacionals i on conegué a Gandhi. El 1916 viatjà a Lausana (Suïssa) on s'entrevistà amb Lenin.  De retorn a Espanya fou empresonat i després de passar per les presons de San Sebastián, Gijón, Saragossa, Madrid i Barcelona. Recobrà la llibertat el 1918. Assistí al Congrés de Sants (1918), com a representant del Sindicat de Fusters de Barcelona. Col.laborà a "Tierra i Libertad" i fou secretari del Comitè Nacional de la CNT (1918-1919). El gener de 1919, arran de la Vaga de La Canadenca fou detingut i empresonat a la nau "Pelayo", junt amb altres sindicalistes. El setembre de 1919 presidí el congrés de la CNT del Teatre de la Comèdia de Madrid. El 1920 organitzà, a Saragossa, una vaga general com a protesta per l'assassinat de Francesc Layret. Assistí a la Conferència extraordinària que se celebrà en aquesta ciutat el 1922. Dirigí la revista "Cultura y Acción" (1910) i (1921), òrgan regional del sindicalisme aragonès. També dirigí "Solidaridad Obrera" de Gijón (1922) i "El Productor de Blanes" (1925). El 1923 organitzà a Madrid un congrés anarquista, on s'acordà la formació d'una Federació Nacional de Grups Anarquistes. Col.laborà a "Solidaridad Obrera" de Barcelona amb el pseudònim de Manuel S. Ordo. El 1929 s'exilià a Toulouse, on muntà una fusteria en la qual treballà fins el 1934, en què fou expulsat de França i tornà a Barcelona. En acabar la guerra civil s'exilià a França i donà suport a l'escissió de la CNT del 1945. El 1961 participà en el congrés de la CNT a l'exili. Publicà diversos llibres d'entre els quals destaquen: El movimiento obrero español. 1888-1926. Editorial Costa. Barcelona, 1928. Historia y Crítica. Ed. Costa, Barcelona, 1928, i La CNT, los Treinta y la FAI. Editorial Tallers Alfa. Barcelona, 1933.

    Bueso García, Adolfo. Valladolid, 1889 - Barcelona, 1979. Militant de la CNT. Des de l'edat de 5 anys residí a Barcelona on treballà de tipògraf.  Col·laborà a "Solidaridad Obrera" amb el pseudònim d'Àngel Rojo. També col.laborà a ""Tiempos Nuevos"" i a "La Batalla", de la qual en fou director el 1925. Fou empresonat de 1925 fins juliol de 1928 i llavors formà part del Comitè de la CRTC. Participà en el 2on congrés confederal de la CNT (Madrid, 1931). S'adherí als Trentistes i milità en la FOUS. Durant la guerra civil tornà a la CNT, i pel gener de 1939 s'exilià a França. és autor de: Como Fundamos la CNT. Editorial Avance. Barcelona, 1976, i Recuerdos de un cenetista. Editorial Ariel. Barcelona, 1976.

    Buiria, Josep. Militant de la CNT i del POUM. Dependent de llibreter. Secretari de relacions de la Unió Local de Sindicats de Lleida (expulsats de la CNT), maig de 1933. L'octubre de 1936 formà part de l'Ajuntament de Lleida representant el POUM. Fou president del Sindicat Mercantil de Lleida (1937). Exiliat a França el 1939, fou internat en el camp de concentració d'Anglés Saint Cyprien i també a Vernet de Arièges. El 1942 fou empresonat per la gendarmeria francesa per formar part dels equips que ajudaven a treure militants de l'Espanya franquista. Col.laborà en l'edició del butlletí de la UGT a l'exili. Retorna a Catalunya el 1976.

    Buixadós, Joan. (Veieu Boixader, Joan),

    Bulló, Josep. Membre d'una comissió d'obrer de Sabadell que per l'octubre de 1855 es traslladà a Madrid per entrevistar-se amb el president del Govern, general Espartero, i demanar-li la llibertat dels obrers presos i el retorn dels emigrats.

    Burcet, Josep. Militant de la CNT. Assistí al congrés de Sants (1918), representant els Fusters de Calella.

    Burgos, Miquel. Militant de la CNT. President del Sindicat d'Adobadors de la CNT, fou mort a trets per la guàrdia civil durant la vaga de la Canadenca (Barcelona, 1919).

    Busqué, Ramon. Assistí al congrés de Sants (1918), representant el Sindicat d'Adobadors d'Igualada.

    Busquets, Gabriel. Assistí al congrés convocat per Solidaritat Obrera, en el qual es constituí la CRTC (Barcelona, octubre de 1910), representat el Sindicat de Gèneres de Punt de Barcelona.

    Bussot, Dimes. Militant de la CNT. Assistí al congrés de Sants (1918), representant la Federació Local de Badalona, de la qual en fou secretari.

    Bustems, Baldiri. Assistí al congrés de Sants (1918), com a representat del Sindicat de Contramestres "El Ràdium" de Barcelona. WITH CODE; SEE ALSO ENTRIES WITHOUT SOURCE CODE FOR SEARCHING WITHOUT CODE PROBLEMS

    MANY ENTRIES ARE NOT ANARCHIST & CAN BE CUT OUT http://www.veuobrera.org/01biogra/1biogr-a.htm
    (*) Per cercar biografies de Sindicalistes cal consultar el Diccionari Biogràfic del Moviment Obrer als Països Catalans. Coordinat per María Teresa Martínez de Sas i Pelai Pagès i Blanch. Edicions Universitat de Barcelona. Publicacions de l'Abadia de Montserrat, desembre del 2000. I per biografies específicament d'Anarcosindicalistes Esbozo de una Enciclopedia histórica del anarquismo español. Miquel Iñíguez. Fundación de Estudios Libertarios Anselmo Lorenzo. Madrid, 2001. http://www.translendium.com/


    2004 -- Diccionari de Sindicats names to go thru for indexing

    TEMPLATE:

  • ABAD, Julià.
    (??-??) Catalan militant, Terrassa CNT. Arrested for participating in the February 1932 revolt. (Diccionari de Sindicats)August 2007

    ADD TO QUICK INDEX:
  • Julia Abad

    Bachons, Manuel. Veieu Bochons, Manuel.

    Badell Baucells, Joan. L'Arboç, 1899. Militant del Bloc Obrer i Camperol i del POUM. Ferroviari. L'any 1934 formà part de la candidatura municipal del BLOC a Vilanova i la Geltrú, i l'any 1936 formà part del Comitè de Defensa Local, constituït el 22 de juliol de 1936, representant el POUM. Fou regidor a l'Ajuntament de Vilanova i la Geltrú, del 17-10-36 fins el 08-10-37 en que fou cessat (el POUM havia estat declarat il.legal, com a resultat dels Fets de maig).

    Badia, Arcadi. Participà en el Congrés de Sants (1918), com a representant dels Sortejadors de Llana de Sabadell. Badia, Boi. Director de la Societat Obrera de Calafats. Fou membre fundador de la Junta Central de Directors de la Classe Obrera (1855). Assistí al congrés convocat per la Direcció Central de Les Societats Obreres (Barcelona, desembre de 1868).

    Badia Arnal, Marcial. Tortosa, 1881 - Mèxic, 1947. Dirigent de la Societat Tipogràfica de Reus, i militant socialista. A Tarragona fou redactor de "L’Aurora roja", portaven de la Federació Obrera Local. Impulsà la publicació de propaganda socialista "La Justicia Social". Durant la guerra civil fou director del "Diari de Reus".

    Badia Matamala, Antoni. Dependent de comerç. Socialista afiliat a la Federació Catalana del PSOE. Actuà de secretari en el congrés de constitució de Solidaritat Obrera (Barcelona, 1907) i fou elegit tresorer. Més tard s'afilià al PSOE. També participà en el congrés de constitució de la Confederació Regional de Societats de Resistència -Solidaritat Obrera- (Barcelona, setembre de 1908).

    Badia Pere, Josep. Militant de la CNT a Viladecans. Jornaler agrícola. L'any 1930 fou l'impulsor del Sindicat Únic de Treballadors de Gavà.

    Badori "Pipes". Militant de la CNT. Membre del Comitè Pro-Presos de la CRTC. Per les seves activitats sindicals, durant la dictadura de Primo de Rivera hagué d'exiliar-se a França.

    Balada Gual, Sergi. (Se’l cita també com Francesc)Vilanova i la Geltrú, ? - Cuautla (Mèxic, 1962). Sindicalista i militant del POUM. President del Sindicat Tèxtil de la FOUS. Pels fets del Sis d'Octubre de 1934 fou condemnat a mort, però més tard fou amnistiat. Comandà una columna del POUM que sortí cap al front d'Aragó el juliol de 1936. Fou fiscal del primer Tribunal Popular de Barcelona. Després de la guerra civil s’exilià a Mèxic.

    Balaguer, Francesc. Anarquista adherit a la Societat de Barbers de Barcelona. Assistí al 4rt congrés de la Segona Internacional (Londres, 1896) on intentà exposar les seves opinions antipolítiques i en fou expulsat.

    Balañà, Lluís. Forner. Assistí al 1er. congrés obrer estatal, convocat pel Centre Federal de les Societats Obreres de Barcelona. (Barcelona, juny de 1870). Balasch, Jaume. Republicà Federal. Aliancista i bakuninista. Fonedor. Director de la Direcció Central de les Societats Obreres de Barcelona (1868). Féu una Crida per a la celebració d'un congrés obrer català (desembre de 1868). Formà part d'una candidatura republicano-federal en les eleccions a l'Ajuntament de Barcelona (desembre 1868). Assistí al congrés obrer convocat pel Centre Federal de Les Societats Obreres (Barcelona, juny de 1870), com a representant de la Societat de Fonedors i Motlluradors de Ferro de Barcelona. En Aquest congrés proposà que el Consell Federal de la FRE de l'AIT, tingués la seu a Madrid. Assistí al segon congrés de la Unió d'Obrers del Ferro (Alcoi, FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1873). El 1873 fou un dels signants d'un manifest per a la defensa de la República, i va participar en diversos mítings. Membre de la Junta de l'Ateneu Català de la Classe Obrera (octubre 1873), pel maig de 1877 fou elegit membre de la Consell Federal de la FRE. Balasch Gasull, Alfons. Militant de la UGT. Fuster. Comptador del Comitè Regional de la UGT de Catalunya l'any 1930. Balcells, Fèlix. Assistí al Congrés Obrer de Barcelona de 1870, com a representant dels Escultors i Tallistes de Barcelona. Balcells, Joan. Assistí al Congrés Obrer de Barcelona de 1868, on fou vocal de la mesa en la primera sessió. Baldrich, Vicenç. Un dels fundador de la Unió Ultramarina (1902). El 1931 defensà la seva dissolució i l'ingrés en el Sindicat Mercantil de la CNT. Baldrís, Joan. Dirigent de l'anarcosindicalisme agrari els anys 1930. L'any 1931 s'adherí al BOC i després a la U. de R. Balet, Joan. Membre de la CNT. Assistí al Congrés de Sants (1918), com a representant de la Federació Local de Manresa. Col.laborà a la revista "Tierra y Libertad" i al diari "Solidaridad Obrera" de Barcelona. Ballabriga, Antoni. Militant de la CNT. Fou un dels signants del Manifest dels Trenta (agost 1931). Ballach, I. Membre de la CNT. Sabater. Formà part del comitè de la Federació Local de Barcelona. Treballà en l'organització del Congrés de Sants (1918), en el qual intervingué com a representant del Sindicat de Sabaters "La Armonía" de Barcelona. Ballano Bueno, Adolfo. Militant de la CNT. Periodista. Membre del grup "Los Solidarios". Assistí a la conferència de Blanes (juliol de 1922), en representació dels sindicats de Vilassar de Dalt. Membre del Consell General de Defensa d'Aragó amb seu a Fraga (octubre 1936). Des del desembre del mateix any, quan el citat Consell fou reconegut oficialment pel govern central, s'encarregà del departament d'Ordre Públic. Ballbé, Eusebi. Assistí al congrés obrer convocat pel Centre Federal de Les Societats Obreres (Barcelona, juny de 1870), com a representant de les Tres Classes de Vapor de Barcelona. Donà suport a la proposta de trasllat de la seu del Consell Federal de la FRE de l'AIT a Madrid. Baqué, Pere. Membre de la Societat Obrera dels Aprestadors i Cilindradors de Barcelona. Fou un dels signants del Manifest del Primer de Maig de 1890. Baqués, Ramon. Militant de la CNT. Assistí al Congrés de Sants (1918) on s'oposà a la creació dels Sindicats Únics. Baqués, Pau.Dirigent de la Unió de Rabassaires de l’Alt Penedès el 1934. Baradella, Esteve. Vilanova i la Geltrú. Se'l cita també com Bardella. Director de la Classe Obrera de Filadors de Selfactines. Un dels signants del manifest "Vindicación de la Clase Obrera en Villanueva y Geltrú", publicat el dia 7 de juliol de 1855. El mes de setembre de 1855 dirigí un escrit al Governador Civil, denunciant la coacció i amenaces a la teixidora Josefa Juncosa perquè s'adheria a una vaga. Barañé, Rafael. Vicedirector tercer de l'Associació de Socors Mutus d'Oficials Impressors de Barcelona (juny 1855). Barba Roca, Pau. Director de la Classe Obrera dels Teixidors de Telers Mecànics. President de la Junta Central de Directors de la Classe Obrera (Barcelona, 1855). Formà part de les comissions de treballadors que organitzaren la lluita de les selfactines i la vaga general de juliol de 1855, després de la qual hagué d'exiliar-se a Londres. Visqué a Amèrica i, en tornar, ingressà a Les Tres Classes de Vapor. Posteriorment hi provocà una escissió. Barberà Blas, Antoni. Militant de la UGT. Fou comptador del Comitè Regional de la UGT de Catalunya (abril 1929-juliol 1930). Barceló, Baptista. Vocal de la Direcció Central de les Societats Obreres de Barcelona (FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1869). Barceló Cassadó, Josep. Mataró, 1824 - Barcelona, 1855. Dirigent Obrer. Filador. Capdavanter de l'Associació de Filadors de Barcelona. Dirigí la primera vaga general de Barcelona el mes de març de 1854. Organitzà la comissió de treballadors de les fàbriques de filats, que protagonitzaren el boicot contra les selfactines (estiu 1854). Restablerta la Milícia Nacional, en fou capità. Fou el dirigent obrer més popular i influent de Catalunya. L'abril de 1855 fou detingut pel govern militar i acusat d'haver comès un crim en el Mas de Sant Jaume d'Olesa de Montserrat. Fou injustament condemnat a mort per un irregular consell de guerra i executat el sis de juny de 1855. Aquest fet causà gran indignació en el món obrer i provocà la primera vaga general de Catalunya. Barco Hernández, Francesc. Militant de la UGT. El gener de 1926 s'enfrontà amb la direcció de la Federació Regional, essent suspès de militància. Havia estat comptador del Comitè Regional de la UGT de Catalunya (maig de 1922) i després en fou Tresorer (juliol de 1930). Barcons Solé, Joaquim. Formà part de la comissió d'obrers de Sabadell que l'octubre de 1855 es traslladaren a Madrid, per entrevistar-se amb el general Espartero i demanar-li la llibertat dels obrers empresonats i el retorn dels emigrats. Bardella, Esteve. Veieu Baradella, Esteve Barea, Francesc. Militant de la UGT. Representant del Sindicat d'Aigua, Gas i Electricitat en el Comitè de Catalunya l'any 1933. Barella, Jaume. Vocal de la Direcció Central de les Societats Obreres de Barcelona. Signant de la crida "a los obreros de Catalunya" demanant la celebració d'un congrés obrer català (desembre 1868). Bargalló, Joan. Assistí al congrés obrer convocat pel Centre Federal de Les Societats Obreres (Barcelona, juny de 1870), en representació dels Escultors i Marbristes de Barcelona. Bargalló Martí, Miquel. Pagès de Mont-roig del Camp. Membre fundador del Centre Obrer de Mont-roig, l’any 1911. Assistí al congrés de constitució de la Federació Provincial de Tarragona d’Obrers del Camp. (Reus, 25.05.1913). Fou alcalde de Mont-roig l’any 1917. Barjau i Riera, Felip. Sant Martí de Provençals, 1894 – Mèxic, 1952). Se'l cita també com Felip Barjun. Militant de la CNT. Barber. Després del Congrés de Sants (desembre 1918), va fer campanya de divulgació anarcosindicalista pel sud de Catalunya amb Josep Viadiu i Llibertat Ròdenas. Més tard (finals de 1930) abandonà la CNT i s’afilià a la USC. Participa en les eleccions a Corts de novembre de 1933 i fou elegit diputat per la USC. El 1936 participà en la fundació del PSUC i el 1939 hagué d’exiliar-se a Mèxic. Baró Josep, Miquel. Obrer afusellat en la repressió posterior a la revolta de la Setmana Tràgica (13 d'agost de 1909). Barquet Simó. Dirigent de la Societat de Protecció Mútua d'Oficials Sabaters, de Barcelona. Secretari de la Junta Central Directiva de les Associacions de Socors Mutus (Barcelona 1841). Fou destituït acusat de malversació de fons. Barrera Maresma, Martí.-La Bisbal d'Empordà 1889 - Barcelona, 1972. Sindicalista i polític republicà. Fou president de les Joventuts de la UFNR d'Arenys de Mar. Establert a Barcelona milità en els moviments obrers. El desembre de 1916 fou detingut durant una vaga que, contra l'encariment de les subsistències, havia promogut la CNT. Va ser membre del Comitè Regional de la CNT durant la vaga general revolucionària de 1917. Exercí de gerent de "Tipografía Cosmos" on s'editava "La Batalla" (1923). Administrador de "Solidaridad Obrera" de Barcelona, n'assumí un temps la direcció. Juntament amb Lluís Companys, Salvador Seguí i d'altres sindicalistes i polítics, fou deportat al castell de La Mola de Maó (30 de novembre de 1920). El 1932 fou elegit diputat al Parlament de Catalunya per Esquerra Republicana. Fou Conseller de Treball de la Generalitat des del 4 d'octubre de 1933 fins el 7 d'octubre de 1934. El seu tarannà conciliador i progressista va quedar reflectit en els redactats finals de nombrosos convenis col.lectius, entre els quals cal destacar el de Riegos y Fuerzas del Ebro, la multinacional productora i distribuïdora d'energia elèctrica (25 de SETEMBRE de 1933) i el del metall (juny de 1934). Pels fets del Sis d'octubre de 1934 fou condemnant a 30 anys de presó. Després del triomf electoral del Front Popular (FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1936), es reintegrà a la conselleria ocupant el càrrec fins el 31 de juliol del mateix any, en que fou nomenat vocal, per ERC, del Consell d'Economia de la Generalitat. Durant la guerra fou president de la Comissió de Responsabilitats Polítiques, des d'on va fer prevaler les normes jurídiques. S'exilià el 1939 a Montpelier. Tornà a Barcelona el 1950. Barrio Navarro, José del. Valladolid, 1909 - París, 1989. Militant marxista afiliat al PCE i al PCC. Milità a la CNT i també a la UGT. Treballador del metall. L’any 1924 s’afilià a la CNT a Barcelona. L'any 1927 fou elegit secretari de la Unió de Joventuts Comunistes d'Espanya i es traslladà a Bilbao, formant part del Comitè Central del PCE. L'any 1928 era secretari d'Organització de la FCCB. Assistí al 5è. congrés de la Internacional de les Joventuts Comunistes i al 6è congrés de la Tercera Internacional (Moscou, juliol-agost de 1928). Participà en la formació del PCC l'any 1932. Fou secretari del Sindicat Metal.lúrgic de la CNT a Barcelona, però l'any 1933 en fou expulsat per la seva militància comunista, afiliant-se a la UGT. Fou secretari del Sindicat Metal.lúrgic de la UGT de Barcelona. El juny de 1936 esdevingué secretari general de la UGT de Catalunya. Participà en la constitució del PSUC (Barcelona, juliol de 1936), essent elegit membre del seu comitè central. Representant a la UGT formà part del Comitè Central de Milícies Antifeixistes, càrrec que ocupà molt poc temps, ja que tot seguit es traslladà al front de guerra comandant la Columna "Carles Marx". El maig de 1937, en ser assassinat Antonio Sesé, tornà a fer-se càrrec de la secretaria general de la UGT de Catalunya. Retornà al front de guerra i el FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1939 traspassà la frontera de l'Estat francès amb el XVIII cos d'exèrcit, essent internat en el camp de Sant Cyprien. Després va estar exiliat a Moscou, Xile, Mèxic i finalment a França. Fou responsable de les publicacions "Frente Único" i "Unidad Sindical", també col.laborà a "Octubre" (1935). A l'exili fou expulsat del PSUC. Barriobero Herrán, Eduardo. Torrecilla en Cameros (La Rioja) 1875 - Barcelona, 1939. Advocat laboralista, polític i escriptor. Fundador de la Joventut Republicana Federal i gran orador sindicalista. El 1926 participà en una conspiració contra el general Primo de Ribera, i el 1931 fou diputat a les Corts Constituents. A Barcelona, durant la guerra civil, dirigí l'Oficina Jurídica que actuava com a Tribunal Revolucionari. El 14 de FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1939 fou afusellat pels franquistes a Barcelona. Publicà De Casanovas a Romanones (1916). Emilio Castelar (1930). Un Tribunal Revolucionario. Cuenta rendida por el que fue su presidente (Barcelona, 1937). Barthe, Fortunato. Militant de la CNT, assistí al congrés de Sants representant diversos sindicats de Palafrugell. Bartolí Guiu, Josep. Barcelona, 1911 - ?, ?. Dibuixant i pintor. Organitzador del Sindicat de Dibuixants de Catalunya de la UGT, i del que en fou dirigent el 1936. Col.laborà amb dibuixos polítics en diverses publicacions: "La Humanitat", "L'Opinió", "L'Esquella de la Torratxa". S'exilià el 1939 a Mèxic on publicà Campos de Concentración (1944), amb textos de Narcís Molins i Fàbrega. Treballà amb el "Mouvement Socialiste pour les Etats Unis d'Europe". Barullas, Vicente. Milità a la CNT. Secretari del Comitè Comarcal de Camperols (del Cardoner i l’Alt Llobregat) de la CNT, l’any 1937 Basart, Josep. Assistí al Congrés de Sants (1918) com a representant dels Obrers Constructors de Pianos. Basols, Francesc. Teixidor a mà. Un dels signants de la carta del 15 de març de 1855, dirigida al governador civil de Barcelona, expressant-li l'adhesió obrera al govern liberal. Batlle, Josep. Assistí al Congrés de Sants (1918), com a representant dels Constructors de Carruatges i Ferrers de Barcelona. Batlle, Miquel. Assistí al congrés convocat per la Direcció Central de Les Societats Obreres (Barcelona, desembre de 1868). Fou membre de la FRE de l'AIT. Batlle Coll, Josep. Pintador tèxtil. Un dels dirigents de les comissions de treballadors que organitzaren la lluita contra les Selfactines, i, posteriorment, un dels signants del primer conveni col.lectiu pactat per obrers i patrons tèxtils (26 de gener de 1855). Batlle Hugué, Josep. Vilanova i la Geltrú, 1894-1956. Militant de la CNT. Membre del Comitè de la CNT de la fàbrica Pirelli, SA. Fou regidor a l'Ajuntament de Vilanova i la Geltrú, del 07-09-38 fins el 04-01-39 Batllia Ramon. Dirigent de Les Tres Classes de Vapor. Membre del Consell de la Unió Manufacturera, elegit en el segon congrés (4-5 de FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1872), juntament amb Josep Bragulat, Manuel Vila, Narcís Ribó i Eudald Xuriguera. Batllori, Josep. Fou administrador, juntament amb Vicenç Martínez, de la Compañía Fabril de Tejedores de Algodón de Barcelona, creada el gener de 1856, època en la què fou elegit secretari de l'Associació de Socors Mutus dels Teixidors de Barcelona. Bau, Josep. Membre de la Societat de Protecció Mútua dels Serradors de Barcelona (1841). Baudín, Joan. Membre de la FRE de l'AIT (Barcelona, 1872). Belis Cortés, Josep. Militant de la CNT. Assistí al congrés convocat per Solidaritat Obrera en el qual es va decidir la constitució de la CNT (Barcelona, 1910), com a representant dels obrers d'Arts i Oficis de Badalona, presidint-ne la cinquena sessió. Va ser ponent de la 1ª ponència que deia: És de necesitat o conveniència per al Sindicalisme que Solidaridad Obrera passi a ser una Confederació Nacional ? També va assistir al congrés de 1911 representant la mateixa societat, i en el qual va presidir la segona sessió. Bell, Aleix. Obrer. Després de les primeres reaccions d'antimaquinisme (1935), va ser afusellat acusat d'haver participat en l'incendi de la fàbrica Bonaplata i Cia, de Barcelona. Bellavista, Ladislau. Militant de la CNT a Mataró. Membre del comitè de la CRTC (1922), participà en la Conferència de Blanes (1922). Fou un dels fundadors de la revista "Vida Sindical" (Barcelona, 1926). Beltran, Nicolau. Un dels signants del Manifest del Primer de Maig de 1890, en representació de la Societat d'Obrers Carregadors i Descarregadors de Carbó Mineral de Barcelona. Benajam Català , Jordi. Milità a la UGT al PCC i al PSUC. Secretari general de la Federació Fabril i Tèxtil de la UGT de Catalunya, l'octubre de 1936. Fou membre del Comitè Central del PSUC des del FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1937. S'exilià a França i l'any 1943 abandonà el partit. Benet, Jaume. Militant de la CNT. Assistí al congrés convocat per Solidaritat Obrera, en el qual es va decidir la constitució de la CNT (Barcelona, octubre/novembre 1910), així com al congrés de Sants (1918), representant el Sindicat de Vidriers "Tierna Semilla" del Poble Nou (Barcelona). Berga, Josep. L'any 1933 fou elegit Tresorer de l'Agrupació Sindicalista Llibertària de Gavà, adherida a la Federació Sindicalista Llibertària d'Àngel Pestaña. Bergaló, Andreu.Dirigent de la Societat de Teixidors de Tiana. Un dels signats d'una carta dirigida al governador civil de Barcelona (11 de maig de 1855), expressant l'adhesió obrera al govern liberal. Bernabeu, Àlvar. ? - ? - Buenos Aires, 1972. Militant de la CNT. Membre del Sindicat de la Metal.lúrgia de Badalona, en representació del qual assístí al 3er congrés confederal de la CNT (Madrid, juny 1931), i al Ple Regional de Sindicats de la CRTC (Barcelona, agost 1931). Bernabeu, Josep. Assistí al congrés convocat per Solidaritat Obrera, en el qual es va decidir constituir la CNT (Barcelona, octubre de 1910), com a representant dels Teixidors Mecànics de Llanes de Sabadell. Bernabeu, Rafael. Assistí al congrés convocat per Solidaritat Obrera (Barcelona, octubre de 1910), com a representant de la Unió de l'Art Fabril d'Alcoi. Fou membre de la Comissió Revisadora d'Actes i participà en la ponència sobre el treball de la dona. Bernadó, Amadeu. ? - Clichy (França) 1974. Militant de la CNT. Es va passar al BOC i posteriorment al PSUC. Després de la guerra civil s'exilià a França. Bernadó, Gabriel. Dirigent de les Tres Classes de Vapor, "Societat la Concòrdia" de Vilanova i la Geltrú. Representant aquesta societat participà el 29 de juny de 1889 en les reunions amb el Comitè de la UGT per tractar de l'adhesió de la societat "La Concòrdia" a la UGT. Bernat, Gregori. Militant de la CNT. Secretari del Comitè Local de Vilafranca del Penedès l'any 1931. Berni, Ramona. Teixidora. Militant del Sindicat Fabril i Tèxtil de la CNT, en el qual portà a terme una gran tasca propagandística. Fou membre del grup d'acció "Los Solidarios". Bertolín, Josep. Militant de la CNT. Per les seves activitats sindicals, fou detingut el 17 de gener de 1919 a Barcelona i traslladat al cuirassat "Pelayo". Bertran, Antoni. Membre de la secció local de Vilafranca del Penedès de la Federació d'Obrers Boters (1881). Formà part de la Comissió d'Experts de la citada federació. L'any 1882 assistí al 10è congrés de la FOT. Bertrán, Bartolomé. Dirigent de la Societat de Protecció Mútua dels Filadors de Barcelona i vocal de la Junta Central Directiva de les Associacions de Socors Mutus (1841). Bertran, Domènec. L'any 1895 era membre de Junta directivaa de la secció de Vilafranca del Penedès de la Federació d'Obrers Agrícoles. El FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1895 fou elegit membre de la Comissió de propaganda. Bertran, Joan. Secretari de la Junta Central de Directors de la Classe Obrera de Catalunya (1855) i dirigent de la Societat dels Paletes. Formà part de la comissió d'obrers que es traslladà a Madrid per tal d'entrevistar-se amb el govern, demanant el dret d'associació obrera (juliol 1855). Bertran, Joan. Membre de la junta directiva de la Societat de Boters de Vilanova i la Geltrú el 1870. Bertran, Josep. Director de l'Associació de Socors Mutus dels Cilindradors i Aprestadors de Barcelona (1856). Bertran, Miquel. Militant de la CNT a Sabadell. Assistí al Congrés de Sants, en representació dels Rajolers de Sabadell. Assistí al Congrés Confederal de la CNT com a delegat tèxtil per Sabadell (Madrid, 1931) i també al Ple de Sindicats de la CRTC (Barcelona, agost de 1931). L'any 1937 fou dirigent de la Federació Local de Sindicats de Sabadell. Bertran, Ramon. Militant de la CNT. Membre del Comitè de la Federació de Vidriers i Cristallers de Badalona (1916). Bertran i Súria, Antoni. Milità a la FOSIG, a la UGT, al PCC i al PSUC. Cambrer. Fou President de la FOSIG des de la seva constitució (gener 1936) fins que s'incorporà al front el desembre de 1937. Formà part del Comitè Central del PSUC des del juliol de 1937. Fou director general de Proveïments de la Generalitat. Besteiro Fernández, Julián. Madrid, 1870 - Carmona (Sevilla) 1840. Polític socialista i militant de la UGT. Estudià a la Institución Libre de Enseñanza. Es doctorà en lletres a Madrid el 1895 i fou catedràtic de lògica a la Universidad de Madrid (1912). El 1912 ingressà en el PSOE i també a la UGT. L'any 1914 entrà a formà part del Comitè Nacional de la UGT i el 1915 del PSOE. Fou un dels signants del Pacte d'Unitat d'Acció UGT - CNT, i membre del comitè de vaga en la vaga revolucionària de 1917, fet pel qual fou condemnat a reclusió perpètua per un tribunal militar. El mes de FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1918 fou elegit diputat a Corts i com a tal va passar de la cel.la al Parlament. Assistí a la Conferència Internacional Socialista d'Amsterdam el 1919, al congrés sindical extraordinari de la FSI (Londres, 1920) i al segon congrés internacional de la FSI (Roma, 1922). Va ser elegit vicepresident de la UGT el 1923. En morir Pablo Iglesias el 1925, el succeí en les presidències de la UGT i del PSOE. Fou reelegit president de la UGT en el 16è congrés (1928) i també en el 17è (1932). Fou president de les Corts Constituents de la República (1931). En el 13è congrés del PSOE (octubre de 1932) les seves tesis foren contestades (s'oposava a la línia radical de Largo Caballero) i no fou reelegit president del partit. El mes de novembre de 1933 dimití de la UGT. El mes de març de 1939 entrà a formar part del Consell Nacional de Defensa, el qual tenia com a missió negociar una pau honorable, que, evidentment, no va aconseguir. En acabar la guerra es va negar a abandonar Espanya. Detingut el 8 de juliol de 1939 a Madrid, fou condemnat a 30 anys de presó. Morí un any més tard empresonat a Carmona. Bigorra, Francesc. Signà el manifest del Primer de maig de 1890, representant la Societat d'Operaris Cristallers de Badalona. Bilbao Castellanos, Crescencio. Militant de la UGT i del PSOE. L'estiu de 1931 es va fer càrrec de la Presidència del Comitè Regional de la UGT de Catalunya, en haver dimitit el president electe Josep Jové Surroca. Participà en l'organització del 8è congrés i després es reintegrà a les tasques del PSOE a Huelva. Bisbe, Jaume. Pintor Secretari de la primera junta de la Federació Local de Societats Obreres de Barcelona (agost de 1907) Representant a la Federació de Treballadors d'Igualada participà i fou ponent en el congrés de la CNT de 1911 i director del periòdic "Solidaridad Obrera". Biscamps, Antoni. Vocal de la Direcció Central de les Societats Obreres de Barcelona (1869). Blanco Blanch, Antoni. Osca ? - Gusen (Alemanya), 1941. Militant de la CNT. Xocolater. Ingressà a la CNT a Badalona el 1920. Fou detingut i processat diverses vegades per les seves activitats sindicals. Membre del Comitè Nacional Revolucionari de la CNT (1927), tingué contactes amb Fermín Galán, quan aquest estava empresonat al castell de Montjuïc (1928). Home de confiança de Joan Peiró, aquest l'incorporà al Ministeri d'Indústria. Des de mitjans de 1937 fins l'acabament de la guerra fou director de la fàbrica (col.lectivitzada) de productes químics "Casa Cros" de Badalona. A l'exili fou internat en camps de concentració francesos i posteriorment incorporat a una companyia de treballadors estrangers destinada a fortificar la Línia Maginot. El mes de maig de 1940 fou deportat al camp de concentració de Gusen, on morí. Blanc, Cebrià. Dirigent de l'Associació de Socors Mutus dels Teixidors de Sant Pere de Premià. Fou un dels signants de la carta dirigida al governador civil de Barcelona (11 de maig de 1855), expressant la seva adhesió al govern liberal. Blanxart, Pere. Signà el manifest del Primer de maig de 1890 en nom del Centre de Confiters i Pastissers. Blasco, Agustí. Director de la Societat de Protecció Mútua de Teixidors de Barcelona (1848). Blasco, Josep. Militant de la CNT. En la repressió obrera del gener de 1919 a Barcelona, fou detingut i empresonat al cuirassat "Pelayo". Blavia, Josep. Obrer tèxtil. Dirigent de Les Tres Classes de Vapor de Manresa. Un dels signants del conveni col.lectiu que posà fi a la vaga tèxtil de Manresa el 1890. Boada, Josep. Assistí al congrés convocat per Solidaritat Obrera, en el qual es constituí la CRTC (Barcelona, octubre de 1910), representant la Federació Local de Societats Obreres de Terrassa. Boades Vendrell, Domènec. Un dels signants del Manifest del Primer de Maig de 1890, dirigit al governador civil de Barcelona, com a representant dels Obrers de Refineries de Sucre. Boal, Evelino. Valladolid, ? - Barcelona, 1921. Dirigent sindicalista. Treballador d'arts gràfiques a Barcelona. Militant de la CNT. Fou un dels organitzadors del Congrés de Sants i formà part de la comissió que en redactà la Memòria. El 1919 fou delegat per entrevistar-se amb organitzacions sindicals a Portugal. Sovint col.laborà a la revista "Tierra y Libertad". Presidí el congrés del Teatre de la Comèdia (Madrid, 1919). L'agost de 1920, juntament amb Salvador Seguí i Salvador Quemades, anà a Madrid per refer l'aliança CNT - UGT. Fou secretari del Comitè Nacional de la CNT (1919-1921). Fou detingut i empresonat a La Model de Barcelona (1921). Quan la matinada del dia 7 de juny (algunes fons citen el dia 15) sortia en llibertat, fou assassinat a la porta de la presó, junt amb Antoni Feliu, aleshores tresorer de la CNT. Bochons, Manuel. ? - Barcelona, 1905. (Se'l cita també com Manuel Bachons). Paleta. Assistí al congrés obrer convocat pel Centre Federal de Les Societats Obreres (Barcelona, juny de 1870), com a representant de la Cooperativa de Paletes de Barcelona. Assistí al congrés de la FRE de l'AIT (Còrdova, 1872). Fou nomenat administrador de la Federació Local de Barcelona de la FRE de l'AIT (1873). Distanciat de la Federació, participà en la constitució del Centre Federatiu de Societats Obreres de Barcelona (1876), el qual organitzà uns congressos obrers a Barcelona l'agost de 1877, el gener de 1878 i un altre l’any 1882 (en el què assistí Pablo Iglesias). Participà en la creació del Partit Democràtic Socialista Obrer a Catalunya (agost 1882). Fou secretari de la Unió d'Obrers Constructors d'Edificis de Barcelona, i tresorer de la Lliga Nacional de Resistència (gener de 1883). Quan es reorganitzà l'Ateneu Obrer (FEBRUARY / FEBRER 1891), el dirigí. Col.laborà en el periòdic "El Obrero" de Barcelona (1880), òrgan de les Tres Classes de Vapor, i a la "Revista Social", òrgan de la Unió Manufacturera (1872-1880). Bofarull, Francesc. Signà el Manifest del Primer de maig de 1890 dirigit al governador civil de Barcelona, com a representant de la Societat de Teixidors de Seda de Barcelona. Bofill, Jaume. Dirigent de la Classe Obrera dels Teixidors de Vilamajor (dita també Vilanova de Vilamajor i San Antoni de Vilamajor). Un dels signants de la carta dirigida al governador civil de Barcelona (11 de maig de 1855) expressant-li l'adhesió obrera al govern liberal. Bofill, Joan. El 8 d'agost de 1854 signà un manifest, dirigit a la ciutat de Barcelona, com a dirigent dels obrers Galonaires i Passamaners. Fou elegit compromissari, per la parròquia de Santa Anna, en les eleccions del 19 de novembre de 1854 a l'Ajuntament de Barcelona. Bofill, Pedro. Gelida, ?. Obrer paperer. Usà el pseudònim de Pedro Miquel. L'any 1873 era dirigent de la secció de Gelida de la Unió de Noògrafs. Boil, Benet. Signà el manifest del Primer de maig de 1890 com a representant de la Societat Obrera de Manyans de Barcelona. Boixader, Joan. (també se'l cita com a Buixadós) Militant de la UGT. Vocal suplent de la comissió del Centre de Classes de Barcelona, que organitzà el congrés constitutiu de la UGT (Barcelona, agost de 1888) i al qual assistí com a representant de la Societat Obrera de Cadiraires de Boga de Barcelona. Fou un dels signants del manifest del Primer de Maig de 1890. Després del 2on congrés de la UGT (Vilanova i la Geltrú, 31 d'octubre - 2 de novembre de 1890), fou elegit vocal 4art del Comitè Nacional. Boldú, Simó. Directiu de la Societat de Protecció Mútua de Teixidors de Barcelona (1842). Boltà, Francesc. Militant de la UGT. Barreter. Després del 4art. congrés de la UGT (Madrid, 2 d’agost de 1894), fou elegit vicepresident del Comitè nacional. Bolingas, Josep. Signà el Manifest del Primer de maig de 1890, com a representant del Centre Instructiu d'Oficials Tapissers de Barcelona. Bonada, Agustí. Secretari de l'Associació Obrera de Teixidors Mecànics de Barcelona. Dirigent de la Junta Central de Directors de la Classe Obrera de Catalunya. Formà part de la Comissió negociadora del Conveni Col.lectiu de Teixidors Mecànics (1854). El 1855 participà en la comissió obrera que anà a Madrid a entrevistar-se amb el govern central. En tornar fou perseguit per les autoritats barcelonines i hagué de fugir de Barcelona. Bonafulla, Leopoldo. Veieu Esteve, Joan Baptista. Bonavia Calverol, Pere. L'Ampolla, 1901. - ? - ? Militant de la UGT i del PSUC. Ferroviari. A partir de 1929 residí a Vilanova i la Geltrú on fou regidor a l'Ajuntament del 27-10-37 fins el 20-01-39. Bonet, Bernat. Militant de la CNT. Participà en el Congrés de Sants (1918), representant la Societat Obrera dels Adobadors "La Unión Popular". Bonet, Joan. Militant de la CNT. Participà en el Congrés de Sants (1918), com a representant de la Unió de Fusters de Barcelona. Bonet, Robert. Assistí al congrés convocat per la Direcció Central de Les Societats Obreres (Barcelona, desembre de 1868), on fou vocal de la primera sessió. Bonet Cuito, Pere. Lleida, 1901 - París, 1980. Tipògraf. Sindicalista i polític. Milità a la CNT i a la UGT. Fou empresonat, per activista, durant la vaga general de 1917. Fou un dels fundadors del setmanari "Lluita Social" (1919), òrgan del sindicalisme marxista dins la CNT de Lleida. Assistí a la Conferència Extraordinària de la CRTC (Blanes, juliol 1922). Fundador, amb Jaoquim Maurín, del setmanari "La Batalla" (1922), que succeí "Lucha Social". Durant la dictadura de Primo de Rivera va ser empresonat durant quatre anys (1925-29). S'exilià a París (FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1929) i tornà a Barcelona el FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1931. Fou elegit membre del comitè executiu del BOC i també fou membre del grup dirigent d'Aliança Obrera de Catalunya (1933). Militant a la UGT participà en la fundació i en el comitè executiu del POUM (1935). L'octubre de 1938, dins del procés de persecució al POUM, fou condemnat a 15 anys de presó. El gener de 1939 s'escapà de la presó i passà a França on el govern de Vichy el tancà en un camp de concentració. Presidí una conferència celebrada en memòria de Salvador Seguí, en el 50è aniversari del seu assassinat (París, març de 1973). Bonet Riera, Jaume. Obrer tèxtil. President de les Tres Classes de Vapor a Vilanova i la Geltrú (secció de filats i teixits) (1872). S'oferí, en nom seu i de 200 afiliats més, a l'Ajuntament, per anar en contra dels bandolers i dels carlins. Bonifaci Mora, Josep. Llimiana (Pallars Jussà), 1895. Milità a la Unió Catalanista, a la Joventut Republicana i a l'Estat Català. En esclatar la guerra milità a la UGT i al PSUC. Formà part del Comitè de Catalunya de la UGT en representació de la Federació Sanitària, de la que n'era Secretari general. Formà part del Sindicat de Metges de Catalunya. Fou director d'Assistència Social del Ministeri de Treball de la República. Bono, Enric. Militant de la CNT. Fou un dels fundadors del periòdic "Vida Sindical" (Barcelona, gener de 1926). Bonvehi Sabater, Josep. L'any 1933 fou l'impulsor i Secretari de l'Agrupació Sindicalista Llibertària de Gavà, adherida a la Federació Sindicalista Llibertària d'Àngel Pestaña. Bordas, Ramon. Teixidors de vels. Un dels signants del conveni entre obrers i patrons tèxtils el 26 de gener de 1855. Membre de la comissió obrera durant el conflicte de les Selfactines . Bordos, Jaume. Signà el Manifest del Primer de maig de 1890, dirigit al governador civil de Barcelona, com a representant de la Societat d'Oficials Boters de Sants. Borella, Josep. Signà el manifest del primer de maig de 1890, com a representant de la Societat d'Obrers d'Estampats i Blanqueig Mecànic de Barcelona. Borillo, Vicenç. Militant de la CNT i anarquista. Obrer soldador. Participà en l'organització del Sindicat del Petroli a nivell estatal. Assistí al Ple Nacional de Regionals de la CNT (Llavaneres, juny de 1928). Fou membre del comitè de la CRTC, amb seu a Badalona. Després de la guerra civil s'exilià a França. Borobio, Josep. Director i redactor de "Solidaridad Obrera". Fou detingut durant la vaga que, contra l'encariment de les subsistències, impulsà la CNT (Barcelona, desembre de 1916). Borràs, Fermí. Militant de la CNT. Assistí al congrés de Sants (1918), com a representant del Sindicat d'Oficis Diversos de Badalona. President del Sindicat de Productes Químics de Badalona, en fou expulsat el 1918 i posteriorment es dedicà als negocis de la construcció a Sant Adrià del Besòs. Borràs, Jacint. Milità en el Sindicat de Barbers de la CNT de Lleida. Assistí al 2on. congrés confederal (Madrid, 1931). Formà part del comitè de la CRTC, en representació dels sindicats de Lleida (1932). Borràs, Joan. Milità a la UGT. Entre 1936 i 1937 fou Secretari d'Organització en el Comitè Local de Barcelona. Borràs, Josep. Pagès de Reus. Tresorer del comitè de la Federació Provincials d’Obrers del Camp (Tarragona), l’any 1913. Borràs Javé, Martí. Anarcocomunista. Sabater. Dirigent de la FTRE i membre del comitè local de Barcelona (1871). Publicà i dirigí, junt amb Emili Hugas, "La Justicia Humana" (1886) i "Tierra y Libertad" (1888-89). Fou afusellat a Montjuïc. Borrell Mateo, Enrique. Sastre. Participà en les primeres reunions de la Internacional presidides per Fanelli (Madrid, 1869). Secretari de correspondència de la comissió organitzadora de la FRE (desembre de 1869). Com a delegat de la secció de Madrid participà en l'organització i assistí al Congrés Obrer de Barcelona (juny de 1870), constitutiu de la FRE de l'AIT, on fou designat membre del Consell Federal, juntament amb González Morago, Francisco Mora, Àngel Mora i Anselmo Lorenzo, càrrec que ocupà fins el maig de 1871. Borell, Josep. Secretari de la comissió nomenada pel Centre de Classes de Barcelona, el 1887, per organitzar el congrés obrer fundacional de la UGT (Barcelona, 1888). Membre de la Comissió executiva del PSOE, formà part de la mesa del congrés del PSOE de 1888 Borràs, Josep. Pagès de Reus. Tresorer del comitè executiu de la Federació Provincial de Tarragona d’Obrers del Camp, l’any 1913 Bort Bort, Carles. Militant de la CNT. Fou un dels primers sindicalistes assassinats pels elements dels Sindicats Lliures a Gràcia (Barcelona, 1920). Bosch, Antoni. Signà el manifest "Las Clases trabajadoras asociadas a los diputados a cortes y particularmente a los de la antigua Cataluña", en representació de la Classe Obrera dels Serradors de Barcelona (FEBRUARY / FEBRER de 1841) Bosch, Conxa. Dirigent obrera. Parlà en un míting a la Casa del Poble de Sabadell, convocat pel sindicat del tèxtil "La Constància", demanant als obrers que participessin en la vaga general del tèxtil de 1913. Bosch, Josep. Teixidor. Durant el conflicte de les Selfactines es dirigí al governador civil acceptant treballar a canvi d'una major remuneració (18 de març de 1855). Bosch, Pere. Teixidor. Membre de la junta de les Tres Classes de Vapor de Vilanova i la Geltrú (1871). Bosch Castany, Àngel. Vilanova i la Geltrú, 1896 - ? - ? Militant de la UGT i del PSUC. Fou regidor a l'Ajuntament de Vilanova i la Geltrú, del 27-10-37 al 03-11-37 Botan, Bonaventura. Assistí al congrés obrer convocat pel Centre Federal de Les Societats Obreres, constitutiu de la FRE de l'AIT (Barcelona, juny de 1870), com a representant de la Cooperativa de Picapedrers de Montjuïc (Barcelona). Botella, Francesc. Militant de la CNT. Assistí al congrés de Sants (1918), com a representant del Sindicat de Soldadors i Ajudants de Barcelona. Formà part del Comitè Nacional de la CNT (1919). Assistí al 2on. congrés confederal (Madrid 1919), on presidí la primera sessió. Botella Moya, Vicenç. Militant de la CNT. Per la seva activitat sindical fou empresonat en el vaixell "Giralda" i deportat al castell de la Mola de Maó (30.11.20). Signà el "Manifest d'Intel.ligència Republicana" (maig de 1930). Botifoll, Pere. Assistí al Congrés fundacional de la UGT (Barcelona, 1888), representant la Unió Local de Manresa. Signà el Manifest del Primer de maig de 1890, en nom de l'Agrupació Socialista de Barcelona. Bové, Climent. Dirigent obrer. Per les seves activitats sindicals fou desterrat a Canàries (1856). El 1868, en nom de la Direcció Central de les Societats Obreres de Barcelona, signà una crida "a los obreros de Cataluña", per fer un congrés obrer català. Assistí al congrés obrer en el qual es va constituir la FRE de l'AIT (Barcelona, juny de 1870), com a delegat de les Tres Classes de Vapor de Barcelona. Arran de la repressió pels fets de la Comuna de París, fou empresonat (abril de 1871). Fou president de la Federació de les Tres Classes de Vapor (maig 1870 - gener 1872). Bové, Josep. Militant de la UGT. Representant del Sindicat de Transport Terrestre en el Comitè de Catalunya l'any 1933. Bover Arqué, Joan. Anarquista i militant de la CNT de les comarques tarragonines. Durant la dictadura de Primo de Rivera fou perseguit i anà a viure a Badalona. Fou membre del Comitè de la CRTC i secretari del Comitè Revolucionari del la CNT (amb seu a Badalona). Després de la guerra civil s'exilià a França. Bragulat, Josep. Organitzà les agrupacions obreres del tèxtil del Principat després de la revolució de 1868 i intervingué en les negociacions de la vaga de les 15 setmanes l'any 1871 a Vilanova i la Geltrú. Fou elegit president de la Federació de les Tres Classes de Vapor el gener de 1872. Assistí al segon congrés de la FRE de l'AIT (Saragossa, 1872). Membre del consell directiu d'Unió Manufacturera i cap de la corrent antibakuninista (1873). El 1876 participà en la reconstitució del Centre Federal de Societats Obreres de Barcelona. Fou membre de la comissió, creada a principis de 1880, embrionària del Partit Democràtic-socialista obrer. Col.laborà en la revista "El Obrero" (1880), òrgan de les Tres Classes de Vapor. Branca, Silvestre. Fonedor. Un dels signants del conveni entre obrers i patrons tèxtils (27.02.1855). Membre de les Comissions de Treballadors que organitzaren la lluita de les selfactines i la vaga general següent. Brau, Eusebi. Fonedor. Militant de la CNT i anarquista adscrit al grup "Los Solidarios" (1922). Bretó, Gabriel. Membre de la primera junta directiva de la Societat Tipogràfica de Barcelona, l'agost de 1879. Brillas, Antoni. Assistí al congrés de Solidaritat Obrera de Barcelona (1910), com a representant de la Unió del Ram de l'Ebenisteria. Bru Sans, Josep. Milità a la UGT. Durant la guerra civil fou Secretari del Comitè Comarcal de la demarcació de Tarragona. Representà la Federació Local de Tarragona en el Comitè de Catalunya de la UGT. Brucet i Gelmà, Jaume. President de la U de R. i secretari local del PSUC a Maçanet de la Selva. Fou assassinat el març de 1937. Bruguera, Guillem. Assistí al congrés de Sants (1918), representant el Sindicat de Pintors "La Siempreviva", de Sant Martí (Barcelona). Brugueras, Pau. Teixidor a mà. Assistí a la Conferència de Saragossa de la FRE de l'AIT (1872). Bruno, Martí. Assistí al congrés de Sants (1918) representant la Federació Obrera de Terrassa. Brunet, Miquel. Signà el Manifest del 1er. de maig de 1890, dirigit al governador civil de Barcelona, en nom dels obrers espardenyaires. Buenacasa Tomeo, Manuel. Casp (Aragó) 1886 - Bourg-les Valence (França) 1964. Dirigent anarcosindicalista. Fuster i periodista. Del 1900 al 1905 s'estigué en un convent franciscà d'Andalusia. Actuà a la Federació Sindical de Saragossa i el 1911 hagué d'exiliar-se a França i després a Londres, on conegué Lenin i Enrico Malatesta. L'any 1914 es traslladà a Barcelona, on conegué Anselmo Lorenzo, Àngel Pestaña i Salvador Seguí. El 1915 s'exilià de nou a París, on formà part del Comitè de Relacions Anarquistes Internacionals i on conegué a Gandhi. El 1916 viatjà a Lausana (Suïssa) on s'entrevistà amb Lenin. De retorn a Espanya fou empresonat i després de passar per les presons de San Sebastián, Gijón, Saragossa, Madrid i Barcelona. Recobrà la llibertat el 1918. Assistí al Congrés de Sants (1918), com a representant del Sindicat de Fusters de Barcelona. Col.laborà a "Tierra i Libertad" i fou secretari del Comitè Nacional de la CNT (1918-1919). El gener de 1919, arran de la Vaga de La Canadenca fou detingut i empresonat a la nau "Pelayo", junt amb altres sindicalistes. El setembre de 1919 presidí el congrés de la CNT del Teatre de la Comèdia de Madrid. El 1920 organitzà, a Saragossa, una vaga general com a protesta per l'assassinat de Francesc Layret. Assistí a la Conferència extraordinària que se celebrà en aquesta ciutat el 1922. Dirigí la revista "Cultura y Acción" (1910) i (1921), òrgan regional del sindicalisme aragonès. També dirigí "Solidaridad Obrera" de Gijón (1922) i "El Productor de Blanes" (1925). El 1923 organitzà a Madrid un congrés anarquista, on s'acordà la formació d'una Federació Nacional de Grups Anarquistes. Col.laborà a "Solidaridad Obrera" de Barcelona amb el pseudònim de Manuel S. Ordo. El 1929 s'exilià a Toulouse, on muntà una fusteria en la qual treballà fins el 1934, en què fou expulsat de França i tornà a Barcelona. En acabar la guerra civil s'exilià a França i donà suport a l'escissió de la CNT del 1945. El 1961 participà en el congrés de la CNT a l'exili. Publicà diversos llibres d'entre els quals destaquen: El movimiento obrero español. 1888-1926. Editorial Costa. Barcelona, 1928. Historia y Crítica. Ed. Costa, Barcelona, 1928, i La CNT, los Treinta y la FAI. Editorial Tallers Alfa. Barcelona, 1933.

    Bueso García, Adolfo. Valladolid, 1889 - Barcelona, 1979. Militant de la CNT. Des de l'edat de 5 anys residí a Barcelona on treballà de tipògraf. Col·laborà a "Solidaridad Obrera" amb el pseudònim d'Àngel Rojo. També col.laborà a ""Tiempos Nuevos"" i a "La Batalla", de la qual en fou director el 1925. Fou empresonat de 1925 fins juliol de 1928 i llavors formà part del Comitè de la CRTC. Participà en el 2on congrés confederal de la CNT (Madrid, 1931). S'adherí als Trentistes i milità en la FOUS. Durant la guerra civil tornà a la CNT, i pel gener de 1939 s'exilià a França. És autor de: Como Fundamos la CNT. Editorial Avance. Barcelona, 1976, i Recuerdos de un cenetista. Editorial Ariel. Barcelona, 1976.

    Buiria, Josep. Militant de la CNT i del POUM. Dependent de llibreter. Secretari de relacions de la Unió Local de Sindicats de Lleida (expulsats de la CNT), maig de 1933. L'octubre de 1936 formà part de l'Ajuntament de Lleida representant el POUM. Fou president del Sindicat Mercantil de Lleida (1937). Exiliat a França el 1939, fou internat en el camp de concentració d'Anglés Saint Cyprien i també a Vernet de Arièges. El 1942 fou empresonat per la gendarmeria francesa per formar part dels equips que ajudaven a treure militants de l'Espanya franquista. Col.laborà en l'edició del butlletí de la UGT a l'exili. Retorna a Catalunya el 1976.

    Buixadós, Joan. (Veieu Boixader, Joan),

    Bulló, Josep. Membre d'una comissió d'obrer de Sabadell que per l'octubre de 1855 es traslladà a Madrid per entrevistar-se amb el president del Govern, general Espartero, i demanar-li la llibertat dels obrers presos i el retorn dels emigrats.

    Burcet, Josep. Militant de la CNT. Assistí al congrés de Sants (1918), representant els Fusters de Calella.

    Burgos, Miquel. Militant de la CNT. President del Sindicat d'Adobadors de la CNT, fou mort a trets per la guàrdia civil durant la vaga de la Canadenca (Barcelona, 1919).

    Busqué, Ramon. Assistí al congrés de Sants (1918), representant el Sindicat d'Adobadors d'Igualada. Busquets, Gabriel. Assistí al congrés convocat per Solidaritat Obrera, en el qual es constituí la CRTC (Barcelona, octubre de 1910), representat el Sindicat de Gèneres de Punt de Barcelona.

    Bussot, Dimes. Militant de la CNT. Assistí al congrés de Sants (1918), representant la Federació Local de Badalona, de la qual en fou secretari.

    Bustems, Baldiri. Assistí al congrés de Sants (1918), com a representat del Sindicat de Contramestres "El Ràdium" de Barcelona. WITHOUT CODE; SEE ALSO ENTRIES WITH SOURCE CODE FOR EASY CUT & PASTE IF NEEDED

    MANY ENTRIES ARE NOT ANARCHIST & CAN BE CUT OUT THESE WEB PAGES ARE SAVED IN ARCHIVE MIRROR & CAN BE LOADED & CUT & PASTED INTO SEPARATE PAGES &/OR FOR GALLERY INDEX PAGES E:\Bleed Archive\ArchiveMirror\biogVeuobrera.org\1biogr-a.htm E:\Bleed Archive\ArchiveMirror\biogVeuobrera.org\1biogr-c.htm http://www.veuobrera.org/01biogra/1biogr-a.htm
    (*) Per cercar biografies de Sindicalistes cal consultar el Diccionari Biogràfic del Moviment Obrer als Països Catalans. Coordinat per María Teresa Martínez de Sas i Pelai Pagès i Blanch. Edicions Universitat de Barcelona. Publicacions de l'Abadia de Montserrat, desembre del 2000. I per biografies específicament d'Anarcosindicalistes Esbozo de una Enciclopedia histórica del anarquismo español. Miquel Iñíguez. Fundación de Estudios Libertarios Anselmo Lorenzo. Madrid, 2001. http://www.translendium.com/

    2004 -- Jeannette Kiffel POLISH ANARCHIST, ADD TO INDEX
    FROM BLEED REF, NOT IN DAILY BLEED

    [SEPTEMBER 15] Spain: Anarchists express to Emma Goldman their strong opposition to the policies of the CNT's National Committee & its conciliation of the Negrin government. They are especially critical of Vázquez, who now acknowledges the destructive actions of the Communists but still wants them treated gently. ?

    Emma Goldman complains to him, for example, that all the money raised in other countries for antifascist women goes to Communist organizations & none to the anarchist organization Mujeres Libres. The FAI by contrast is anxious to begin a campaign abroad exposing the activities of the Communists in Spain.

    Emma is shocked by the number of anarchists & other leftists held in prison, among them Jeannette Kiffel, a Polish anarchist & acquaintance of hers, who has been held incommunicado three months but is released after Vázquez & Goldman appeal to Segundo Blanco, CNT minister of education in the Negrín government.

    Emma visits the metal, transport, & milk syndicates; schools modeled on libertarian principles; & the SIA colonies for refugee children. Notes that many collectives have been destroyed & witnesses the continuing bombardment of Barcelona from the air & the chronic shortage of food & electricity.




    2005 -- Finished cutting & pasting Louise Michel chronology dates to the bleed http://www.ac-creteil.fr/lycees/93/lmichelbobigny/louise/chrono/chrono.htm


    2005 -- WIKI ACCOUNT SET UP USER NAME HTML CODE TEMPLATE 9/15/2005 ADDED TO WIKI ENCYCLOPEDIA + POSSIBLE SNIFFER CODE Guy Aldred (??-1963) Scottish [[anarchist communist]], head of the Anti-Parliamentary Communist Federation (APCF). Founded 'The [[Bakunin]] Press' publishing house & edited five Glasgow based anarchist periodicals, "The Herald of Revolt", "The Spur", "The Commune", "The Council", & "The Word". ==External links & references== * Source: [http://recollectionbooks.com/bleed/gallery/galleryindex.htm#Aldred Anarchist Encyclopedia] * See also [http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/8195/HistoryoftheAPCF.html A Brief History of the APCF]

    Guy Aldred

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    Guy Aldred (??-1963) Scottish anarchist communist, head of the Anti-Parliamentary Communist Federation (APCF). Founded 'The Bakunin Press' publishing house & edited five Glasgow based anarchist periodicals, "The Herald of Revolt", "The Spur", "The Commune", "The Council", & "The Word".

    External links & references


    Namespace: (Latest | Earliest) View (previous 50) (next 50) (20 | 50 | 100 | 250 | 500). * 18:45, 15 September 2005 (hist) (diff) Industrial Workers of the World (?External links - sp correction 'Grapich'; added link to Ohio U pages) (top) * 17:55, 15 September 2005 (hist) (diff) Guy Aldred (Page for Guy Aldred, short bio & links) (top) * 17:38, 15 September 2005 (hist) (diff) Peter Kropotkin (?External links & references - corrects spelling error) (top) * 17:32, 15 September 2005 (hist) (diff) Charles Lahr (Added wiki link for the word anarchist) (top) * 17:32, 14 September 2005 (hist) (diff) Rex Stout (?External links - added new link) (top) * 14:28, 25 March 2005 (hist) (diff) Alexander Herzen (?External Link) * 14:23, 25 March 2005 (hist) (diff) Alexander Herzen (Adds external link for related information re herzen) * 14:11, 25 March 2005 (hist) (diff) Coxey's Army (Adds external link to further details on Coxey's Army) * 14:07, 8 March 2005 (hist) (diff) Emile Armand (Short info on Emile Armand, with links) * 17:44, 23 January 2005 (hist) (diff) Template:Anarchism * 17:27, 23 January 2005 (hist) (diff) List of anarchists (?External links) * 17:20, 23 January 2005 (hist) (diff) Template:Anarchism * 17:11, 23 January 2005 (hist) (diff) Libertarian socialism (?External links) * 16:50, 23 January 2005 (hist) (diff) Stuart Christie (?External links) * 16:43, 23 January 2005 (hist) (diff) Marie-Louise Berneri * 16:16, 23 January 2005 (hist) (diff) Kenneth Rexroth (?External Links) * 16:15, 23 January 2005 (hist) (diff) Vernon Richards (?External link) * 16:12, 23 January 2005 (hist) (diff) Kenneth Rexroth (?External Links) * 16:09, 23 January 2005 (hist) (diff) Luigi Galleani (?External links) * 16:00, 23 January 2005 (hist) (diff) B. Traven (?External links) * 15:56, 23 January 2005 (hist) (diff) Nestor Makhno (?External links) * 19:44, 16 September 2004 (hist) (diff) Mikhail Bakunin (?External links) * 19:40, 16 September 2004 (hist) (diff) Bonnot gang (?Related Links) * 14:03, 10 July 2004 (hist) (diff) History (adds Daily Bleed Calendar to external links) * 16:24, 22 June 2004 (hist) (diff) Eugene V. Debs (adds link to anarchist encyclopedia) * 20:51, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) List of anarchists (adds Gaetano Bresci who has wikipedia page elsewhere) * 20:48, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) Gaetano Bresci (add external link) * 20:36, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) James Koehnline (adds text & link for Jim Koehnline, anarchist & collage artist) * 20:27, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) Anarchism (?Anarchism & the arts - adds James Koehnline to anarchist collage artitists) * 20:02, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) Alex Comfort * 20:00, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) Alex Comfort (adds link) * 19:56, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) Vernon Richards * 19:55, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) Vernon Richards * 19:50, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) Vernon Richards (add text + link) * 19:46, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) Errico Malatesta * 19:44, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) Errico Malatesta * 19:41, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) Rudolf Rocker * 19:38, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) Gregori Maximoff (adss text & link) * 19:25, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) Paul Goodman * 19:23, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) Paul Goodman (add anarchist to one) * 19:22, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) Paul Goodman * 19:09, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) Peter Kropotkin (updates defunct link adds one for Encyclopaedia Britannica) * 19:01, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) Acratas (adds text + link) * 18:57, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) Agustin Garcia Calvo * 18:56, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) Agustin Garcia Calvo * 18:55, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) Agustin Garcia Calvo * 18:53, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) Agustin Garcia Calvo (adds text + link) * 18:47, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) List of anarchists (adds Agustin Garcia Calvo to the list) * 18:31, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) Ramon Acin * 18:30, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) Ramon Acin (adds text + link) # 18:26, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) Pietro Acciarito (adds text + link) # 18:23, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) Edward Abbey # 18:22, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) Edward Abbey (adds external link) # 18:08, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) List of anarchists (adds 3 names) # 18:02, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) Diego Abad de Santillán (adds Diego Abad de Santillán page, text + link) # 17:58, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) List of anarchists (adds Diego Abad de Santillán) # 17:51, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) Emma Goldman (adds external link) # 17:44, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) Anarchism (adds external link to the Anarchist Encycopedia) # 17:15, 30 May 2004 (hist) (diff) Mikhail Bakunin # 12:40, 16 April 2004 (hist) (diff) List of anarchists (adds two external links to anarchist biographical resources)

    2005 -- George Schuyler, a black journalist, anarchist, & staunch opponent of Soviet communism (and later a rabid arch-conservative).\ NOTE: here's a phrase that comes to mind, work this into the bleed (his wife was also white) : A Black Dahlia in a bed of lily whites... Cuased the right-wing no end of grief with it facination of "mongelization" (Shuyler's daughter, for example) http://www.inthesetimes.com/comments.php?id=356_0_4_0_C

    anarchist organizer, Gabriel Sayegh. cited: http://colours.mahost.org/articles/crass8.html

    NEITHER OF THESE ON THE WIKI LIST OF ANARCHISTS NOR IN THE BLEED

    Encyclopedia: List of illustrators George Barbier (1865 - July 19, 1945) was one of the great French ... 1949) is an artist who describes himself as a committed anarchist & cartoonist. ... www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/List-of-illustrators

  • George Barbier
  • George Barbier



  • 2005 -- Abe Isaak & Henry Addis, editors of the anarchist firebrand, cited in today's bleed, are they in the gallery index???



    2005 -- The Equality Society, San Francisco EQUALITY

    No. 11, June 1928 This journal's political platform was to promote the philosophy of anarchism.


    GANFEI LI & CHIENBO LU TO RAY JONES, 1929-1953

    The main topic of this correspondence is how to disseminate publications on anarchism. Ganfei Li Ganfei Li (Ba Jin), & Professor Chienbo Lu of National University of Sichuan published their own writings as well as translations of European & Russian anarchists. Because they were under surveillance by the Kuomingtang (KMT) at all times, they worried that the KMT might shut down their "publishing house." They discussed the possibility of publishing the Equality Journal in the United States.

    Ray Jones maintained close contact with other anarchists in China, including Ganfei Li (Ba Jin), a well-known writer in Shanghai (16 letters from 1929–1953), & Professor Chienbo Lu of National University of Sichuan. The materials in this collection show evidence of an international network of anarchists with Ray Jones as an important United States link. His collection consists of 1 box of Jones' handwritten manuscripts of his essays & poems & newspaper clippings of his articles, & correspondence with anarchists in China from the 1920s to the 1950s. http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/SSEAL/SoutheastAsia/chineseoverseas/eslexhibit05.html




    2005 -- FLYER TO THE WORKING CLASS BY THE SAN FRANCISCO ANARCHISTS UNITE GROUP, [1932] Campaign to destroy militarism & capitalism in order to establish anarchism.

    RAY JONES COLLECTION

    A fervent Chinese anarchist in the United States, Ray Jones maintained close contact with other anarchists in China, including Ganfei Li (Ba Jin), a well-known writer in Shanghai (16 letters from 1929–1953), & Professor Chienbo Lu of National University of Sichuan. The materials in this collection show evidence of an international network of anarchists with Ray Jones as an important United States link. His collection consists of 1 box of Jones' handwritten manuscripts of his essays & poems & newspaper clippings of his articles, & correspondence with anarchists in China from the 1920s to the 1950s.

    Asian Amer AAS ARC 2000/46 http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/SSEAL/SoutheastAsia/chineseoverseas/images/page21flyer.jpg
    CHECK ALSO THIS LINK, www.anarchistlibrary.org/

    2005 -- BLEEDWORK Click for web page


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    2006 -- MOVEABLE BLEEDWORK Mexican anarchist chronology, copy saved in archives; also as a text copy: casaobreromundial ; in three parts in this database page 3

    Volver al Indice




    Grupo Luz

    Al igual que el grupo de Amadeo Ferrés, los integrantes del Grupo Luz dieron más importancia a la difusión de su doctrina que a la práctica de ésta a través de organizaciones adecuadas, a pesar de que sus integrantes habían ya adquirido cierta experiencia dentro de otras agrupaciones, pero también -y esto es lo importante- a que fue uno de los grupos receptores más directos del anarquismo difundido por el Partido Liberal Mexicano, pues en su trayectoria tuvo que confrontarse con numerosos veteranos magonistas, como lo eran Lázaro Gutiérrez de Lara, Manuel Sarabia, Antonio I. Villarreal, Santiago R. de la Vega y Antonio Díaz Soto y Gama, que aunque distanciados de Ricardo Flores Magón para esas fechas -principios de 1912-, continuaban realizando actividades encaminadas a la organización de los trabajadores.

    El antecedente inmediato del Grupo Luz lo fue el Partido Socialista Obrero, fundado el 20 de agosto de 1911 a iniciativa de los alemanes Pablo Zierold y Juan Humboldt, en la casa de la primera calle de Francisco Pimentel número 92, luego de reunir a un grupo de simpatizantes socialistas, entre los que se encontraban Adolfo Santibáñez, Lázaro Gutiérrez de Lara, Prudencio Casals, Luis Méndez y Pioquinto RoIdán (34). Varios de sus afiliados se separaron al vincularse con Antonio I. Villarreal en sus intentos por crear la Confederación Nacional de Trabajadores y también a causa de las actividades realizadas por la Junta Reorganizadora del Partido Liberal. Al parecer, la composición interna del Partido Socialista no era del todo homogénea, pues al celebrar una conferencia el 23 de junio de 1912 surgieron divergencias ideológicas debido a lo cual un grupo importante de ellos se escindió, dejando de asistir a las reuniones de dicho partido. Si de por sí el número de afiliados al Partido Socialista distaba mucho de ser numeroso, con esta división quedó prácticamente anulado. Algunos intelectuales de la época que se consideraban socialistas no dejaron de hacer escarnio de él. Es el caso de Rafael Pérez Taylor, quien aseguraba que:

    la aplicación práctica y experimental (de dicho partido) estaba reducida a unos cuantos individuos que podríamos definir con el nombre de soñadores del socialismo, así como hay poetas, filósofos, cronistas, románticos, etc. (35).

    Esta división inspiró e impulsó a los idealistas de corte anarquista a formar su propio grupo, lo que llevaron a cabo el domingo 30 de julio, después de reunirse y tomar esta decisión Eloy Armenta, Luis Méndez, Juan Francisco Moncaleano, Jacinto Huitrón, Pioquinto Roldán, Rodolfo Ramírez, J. Trinidad Juárez y Fernando González. Es así como con esta fecha se dio origen al grupo anarquista Luz.

    Uno de los integrantes de este grupo, Juan Francisco Moncaleano, había arribado a la ciudad de México apenas el 12 de junio del mismo año. Colombiano de origen, salió de su patria huyendo del servicio militar, pues por su carácter anarquista no aceptaba ningún tipo de disciplina instituida por el Estado. Permaneció en Cuba durante algún tiempo y de ahí se embarcó rumbo al puerto de Veracruz. Una vez en México se dijo profesor de escuelas primarias, cosa que no pudo probar, desconociéndose también la veracidad de lo dicho por él respecto a su vida anterior, pues de su país había salido en forma ilegal y de la misma manera logró entrar a México (36). Una vez aquí entabló contacto con anarquistas mexicanos. llegando al seno mismo del grupo de disidentes del Partido Socialista Obrero. Al parecer tuvo alguna ingerencia en la división mencionada al caldear los ánimos con sus ideas radicales (37). Seguidor de las doctrinas del maestro español Francisco Ferrer Guardia, Juan Francisco Moncaleano expuso ante los miembros del grupo sus propósitos, que en lo fundamental eran dos: el primero de ellos consistía en editar un periódico eminentemente doctrinario anarquista y el segundo en la apertura de una Escuela Racionalista, que debería abrir sus puertas el 8 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER de 1912 a fin de conmemorar la fecha en que Francisco Ferrer Guardia había fundado la Escuela Moderna en Barcelona, España, en 1910. La primera propuesta de Moncaleano se llevó a cabo. El periódico libertario Luz, vocero del grupo, inició su publicación el día 15 de julio de 1912. En su primer número, apareció a título de editorial y saludo a los trabajadores, el programa de la propia publicación y la doctrina de carácter ideológico del Grupo Luz que fuera adoptada más adelante por la Casa del Obrero Mundial (38). Escrito en un lenguaje bastante pintoresco debido a su exceso de metáforas, el artículo titulado Va la hoja, firmado por Moncaleano, entre otras cosas apunta:

    Nuestra propaganda hará en el corazón de l as instituciones sociales el efecto de un puñal de hielo. Este periódico será el tabernáculo incendiado por la zarza de nuestras convicciones desde donde el obrero liberto lanzará su apóstrofe de fuego, que como lava volcánica, calcinará en los templos de explotación a los ídolos malditos. (39).

    Entre otras cosas, también exhortaba a luchar contra los fieles guardidores de los mandamientos liberticidas, de los tiranos del cielo y de la tierra, afirmando que el fin que perseguía el grupo era conseguir la libertad del obrero esclavizado. (40).

    Este artículo sería a su vez insertado por el Partido Liberal Mexicano en el número 105 de "Regeneración".

    La propuesta referente a la creación de una Escuela Racionalista no sería llevada a la práctica. A consecuencia de otro artículo publicado en el número tres de Luz, en donde Moncaleano salía en defensa de Ricardo Flores Magón -recientemente aprehendido en Los Ángeles-, así como también a causa de un discurso de elevado radicalismo que pronunció en presencia del Procurador de Justicia del Distrito Federal, fue apresado y deportado a las Islas Canarias ello en septiembre de 1912. A partir de este momento, el domicilio del Grupo Luz será centro de reunión de varias asociaciones obreras que confluirán finalmente en la formación de la Casa del Obrero Mundial.

    El Grupo Luz, pues, veía la educación de los trabajadores como una necesidad impostergable; sólo en base a ella podrían éstos adquirir conciencia de cuál debería ser la naturaleza de la futura sociedad libertaria, Y al igual que los tipógrafos, no consideraban necesaria su intervención en el proceso político que estaba viviendo el país. De ahí que no se propusieran la creación de una organización que funcionara en este sentido. La misma Casa del Obrero Mundial no se instituiría con otros propósitos que los de ser un centro educativo a semejanza de las escuelas racionalistas fundadas por Ferrer Guardia en España. Para estas fechas, la clase trabajadora aún no se daba cuenta de la importancia del cambio social que se estaba efectuando en el país. Es por esta razón que continuaron apareciendo organizaciones con el carácter de sociedades mutualistas, de círculos patrióticos, de uniones de socorros o de sociedades beneméritas o incluso moralistas, típicas del periodo porfirista. Incluso organizaciones como la Confederación de Tipógrafos Mexicanos y la Unión de Canteros Mexicanos no dejaban de tener en la práctica relaciones amistosas con la clase patronal.

    Es un ambiente viciado de un socialismo indefinido -dice al respecto Armando Córdoba- que no tiene ni pies ni cabeza, donde se confunde el socialismo del Partido {Socialista Obrero) con el anarquismo de los tipógrafos y los canteros y con un difuso socialismo utópico de ancestrales sociedades mutualistas y cooperativas. (41).

    Volver al Indice




    Se funda la Casa del Obrero Mundial

    Es con estos antecedentes como el 17 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER de 1912 se reúnen los integrantes del Grupo Luz con los representantes de la Unión de Canteros, de la Unión de Resistencia de la fábrica de textiles La Linera, la Unión de Operarios Sastres y la Unión de Conductores de Coches Públicos (como ya quedó dicho, posteriormente se integrará a estas uniones la Confederación de Tipógrafos de México, ya bajo el nombre de Confederación Nacional de Artes Gráficas) para discutir la situación que se había generado a resultas de la expulsión de Moncaleano y el fracasado intento de fundar la Escuela Racionalista. A resultas de esta reunión, se resolvió destinar el local para establecer un sitio donde pudieran efectuar libremente sus asambleas los obreros de las diferentes asociaciones, por lo que se adoptó el nombre de Casa del Obrero, agregándosele hasta después el adjetivo Mundial. Su domicilio inicial se hallaría localizado en la 4a Calle de Matamoros número 105, quedando inaugurada el 22 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER de 1912.

    Originada más por las circunstancias que por un propósito ya definido de instituirla, no se elaboraron estatutos, ni declaración de principios. Funcionó simple y sencillamente como centro de divulgación doctrinaria de ideas avanzadas, siendo Jacinto Huitrón su primer administrador y Luis Méndez su primer tesorero.

    Para cumplir con este papel doctrinario se efectuaban en sus salones conferencias y cursos, sobresaliendo de entre quienes realizaban esta labor Antonio Díaz Soto y Gama, Lázaro Gutiérrez de Lara, Adolfo Santibáñez, Santiago R. de la Vega, Rafael Pérez Taylor, José Santos Chocano e Isidro Fabela. Los cursos que se impartían eran gramática, taquigrafía, aritmética, geometría, historia general, cosmografía, física, así como la enseñanza de oficios; el sastre Luis Méndez, el zapatero Juan Lozano, el linotipista Fredesvindo Elvira y Jacinto Huitrón daban clases de corte, dibujo, música y declamación (42).

    Por su misma composición interna es de comprenderse que la Casa del Obrero Mundial no buscara enfrentar a la clase patronal y menos aún al Estado. Por el contrario, su ascendrado apoliticismo la mantendrá por algún tiempo al margen de los cambios sufridos en la vida política del país, y serán estos cambios los que influirán decididamente en las actitudes que posteriormente adoptará aquélla. De tal suerte, ante la actividad de la Gran Liga Obrera de México, creada a iniciativa de Francisco I. Madero el 29 de ENERO / JANUARY 29 de 1913 la COM se ve obligada a contrarrestarla buscando solucionar los conflictos de los trabajadores mediante las tácticas anarcosindicalistas, como lo eran el boicot, la huelga, el label y el sabotaje; al mismo tiempo participan en las asambleas de la Gran Liga, terminando por imponer sus puntos de vista de tinte anarquista. Debido a esto, la Gran Liga pierde su empuje inicial dejando el campo libre a los anarquistas de la COM, los que sin embargo, empecinados en su apoliticismo buscarán a toda costa no verse inmiscuidos en ningún tipo de conflicto que obstaculice su labor doctrinaria y es por esta razón que no sólo mantienen silencio frente al asesinato de Madero y Pino Suárez sino que buscan que el dictador Huerta respete sus actividades, deseos que pronto se verían contrariados, pues a causa de una manifestación promovida por ellos en homenaje a los mártires de Chicago ello de mayo de 1913, Huerta no sólo manda clausurar la COM sino que aplicando el artículo 33 expulsa a los elementos que más se habían significado en la labor de adoctrinamiento, entre los cuales se encuentra Eloy Armenta, Santos Chocano, Collado, los hermanos Sorrendegui y Pedro Junco, español que desarrollaba importante labor en Veracruz y uno de los exponentes de la acción múltiple, táctica sindicalista que permitiría a la facción carrancista de la Casa del Obrero Mundial vincular a la clase trabajadora al Estado. Inicialmente, Junco había expuesto esta táctica frente a los anarquistas de la COM, quienes la rechazaron terminantemente; sin embargo, este rechazo no durará por largo tiempo. Al ser derrotado Huerta, la COM cae bajo la influencia del carrancismo, siendo arrastrada a participar al lado de esta facción en contra de villistas y zapatistas, lo que quedó estipulado con la firma del pacto el 17 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 17 de 1915, entre Rafael Zubaran Capmany en representación de Carranza y Rosendo Salazar, Celestino Gasca, Carlos M. Rincón y otros por parte de la COM.

    Es de esta forma como al vincular su actividad a los cambios políticos que sufre el país, la Casa del Obrero Mundial efectúa un profundo viraje en cuanto a sus formas de lucha, pasando del anarcosindicalismo puro con la acción directa como táctica, al sindicalismo revolucionario con la acción múltiple como nueva versión. Mientras que la acción directa rechazaba tajantemente toda posible participación de los sindicatos en actividades políticas, la acción múltiple posibilitaba que esto ocurriera, pues veía como una necesidad que la clase trabajadora se fortaleciera luchando desde dentro de las instituciones políticas y jurídicas creadas por el Estado. Como método de acción, la acción múltiple debe aprovechar todos los medios honorables para conseguir reformas parciales y mejoramiento para los trabajadores (43).

    Con el triunfo del carrancismo sobre las otras dos facciones revolucionarias, la clase trabajadora consideró propicio el ambiente para luchar por su emancipación. El 31 de julio de 1916 la Federación de Sindicatos Obreros del D. F. -integrante de la Casa del Obrero Mundial- promueve una huelga general en el Distrito Federal, al ver que no son cumplidas sus exigencias de que el pago de salarios se haga en oro, ya que debido al deterioro de la economía del país el papel moneda había sufrido una profunda devaluación. La represión no se hizo esperar, Carranza ordena aprehender a los integrantes de los comités de huelga y con base en la Ley del 25 de ENERO / JANUARY 25 de 1862 -que implantaba la pena de muerte en contra de los perturbadores del orden público- se les abren dos consejos de guerra a resultas de los cuales se condena a pena de muerte a Ernesto Velasco, dirigente electricista integrante de uno de los comités. Las consecuencias inmediatas de esta huelga fueron la clausura de la Casa del Obrero Mundial y un viraje del sindicalismo hacia la consolidación de la acción múltiple.

    Ya el 5 de MARZO / MARCH 5 de 1916, en el Congreso celebrado en Veracruz, se había intentado, sin lograrlo, unificar criterios en torno a este método de lucha, por lo que un año después -el 13 de octubre de 1917- a iniciativa del grupo anarquista Hermanos Rojos, se lleva a cabo otro congreso, esta vez en la ciudad de Tampico y en el cual participa Luis N. Morones, representante de una facción que apoyaba sin reservas la acción múltiple y quienes con anterioridad habían intentado dar forma a un Partido Socialista Obrero con el propósito de hacer participar a la clase obrera en contiendas políticas.

    Si Morones y su grupo esperaban una recia oposición por parte de los Hermanos Rojos de Tampico en dicho Congreso, estaban equivocados, pues éstos ya habían decidido por su lado adoptar también la acción múltiple como método de lucha.

    Pensaban que íbamos a darles una fuerte batalla, ignorando que cuando nosotros convocamos a ese congreso ya lo hicimos con el propósito de modificar la lucha obrera en ese sentido. Encontraron ahí plena cooperación; nada más que los compañeros de Tampico los combatieron porque los de México ya habían formado el Partido Socialista Obrero y hasta habían impulsado la participación del proletariado en política (44).

    Los acuerdos obtenidos en este congreso definían a los sindicatos como cuerpos de acción para resolver los problemas económicos del trabajador a la vez que marginaban de ellos la labor de los grupos doctrinarios, remitiéndoles a una actividad meramente educativa, siempre y cuando ésta se llevara a cabo fuera de las organizaciones obreras, pues se consideraba que de no ser así imposibilitaba la lucha por el mejoramiento de la clase a la vez que propiciaba divisiones dentro de ella. (45).

    Además, se nombró una comisión que propugnara por la formación de una central nacional obrera, para lo cual debería convocar a un nuevo congreso, ahora con sede en la ciudad de Saltillo el lO de mayo de 1918. Este congreso no encontró el apoyo unánime de los trabajadores. Un importante sector del proletariado no sólo se abstuvo de ir sino que además -como en el caso de la Federación de Sindicatos Obreros del Distrito Federal- lo denunció como un intento del gobierno por dar forma a una organización que le fuera verdaderamente adicta. Por otra parte, ésta no era una acusación del todo falsa. El gobernador de Coahuila, Espinoza Mireles, mantenía relaciones con Morones desde tiempo atrás y era un carrancista a toda prueba. Si bien Morones no formaba parte del comité organizador de este congreso, esto se debía a que él y su grupo habían sido sancionados por haber formado con anterioridad el Partido Socialista Obrero pero tal cosa no hacía falta pues el comité se hallaba integrado por decididos carrancistas, como era el caso de Alfredo de León, de Juan M. Anzures y Juan Lozano. Este último, de origen zapatero, había sido incluso compañero de armas de Espinoza Mireles, y juntos participaron en la marcha de la columna constitucionalista encabezada por Carranza a través de la sierra de El Púlpito hasta llegar a Sonora. Mireles era secretario del caudillo coahuilense y Lozano participaba como orador al lado de aquél en las plazas que tomaban. Esta columna estaba integrada también con núcleos de la Unión Minera Mexicana que aglutinaba a trabajadores metalúrgicos del norte del país. Esta Unión había convocado por su parte a un congreso de mineros a celebrarse en Saltillo, por lo que, a iniciativa de Lozano y Mireles, este congreso se amplió a fin de que participaran todos los sectores de la clase obrera (46).

    El Congreso se inicia el 10 de mayo de 1918, y si en el de Tampico se habían destruido los métodos del anarcosindicalismo para suplantarlos por los del sindicalismo revolucionario, en éste se lleva a la práctica dicho viraje con la fundación de la Confederación Regional Obrera de México, satisfaciendo así los propósitos que se había señalado este congreso. Fundada el día doce del mismo mes y año, esta Confederación, con Morones como máximo dirigente, llevará los preceptos de la acción múltiple hasta sus últimas consecuencias, es decir, hará del sindicalismo no un instrumento para la emancipación de la clase obrera, sino por el contrario, un medio para obtener posiciones políticas. Bajo este signo, Morones y su Grupo Acción crearán el Partido Laborista Mexicano -a semejanza del labor Party inglés- como una forma partidaria de apoyo político, primero ante Obregón y luego frente a Calles, bajo el cual Morones llega a ocupar incluso un ministerio, el de la Secretaría de Industria. Comercio y Trabajo.

    Con la aparición de la CROM, la COM había pasado a ser un mero membrete y la Federación de Sindicatos Obreros del D. F., que había nacido y crecido en su seno, desaparecerá poco después, dando origen en 1921, como única oposición real frente a la CROM, a la Confederación General del Trabajo, último reducto del anarquismo heredado por la Casa del Obrero Mundial.

    Volver al Indice




    Notas

    (1) Al respecto, consultar La Convención, días 16, 18 y 28 de junio de 10 y 2 de julio del mismo año. Aquí se publican las discusiones que se suscitaron sobre los puntos XIII y XIV del Programa de Reformas Sociales Convención Revolucionaria.

    (2) No hay que olvidar que aparte del movimiento obrero de tipo anarquista, para 1911 existía otro de carácter cristiano. Tan sólo para valorar la importancia de éste, considérese que en FEBRERO / FEBRUARY de 1912 se fundó la Confederación de Círculos Obreros Católicos. Que reunió a más de cuarenta círculos con un número de afiliados que sobrepasaba los veinte mil. Propugnaba por el mutualismo y el cooperativismo. Véase, Alfonso López Aparicio, El movimiento obrero en México, p. 152.

    (3) Alfonso López Aparicio, El Movimiento Obrero en México, México, 1958, Editorial Jus, p. 150.

    (4) El Obrero Mexicano, 29 de ABRIL / APRIL 29 de 1894.

    (5) La Internacional, 1° de septiembre / SEPTEMBER de 1878.

    (6) Clark W. Reynolds, La Economía Mexicana : Su estructura y crecimiento en el siglo XX. México, 1973, Fondo de Cultura Económica, p. 44.

    (7) Clark W. Reynolds. op. cit., p. 38.

    (8) Moisés González Navarro, Las huelgas en la industria textil en el Porfiriato, Puebla, 1971, Ediciones Cajica, p. 14.

    (9) Moisés González Navarro, op. cit., pp. 14-15.

    (10) Moisés González Navarro. op. cit, pp. 15-16.

    (11) Ethel Duffy Thurner, Ricardo Flores Magón y el Partido Liberal Mexicano, Morelia, Editorial Erandi, 1960, p. 154; Diego Abad de. Santillán, Ricardo Flores Magón, el Apóstol de la Revolución Social Mexicana. México, 1925, Grupo Cultural Ricardo Flores Magón, p. 56.

    (12) Manuel González Ramírez, Epistolario y textos de Ricardo Flores Magón, México, FCE, p. 203. Cfr. James D. Crockcroft, Precursores intelectuales de la Revolución Mexicana. México, 1971, Siglo XXI, p. 151; Diego Abad de Santillán, op. cit., pp. 44-45.

    (13)Regeneración, 3 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER de 1910.

    (14) Regeneración, 3 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER de 1910.

    (15) Regeneración, 3 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER de 1910.

    (16) Nicolás T. Bernal, Memorias, México, CEHSMO

    (17) Rosendo Salazar, La Casa del Obrero Mundial. México, 1972, Partido Revolucionario Institucional, p. 40.

    (18) Jacinto Huitrón, Orígenes e historia del Movimiento obrero en México, México, 1974, Editores Mexicanos Unidos, p. 196.

    (19) lbid, p. 195.

    (20) RosendoSalazar, op. cit., p.ll.

    (21) Antonio Díaz Soto y Gama, La Revolución Agraria del Sur y Emiliano Zapata, su caudillo. México, 1961, p. 203.

    (22) Regeneración, 9 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER de 1911.

    (23) Entrevista a Lorenzo Camacho Escamilla. PHO/CEHSMO. Realizada por Ramón Gil Olivo.

    (24) Ibid.

    (25) Armando Bartra. Regeneración, 1900-1918, México, 1972. HADISE. p. 37.

    (26) Alfonso López Aparicio. op. cit., p. 151.

    (27) El Tipógrafo Mexicano, 8 de octubre de 1911. Cit. por Armando Córdoba Pérez. El movimiento anarquista en México, 1911-1921. (Tesis de licenciatura) Facultad de Ciencias Políticas y Sociales. UNAM. 1971. p. 15.

    (28) lbid., p. 28.

    (29) lbid., p. 12.

    (30) lbid., p. 13.

    (31) lbid., p. 18.

    (32) Armando Córdoba Pérez, op cit., p. 23.

    (33) El Tipógrafo Mexicano, 1° de mayo de 1913, cit. Armando Córdoba, op. cit., p.30.

    (34) Jacinto Huitrón, op. cit.. pp. 194-195.

    (35) Rafael Pérez Taylor, Lección para el obrero, Nueva Era, 26 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 26 de 1912.

    (36) José Onil Petricioli. El Compañero Morones. México. 1968. Costa Amic. p.206.

    (37) Armando Córdoba Pérez op. cit., p. 36.

    (38) Cfr. Luis Araiza, Historia de la Casa del Obrero Mundial, México, Ediciones Casa del Obrero Mundial, 1963, pp. 19-23;José Ortil Petricioli, op. cit., pp. 205-207; Jacinto Huitrón. op. cit., pp. 194-199.

    (39) Cit. Jacinto Huitrón. op. cit., p. 203.

    (40) Jacinto Huitrón, op. cit., 205.

    (41) Armando Córdoba. op. cit., p. 38.

    (42) Jacinto Huitrón, La Casa del Obrero Mundial, El Universal, 24 de agosto de 1953.

    (43) Entrevista con Ricardo Treviño Valustri, Programa Historia Oral, CEHSMO.

    (44) lbid. (Treviño no participó en dicho congreso por haber sido aprehendido poco antes de iniciarse).

    (45) lbid.

    (46) lbid.

    Volver al Indice




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    2006 -- segunda-feira, 31 de janeiro de 2005 ok, tenho notícias sobre o mcdonalds em manaus, que por sinal nao são nem um pouco animadoras... mas ai vai um ótimo texto sobre o anarquismo no brasil: HISTÓRIA DO MOVIMENTO ANARQUISTA NO BRASIL Edgar Rodrigues Com 8.511.965 km² e uma população de cerca de 160 milhões de habitantes, "encontrado pelos navegadores portugueses em 1500", colonizado à força de chicotadas e da decepação de pares de orelhas com as mãos dos capitães do mato", cresceu pela força do trabalho escravo, como os demais países "descobertos" por espanhóis, italianos, holandeses, franceses, ingleses e outros. A questão social começou quando uns poucos figurões alugaram e compraram braços humanos para desbravar a terra, abrir estradas, construir pontes, moradias, carruagens e tudo o mais capaz de proporcionar uma vida confortável aos comandantes da miséria e do progresso do Brasil. Nos quase 500 anos de história aconteceu de tudo um pouco: compra e venda de gente como nós nos leilões em praça pública, uso de escravos novos para reproduzir filhos (mão-de-obra com pouco custo e nenhum risco) com escravas sadias, trabalho pela comida, trapaças para tomar terras férteis aos nativos, prisões, espancamentos a gosto dos patrões e tudo o mais que o cérebro humano é capaz de imaginar para dominar seus semelhantes. E eram todos boas almas tementes a Deus... A opressão seguiu-se às fugas e à formação dos quilombos, o mais importante foi instalado em Palmares (1602-1695), resistiu quase um século, teve 20 mil habitantes vivendo em comunidade sem leis nem amos. Zumbi e seus companheiros anteciparam-se a Tiradentes dois séculos tentando formar uma nação dentro do Brasil. Independente em 1822, no grito do português Pedro I (4º de Portugal), o Brasil foi palco de muitas fugas e revoltas populares: a Setembrada e a Novembrada (1831); Levante de Ouro Preto (1833); a Sabinada (1837); a Balaiada (1838); a Cabanagem (1835-1840); a Guerra dos Farrapos (1835-1845); a Revolução Liberal (1842); a Revolução Praieira e a Proclamação da República em 1889. Pouco antes (13 de maio de 1888) havia sido promulgada a Lei Áurea acabando com a prática de comprar e vender gente. A rebeldia iniciada na contramão pretendia mudar a prática patronal, surrada, vergonhosa, anti-humana! Do velho mundo chegavam as idéias revolucionárias de navio, em livros publicados na Europa. Entravam pelos portos do Rio de Janeiro, de Santos, atravessavam as fronteiras invadindo o Brasil um pouco na cabeça de cada imigrante que vinha em busca de liberdade e de terra fértil para semear o anarquismo. Nas duas últimas décadas do século 19 alguns jovens brasileiros foram estudar na França e em Portugal e lá souberam das idéias libertárias. Outros estudaram no Brasil mesmo e encontraram livros de Kropotkin nas livrarias e na leitura respostas para suas inquietações. É dessa época Manuel de Mendonça, autor da novela social "Regeneração". O médico e higienista Fábio Luz encontrou na Bahia Palavras de um Revoltado, de Kropotkine, leu essa revolucionária obra e tornou-se anarquista. Escreveu e publicou Ideólogos e Os Emancipados, duas obras libertárias do início do século 20, sendo desde então considerados os primeiros escritores brasileiros a tratar da questão social no romance. Aos dois intelectuais anarquistas juntaram-se Elísio de Carvalho, o estudante de medicina J. Martins Fontes, Pedro do Couto, Rocha Pombo, Pausilipode da Fonseca, João Gonçalves da Silva e Maximino Maciel, formando o grupo que publicou, no Rio de Janeiro, mais adiante, a revista Kurtur, e fundaram a Universidade Popular, em 1904, duas iniciativas anarquistas. Avelino Foscolo, começou em Minas Gerais, Reinaldo Frederico Greyer, no Rio Grande do Sul, Ricardo Gonçalves (tem uma rua com seu nome em São Paulo), Benjamin Mota, Edgard Edgard Leuenroth e João Penteado, em São Paulo; Orlando Corrêa Lopes, Francisco Viotti, Domingos Ribeiro Filho, Lima Barreto e José Oiticica, no Rio de Janeiro. De Portugal chegou Neno Vasco, um ilustre advogado, fez escola como anarquista em São Paulo (1901-1911), entre outros responsáveis pela sementeira anarquista no território brasileiro. Em 1890 chegaram da Itália Giovani Rossi e seus companheiros para fundar a Colônia Cecília no Paraná. A São Paulo, Guararema, chegou o italiano Artur Campagnoli e aos poucos Gigi Damiani, Alexandre Cherchiai, Oresti Ristori, Frederico Kniestedt, valorosos militantes italianos e de outros países que, depois de dar um salto no escuro para se ajustar ao clima tropical, às formas de trabalho, aos costumes, à alimentação, ainda tiveram que aprender o idioma português. A única coisa que pouco diferenciava o Brasil da Europa era a questão social, a exploração do homem pelo homem. Lícito é destacar que o motor de propulsão do movimento anarquista no Brasil veio da Itália, foram os imigrantes deste país que sacudiram e agitaram com maior intensidade a questão social, as reivindicações e começaram uma propaganda sistemática do anarquismo e do anarco-sindicalismo. Em idioma italiano ou em português, publicaram dezenas de jornais, fizeram centenas de palestras, realizaram espetáculos teatrais com peças revolucionárias e por isso muitos foram presos, expulsos e outros tiveram de mudar de atividades para se esconder, embora uns poucos também tenham melhorado de vida e abandonado as idéias. Dessa sementeira que envolveu em primeiro plano os italianos, seguidos e apoiados por portugueses, brasileiros, espanhóis e outros, circularam pelo Brasil mais de uma centena de jornais e revistas (entenda-se títulos) anarquistas e anarco-sindicalistas, sendo quatro diários; fundaram e dirigiram escolas de ensino racionalista, formaram grupos de teatro e representaram mais de uma centena de peças libertárias e anticlericais, fizeram comícios públicos contra a guerra, o serviço militar obrigatório, reduziram a jornada de trabalho (quando chegaram oscilava entre 16 e 10 horas diárias), bateram-se pela higiene e segurança no trabalho, por uma infinidade de melhorias tornando o trabalho menos penoso para o proletariado do Brasil. Mais de um milhar foram expulsos com a roupa do corpo acusados de agitadores estrangeiros, umas dezenas morreram lutando com a polícia. O primeiro anarquista assassinado foi o italiano Polenice Mattei, em São Paulo, no dia 20 de SETEMBRO / SEPTEMBER de 1898. CONTINUO AMANHA O TEXTO abraços, e obrigado aos poucos que lêem enviado por Rodrigo - xRodrigox as 00:10:17. comentários[0] envie este texto para um amigo


    2006 -- Biografia de Manuel Escorza del Val Aportado por Anónimo el Lunes, 29 MARZO / MARCH 29 a las 22:38:13 Tema: Historia Reseña biográfica: MANUEL ESCORZA DEL VAL Nació en Barcelona en 1912. Hijo de un militante cenetista del Sindicato de la Madera. En su infancia padeció una poliomelitis que le dejó como secuela una parálisis permanente. De muy baja estatura a causa de la atrofia de las piernas utilizaba unas enormes alzas en los zapatos que añadido al uso de las muletas le daba un aspecto lastimoso y dificultaba enormemente su movilidad. De carácter extremadamente agrio y duro poseía una gran cultura y fuerza de voluntad y no permitía que nadie le ayudara a moverse. Militó en las Juventudes Libertarias y llegó a formar parte del Comité Peninsular de la FAI. Al inicio de la guerra civil intervino en la asamblea de la CNT-FAI del 20 de julio de 1936, defendiendo una tercera vía, frente a la defendida sin convicción por García Oliver de “ir a por el todo”, y la ampliamente mayoritaria de Abad de Santillán de colaborar lealmente con el gobierno de la Generalidad. Escorza propugnaba el uso del gobierno de la Generalidad como un instrumento para socializar y colectivizar, y deshacerse de ella en cuanto dejara de ser útil a la CNT. Fue el máximo responsable de los Servicios de Investigación de la CNT-FAI, que desde julio de 1936 ejecutó todos tipo de tareas represivas, así como de espionaje e información. El Comité de Investigación estaba organizado en dos secciones: Minué estaba encargado del espionaje en el extranjero y el propio Escorza de la información en el interior. Las tareas represivas no sólo se ejercieron contra organizaciones y elementos facciosos, sino también contra militantes cenetistas. Escorza fue responsable de la ejecución de José Gardeñas, del ramo de la construcción y Fernández, presidente del Sindicato de la Alimentación, por orden de la Organización confederal, con el conocimiento y asentimiento de Federica Montseny y Abad de Santillán. Su labor de información y espionaje fue calificada como excelente por García Oliver. Las labores policiales, informativas y represivas de la quinta columna, tanto de elementos fascistas como clericales, y de sus actividades, así como de los llamados “incontrolados” del propio bando antifascista, incluido el cenetista, le dieron una fama siniestra que, sumada a su parálisis y aparatosa presencia física, lo convirtieron en una figura repulsiva y contrahecha, temida por su poder sobre la vida y la muerte de los demás, teñida de una aureola mítica que, a caballo entre el desprecio y el terror, le calificó (en palabras de García Oliver) como “un tullido de cuerpo y alma”. Sin embargo no puede negársele una sobresaliente eficacia (reconocida por el propio García Oliver) en sus tareas de espionaje, información y represión, que siempre ejerció por estricta delegación de la Organización confederal. Durante el verano de 1936 intervino destacadamente en las conversaciones del Comité Central de Milicias Antifascistas de Cataluña (CCMCA) con el Comité de Acción Marroquí (CAM) que propusieron al gobierno de la República la independencia a Marruecos como medio para desmovilizar a las tropas marroquíes que habían sido enroladas en el ejército de Franco. Existe una fotografía (“Història Gràfica del Moviment Obrer a Catalunya". Diputació de Barcelona, 1989), tomada el 20 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER de 1936, en el Salón del Trono de la Capitanía General de Barcelona, tras la firma del compromiso entre el CAM y el CCMAC, en el que se reconoce entre otros (de izquierda a derecha) a Marcello Argila Pazzaglia, Mohamed Assan al Ouzani, Mohamed al Yazidi, Juan García Oliver, Julián Gómez García “Gorkin”, Manuel Estrada Manchón, Rafael Vidiella, Mariano Rodríguez Vázquez “Marianet”, Manuel Escorza del Val (con muletas) y Aurelio Fernández Sánchez. El 22 de octubre de 1936, Manuel Escorza y Dionisio Eroles, en nombre del Comité Regional de la CNT, y Pedro Herrera, por la FAI, firmaron el pacto de unidad de acción de la CNT-FAI con el PSUC y la UGT, que el día 27 fue refrendado y explicado en un mitin monstruo reunido en la plaza de toros Monumental, en el que tomaron la palabra, Antonio Sesé, Federica Montseny, Joan Comorera y Vázquez, además del cónsul soviético en Barcelona, Antonov Ovseenko. En abril de 1937 Pedro Herrera, “conseller” (ministro) de Sanidad del gobierno de la Generalidad, y Manuel Escorza, fueron los responsables cenetistas que negociaron con Lluis Companys (presidente de la Generalidad) una salida a la crisis gubernamental abierta a principios de marzo de 1937, a causa de la dimisión del “conseller” de Defensa, el cenetista Isgleas. Companys decidió abandonar la táctica de Tarradellas, que no imaginaba un gobierno de la Generalidad que no fuera de unidad antifascista, y en el que no participara la CNT, para adoptar la propugnada por Comorera, secretario del PSUC, que consistía en imponer por la fuerza un gobierno “fuerte”, que no tolerase ya una CNT incapaz de poner en cintura a sus propios militantes, calificados como “incontrolados”. Companys estaba decidido a romper una política, cada vez más difícil, de pactos con la CNT y creyó que había llegado la hora, gracias al apoyo del PSUC y los soviéticos, de imponer por la fuerza la autoridad y decisiones de un gobierno de la Generalidad que, como los hechos demostraron, aún no era lo bastante poderosa como para dejar de negociar con la CNT. El fracaso de las conversaciones de Companys con Escorza y Herrera, al no hallar solución política alguna en dos meses de conversaciones, y pese al efímero nuevo gobierno del 26 de ABRIL / APRIL 26 , desembocó directamente en los enfrentamientos armados de mayo de 1937 en Barcelona, cuando Companys, sin avisar a Tarradellas (ni por supuesto a Escorza y Herrera) dio la orden a Artemi Aiguader, conseller de Interior, de ocupar la Telefónica, que fue ejecutada por Rodríguez Salas, comisario de Orden Público, hacia las tres menos cuarto de la tarde del 3 de mayo de 1937. En abril de 1938 Escorza intervino en el Pleno que creaba en Barcelona el Comité Ejecutivo del Movimiento Libertario, formando parte, junto a García Oliver y Federica Montseny de la ponencia que redactó y aprobó su constitución, que entre otras cosas reafirmaba la aceptación de la militarización, la resistencia a ultranza en la guerra antifascista, la intensificación de la producción bélica, la persecución de desertores y saboteadores y la colaboración de la CNT con los gobiernos de la República y de la Generalidad y la salvaguarda de la unidad antifascista. En 1939 se exilió en Chile. Vivió en Valparaíso, con su mujer y dos hijas, ejerciendo como crítico teatral, cinematográfico y literario en los diarios “La Unión” y “La Estrella”. Fue corrector de pruebas, periodista y sobre todo un crítico temible y temido por sus aceradas, insolentes y duras valoraciones, al tiempo que gozó de fama y reconocimiento por su notable erudición y cultura. Murió en Valparaíso en 1968. Agustín Guillamón (2004). BALANCE. Cuadernos de historia del movimiento obrero internacional y de la Guerra de España. chbalance@wanadoo.es http://es-geocities.com/hbalance2000 http://www.red-libertaria.net/noticias/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=975




    2006 -- Aurelien-Marie Lugne-Poë (1869-1940) attended the first performance of the Theâtre Art Libre while he was a student at the Paris Conservatoire. He later performed with Antoine at the Theâtre Art Libre. He roomed with Edouard Vuillard, Maurice Denis, & Pierre Bonnard, & through them became acquainted with the Symbolist Movement. He soon shifted his allegiance from Antoine to Paul Fort & the Theâtre Art Art. After Pelleas & Melisande, (and Fort's departure), the name of the group was changed to Theâtre Art l'Ouevre (as in ouevre d'art, or work of art.) Clearly the guiding principles remained those of Paul Fort's Theâtre Art, but under Lugne-Poë, the productions were much better executed.

    Each performance was preceded by a lecture intended to illuminate or increase the appreciation of the night's proceedings. Some of these became rather lively affairs occasioning riots & disturbances between various factions. Police were always in attendance to arrest anarchists & other troublemakers. On at least one occasion (for Hauptmann's Lonely Souls), the production was canceled because the speaker was supposed to be an anarchist. Art wasn't stuffy in those days. & notice it wasn't a manufactured rebellion; it was at least genuine… http://www.wayneturney.20m.com/antirealism.htm


    2006 -- PART 1 OF 2 ENTRIES

    STORIA - LO  STATO SOVRANO  - TERRITORIO - GOVERNO - SISTEMI POLITICI  - I LEADERS
    DALLA FONDAZIONE FINO AI GIORNI NOSTRI (LINK ESTERNO)

    XXX - IN FASE DI COSTRUZIONE

    CRONOLOGIA STORICA DEL PAESE

    SPAGNA

    SEC VIIaC- DOMINIO GRECO
    535aC- DOMINIO CARTAGINESE
    206aC- DOMINIO ROMANO
    409dC- DOMINIO VANDALO
    415- DOMINIO VISIGOTO
    711- SEC XI DOMINIO MUSULMANO
    SEC XI INDIPENDENZA (4 REGNI)
    1492 UNIFICAZIONE
    1492-24/09/1810 MONARCHIA ASSOLUTA
    24/09/1810- 1873 MONARCHIA COSTITUZIONALE
    1873- 1874 PRIMA REPUBBLICA
    1874- 1931 MONARCHIA ASSOLUTA
    1874- 1931 Regime assoluto
    14/04/1931-01/10/1936 SECONDA REPUBBLICA
    14/04/1931-01/10/1936 Democrazia emergente
    01/10/1936-15/12/1976 MONARCHIA
    01/10/1936-20/11/1975 Dittatura franchista
    20/11/1975-20/11/1976 Democrazia emergente
    20/11/1976- MONARCHIA COSTITUZIONALE
    20/11/1976- Democrazia pluralista


    SPAGNA: CRONOLOGIA DEL DICIANNOVESIMO SECOLO

    ( a cura di Luca Rossi )

    1800 Trattato di San Ildefonso: cessione della Louisiana alla Francia.
    Secretaría de Estado
    • Pedro Cevallos Guerra (13 dicembre 1800 - 5 GENNAIO / JANUARY 1809)
    Manuel José Quintana pubblica A la invención de la imprenta. Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes dipinge La Condesa de Chinchón e La familia de Carlos IV.
    Muore, a Madrid, il botanico, naturalista e geologo valenciano, Antoni Josep Cavanilles i Palop (1745 - 1800).

    1801 «Guerra de las Naranjas»: il Trattato di Badajoz sancisce la fine delle ostilità fra Spagna e Portogallo. Unificazione, in tutto il Regno, di pesi e misure. Prosegue la politica d’alienazione dei beni statali. Trattato di Aranjuez: Napoleone Bonaparte, riconoscente verso il fedele alleato spagnolo, crea - con il territorio della Toscana - il Regno d’Etruria e vi insedia il Duca di Parma, Ludovico I, nipote della regina di Spagna. Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos y Ramírez è costretto, soprattutto grazie all’inimicizia di Godoy, al confino a Valldemosa (Maiorca).
    È proibita l’importazione di tessuti in cotone. Creazione della Casa de Caritad di Barcellona.
    Muore, a La Guardia (Rioja), Félix María Samaniego (1745 - 1801).

    1802 Trattato di Amiens: Spagna riceve Minorca dalla corona britannica, ma cede Trinidad. Il príncipe de Asturias, Fernando, sposa Maria Teresa di Borbone. Istituzione della Casa de Caridad di Barcellona.
    Jovellanos y Ramírez, importante intellettuale asturiano, scrive Memoria sobre educación pública, o tratado teórico-práctico de enseñanza.
    Muore, a Madrid, il politico, giurista, storico ed economista asturiano Pedro Rodríguez de Campomanes (1723 - 1803).

    1803 Francisco Woitel, ufficiale svizzero del reggimento Winpten, crea una scuola che s’ispira agli insegnamenti pestalozziani. A Barcellona, lungo il corso del Rec Comtal, sorge la prima filatrice meccanica ad energia idraulica. Domingo Badía y Leblich (1767 - 1822) avventuriero, arabista ed agente segreto, altrimenti noto con lo pseudonimo di Alí Bey el-Abbasí, intraprende - su incarico del Primo Ministro Godoy - un lungo viaggio in terre di cultura islamica (Marocco, Libia, Egitto, Arabia, Siria e Turchia).
    Ventura Rodríguez Tizón disegna la Fuente de Apolo.
    Scompare, a Baeza, Pablo Antonio José de Olavide y Jauregui (1725 - 1803); nella capitale, invece, si spegne l’intellettuale e giornalista Francisco Mariano Nifo o Nipho (1719 - 1803).

    1804 Si rinnova l’alleanza franco-spagnola. Guerra contro il Regno Unito.
    Riordino delle normative occupazionali della classe magistrale.
    Una grossa epidemia di febbre gialla colpisce Alicante.
    Muore, a Madrid, il botanico valenciano Antonio José Cavanilles (1745 - 1804).

    1805 L’ammiraglio Horatio Nelson, a Trafalgar, infligge una storica sconfitta alla flotta ispano-francese. La politica di Godoy, giudicata eccessivamente filo-francese, incontra un sempre crescente malcontento. Una drammatica crisi economica colpisce il settore tessile catalano.
    Si sopprimono, grazie ad un Regio Decreto, le corridas de toros.
    Muore, a Madrid, il compositore italiano Luigi Boccherini.

    1806 I primi moti separatisti infiammano l’America Latina. L’esercito britannico, che aveva occupato Buenos Aires, è sconfitto dalle truppe spagnole.
    Francesc Santponç costruisce la máquina de registro di Barcellona: la prima macchina a vapore catalana.
    Nasce il Real Instituto Pestalozziano: alla direzione Woitel.
    El sí de las niñas, di Leandro Fernández de Moratín, inaugura la stagione della commedia borghese. Manuel José Quintana pubblica A la expedición española para propagar la vacuna en América.
    Muore, a Madrid, José Clavijo y Fajardo (1726 - 1806).

    1807 Ferdinando VII, Principe delle Asturie, conosce il carcere perché accusato di cospirare contro Carlos IV e Godoy. Napoleone ordina l’occupazione militare della penisola iberica. Con il Trattato di Fontainebleau, l’impero coloniale portoghese, è fraternamente suddiviso fra Spagna e Francia.
    L’intellettuale sivigliano José María Blanco y Crespo pubblica il Discurso sobre el método de enseñanza de Pestalozzi.
    José Antonio Caballero (1754 - 1821) elabora il Plan General de reforma de las universidades.

    1808 Le truppe francesi penetrano in Spagna al comando di Gioacchino Murat secondo una clausola del Trattato di Fontainebleau. Motín de Aranjuez. Abdicazione di Carlos IV. Arresto e caduta di Godoy (pronunciamiento di Aranjuez). Ascesa al trono di Fernando VII. Il Re rinuncia alla corona, abdicando in favore di Napoleone (accordo di Bayonne). José I Bonaparte, el Intruso (1768 - 1844), diviene Re di Spagna. Sollevazione popolare a Madrid ed assedio di Saragozza. L’Assemblea di Bayonne propone il primo testo costituzionale spagnolo. Battaglia di Bailén. Nascita di movimenti separatisti nelle colonie. Le truppe francesi entrano in Catalogna. Junta de Lleida. Battaglia de El Bruc (Barcellona). Per organizzare la resistenza si costituisce Junta Superior de Catalunya.
    José I ordina l’abbattimento di alcune anguste zone di Madrid, dando vita, a numerose ed ampie piazze, nonché, a larghi viali (1808 - 1813 ed oltre); questo gli valse uno dei suoi curiosi soprannomi: Pepe Plazuelas.
    Creazione dell’Escuela de Mecánica de la Junta de Comercio: a dirigerla è Santponç.
    Esce il periodico «Semanario Patriótico» (1808 - 1812).
    Muore, a Siviglia, José Moñino Conde de Floridablanca (1728 - 1808).

    1809 Gli insorti stringono un patto d’amicizia e cooperazione con gli inglesi: il generale Arthur Wellesley Wellington penetra in territorio spagnolo riportando una brillante vittoria sul maresciallo Claude Perrin, detto Victor (Talavera de la Reina 27 - 28 luglio). La Junta Suprema centrale propone la convocazione delle Cortes. L’esercito della Junta subisce una pesante sconfitta ad Ocaña. Primi fremiti indipendentisti: Quito - Luz de América - e l’Alto Perú si ribellano alla dominazione spagnola. Cospirazione anti-francese a Barcellona Occupazione di Gerona.
    Secretaría de Estado
    • Martín de Garay (5 GENNAIO / JANUARY 1809 - 13 ottobre 1809)
    • Pedro Rivero (13 ottobre 1809 - 30 ottobre 1809)
    • Francisco de Saavedra (30 ottobre 1809 - 31 GENNAIO / JANUARY 1810)
    Manuel José Narganes de Posada scrive Tres cartas sobre los vicios de la instrucción pública en España y proyecto de un plan para su reforma; il libro propone una analisi, decisamente negativa, dell’istruzione nella Spagna del 1807.

    1810 José I occupa l’Andalusia. Dissoluzione della Junta Suprema. Prime sessioni delle Cortes Generales di Cadice. Il cabildo abierto di Caracas, deposto il Capitano Generale, costituisce una Junta fedele a Fernando VII. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, nel settembre, si pone a capo dell’insurrezione che conquista Guanajuato (Messico). Le Cortes Generales si riuniscono nell’Isla de León (ovvero a San Fernando). In Cile si realizza la prima junta nacional de gobierno, costruendo, in tal modo, quella prima esperienza indipendentista, denominata Patria Vieja. Le truppe francesi occupano Lleida. La Junta Suprema de Catalunya reclama la restituzione dei fueros e dei privilegi caduti. Pierre François Charles Augereau, Duque de Castiglione (1757 - 1816), nominato Gobernador General de Cataluña, promuove una politica di conciliazione.
    Secretaría de Estado
    • Nicolás-Ambrosio de Garro y Arizcún, Marqués de las Hormazas (31 GENNAIO / JANUARY 1810 - 20 marzo 1810)
    • Eusebio Bardají y Azara (20 marzo 1810 - 6 febbraio / FEBRUARY 6 1812)
    Muore, a Siviglia, François Conde de Cabarrus, banchiere d’origine francese (1752 - 1810).

    1811 Le Cortes decretano l’abolizione delle señorías. Dichiarazione d’indipendenza di Paraguay (5 luglio) e Venezuela (11 ottobre). Caduta di Tortosa e Tarragona. Saccheggio di Montserrat.
    Muore, a Vega (Oviedo), Jovellanos y Ramírez (1744 - 1811).

    1812 Promulgazione della Constitución de Cádiz. Le Cortes de Cádiz creano il Tribunal Supremo de Justicia (17 aprile). Annessione, di fatto, della Catalogna all’impero francese. Battaglia di Arapiles: sconfitta di Auguste Auguste Frédéric Louis Viesse de Marmont (1774 - 1852). “Año del hambre”: terribile carestia a Madrid.
    Secretaría de Estado
    • José García León y Pizarro (6 febbraio / FEBRUARY 6 1812 - 12 maggio 1812)
    • Ignacio de la Pezuela y Sánchez (12 maggio 1812 - 23 giugno 1812)
    • Carlos Martínez de Irujo y Tacón, Marqués de Casa-Irujo - non prende possesso della carica - (23 giugno 1812 - 27 settembre 1812)
    • Pedro Gómez Labrador (27 settembre 1812 - 11 luglio 1813)
    La rappresentazione de La viuda de Padilla dona grande visibilità alle opere teatrali di Francisco de Paula Martínez de la Rosa. Félix Varela y Morales (1788 - 1853), professore di Fisica e Filosofia nel Seminario de San Carlos, pubblica Institutiones Philosophiae ecclecticae.

    1813 José I, obbedendo ad un ordine impartito da Napoleone Bonaparte, è costretto ad abdicare. La sconfitta dei francesi, nella battaglia di Vitoria, formalmente, sancisce la riconquista dell’indipendenza. Il Trattato di Valençay pone fine al conflitto franco-spagnolo. Le Cortes de Cádiz aboliscono il Tribunal de la Inquisición. Il sacerdote José María Morelos, durante il Congreso de Chilpancingo, dichiara l’indipendenza del Messico dal dominio spagnolo.
    Secretaría de Estado
    • Antonio Cano Manuel Ramírez de Arellano (11 luglio 1813 - 10 ottobre 1813)
    • Juan O’Donoju O’Ryan (10 ottobre 1813 - 6 dicembre 1813)
    • José de Luyando (6 dicembre 1813 - 4 maggio 1814)
    Muore, a Vara de Rey (Cuenca), León de Arroyal (1755 - 1813). A Cadice, si spegne Antonio de Capmany y Montpalau (1742 - 1813).

    1814 Fernando VII - El Deseado - ritorna sul trono. L’esercito francese abbandona il paese. Si promulga il Decreto de Valencia. L’Inquisizione, dopo aver conosciuto l’abolizione, è ripristinata. Il Re ripudia la costituzione del 1812. I responsabili della fazione liberale sono arrestati.
    Secretaría de Estado
    • José-Miguel de Carvajal Vargas y Manrique, Duque do San Carlos (4 maggio 1814 - 15 novembre 1814)
    • Pedro Cevallos Guerra (15 novembre 1814 - 24 GENNAIO / JANUARY 1816)
    Josep Pau Ballot scrive Gramatica i apologia de la llengua catalana. Goya y Lucientes immortala i patrioti spagnoli con le celebri tele: El 2 de mayo de 1808 en Madrid: la lucha con los mamelucos e El 3 de mayo de 1808 en Madrid: los fusilamientos en la montaña del Príncipe Pío.
    Julián Sanz del Río, padre del krausismo spagnolo, nasce a Torre Arévalo - Soria (1814 - 1869).

    1815 Golpe costituzionalista di Francisco Espoz y Mina a Pamplona. Fernando VII ristabilisce i gremios e i señoríos territoriali (giugno). Esilio dei liberali in Gran Bretagna e Francia. Offensiva spagnola in America: si tenta di recuperare le colonie perse.
    «Memorias de Agricultura y Artes», edita con il contributo della Junta de Comercio, è la prima rivista tecnica catalana.

    1816 Fernando VII sposa Isabel de Braganza. Spagna aderisce alla Santa Alleanza. Il generale Pablo Morillo, Conde de Cartagena ristabilisce, in Venezuela ed a Nuova Granada, il potere spagnolo.
    Secretaría de Estado
    • Juan Lozano de Torres (24 GENNAIO / JANUARY 1816 - 26 GENNAIO / JANUARY 1816)
    • Pedro Cevallos Guerra (26 GENNAIO / JANUARY 1816 - 30 ottobre 1816)
    • José García León y Pizarro (30 ottobre 1816 - 14 novembre 1818)
    Durissimo colpo alla libertà di stampa: sono proibite tutte le riviste ad eccezione della sola «Gaceta de Madrid».
    Félix J. Reinoso (1772 - 1841) pubblica Influencia de las bellas letras en la mejora del entendimiento.

    1817 Trattato con il Regno Unito. José de San Martín (detto el Libertador del Sur) inizia l’invasione del Cile (roccaforte della resistenza spagnola). Il generale Luis de Lacy tenta di organizzare un’insurrezione, ma è arrestato e fucilato, a seguito di un tradimento.
    Francisco Cros fonda, a Barcellona, un’industria di prodotti chimici. Iniziano i lavori del Canal de Urgel.
    Si spegne, a Valencia, lo storico Juan Francisco Masdeu (1744 - 1817).

    1818 Muore la regina Isabel de Braganza. Nella battaglia di Maipú (Cile), le truppe realiste, subiscono una grave sconfitta.
    Secretaría de Estado
    • Carlos Martínez de Irujo y Tacón, Marqués de Casa-Irujo (14 novembre 1818 - 12 giugno 1819)
    Fondazione, a Madrid, del Museo del Prado. L’architetto Antonio López Aguado inizia la costruzione del Teatro Real.
    A Cadice una scuola tecnica istituisce l’insegnamento della lingua Toscana.

    1819 Fernando VII sposa Maria Amalia de Sajonia. Muore il Re Carlos IV. A Valencia ed a Cadice si registrano delle cospirazioni massoniche. Gli Stati Uniti comprano la Florida.
    Secretaría de Estado
    • Manuel González Salmón (12 giugno 1819 - 12 novembre 1819)
    • Joaquín José Melgarejo y Saurín, Duque de San Fernando de Quiroga (12 novembre 1819 - 18 marzo 1820)
    El Fernandino (o Betis) è la prima nave a vapore a coprire una tratta fluviale: la linea è la Siviglia - Sanlúcar. Avvio dei lavori per la costruzione del Canal de la Infanta.
    Muore, a Madrid, il pittore Mariano Salvador Maella (1739 - 1819).

    1820 Trienio liberal: l’insurrezione promossa dal generale Rafael de Riego y Núñez riconsegna, al paese, la Constitución de 1812. Fernando accetta la costituzione. Riego y Núñez entra trionfalmente a Madrid. In Catalogna si fonda la Comisión de Fábricas.
    Secretaría de Estado
    • Evaristo Pérez de Castro Brito (18 marzo 1820 - 2 marzo 1821)
    • Juan Jabat Aztal (18 marzo 1820 - probabilmente 2 marzo 1821)
    José Marchena (1768 - 1821) pubblica Lecciones de filosofía moral y elocuencia.

    1821 Le colonie americane proclamano la loro indipendenza. Il generale Agustín Iturbide vara il cosiddetto Plan de Iguala che stabiliva l’autonomia del paese sotto un sovrano spagnolo. San Martín sbarca a Prisco (Perù) dichiarandosi pronto a combattere per la liberazione dal vecchio potere coloniale spagnolo.
    Secretaría de Estado
    • Joaquín Anduaga Cuenca (2 marzo 1821 - 4 marzo 1821)
    • Eusebio Bardají y Azara (4 marzo 1821 - 28 aprile 1821)
    • Francisco de Paula Escudero (28 aprile 1821 - 8 GENNAIO / JANUARY 1822)
    Ad Alcoy si registrano le prime azioni operaie tese a distruggere le macchine (distruzione dei telai).
    Si promulga il Reglamento de la Instrucción Pública.
    Juan Justo García pubblica Elementos de verdadera lógica.
    Muore, a Madrid, José “Abate” Marchena Ruiz de Cueto (1768 - 1821).

    1822 Pronunciamento assolutista di Valencia. Martínez de la Rosa è nominato Presidente del Consiglio. La reggenza realista costituitasi a Seo de Urgel è cacciata, grazie all’intervento del generale Espoz y Mina, in territorio francese. Si costituisce la Milícia Nacional.
    Secretaría de Estado
    • Ramón López Pelegrín (8 GENNAIO / JANUARY 1822 - 22 GENNAIO / JANUARY 1822)
    • José Gabriel Silva y Bazán, Marqués de Santa Cruz - non prende possesso della carica - (22 GENNAIO / JANUARY 1822 - 28 febbraio / FEBRUARY 28 1822)
    • Francisco Martínez de la Rosa (28 febbraio / FEBRUARY 28 1822 - 8 luglio 1822)
    • Santiago Usoz y Mozí (8 luglio 1822 - 11 luglio 1822)
    • Nicolás María Garelly (11 luglio 1822 - 23 luglio 1822)
    • Santiago Usoz y Mozí (23 luglio 1822 - 5 agosto 1822)
    • Evaristo San Miguel y Valledor (5 agosto 1822 - 28 febbraio / FEBRUARY 28 1823)
    Il madrileno Ramón de Mesonero Romanos (1803 - 1882), con il suo Mis ratos perdidos o ligero bosquejo de Madrid en 1820 y 1821, apre la strada al costrumbrismo spagnolo.

    1823 Le Cortes ed il Governo compiono un trasferimento da Cadice a Siviglia. L’Armada de los Cien Mil Hijos de San Luis, guidata dal Duque de Angulema, pone fine al periodo costituzionale. Fernando VII conosce la destituzione (11 giugno) per, poi, ritornar al potere con la proclamazione del Manifiesto absolutista: prende, in tal modo, l’avvio la cosiddetta Década Absolutista de Fernando VII (1823 - 1833). Il generale Riego y Núñez, catturato dalle forze reazionarie, è condannato a morte ed impiccato. Le truppe francesi occupano (sino al 1827) Barcellona: il generale Espoz y Mina, capitolato dopo un’eroica resistenza, fugge in Inghilterra.
    In Catalogna - per la precisione a Camprodón - si registrano manifestazioni operaie: sono distrutte diverse macchine per filare e cardare.
    Secretaría de Estado
    • Evaristo San Miguel y Valledor (28 febbraio / FEBRUARY 28 1823 - 25 aprile 1823)
    • álvaro Flórez Estrada - non prende possesso della carica - (2 marzo 1823 - 20 marzo 1823)
    • Manuel Vadillo (25 aprile 1823 - 7 maggio 1823)
    • José María Pando de la Riva y Ramírez de Laredo (13 maggio 1823 - 27 maggio 1823)
    • Antonio Vargas Laguna - non accetta - (27 maggio 1823 - 7 agosto 1823)
    • Víctor Damián Sáez Sánchez-Mayor (7 agosto 1823 - 2 dicembre 1823)
    • Luis María de Salazar Salazar (19 agosto 1823 - 1 ottobre 1823)
    • Juan Antonio Yandiola Garay (29 agosto 1823 - 4 settembre 1823)
    • José Luyando (4 settembre 1823 - 30 settembre 1823)
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Victor Damian Saez (19 novembre 1823 - 2 dicembre 1823)
    • Carlos Fernando Martinez de Irujo y Tacon, Marques de Casa Irujo (2 dicembre 1823 - 25 dicembre 1823)
    • Narciso de Heredia y Begines de los Rios, Conde de Ofalia (25 dicembre 1823 - 18 GENNAIO / JANUARY 1824)
    Appare, a Barcellona, la rivista «El Europeo»: fra i fondatori si registrano Buenaventura Carlos Aribau e Ramón López Soler (1806 - 1836). Rafael de Húmara y Salamanca, con Ramiro, Conde de Lucena, inizia l’avventura del racconto storico di ambientazione medioevale.
    Il ristabilimento del potere assolutista decretato da Fernando VII, portò la deroga del Reglamento de la Instrucción Pública del 1821.

    1824 Istituzione del corpo di polizia. Le congregazioni massoniche, o d’altre società segrete, sono proibite. Disfatta spagnola nella battaglia di Ayacucho (Perù): di fatto questo pone fine alla dominazione spagnola nelle Americhe. Dichiarazione d’indipendenza del Perù.
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Heredia y Begines de los Rios (18 GENNAIO / JANUARY 1824 - 11 luglio 1824)
    • Francisco Cea Bermudez (11 luglio 1824 - 24 ottobre 1825)
    Novità in seno al sistema educativo, si promulga il Plan Literario de Estudios y Arreglo General de Universidades del Reino. La Junta de Barcelona istituisce una scuola per l’insegnamento della lingua italiana.
    Muore, a Napoli, Pedro Montengón y Paret (1724 - 1824). A Madrid, scompare, il diplomatico (ed ex Presidente del Consiglio) Martínez de Irujo, Marqués de Casa-Irujo (1765 - 1824).

    1825 Dichiarazione d’indipendenza della Bolivia.
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Pedro Alcantara de Toledo y Salm-Salm, Duque del Infantado (24 ottobre 1825 - 19 agosto 1826)
    Il riassetto del sistema educativo si arricchisce del Reglamento General de las Escuelas de Latinidad y Escuelas de Primeras Letras del Reino.
    L’ispanista Johannes Nikolaus Böhl von Faber (1770 - 1836) termina la pubblicazione della celebre raccolta Floresta de rimas antiguas castellanas (1821 - 1825).
    Muore, a Roa de Duero (Burgos), Juan Martín Díez (1775 - 1825), detto El Empecinado.

    1826 Le truppe di Fernando VII frenano un tentativo di sollevazione liberale ad Alicante. Avvio della politica protezionista: El arancel de 1826 impone una gabella sui prodotti tessili - e sul cotone - d’importazione. Magí Coromines riorganizza la Comissió de Fàbriques de Filats, Teixits i Estampats de Cotó.
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Manuel Gonzalez Salmon (19 agosto 1826 - 18 GENNAIO / JANUARY 1832)
    Si diffonde il Manifiesto de la Federación de Realistas Puros. A Barcellona si sperimenta l’illuminazione pubblica a gas.
    Nuovo tassello in seno al sistema educativo, si promulga, il Reglamento General de las Escuelas de Latinidad y Colegios de Humanidades.

    1827 In Catalogna si sviluppa la cosiddetta Rebelión de los “Malcontents”. Con la sollevazione carlista s’instaura, a Manresa, la Junta de Gobierno del Principado.
    Antonio López Aguado avvia, a Madrid, la costruzione della Puerta de Toledo.

    1828 Dichiarazione d’indipendenza dell’Uruguay. Simón Bolívar (1783 - 1830) scampa ad un tentativo di assassinio.
    Alvaro Flórez Estrada pubblica il suo Curso de economía política. L’erudito Agustín Durán pubblica il Discurso sobre el influjo que ha tenido la crítica moderna en la decadencia del teatro español: vero e proprio manifesto del romanticismo spagnolo. ángel de Saavedra Ramírez (altrimenti noto come il Duque de Rivas), invece, dà alle stampe El faro de Malta.
    Nasce, a Malaga, Antonio Cánovas del Castillo, politico di rilevante importanza.
    Muore, a Parigi, il celebre drammaturgo Leandro Fernández de Moratín (1760 - 1828). Muore, a Bordeaux, il celebre pittore Goya y Lucientes (1746 - 1828).

    1829 Muore la regina María Josefa Amalia de Sajonia. Fernando VII si sposa con María Cristina de Nápoles. Si vara il Codice di Commercio.
    Ramón de Mesonero Romanos scrive la commedia Marido joven y mujer vieja.



    1830 Fernando VII emana la Pragmática Sanción che abolisce la Legge Salica. Fallisce il pronunciamento di Espoz y Mina.
    Nasce Isabel II la Infanta. A Malaga la siderurgia compie i suoi primi passi.
    Martínez de la Rosa pubblica il dramma iper-romantico Aben Humeya. Il santanderino Telesforo Trueba y Cossío (1799 - 1835) pubblica Los bandos de Castilla o el caballero del cisne.

    1831 Fallisce il pronunciamento di José María de Torrijos y Uriarte Torrijos (1791 - 1831): esecuzione di Mariana Pineda Muñoz (1804 - 1831) e del generale Torrijos.
    Sulla rivista «Cartas Españoles» s’inizia la pubblicazione delle Escenas Andaluzas di Serafín Estébanez Calderón, scrittore riconosciuto come il padre del costumbrismo. Masonero Romanos pubblica il Manual de Madrid: prima guida storico-sentimentale dedicata alla capitale spagnola.
    López Soler pubblica La conquista de Valencia por el Cid, ennesimo esempio di letteratura d’ambientazione medioevale d’ispirazione scottiana.

    1832 Dopo i fatti di La Granja si revoca la Pragmática Sanción. Temporanea vittoria di Don Carlos (Carlo di Borbóne, Conde de Molina). Vittoria del partito cristino. Si proibisce l’importazione di manufatti di cotone.
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • José Cafranga (1 ottobre 1832 - 29 novembre 1832)
    • Francisco Cea Bermúdez (1 dicembre 1832 - 29 settembre 1833)
    A Barcellona sorge lo stabilimento Bonaplata (Bonaplata, Vilaregut e Rull i Cia): prima fabbrica a vapore del Paese. Nella zona centrale di Madrid compare l’illuminazione pubblica a gas (nel 1848 il sistema sarà esteso alle abitazioni).
    Inizia le pubblicazioni la rivista satirica «El Pobrecito Hablador»: i promotori sono Mariano José de Larra e Sánchez de Castro.

    1833 Muore il Re Fernando VII: la reggenza passa ad Isabel II. Sollevazione carlista: liberali ed assolutisti si combattono aspramente. Javier del Burgos impone la moderna divisione provinciale. Una grossa epidemia di colera flagella il paese. Si registra la prima importante espansione dell’industria catalana (sino al 1865).
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Cea Bermudez (29 settembre 1833 - 15 GENNAIO / JANUARY 1834)
    La «Gaceta de Madrid» (23 febbraio / FEBRUARY 23 ) dipinge un ritratto del mondo della scuola abbastanza desolante: 12.719 sedi scolastiche, 487.351 alunni ed una percentuale di scolarizzazione, fra i giovani dai 6 ai 13 anni, del 24.7% (il dato è riferito al 1930 - 31).
    Appare la rivista «El Vapor» (1833 - 1838). Aribau pubblica - su «El Vapor» - l’ode La Pátria: con essa si suole dar inizio, in coincidenza con l’affermarsi del Romanticismo e del Nazionalismo, la Renaixença catalana.

    1834 La reggente, Mª Cristina de Borbón, promulga lo Statuto Reale. Martínez de la Rosa dà vita ad un movimento liberale moderato. Carlos Mª Isidro ritorna in patria. Sospensione dell’Inquisizione. Don Carlos nomina Tomás de Zumalacárregui y de Imaz comandante delle forze carliste settentrionali. Sospensione definitiva dei gremios. Si favorisce, attraverso una forte liberalizzazione, l’industria. Il colera continua a colpire duramente in Catalogna.
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Francisco de Paula Martínez de la Rosa (15 GENNAIO / JANUARY 1834 - 7 giugno 1835)
    La nave «El Balear» è utilizzata sulla linea Barcellona - Palma: è la prima nave a vapore, impiegata in Spagna, per una tratta di mare.
    Con la rappresentazione madrilena de La conjuración de Venecia, año de 1310, Martínez de la Rosa, entra fra i grandi del teatro. Esce il romanzo di Mariano José de Larra (1809 - 1837) El doncel de Don Enrique el Doliente, a cui segue il dramma Macías. Con la prefazione ad El Moro expósito di Saavedra Ramírez, Antonio Alcalá Galiano, redige il primo manifesto programmatico del romanticismo spagnolo.
    1835 Assedio di Bilbao e morte di Zumalacárregui y de Imaz. Il generale Luis Fernández de Córdoba ottiene la vittoria di Mendigorría. Muore assassinato, a Barcellona, il generale Pere Nolasc de Bassa i Girona. Dissolvimento degli ordini religiosi. Sollevazioni progressiste nelle principali città del paese. Distruzione, a Barcellona, della fabbrica Bonaplata: atto ludista.
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Jose Maria Queipo de Llano y Ruiz de Saravia, Conde de Toreno (7 giugno 1835 - 14 settembre 1835)
    • Miguel Ricardo de álava Esquivel (14 settembre 1835 - 25 settembre 1835)
    • Juan Alvarez Mendizábal (25 settembre 1835 - 15 maggio 1836)
    Don álvaro o La fuerza del sino è il nuovo dramma del Duque de Rivas. Il liberale extremeño Bartolomé José Gallardo (1776 - 1852) inizia la pubblicazione del suo El Criticón, importante studio sulla letteratura spagnola. Esce la rivista «El propagador de la libertad» (1835 - 1838).

    1836 Decreto a favore della desamortización y disvinculación della manomorta ecclesiastica. La Mesta, caduti gli storici privilegi, si trasforma nella Associazione generale degli allevatori. A seguito dell’ammutinamento de La Grana si proclama il ristabilimento della costituzione del 1812 (ritorno al costituzionalismo radicale). Gruppi di operai, a Sabadell, promuovono azioni contro le macchine.
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Francisco Javier Istúriz (15 maggio 1836 - 14 agosto 1836)
    • Jose Maria Calatrava (14 agosto 1836 - 10 marzo 1837)
    Sorge, in Catalogna, la Nueva Vulcano.
    Il Plan General de Instrucción Pública struttura l’insegnamento in tre gradi: Primaria (primaria elemental y superior), Secondaria (elemental y superior) e Superiore (escuelas especiales y facultades). Nasce, a Madrid, l’Universidad Complutense; mentre, a Barcellona, si ristabilisce l’ateneo cittadino.
    Mesonero Romano fonda il settimanale «Seminario Pintoresco Español» (1836 - 1857). Ottiene grande successo il dramma cavalleresco El Trovador di Antonio García Gutiérrez. José Mor de Fuentes pubblica il suo Bosquejillo de la vida y escritos de Don José Mor de Fuentes, delineado por sí mismo. Próspero de Bofarull pubblica Los Condes de Barcelona vindicados. Fèlix Torres Amat pubblica «Memorias para ayudar a formar un diccionario crítico de los escritores catalanes».

    1837 Promulgazione della Costituzione del 1837: l’ordinamento costituzionale radicale è modificato secondo caratteri maggiormente progressisti. La spedizione di Don Carlos è l’ultimo importante tentativo di conquista del potere da parte dei carlisti: il 12 settembre, infatti, giungono sino a Madrid. Sono aboliti i diritti señoriales y de la décima.
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Ildefonso Diez de Rivera, Conde de Almodovar (10 marzo 1837 - 18 agosto 1837)
    • Joaquín Baldomero Fernández Espartero álvarez de Toro, Conde de Luchana (18 agosto 1837 - 18 ottobre 1837)
    • Eusebio Bardaji y Azara (18 ottobre 1837 - 16 dicembre 1837)
    • Heredia y Begines de los Rios (16 dicembre 1837 - 6 settembre 1838)
    Juan Eugenio Hartzenbusch pubblica il dramma Los amantes de Teruel. A Valencia iniziano le pubblicazioni del periodico «El Mole».

    1838 Il generale carlista Ramón Cabrera y Griñó conquista Morella (Carlo di Borbone, per tale merito, gli conferì il titolo di Conde de Morella).
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Bernardino Fernandez de Velasco, Duque de Frias (6 settembre 1838 - 9 dicembre 1838)
    • Evaristo Perez de Castro (9 dicembre 1838 - 20 luglio 1840)
    Alberto Lista y Aragón fonda, a Cadice, il Colegio de San Felipe Neri. Pablo Montesino y Cáceres (1781 - 1849) crea la Sociedad para Propagar y Mejorar la Educacion del Pueblo: in tal contesto, istituisce la prima escuela de párvulos ed edita il suo celebre Manual para los maestros de escuela de párvulos.
    José María Queipo de Llano, Conde de Toreno (1786 - 1843) redige la Historia del levantamiento, guerra y revolución de España.

    1839 Il generale Rafael Maroto, militare di punta dell’armata carlista, condanna alla fucilazione i propri nemici. Il Convenio de Vergara fra Maroto ed il generale Fernández Espartero álvarez de Toro sancisce la fine della guerra civile e, contemporaneamente, l’obbligo d’abbandono del suolo spagnolo, da parte del pretendente Don Carlos. Fernández Espartero álvarez de Toro fu nominato, per tal risultato, Principe di Vergara. S’insediano le Cortes progressiste (settembre) che, però, dopo circa sessanta giorni (ottobre), saranno sciolte. S’inaugura, a Madrid, la Caja de Ahorros. Un’Ordinanza Reale autorizza la formazione d’Associazioni di Mutuo Soccorso.
    Nasce, a Ronda, Francisco Giner de los Ríos (1839 - 1915) l’educatore per eccellenza, secondo diversi autori, della Spagna contemporanea.
    José de Espronceda y Delgado pubblica El estudiante de Salamanca. Il poeta Pablo Piferrer (1818 - 1848) pubblica Recuerdos y Bellezas de España.

    1840 Promulgazione della Ley de Ayuntamientos (tale legge si configura come un’aperta sfida ai radicali progressisti). Abdicazione di Mª Cristina de Borbón. Fernández Espartero álvarez de Toro sconfigge Cabrera: fine del carlismo nel settentrione del paese. Sfidando radicali, moderati e diversi esponenti della Corte, la Regina, incontra, a Barcellona, Fernández Espartero álvarez de Toro. Madrid, dopo qualche settimana, si pronuncia contro Maria Cristina: Fernández Espartero álvarez de Toro sale al potere, mentre, la Regina abdica. A Barcellona si costituisce la Societat de Protecció Mútua de Teixidors de Cotó de Barcelona: prima associazione operaia del Paese (seguono, poi, le società di Vilassar de Mar, Vic e Sant Andreu del Palomar). S’inaugura, nella città fondata dal generale Amilcare Barca (così vuole la leggenda), il Mercat de Sant Josep (detto anche Mercat de la Boqueria).
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Antonio Gonzalez y Gonzalez, Marques de Valdeterrazo (20 luglio 1840 - 12 agosto 1840)
    • Valentin Ferraz y Barrau (12 agosto 1840 - 28 agosto 1840)
    • Modesto Cortazar (29 agosto 1840 - 2 settembre 1840)
    • Vicente Sancho (11 settembre 1840 - 16 settembre 1840)
    • Fernández Espartero álvarez de Toro (16 settembre 1840 - 10 maggio 1841)
    Espronceda y Delgado pubblica Poesías liricas. Montesino y Cáceres pubblica il Manual para maestros de las escuelas de párvulos.

    1841 Fernández Espartero álvarez de Toro è proclamato reggente unico. Pronunciamento di Leopoldo O’Donnell y Jorris si pronuncia, a Pamplona, contro Fernández Espartero álvarez de Toro. Alcuni decreti adeguano i territori soggetti ai fueros, alle norme costituzionali. Si adotta una politica economica liberoscambista. Nascono movimenti che rivendicano una maggior libertà d’associazione ed organizzazione operaia. Con Abdón Terradas nasce il republicanismo federal. Si pubblica, a Barcellona, il manifesto operaio Las Clases Trabajadoras Asociadas a los Diputados a Cortes y Particularmente a los de la Antigua Cataluña; a sottoscriverlo diverse società: Blanquejadors, Capçadors, Filadors, Fusters, Impressors, Mitgers, Pintadors, Sabaters, Serradors, Teixidors e Tintorers. Una proibizione tenta di “intimorire” la Societat de Protecció Mútua de Teixidors de Cotó di Barcellona.
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Joaquin Maria Ferrer y Echevarria (10 maggio 1841 - 20 maggio 1841)
    • Gonzalez y Gonzalez, Marques de Valdeterrazo (20 maggio 1841 - 17 giugno 1842)
    Con Romances históricos, il Duque de Rivas, si riallaccia alla tradizione del romancero. Pubblicazione del libro Poesías de “Lo Gaiter del Llobregat”, pseudonimo di Joaquim Rubió i Ors: il prologo dell’opera è considerato il manifesto della Renaixença.
    Muore, a Madrid, il poeta Félix José Reinoso (1772 - 1841). Muore, a Liverpool, lo scrittore Blanco y Crespo, soprannominato Blanco-White (1775 - 1841).

    1842 Fernández Espartero álvarez de Toro è aspramente criticato dai progressisti. Barcellona, che si pronuncia contro Fernández Espartero álvarez de Toro, subisce bombardamenti dalla zona di Montjuich. Terradas proclama la República a Figueras. A Barcellona si fonda la Companyia Fabril de Teixidors, una cooperativa promossa dall’Associació Mútua de Teixidors.
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • José Ramón Rodil y Campillo (17 giugno 1842 - 9 maggio 1843)
    Creazione della Sociedad Catalana de Gas.
    Il Duque de Rivas pubblica il dramma El desengaño en un sueño. Rubió i Ors scrive il poema Roudor del Llobregat.

    1843 Isabel II raggiunge la maggior età. Pronunciamenti contro il governo di Fernández Espartero álvarez de Toro si registrano a Barcellona, Madrid, Malaga, Siviglia, Reus e Valencia. Ramón María Narváez y Campos, sbarcando a Valencia (27 giugno) con i propri alleati, costituisce un governo provvisorio: López e Francisco Serrano y Domínguez ne sono posti a capo. Le truppe di Seoane si congiungono, a Torrejón de Ardoz, con Narváez y Campos (22 luglio). Barcellona si arrende, dopo l’ennesimo bombardamento, al generale Juan Prim y Prats (13 novembre).
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Joaquín María Lopez (9 maggio 1843 - 19 maggio 1843)
    • Alvaro Gómez Becerra (19 maggio 1843 - 23 luglio 1843)
    • Joaquín María Lopez (23 luglio 1843 - 20 novembre 1843)
    • Salustiano Olózaga (20 novembre 1843 - 29 novembre 1843)
    • Luis Gonzalez Bravo (5 dicembre 1843 - 3 maggio 1844)
    Nasce il «Museo de las Familias» (1843 - 1871).
    Muore, a Barèges, l’ex Presidente del Consiglio álava Esquivel (1771 - 1843).

    1844 Un’Ordinanza Reale regolamenta le concessioni ferroviarie. Creazione della Guardia Civil. Alejandro Mon y Pidal è nominato Ministro del Tesoro. Pronunciamenti centralisti ad Alicante, Cartagena e Valencia. Creazione del Banco de Isabel II. È proibito l’associazionismo operaio. A Barcellona si fondano due importanti istituti di credito: Banco de Barcelona e Caja de Ahorros de Barcelona. Nella capitale catalana, inoltre, si crea una Comisión de Monumentos Históricos y Artísticos.
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Narváez y Campos (3 maggio 1844 - 11 febbraio / FEBRUARY 11 1846)
    Joaquín Francisco Pacheco pubblica il suo Corso di Diritto Politico. José Zorrilla pone in scena il suo celeberrimo Don Juan Tenorio (Madrid: Teatro de la Cruz). Il catalano Mariano Cubí y Soler (1801 - 1875) pubblica le opere Manual de Frenología e Sistema completo de Frenología. A Valencia iniziano le pubblicazioni del periodico «La Donsaina».

    1845 Il ministro Mon y Pidal, nel tentativo di tamponare la deriva economica del paese, vara la propria riforma monetaria. L’eccessivo carico delle imposte, trova una sua valvola di sfogo nei tumulti madrileni del 19 e 20 agosto. Nuova costituzione moderata.
    Il Plan General de Estudios rinuncia al carattere gratuito ed universale per le scuole d’ogni ordine e grado.
    Il filosofo e teologo catalano Jaime Luciano Balmes Urpía (1810 - 1848) fonda la rivista «El Pensamiento de la Nación».

    1846 La grave instabilità è, secondo alcuni storici, dovuta anche ai negoziati del matrimonio reale. Isabel II sposa Francisco de Asís, Duque de Cádiz. L’Infanta Luisa, invece, sposa il Duque de Montpensier. Catalogna si trasforma nel teatro della Guerra dels Matiners (1846 - 1849): carlisti e repubblicano-federali combattono contro i liberal-unitaristi.
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Manuel de Pando y Fernandez de Pineda, Marqués de Miraflores (12 febbraio / FEBRUARY 12 1846 - 16 marzo 1846)
    • Narváez y Campos (16 marzo 1846 - 5 aprile 1846)
    • Francisco Javier Istúriz (5 aprile 1846 - 28 GENNAIO / JANUARY 1847)
    Balmes Urpía pubblica El criterio: saggio sull’arte di pensare. Il tipografo catalano Manuel Rivadeneyra fonda la Biblioteca de Autores Españoles.
    Nasce, a Sargentes de la Lora, Andrés Manjón (1846 - 1923), il pedagogo che crea le Escuelas del Ave-María.

    1847 Il Banco de San Fernando si fonde con l’istituto bancario Isabel II.
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Carlos Fernando Martinez de Irujo y Tacon Marques de Casa Irujo (28 GENNAIO / JANUARY 1847 - 28 marzo 1847)
    • Joaquin Francisco Pacheco y Gutierrez Calderon (28 marzo 1847 - 12 settembre 1847)
    • Florencio García Goyena (12 settembre 1847 - 4 ottobre 1847)
    • Narváez y Campos (4 ottobre 1847 - 19 ottobre 1849)
    Inaugurazione, a Barcellona, del Gran Teatre d’El Liceu. A Sants, i fratelli Muntades, fondano La España Industrial. A Valencia iniziano le pubblicazioni del periodico «El Tabalet».
    Il malagueño Serafín Estébanez Calderón (1797 - 1867) pubblica le sue Escenas andaluzas.

    1848 Le Cortes concedono, a Narváez y Campos, poteri straordinari. Irrequietezze a Madrid: ammutinamento del Reggimento «España» ed un’insurrezione civile, puntualmente fallita. Il ritorno di Cabrera porta ad una recrudescenza del carlismo in Catalogna. S’istituisce la Diputación General de Catalunya. Le società per azioni sono regolamentate da una legge dello stato. Inaugurazione della linea ferroviaria Barcellona - Mataró. Creazione de La España Industrial. Installazione della prima turbina idraulica, nella fabbrica Quer di Sallent. Una protesta operaia, ad Igualada, culmina con l’incendio della fabbrica.
    Muore, a Monzón, José Mor de Fuentes (1762 - 1848), triste destino, che condivide con l’intellettuale sivigliano Alberto Lista y Aragón (1775 - 1848).

    1849 Adozione del sistema metrico decimale.
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Serafin Maria de Sotto, Conde Clonard (19 ottobre 1849 - 20 ottobre 1849)
    • Narváez y Campos (20 ottobre 1849 - 14 GENNAIO / JANUARY 1851)
    Fernán Caballero, sotto il cui pseudonimo si celava la scrittrice Cecilia Böhl von Faber (1796 - 1877), pubblica La Gaviota.
    ángel Fernández de los Ríos (1821 - 1880) fonda «La Ilustración» (1849 - 1857).
    Muoiono, a Madrid, il pedagogo Montesino y Cáceres ed il granadino Francisco Javier de Burgos (1778 - 1849), uomo politico, giornalista e fine traduttore.

    1850 Il Plan Seijas Lozano istituisce le scuole industriali. Una nave ad elica, il «General Armero», è impiegata per coprir la tratta Guantánamo - Santiago de Cuba.
    Nasce, a Barcellona, Lluís Domènech i Montaner: importante architetto del modernismo catalano. S’inaugurano, a Madrid, il Palacio de las Cortes - progetto ed esecuzione si sono dovuti all’architetto Narciso Pascual Colomer - ed il Teatro Real.
    Víctor Balaguer, uno dei promotori del rinascimento catalano, scrive Historia de Cataluña y de la Corona de Aragón. Sanz del Río pubblica Lecciones sobre el sistema de Filosofía analítica de Krause. Esce Poesia mallorquines di Joan Josep Amengual.

    1851 Concordato con la Santa Sede. Costruzione del Canal de Isabel II e dell’infrastruttura di supporto: l’opera si prefigge di incrementare il flusso d’acqua diretto verso l’abitato di Madrid (1851 - 1858).
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Juan Bravo Murillo (14 GENNAIO / JANUARY 1851 - 14 dicembre 1852)
    Juan Doloso Cortés (1809 - 1853) con il suo Ensayo sobre el Catolicismo, el Liberalismo y el Socialismo sposta il pensiero spagnolo verso una posizione tradizionalista di stampo demestriano.
    Istituzione dell’Escuela Industrial Barcelonesa e dell’Instituto Agricola Catalán de San Isidro.
    Muore, a Parigi, Manuel Godoy álvarez de Faria (1767 - 1851).

    1852 Si forma una Lega di generali e di politici per contrastare la proposta di riforma costituzionale di Bravo Murillo.
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Federico de Roncali, Conde de Alcoy (14 dicembre 1852 - 14 aprile 1853)
    Fondazione, a Cuba, della “naviliera” A. López y Compañia.
    Nasce, a Reus (Tarragona), Antoni Gaudí y Cornet (1852 - 1926). Muore, a Piedrahita (ávila), il poeta José Somoza y Muñoz (1781 - 1852). Muore, ad Alcoy (Alicante), Bartolomé José Gallardo (1776 - 1852).

    1853 Il Senato boccia il progetto di legge sul riordinamento delle ferrovie presentato dal governo.
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Francisco Lersundi y Ormaechea (14 aprile 1853 - 19 settembre 1853)
    • Luis Jose Sartorius, Conde de San Luis (19 settembre 1853 - 17 luglio 1854)
    Nasce la Caja de Ahorros de Sabadell.
    Manuel Milà i Fontanals propone Romancerillo catalán.

    1854 I generali all’opposizione, a seguito di vibranti proteste contro il governo, sono costretti all’esilio. Pronunciamento dei generali Domingo Dulce y Garay ed O’Donnell y Jorris: segue lo scontro di Vicálvaro. O’Donnell y Jorris lancia un appello alla popolazione: Manifiesto de Manzanares (6 luglio). Madrid insorge. Il generale San Miguel, agendo per conto dei progressisti, prende il controllo del tumulto. Fernández Espartero álvarez de Toro, con il consenso della Regina, diviene Primo Ministro. La coalizione di governo è formata da progressisti e liberali moderati. Nel novembre entrano in funzione le Cortes costituenti. Un imponente sciopero, partito dalla fabbrica tessile La España Industrial, si estende da Barcellona alle principali fabbriche del Principato; si conteranno più d’ottocento incarcerazioni, ma alla fine il Governo si vedrà costretto ad autorizzare la formazione d’associazioni operaie. Sempre in Catalogna, poi, si lancia - grazie ad una Comissió de les Classes Obreres - un boicottaggio contro le cosiddette selfactinas. Il conflitto portato da queste macchine automatizzate, che ebbe il proprio apice con l’incendio di diverse fabbriche, si risolse con un’ordinanza del Capitano Generale di Catalogna - Ramón de la Rocha - il quale proibiva, appunto, l’uso delle stesse.
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Fernando Fernández de Córdoba (17 luglio 1854 - 18 luglio 1854)
    • Saavedra Y Ramirez, Duque de Rivas (18 luglio 1854 - 19 luglio 1854)
    • Fernández Espartero álvarez de Toro (19 luglio 1854 - 14 luglio 1856)
    Fondazione dell’Unión Liberal. Creazione dei servizi telegrafici.
    Padre Ramón Valle (1801 - 1891) pubblica il libro scolastico Cartilla de silabeo.
    Sanz del Río divulga, dalla sua cattedra madrilena, il pensiero krausista.

    1855 Desamortización generale voluta da Pascual Madoz Ibáñez (1806 - 1870). La Regina si rifiuta di firmare la legge d’abolizione dei vincoli sulle proprietà della Chiesa. Si avviano i lavori di costruzione della linea ferroviaria Madrid - Parigi (1855 - 1864). Nuove leggi regolamentano, in senso liberale, il settore ferroviario e quello bancario. A Barcellona, trenta società operaie, si riuniscono e costituiscono la Junta Central de Directors de la Classe Obrera. Il leader degli operai tessili catalani, Josep Barceló, è arrestato. L’azione repressiva nei confronti del mondo operaio vede, il 21 maggio, una Real Orden che reintroduce l’uso delle selfactinas. Il 21 giugno, poi, viene decretata - da parte del Capitano Generale di Catalogna Juan Zapatero - la dissoluzione delle associazioni operaie. All’atteggiamento di Zapatero risponde, proclamando uno sciopero generale, la Junta Central de Directors de la Classe Obrera: le società operaie riacquistano, il 10 luglio, la possibilità di regolare le relazioni fra imprese e lavoratori.
    Si costituisce, a Barcellona, La Maquinista Terrestre y Marítima.
    Joan Illas pubblica Catalanismo no es provincialismo. Ramon Simó i Badia fonda, a Madrid, il periodico «El Eco de la Clase Obrera».

    1856 Costituzione progressista (non nata!). Caduta di Fernández Espartero álvarez de Toro: gli succede O’Donnell y Jorris. Alla guida dell’esercito regolare, O’Donnell y Jorris, strappa Madrid alle guardie nazionali. Nascono il Banco de España (ex Banco de San Fernando) e la Sociedad General de Crédito Mobilario Español. Scioglimento della milizia nazionale (agosto). Le organizzazioni operaie sono nuovamente costrette alla clandestinità.
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • O’Donnell y Jorris (14 luglio 1856 - 12 ottobre 1856)
    • Narváez y Campos (12 ottobre 1856 - 15 ottobre 1857)
    Edificazione, a Madrid, del Teatro de la Zarzuela (l’edificio ricorda molto il Teatro alla Scala di Milano).
    Fernán Caballero pubblica il romanzo La famiglia Alvareda.

    1857 Il panorama bancario si arricchisce del Banco de Santander e del Banco de Bilbao. Claudio Moyano Samaniego (1809 - 1890), con la Ley de Instrucción Pública, ordina, articola ed organizza gran parte del processo normativo a lui precedente, consolidando un sistema educativo - a carattere liberale - che accompagna gli spagnoli per un lungo tempo.
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Francisco Armero y Peñaranda, Marques de Nervión (15 ottobre 1857 - 14 GENNAIO / JANUARY 1858)
    Fondazione della Compañía de Ferrocarriles de Madrid a Zaragoza y Alicante. Primo censimento della popolazione, compiuto secondo i più moderni criteri.
    Pao Estorch pubblica Gramática catalana.
    Muore, a Madrid, il poeta e drammaturgo Manuel José Quintana (1772 - 1857).
    http://www.cronologia.it/storia/mondiale/spagn000.htm
    http://www.ecn.org/contropotere/STORIA.htm

    2006 -- PART 2 OF 2 ENTRIES

    STORIA - LO  STATO SOVRANO  - TERRITORIO - GOVERNO - SISTEMI POLITICI  - I LEADERS
    DALLA FONDAZIONE FINO AI GIORNI NOSTRI (LINK ESTERNO)

    STORIA - LO  STATO SOVRANO  - TERRITORIO - GOVERNO - SISTEMI POLITICI  - I LEADERS
    DALLA FONDAZIONE FINO AI GIORNI NOSTRI (LINK ESTERNO)



    1858 Si forma il Governo Istúriz (14 GENNAIO / JANUARY ). Grazie ad O’Donnell y Jorris si forma il cosiddetto gobierno largo de la Unión Liberal (30 giugno 1858 - 2 MARZO / MARCH 2 1863).
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Istúriz (14 gennaio 1858 - 30 giugno 1858)
    • O’Donnell y Jornis (30 giugno 1858 - 7 novembre 1859)
    Si pubblica, in Catalogna, «Los trobadors nous».
    Francisco de P. Canalejas y Casas (1834 - 1883), intelligenza di prim’ordine in seno alla filosofia spagnola, pubblica Ley de relación interna de las ciencias filosóficas. Pedro Mata y Fontanet (1811 - 1877) pubblica Filosofía española.

    1859 Si dichiara guerra al Marocco. Si emana la Ley de Minas.
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Saturnino Calderón Collantes (7 novembre 1859 - 30 aprile 1860)
    Il progetto d’ampliamento urbanistico di Ildefons Cerdá, è accettato dalla municipalità catalana: nasce il quartiere dell’Eixample. Prima immersione dell’Ictíneo.
    Rafael García álvarez (1828 - 1894) pubblica Nociones de Historia natural. Con il patrocinio dell’Ajuntament de Barcelona sono re-istituiti i Jocs Florals: un importantissimo appuntamento che segna, fra l’altro, l’inizio del processo di recupero della letteratura in lingua catalana.
    Muore, a Madrid, il pittore santanderino José de Madrazo (1781 - 1859).

    1860 Guerra del Marocco: vittorie di Tetúan e Castillejos. Con la Pace di War-Ras termina il conflitto ispano-marocchino. Fallisce il tentativo di golpe carlista di San Carlos de la Rápita (Castellón).
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • O’Donnell y Jornis (30 aprile 1860 - 2 marzo 1863)
    Dal Censo del 1860 emerge una percentuale di analfabeti del 75.5% (di questi il 64.8% sono uomini, mentre un 86% sono donne). Il censimento registra una popolazione di 15,645 milioni di persone.
    Il filosofo Sanz del Río pubblica El ideal de la hamanidad para la vida. In ambito educativo, esce il libro di padre Julián Viñas (1817 - 1874) Colección de muestras de letra española.
    Muore, a Madrid, l’ex Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri Vicente Sancho (1784 - 1860); ad El Escorial viene a mancare un altro ex Presidente del Consiglio: Valentín Ferraz y Barrau (1793 - 1860).

    1861 Quindicimila operai catalani chiedono, alle Cortes, libertà d’associazione. Spedizione in Messico, con la collaborazione delle truppe francesi. Santo Domingo rinuncia alla propria indipendenza.
    Inizia un importante periodo di crescita della rete ferroviaria in Catalogna: avvio dei lavori per la tratta Barcellona - Saragozza. Un incendio devasta il Gran Teatre d’El Liceu.
    Fondazione del Ateneo de la Clase Obrera.
    Nicomedes Martín Mateos (1806 - 1890) inizia la pubblicazione de El Espiritualismo, Curso de Filosofía (1861 - 1863). Il filosofo Andaluso Canalejas y Casas pubblica Del estado actual de la filosofía en las naciones latinas.

    1862 Emanazione della Ley del Notariado. Profonda crisi nel settore della lavorazione del cotone. Gli operai, dopo la libertà d’associazione, chiedono al governo del generale O’Donnell y Jornis - attraverso la sottoscrizione di un manifesto - di poter contrastare il capitale con nobili mezzi e forma pacifica. Con la Conferenza di Orizava si pone termine all’espansione in terra messicana.
    A Madrid si fonda la prima Asociación de Ingenieros Industriales. Prime macchine per cucire spagnole. Costruzione di una nuova tratta ferroviaria: Barcellona - Gerona. Planas y Flaquer avvia la produzione di turbine Fontaine.
    Dopo un anno d’intensissimi lavori, Gran Teatre d’El Liceu, riprende la propria programmazione teatrale.
    Nasce, a Barcellona, l’Ateneu Català de la Classe Obrera.
    Muore, a Barcus, il poeta basco Pierre Topet, soprannominato Etchahun (1786 - 1862). Muore, a Madrid, Martínez de la Rosa, l’intellettuale granadino (1787 - 1862). Nella capitale catalana, invece, muore l’economista e scrittore Aribau (1798 - 1862).
    1863 Spagna, Inghilterra e Francia designano Maximiliano I quale imperatore del Messico.

    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Pando y Fernandez de Pineda, Marques de Miraflores (2 marzo 1863 - 17 GENNAIO / JANUARY 1864)
    A La Habana si pubblica il primo esemplare di Cantares Gallegos; l’importante opera della poetessa Rosalía de Castro segna l’inizio della rinascita culturale gallega.

    1864 Si promulga la ley de reforma monetaria. Importante crisi monetaria (1864 - 1868). Grazie alla grande tolleranza del capitano generale di Catalogna - Domingo Dulce - riappaiono le società operaie. Il gesuita Antoni Vicent fonda, a Manresa, il primo Cercle d’Obrers.
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Lorenzo Arrazola (17 GENNAIO / JANUARY 1864 - 1 marzo 1864)
    • Mon y Pidal (1 marzo 1864 - 16 settembre 1864)
    • Narváez y Campos (18 settembre 1864 - 21 giugno 1865)
    Madrid ed Irún sono unite da una nuova tratta ferroviaria.
    Il catalano Antoni Gusart i Vila fonda il periodico «El Obrero»: fu proibito nel 1866 e riapparve nel 1880 come portavoce delle Tres Classes de Vapor.
    La pittura storicista vive un anno importante: Casado de Alisal (1832 - 1886) dipinge La Rendición de Bailén, mentre, Eduardo Rosales (1836 - 1873) il Testamento de Isabel la Católica.

    1865 Congresso operaio a Barcellona: suo principale animatore Gusart i Vila ed il suo periodico «El Obrero». Grande depressione economica. Noche de San Daniel: ad una sollevazione studentesca, il governo, reagisce con una ferma repressione. Il pronunciamento di Prim y Prats è la prima avvisaglia di una lunga serie di rivolte contro il governo. La Spagna lascia Santo Domingo. Il Gabinetto decide di riconoscer il Regno d’Italia.
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • O’Donnell y Jorris (21 giugno 1865 - 10 luglio 1866)
    Escono, in Catalogna, due nuovi periodici: «Un Tros de Paper» (1865 - 1866) di Robert Robert ed il «Calendari Català» ( 1865 - 1882) di Francesc Pelai i Briz.
    Muore, a Madrid, Antonio Alcalá Galiano, uomo politico e scrittore spagnolo (1789 - 1865). Scompare, a Cordova, e Saavedra Ramírez Duque de Rivas (1791 - 1865). Frederic Soler i Hubert (Barcellona 1839 - 1895), fresco poeta catalano, drammaturgo e impresario teatrale, porta in scena El castell del tres dragons.

    1866 A Madrid è duramente represso l’ammutinamento di San Gil. Progressisti e democratici, nel tentativo di contrastare il governo di Isabel II, stringono il Patto di Ostenda. Il governo cancella diverse cattedre universitarie. Una grande crisi economico-finanziaria attanaglia il paese.
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Narváez y Campos (10 luglio 1866 - 13 aprile 1868)
    Fondazione del Teatro Romea.
    Nicolás Salmerón Alonso (1838 - 1908) fonda, a Madrid, il Colegio Internacional, diretto predecessore della Institución Libre de Enseñanza.
    Mata y Fontanet pubblica Compendio de psicología. Soler i Hubert, noto anche con lo pseudonimo di Serafí Pitarra, porta in scena Les joies de la Roser.

    1867 Insurrezione nei confronti di Isabel II. Muore, a Biarritz, il generale O’Donnell y Jorris. Il governo proibisce la rappresentazione di opere teatrali in lingua catalana.
    Realizzazione di una nuova tratta ferroviaria: Barcellona - Valencia (via Tarragona).
    Manuel Tamayo y Baus (1829 - 1898) con il suo Un drama nuevo, anticipa, in modo molto interessante, alcune delle posizioni pirandelliane del «teatro nel teatro».
    Muore, a Madrid, lo scrittore Serafín Estébanez Calderón (1799 - 1867). A Mataró, invece, nasce l’architetto Josep Puig i Cadafalch (1867 - 1956): uno dei principali esponenti del modernismo catalano.

    1868 Prim y Prats, Serrano y Domínguez e l’ammiraglio Juan Bautista Topete y Carballo premono per la deposizione della Regina. Il 30 settembre Isabel II lascia il paese. La Peseta, grazie al ministro Laureano Figuerola y Ballester, diviene l’unità monetaria del paese. Inizia la Guerra de independencia de Cuba. Con la formazione del Governo provisional prende l’avvio la fase democratica del Sexenio Rivolucionario (1868 - 1874). Diverse associazioni operaie costituiscono la Direcció Central de les Societats Obreres de Barcelona e convocano un nuovo Congresso Operaio. Istituzione della Junta de Barcelona. Si ripristina la libertà d’associazione.
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Luis González Bravo (23 aprile 1868 - 19 settembre 1868)
    • Jose Gutiérrez de La Concha, Marques de La Habana (19 settembre 1868 - 30 settembre 1868)
    • Serrano y Domínguez, Duque de la Torre (3 ottobre 1868 - 18 giugno 1869)
    Il patriota italiano Giuseppe Fanelli giunge a Madrid.
    Due importanti decreti riguardano l’educazione: il primo difende l’equilibrio fra educazione pubblica e privata, la libertad de cátedra e la necessità di percorsi educativi differenziati per individui con capacità diverse (21 ottobre 1868). Il secondo, invece, si propone di organizzare l’insegnamento secondario come un ampliamento dell’educazione primaria (25 ottobre 1868). Si sistemano, inoltre, le facoltà di Scienze, Diritto, Farmacia e Lettere e Filosofia.
    Francisco Pi y Margall (1824 - 1890) pubblica due lavori: Filosofía del Progreso e Filosofía popular. Mata y Fontanet pubblica De la libertad moral.
    Muore, a Madrid, Narváez y Campos (1800 - 1868).

    1869 Nicolás María Rivero (1814 - 1878) presiede le Cortes Constituyentes. Il paese si dota di una nuova costituzione, d’ispirazione democratico-monarchica, basata sul principio di sovranità nazionale. Serrano y Domínguez reggente e Prim y Prats capo di governo. Pacto de Tortosa: forze repubblicane federaliste catalane spingono per il ritorno ad uno stato repubblicano e federalista. Grazie ad alcune categorie di operai del tessile (filadors, preparadors e teixidors) si costituisce la Federació de Les Tres Classes de Vapor. La Direcció Central de Societats Obreres muta la propria denominazione in Centre Federal de les Societats Obreres de Barcelona.
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Prim y Prats, Marques de Castillejos (18 giugno 1869 - 27 dicembre 1870)
    • Topete y Carballo (25 agosto 1869 - 21 settembre 1869)
    • Prim y Prats, Marques de Castillejos (21 settembre 1869 - 27 dicembre 1870)
    Pi y Margall pubblica Solución del problema social.

    1870 Amedeo di Savoia sale al trono: la Monarchia costituzionale è formata da ministeri degli unionisti di O’Donnell y Jorris, dei progressisti di Práxedes Mariano Mateo Sagasta y Escolar (1827 - 1903) e dei radicali di Manuel Ruiz Zorilla. Si registra un’importante crescita del movimento operaio. A Barcellona si svolge il primo Congresso Operaio Nazionale: nel suo seno nasce la (l’AIT nasce a Londra nel 1864). Nella capitale catalana, inoltre, si svolge il primo congresso della Federació de Les Tres Classes de Vapor.
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Topete y Carballo (27 dicembre 1870 - 4 GENNAIO / JANUARY 1871)
    • Sagasta y Escolar (29 dicembre 1870 - 2 GENNAIO / JANUARY 1871)
    Appare il settimanale satirico «L’Esquella de la Torratxa o La Campana de Gràcia». Canalejas y Casas pubblica Las doctrinas del Doctor Iluminado Raimundo Lulio. Salmerón Alonso pubblica Conceptos de la Metafísica (1870). Romualdo álvarez Espino (1839 - 1895) pubblica Conceptos de la Metafísica. Mariano Fortuny y Carbó dipinge La Vicaria.
    Muore assassinato, nella capitale, il generale Prim y Prats (1814 - 1870).

    1871 Amedeo I, dopo aver giurato sulla costituzione, sale al trono (2 GENNAIO / JANUARY ).
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Serrano y Domínguez (4 gennaio 1871 - 24 luglio 1871)
    • Ruiz Zorrilla (24 luglio 1871 - 5 ottobre 1871)
    • José Malcampo y Monge, Marques de San Rafael (5 ottobre 1871 - 21 dicembre 1871)
    • Sagasta y Escolar (21 dicembre 1871 - 26 maggio 1872)
    A Madrid, iniziano le corse della prima linea di tram.
    Il pittore madrileno Rosales dipinge Muerte de Lucrecia. Appaiono le prime pubblicazioni del periodico catalano «La Renaixença».

    1872 Don Carlos, nel tentativo di accender le polveri del conflitto, varca la frontiera. Carlos VII promette di restaurare i fueros catalani. Si costituisce, a Barcellona, la Federació d’Obrers Manufacturers. Al quinto Congresso della l’Asociación Internacional de Trabajadores, tenutosi a La Haia, si consuma una importante scissione: da un lato i sostenitori del pensiero di Michail Aleksandrovic Bakunin, dall’altro i seguaci di Karl Marx. Al terzo Congresso della Federación Regional Española de la Asociación Internacional de Trabajadores, di Cordova, la componente marxista - proveniente in massima parte dalla capitale - è espulsa dal gruppo.
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Serrano Domínguez, Duque de la Torre (26 maggio 1872 - 13 giugno 1872)
    • Ruiz Zorilla (13 giugno 1872 - 11 febbraio / FEBRUARY 11 1873)
    S’inaugura, a Barcellona, la tratta tranviaria Ramblas-Gracia.
    Antonio Benítez de Lugo (1841 - 1897), cattedratico presso l’università di Siviglia, pubblica Filosofía del Derecho o estudio fundamental según la doctrina de Hegel, una chiara e fedele esposizione del sistema hegeliano. Canalejas y Casas pubblica due interessanti testi filosofici: Teodicea popular ed Estudios críticos de filosofía, política y literatura.

    1873 Dimissioni di Serrano y Domínguez. Le forze radicali tengono in scacco la monarchia: le richieste, concernenti l’esercito, portano all’abdicazione di Amedeo (11 febbraio / FEBRUARY 11 ). Riprende la lotta armata carlista: il generale Concha è ucciso ad Abárzuza. I carlisti occupano Berga. Le forze cantonaliste (estremisti federal-repubblicani) insorgono ad Alcoy, Cartagena ed in Andalusia. Appropriazioni di terreni in Andalusia. Si tenta di proclamare l’Estado Federal Catalán. Insurrezioni cantonaliste nella regione valenciana. Si svolge, a Toledo, il primo (ed ultimo) congresso della fazione marxista della Federación Regional Española: La Nueva Federación Madrileña.
    Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri
    • Estanislao Figueras y Moragas (12 febbraio / FEBRUARY 12 - 7 giugno)
    • Francisco Pi y Margall (11 giugno - 18 luglio)
    • Salmerón Alonso (18 luglio - 6 settembre)
    • Emilio Castelar y Ripoll (7 settembre 1873 - 3 GENNAIO / JANUARY 1874)
    Benito Pérez Galdós, il massimo rappresentante del realismo spagnolo, dà vita al grande progetto degli Episodios nacionales. A Barcellona, su progetto degli architetti Antoni Rovina, Josep Fontserè e Josep Cornet, si avvia la costruzione del Mercat del Born (1873 - 76). Salmerón Alonso pubblica Principios analíticos de la idea de tiempo. álvarez Espino pubblica Principios analíticos de la idea de tiempo.
    Muoiono, a Madrid, Manuel Bretón de los Herreros, drammaturgo e poeta spagnolo (1796 - 1873) e Bravo Murillo (1803 - 1873). Nasce, a Monóvar (Alicante) lo scrittore e saggista José Martínez Ruiz ma celebre con lo pseudonimo di Azorín (1873 - 1967).

    1874 Assolutamente ostile ad un governo di sinistra, il generale Pavía, riesce a far insediare un’amministrazione conservatrice alla cui guida è posto Serrano y Domínguez. Cánovas (Manifiesto de Sandhurst) ed il generale Arsenio Martínez de Campos y Anton (pronunciamiento di Sagunto) conseguono la restaurazione della monarchia. Le associazioni operaie sono costrette alla clandestinità: il governo proibisce la stampa socialista. La Federación Regional Española de la Asociación Internacional de Trabajadores convoca a Madrid (clandestinamente) il quarto congresso operaio. I carlisti occupano Olot e Vic. Decolla l’economia catalana: gli anni che vanno dal 1874 al 1886, infatti, sono generalmente definiti l’età de la fiebre de oro.
    Presidente del Governo (cambio del titolo)
    • Serrano y Domínguez (3 GENNAIO / JANUARY - 26 febbraio / FEBRUARY 26 )
    • Juan Zavala de la Puente (26 febbraio / FEBRUARY 26 - 3 settembre)
    • Sagasta y Escolar (29 giugno - 3 settembre)
    • Sagasta y Escolar (3 settembre - 31 dicembre)
    • Cánovas del Castillo (31 dicembre 1874 - 12 settembre 1875)
    Il Banco de España si accaparra il monopolio sull’emissione di cartamoneta.
    Juan Valera y Alcalá Galiano pubblica il romanzo Pepita Jiménez, opera che rigetta definitivamente gli ideali romantici. Dello stesso anno è il capolavoro del romanziere Pedro Antonio de Alarcón y Ariza: El sombrero de tres picos. Canalejas y Casas pubblica Doctrinas religiosas del racionalismo moderno, La voluntad.
    Si spegna, a Roma, il pittore catalano Fortuny y Carbó (1838 - 1874).

    1875 Alfonso XII (gennaio 1875 - novembre 1885) è il nuovo Re di Spagna. Sono ristabiliti i dazi doganali. Il generale Martínez de Campos y Anton pone fine ai dieci mesi di guerra carlista nel Principado de Cataluña. La Federación Regional Española de la Asociación Internacional de Trabajadores organizza la prima Conferencia Comarcal (clandestina); a questa seguiranno quelle del 1876, 1877 e 1878, ma la Federación, nel frattempo, incassava disaffezioni ed evidenziava pericolose falle organizzative.
    Presidente del Governo
    • Joaquín Jovellar Soler (12 settembre - 2 dicembre)
    • Cánovas del Castillo (2 dicembre 1875 - 7 marzo 1879)
    L’ingegner Arturo Soria y Mata (1844 - 1920) attiva la prima linea tranviaria della capitale.
    Con il dramma En el puño de la espada si pone in evidenza José Echegaray y Eizaguirre (premio Nobel, nel 1904, per la letteratura). José del Perojo y Figueras (1852 - 1908) pubblica Ensayos sobre el movimiento intelectual en Alemania, opera inclusa nell’Indice dei libri proibiti. Antonio María Fabié y Escudero (1832 - 1899) pubblica Examen crítico del materialismo moderno.

    1876 Cánovas del Castillo è fra gli ispiratori della Constitución de 1876 (rimarrà in vigore sino al 1923). Fine della seconda guerra carlista. Sospensione dei fueros baschi.
    Esce il romanzo di Pérez Galdós Doña Perfecta. Il filosofo Perojo y Figueras pubblica Haeckel juzgado por Hartmann.
    Giner de los Ríos fonda, con gli amici Gurmesindo de Azcárate (1840 - 1917) e Salmerón Alonso, la Institución Libre de Enseñanza.

    1877 S’impianta e si diffonde la rete telefonica. Il censimento registra una popolazione di 16,622 milioni di persone. Istituzione del servizio militare obbligatorio.
    Esce il romanzo di Pérez Galdós Gloria. Jacinto Verdaguer y Santaló scrive il poema La Atlántida, sarà accolto con interesse e considerato uno dei monumenti della letteratura catalana. Perojo y Figueras pubblica La ciencia española bajo la Inquisición. Escono, postume, alcune interessanti pubblicazioni di Sanz del Río: Filosofía de la muerte (a cura di Manuel Sales) e Análisis del pensamiento racional (a cura di José de Caso). Pedro Estasén y Cortada (1853 - 1913), importante esponente del positivismo, raccoglie le conferenze tenute nel volume El positivismo o sistema de las ciencias experimentales. Esce il primo numero del Boletín de la Institución Libre de Enseñanza.
    Muore, a Siviglia, la scrittrice Böhl von Faber (conosciuta, soprattutto, con lo pseudonimo di Fernán Caballero).

    1878 Alfonso XII sposa María de las Mercedes de Orleáns: dopo qualche mese, sfortunatamente, la Regina muore. Attentato contro Alfonso XII. Con la Paz de Zanjón termina il conflitto caraibico, detto, los diez años.
    Appare il settimanale «La Veu del Montserrat».
    Esce il romanzo di Pérez Galdós Marianela. José A. de la Iglesia pubblica due testi scolastici: Colección de dibujos para premios e Colección de orlas caligráficas. Mata y Fontanet pubblica Tratado de la razón humana en estado de salud.
    Riccardo Bellver y Ramon disegna il monumento dedicato all’Angel Caído.

    1879 Alfonso XII sposa Mª Cristina de Habsburgo-Lorena. Attentato contro i regnanti (31 dicembre).
    Presidente del Governo
    • Martínez de Campos y Anton (7 MARZO / MARCH 7 1879 - 9 dicembre 1879)
    • Cánovas del Castillo (9 dicembre 1879 - 8 febbraio / FEBRUARY 8 1881)
    Pablo Iglesias Posse, durante un banchetto tenutosi alla taverna Casa Labra (calle de Tetuán, Madrid), fonda il Partido Socialista Obrero Español.
    Si costituisce la Societat Tipogràfica de Barcelona.
    Valentí Almirall pubblica, a Barcellona, il «Diari Catalá» (il primo giornale in lingua catalana), nella capitale, invece, esce «El Liberal». Il filosofo Fabié y Escudero pubblica Estado actual de la Ciencia y el Derecho.
    Muore, a Logroño, il generale Fernández Espartero álvarez de Toro, Conde de Luchana, Duque de la Victoria, Duque de Morella, Vizconde de Banderas e Príncipe de Vergara (1793 - 1879).

    1880 Fernando Primo de Rivera y Sobremonte (1831 - 1921) è nominato Capitano Generale delle Filippine. Sagasta y Escolar fonda il Partido Liberal Fusionista. Cuba abolisce la schiavitù. Il governo spagnolo approva l’abolizione della schiavitù (la decisione, però, andrà a regime solo nove anni dopo).
    Almirall promuove il primo Congreso Catalanista.
    Il celebre ingegnere Gustave Eiffel costruisce, a Madrid, la Stazione de Las Delicias (oggi sede del Museo Nacional Ferroviario). Urbano González Serrano (1848-904) pubblica La psicología científica.
    Si spegne, a Barcellona, Pelegrí Clavé (1811 - 1880) importante pittore catalano nonché prestigioso membro del gruppo dei Nazarenos. Nella capitale, invece, si spegne un altro importante pittore di origine catalana Joaquín Espalter (1809 - 1880).

    1881 Mon y Pidal fonda il gruppo Unione Cattolica. Il “mondo operaio” conquista la libertà d’associazione. Al congresso operaio di Barcellona nasce la Federación de Trabajadores de la Región Española (erede diretta della FRE): una formazione di tendenza spiccatamente anarchica. I riformisti Joan Nuet, Josep Pamias, Josep Bragulat, Ramon Lostau e Manuel Bochons pubblicano il manifesto-programma del Partit democràtic-socialista obrer.
    Presidente del Governo
    • Sagasta y Escolar (8 febbraio / FEBRUARY 8 1881 - 13 ottobre 1883)
    Fondazione della Sociedad Española de Electricidad. S’introduce l’illuminazione elettrica nelle strade di Madrid. La Maquinista costruisce un importante ponte in metallo sul fiume Ebro. Costituzione del Banco di Sabadell.
    La Virgen de Montserrat è incoronata quale protettrice della Catalogna.
    Importante stagione per il periodismo catalano: nasce «La Vanguardia», mentre, periodico catalano «La Renaixença» si trasforma in quotidiano (1881 - 1905). Antonio Machado y álvarez (1848 - 1892) - el primer flamencólogo español - pubblica Colección de cantes flamencos.
    Nasce, a Malaga, Pablo Ricasso Ruiz (1881 - 1973).

    1882 A Bilbao nasce la Sociedad de Altos Hornos (trovano impiego, all’incirca, 3.000 operai). Un’importante crisi agraria colpisce il paese. A Barcellona si fonda la Lliga de Viticultors Rabassaires de Catalunya. Su impulso dei militanti, nella capitale catalana, si celebra il congresso costitutivo della Federación Tipográfica Española: la Federazione sarà la spina dorsale dalla futura Unión General de Trabajadores de España. Azioni anarchiche, la cui matrice è La Mano Negra, colpiscono in Andalusia: ne segue una brutale repressione da parte della guardia civile.
    Almirall forma il Centre Català: una organizzazione che rivendica l’autonomia regionale e denuncia il caciquismo. Sul giornale madrileno «El Progreso» è pubblicata la proposta di Ciudad Lineal di Soria y Mata: l’idea si propone di decongestionare l’eccesso di traffico che grava sulla città. Gaudí avvia, nel cuore di Barcellona, la costruzione della Sagrada Familia.
    Su stimolo della Institución Libre de Enseñanza si istituisce il Museo Pedagógico Nacional.
    Juan Manuel Palacios (1831 - 1890) pubblica Principios de aritmética práctica. González Serrano pubblica Preocupaciones sociales. Marcelino Menéndez y Pelayo pubblica Historia de los heterodoxos españoles, vero e proprio manifesto della Spagna cattolica e conservatrice, ma anche importantissimo studio sulle cosiddette voci dissonanti. Nasce una nuova ed importante rivista catalana: «L’Avenç» (1882 - 1884 e 1889 - 1893).

    1883 Sollevazioni repubblicane a Badajoz ed a Seo de Urgel.
    Presidente del Governo
    • José de Posada Herrera (13 ottobre 1883 - 14 gennaio 1884)
    Le strade di Barcellona e Gerona s’impreziosiscono con l’illuminazione elettrica.
    Emilia Pardo Bazán interviene nel dibattito sul naturalismo con La cuestión palpitante, mentre, in «La tribuna» fornisce un interessante quadro del mondo operaio.

    1884 La Unió Catalanista presenta, ad Alfonso XII, il Memorial de Agravios. Papa Leone XIII conferma l’autenticità dei resti dell’apostolo Giacomo.
    Presidente del Governo
    • Cánovas del Castillo (18 GENNAIO / JANUARY 1884 - 27 novembre 1885)
    José Maria de Pereda pubblica il romanzo Sotileza; Leopoldo García de las Alas y Ureña (noto con lo pseudonimo di Clarín), invece, esce con La Regenta: un classico della letteratura spagnola. González Serrano dà alle stampe La sociología científica e Cuestiones contemporáneas, mentre, Machado y álvarez (1848 - 1892) esce con Estudios sobre la literatura popular. Si pubblica, a Barcellona, il settimanale anarchico in lingua catalana «La Tramontana», a dirigerlo è Josep Llunas i Pujals.

    1885 Muore Alfonso XII. Inizia la reggenza di María Cristina de Habsburgo (1885 - 1902). A distanza di un giorno dalla nuova nomina si stringe il Pacto de El Pardo fra lo stesso Sagasta y Escolar e Cánovas del Castillo. Crisi ispano-tedesca per le isole Caroline.
    Presidente del Governo
    • Sagasta y Escolar (27 novembre 1885 - 5 luglio 1890)
    Gravissima epidemia di colera a Madrid. Prime lampadine ad incandescenza per le vie di Gerona.
    Jeronimo Suñol (1839 - 1902) disegna, per la città di Madrid, il monumento di Plaza de Colón. Verdaguer y Santaló scrive il poema Canigó. Miguel Costa y Llobera, uno dei massimi rappresentanti della poesia catalana di tutti i tempi, scrive El Pi de Formentor. González Serrano pubblica La sabiduría popular e La psicología fisiológica.
    Si spegne, nella capitale, l’ammiraglio Topete y Carballo (1821 - 1885). Sempre a Madrid, si registra. Nello stesso anno, sempre a Madrid, scompare l’ex Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri Serrano y Domínguez, Duque de la Torre (1810 - 1885); e l’ammiraglio Topete y Carballo (1821 - 1885).

    1886 Nasce, dopo la morte del Re Alfonso XII, il Principe Alfonso XIII. Don Carlos, attraverso un manifesto, rivendica il proprio diritto al trono (20 maggio). Pronunciamento repubblicano del generale Manuel Villacampa. Gaudí riceve, dall’industriale Eusebi Güell i Bacigalupi (1846 - 1918), l’incarico di costruire il celebre Palau Güell (1886 - 1889).
    Juan Manuel Palacios, per le scuole, pubblica Principios y ejercicios de geometría elemental y dibujo lineal, Epítome de geometría elemental ed Aritmética. Soler i Hubert esce con il volume di poesie Nits de Lluna.
    Esce, a Reus, il diari in lingua catalana «Lo Somatent». Esce il romanzo di Pérez Galdós Fortunata y Jacinta (Dos historias de casadas).

    1887 I negozianti di granaglie castigliani creano la Lega Agraria. Sagasta y Escolar promulga la Ley de Asociaciones, sancendo, la libertà d’associazione. Da una scissione operatasi all’interno del Centre Català nasce la Lliga de Cataluña. Il censimento registra una popolazione di 17,534 milioni di persone.
    Isaac Peral apporta notevoli migliorie al suo sottomarino.
    A Sabadell esce il quotidiano «Lo Catalanista».

    1888 Costituzione dell’Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT). Un congresso svoltosi a Barcellona sancisce la nascita del Pacte d’Unió i Solidaritat (movimento molto vicino alla Federació Espanyola de Resistència al Capital); la formazione si propone di sostituire l’estinta Federación de Trabajadores de la Región Española. Dal congresso valenciano del Pacte d’Unió i Solidaritat nasce la Organització Anarquista de la Regió Española.
    A Barcellona si tiene l’Exposición Universal. Josep Vilaseca i Casanovas disegna, per l’importante manifestazione, l’Arc de Triomf. Per tale occasione, inoltre, sorge in Plaça del Portal de la Pau il Monoment a Colom.
    González Serrano pubblica La psicología del amor. Ricardo Mella (1861 - 1925) fonda, a Siviglia, il periodico «La Solidaridad».

    1889 Promulgazione del Codice Civile (in Catalogna si evidenzia una palese contrarietà). Manifesto integralista rompe con il carlismo.
    Manjón fonda, a Granada, le Escuelas del Ave-María.
    Joaquín Arnau e Ibáñez (1850 - 1890), cattedratico di Metafisica a Valencia ed esponente della sinistra krausista, dà alle stampe Ensayo de filosofía fundamental.

    1890 Il partito liberal-conservatore evidenzia forti contrasti interni: la frattura fra Francisco Romero Robledo e Francisco Silvela y de Le Vielleuze è insanabile. Questo ultimo, infatti, imboccherà il cammino della dissidenza. Suffragio universale: è sancito il diritto di voto per la popolazione di sesso maschile, d’età superiore ai venticinque anni. Abbandono del libero scambio. Prime manifestazioni del 1° Maggio: Madrid, Barcellona e Bilbao.
    Presidente del Governo
    • Cánovas del Castillo (5 luglio 1890 - 11 dicembre 1892)
    S’impianta, a Pasajes (Guipúzcoa), la prima raffineria di petrolio spagnola.
    Narciso Oller y Moragas, romanziere catalano di tendenza naturalista, pubblica La febre d’or.

    1891 Una nuova legge doganale accentua il protezionismo spagnolo. Deprezzamento della Peseta. Azioni anarchiche agitano l’Andalusia.
    Enric Prat de la Riba fonda la Unió Catalanista.
    Nelle case di Barcellona s’inizia la distribuzione del fluído eléctrico.
    Fondazione dell’Orfeón Catalán. Il periodico «La Veu del Montserrat» cambia in «La Veu de Catalunya».
    Scompare, a Valdemoro (Madrid), il romanziere Alarcón y Ariza (1833 - 1891).

    1892 Rivolta contadina a Jerez. Prat de la Riba, in seno ad un congresso dell’Unió Catalanista redige le cosiddette Bases de Manresa: un programma nel quale si sollecita autogoverno e divisione di competenze fra Stato spagnolo e Catalogna.
    Presidente del Governo
    • Sagasta y Escolar (11 dicembre 1892 - 23 marzo 1895)
    Madrid approva il progetto di Ciudad Lineal di Soria y Mata. In Catalogna, a Sitges, si promuove la prima festa modernista: inizia el modernisme literari.
    Josep Torras i Bages (1846 - 1916) pubblica La tradició catalana. González Serrano pubblica Estudios psicológicos.

    1893 Un attentato colpisce il Capitán general de Cataluña Martínez de Campos y Anton. Gli incidenti militari di Melilla forniscono il pretesto per un nuovo conflitto ispano-marocchino. San Sebastián recrimina i fueros. Fallisce il progetto di autonomia a Cuba. Attentati terroristici a Barcellona: una bomba danneggia il teatro d’El Liceu. Guerra di Melilla. Barcellona combatte una grossa crisi sociale.
    Restauro del monastero di Ripoll. Inaugurazione del Palacio de la Bolsa di Madrid.
    Pereda pubblica Peñas arriba, grande capolavoro regionalista. Mariano Arés (1842 - 1890) pubblica Indicaciones de Filosofía y de Pedagogía. J. Massó i Torrents pubblica La fada.
    Nasce, a Montroig (Barcellona), Juan Miró (1893 - 1983).

    1894 Con il Tratado de Marrakesch si pone fine al conflitto fra Spagna e Marocco. Sabino Arana Goiri fonda Euzkaldun Batzkiya (movimento nazionalista basco).
    Nasce la Compañía Barcelonesa de Electricidad (AEG tedesca). Costruzione della prima centrale idroelettrica pirenaica.
    Salvador Rueda, poeta celebre per il suo riformismo metrico e formale, pubblica El Ritmo. ángel Guimerá i Jorge pubblica Maria Rosa.

    1895 José Martí sbarca a Cuba dove muore in combattimento: sull’isola caraibica scoppia con el Grito de Baire la guerra contro il governo coloniale spagnolo. Arana Goiri fonda il Partido Nacionalista Vasco (PNV). La guerra con Cuba crea un cospicuo aumento dell’inflazione.
    Presidente del Governo
    • Cánovas del Castillo (23 marzo 1895 - 8 agosto 1897)
    Esce il romanzo di Pérez Galdós Nazarín. La letteratura catalana s’impreziosisce di due nuovi interessanti lavori: En defensa pròpia di Verdaguer y Santaló e Poesies di Joan Maragall i Gorina.

    1896 Emanazione di leggi repressive nei confronti dell’anarchismo. A Madrid si costituisce, in seno alla seconda Assemblea dei Sindacati Cattolici, il Consejo Nacional de Corporaciones Católico-Obreras: a presiederlo è chiamato il vescovo della diocesi di Madrid ed Alcalá de Henares. Le Filippine si ribellano alla dominazione spagnola. Il generale Valeriano Weyler y Nicolau (1838 - 1930) succede, in qualità di Capitano Generale, al maresciallo Arsenio Martínez de Campos y Antón (1831 - 1900): sue le drastiche misure repressive contro l’insurrezione nazionalista cubana.
    Bilbao si dota della prima linea di tram ad elettricità.
    Eduardo Jimeno Peromarta e suo figlio Eduardo Jimeno Correas girano Salida de misa a las doce del Pilar de Zaragoza, la prima pellicola spagnola. La prima esibizione cinematografica, invece, si celebra a Madrid presso i saloni dell’Hotel Rusia (13 maggio). Narcís Oller si fa apprezzare attraverso La bogeria.

    1897 Cánovas del Castillo è vittima dell’anarchico italiano Michele Angiolillo Lombardi (8 agosto). Il governo concede l’autonomia a Cuba, ma non riesce ad impedire l’intervento militare statunitense. Il Pacto de Biac-na-bató stretto dal generale Fernando Primo de Rivera y Sobremonte e dal leader indipendentista Emilio Aguinaldo pone termine all’insurrezione filippina. Il censimento registra una popolazione di 18,066 milioni di persone.
    Presidente del Governo
    • Marcelo Azcárraga y Palmero (8 agosto 1897 - 4 ottobre 1897)
    • Sagasta y Escolar (4 ottobre 1897 - 4 marzo 1899)
    Sorgono la Sociedad Electroquímica de Flix e la Industria Eléctrica.
    Miguel de Unamuno (1864 - 1936) pubblica il romanzo Paz en la guerra. Pérez Galdós con La sociedad como materia novelable - discorso d’ingresso all’Accademia - stila il manifesto del realismo spagnolo; nello stesso anno, inoltre, scrive Misericordia. Costa y Llobera scrive Del ayre de la terra. ángel Ganivet pubblica Idearium español: un penetrante saggio sulle ragioni della decadenza del paese ed il cammino da percorrere per risorgere. Il poeta e drammaturgo catalano, Guimerá i Jorge (1845 - 1924), scrive Terra baixa, universalmente riconosciuto come il suo capolavoro.
    A Barcellona s’inaugura, sull’ispirazione del celebre ristorante parigino Le Chat Noir, Els Quatre Gats (12 giugno 1897).

    1898 Desastre del 98: gli Stati Uniti dichiarano guerra alla Spagna e le infliggono le sconfitte di Santiago de Cuba e di Cavite. Il generale Aguinaldo proclama l’indipendenza delle Filippine. Il Trattato di Parigi toglie, alla corona spagnola, Cuba, Puerto Rico e le Filippine.
    L’Unió Catalanista redige il “manifesto” Als catalans. Si fonda la prima scuola catalana. Güell i Bacigalupi commissiona, all’architetto Gaudí, la Colonia Güell.
    Esordisce, con La Barraca, Vicente Blasco Ibáñez. Catalogna, sempre più, si attesta come la grande fucina culturale: appare la rivista «Catalònia» (1898 - 1900), Adrià Gual fonda il Teatre íntim, ma soprattutto, lo scrittore e pittore catalano Santiago Rusiñol i Prats (1861 - 1931) pubblica L’alegria que passa e Fulls de la vida. Maragall i Gorina, infine, termina il suo Oda a Espanya. A Madrid si pubblica, sotto la direzione di Joan Montseny (alias Federico Urales) e Teresa Mañé (alias Soledad Gustavo) la «Revista Blanca».
    Muore, a Riga, lo scrittore Ganivet (1865 - 1898).

    1899 Al governo di Silvela y de Le Vielleuze, per la prima volta, partecipano il generale Camilo García de Polavieja y del Castillo e Durán y Bas. Primo tentativo di governo rigenerazionista da parte dei conservatori. La Germania acquisisce la sovranità sulle isole Caroline, Marianne e Palau. Si stabiliscono i nuovi limiti della Guinea spagnola. Si promulga una legge, di carattere sociale, sugli infortuni sul lavoro. In Catalogna si registra la formazione del Tancaiment de caixes: un movimento di resistenza passiva, contrario alla nuova legge tributaria. La Unió Catalanista conosce un momento di crisi. Costituzione del Centre Nacional Català e della Unió Regionalista. Nasce, A Barcellona, Federació Tèxtil Cotonera (erede della “vecchia” Unió Fabril Cotonera).
    Presidente del Governo
    • Silvela y de Le Vielleuze (4 marzo 1899 - 23 ottobre 1900)
    A Barcellona compare il tram elettrico. Un gruppo di dodici appassionati - capitanati dallo svizzero Hans Gamper - fonda il Futbol Club Barcelona (29 novembre 1899).
    Il poeta nicaraguese Rubén Darío (1867 - 1916) diffonde, in Spagna, il verbo modernista. Appare, in Catalogna, una nuova ed interessante pubblicazione: «Quatre Gats». «La Veu de Catalunya» si trasforma in un quotidiano. A Madrid esce il primo numero della rivista «Vida Literaria» diretta da Jacinto Benavente: fra gli illustri collaboratori figurano Darío, Unamuno e Antonio Machado y Ruiz (1875 - 1939).
    Muore, a Barcellona, lo scrittore catalano Rubió i Ors (1818 - 1899).


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    MEREGALLI Franco (diretta da), Storia della civiltà letteraria spagnola, U.T.E.T, Torino, 1990-1991.
    NADAL I FARRERAS Joaquim - WOLFF Philippe (diretta da), Història de Catalunya, Oikos-Tau, Barcellona, 1992.
    PRESIDENCIA DEL GOBIERNO - Secretaría de Estado de Comunicación del Ministerio de Presidencia (a cura di), Relación cronológica de los presidentes del Consejo de Ministros y del Gobierno, ordenada por gabinetes, consultabile alla pagina Web: http://www.la-moncloa.es/Presidente/RelacionPresidentes/RelacionCronologica/cronologica.htm, ultima connessione del 14 febbraio / FEBRUARY 14 2006.
    UBIETO Antonio - REGLá Juan - JOVER José María - SECO Carlos, Introducción a la historia de España, Teide, Barcellona, 1964.
    URQUIJO GOITIA José Ramón, Diccionario Biográfico de Ministros, consultabile alla pagina Web: http://www.ih.csic.es/lineas/jrug/diccionario/index_dic.htm, ultima connessione del 25 luglio 2006.
    URQUIJO GOITIA José Ramón, Elecciones Parlamentarias 1808 - 1876, consultabile alla pagina Web: http://www.ih.csic.es/lineas/jrug/elecciones/index_eledic.htm, ultima connessione del 25 luglio 2006.
    URQUIJO GOITIA José Ramón, Relación Cronológica de Gabinetes, consultabile alla pagina Web: http://www.ih.csic.es/lineas/jrug/diccionario/gabinetes/index_gabi.htm, ultima connessione del 25 luglio 2006.
    VARELA Andreu - ALBADALEJO Gine - BONS Antoni - POUDEVILA Lluís - VARELA Joan Ramon, Història de Catalunya, Editorial Columna, Barcellona, 1991.
    VICENS VIVES Jaime, Profilo della storia di Spagna, Einaudi, Torino, 2003.

     


     ALLA PAGINA PRECEDENTE 

      indice  TEMATICO     indice  GENERALE    

    < http://www.cronologia.it/storia/mondiale/spagn000.htm
    http://www.ecn.org/contropotere/STORIA.htm

    2006 -- FROM BLEEDWORK, Referenced here for the names
    The 5th Congress of the anarchist Bakuninist section of the International Workingman's Association (IWA), having concluded yesterday, this Congress convenes today, intent on reunifying the various fractions within the AIT (organitzat per partits polítics i associacions obreres). Representing the Federació Regional Espanyola de l'AIT (FRE), as in Verviers, are Trinidad Soriano & González Morago.

    [Source: Congressos Obrers]




    2006 --
    ADD TO ENCYCLOPEDIA INDEX: In 1909 "Norges Ungsocialistiske Forbund" was founded, a mainly anarchist & syndicalist youth socialistic federation. The syndicalist & youth socialist faction was however not only anarchistical. NUF published the paper "Storm" (1909-1912). "Storm" changed name to "Direkte aktion" (1912-18), "organ for revolutionær fagbevægelse og ungsocialismen" with a youth socialist & revolutionary trade unionist tendency, & from 1914 with revolutionary trade unionist tendency covering both the semi-syndicalist "Fagopposisjon" & syndicalist tendencies.

    Two main writers of "D.A." were the Swedish syndicalist Albert Jensen & Martin Tranmæl. Albert Jensen, at that time editor of "D.A.", was arrested in the autumn 1914, & deported to Sweden, but he continued to write for the paper. Albert Jensen in 1917-18 became more & more hostile to the "Soviet"-revolution in Russia, while Tranmæl & "Fagopposisjon" at that time were supporting the Leninists...

    Anarchosyndicalism by Rudolf Rocker - Chapter 6: "In Sweden there has existed for a long time a very active Syndicalist movement, the Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganization, which is also affiliated with the I.W.M.A. This organisation numbers over 40,000 members, which constitutes a very high percentage of the Swedish labor movement. The internal organisation of the Swedish workers' movement is in very excellent condition. The movement has two daily papers one of them, Arbetaren, managed by Albert Jensen in Stockholm. It has its disposal a large number of distinguished propagandists, & has also inaugurated a very active Syndicalist Youth movement. The Swedish Syndicalists take a strong interest in all the workers' struggles in the country. When, on the occasion of the great strike of Adalen, the Swedish government for the first time sent militia against the workers, five men being shot down in the affray, & the Swedish workers replied with a general strike, the Syndicalists played a prominent part, & the government was at last compelled to make concessions to the protest movement of the workers.


    The author & teacher Jens Bjørneboe (1920-1976) may be mentioned among the anarchists in the late 1960s & early 1970s. Bjørneboe is called the most important Norwegian poetical writer after Henrik Ibsen. Politically Bjørneboe was early influenced by liberalism & the syndicalist populism & the quasiscientifical "anthroposophy" of Rudolf Steiner. Later he turned towards bohemian marxism. At the age of 46 years, he declared to be an anarchist. How long this lasted is an open question, but he was big in the media, & although a bit rabulistic contributed to put anarchism once more on the political agenda in Norway.

    However, he never contributed to something really new in anarchist theory. But he reminded that there are degrees of anarchism & anarchy, & that anarchism is scientifical, based on free matter of fact criticism, scepticism, in short the hypothetical deductive method, as stated by Kropotkin, - & not dogmatics & dialectics as marxism or quasiscientifical new-age ideas as the "anthroposophy" of Rudolf Steiner, i.e. anarchism is not "anarchistology" or "anarchosophy" to use the terms of IIFOR. Thus, Bjørneboe probably rejected the marxism & anthroposophy that he earlier was believing in, when he understood that anarchism was scientifical, as he stated in 1971, although still using such ideas metaphorically in his novels & plays.

    He also expressed that anarchism probably was going to be the most vital political tendency from now on.(See "Politi og Anarki/Police & Anarchy", PAX, Oslo 1972, p. 46, & "Bjørneboes Anarkisme/ Bjørnboe's Anarchism", fb/IJ@ no 1 1981, p. 1-2, quoting "Anarkismen som fremtid/Anarchism as Future" (1969) & "Anarkismen... i dag/Anarchism…Today?", earlier published by PAX).

    The first short essay, "Anarchism as Future" (1969) gives a picture of Bjørneboe's conception of anarchism & acknowledges the influence of Kropotkin on his thinking. The second, longer essay entitled "Anarchism…Today?" (1971) develops the ideas of the earlier essay, particularly by setting anarchism in contrast to both capitalism & Marxist-Leninist communism. Although a part of it is outdated because he a bit naive misunderstood, & underestimated the real oclarchical & terroristical content of Maoism, the rest of the essay still stands as a progressive polemic. The followers of Rudolf Steiner have not surprisingly exaggerated his connection to the anthroposophy in his later days in a quite quasiscientifical way, see say the chapter on "anarchism" in Inge S. Kristiansen's book Jens Bjørneboe og Antroposofien (Jens Bjørneboe & Anthroposophy). There are not so much clear cut anarchism in his poetical writings, the plays, novels & poems as many fans of Bjørneboe think, especially not before he declared himself an anarchist & later understood it was scientifical. Even afterwards, Bjørneboe's anarchism is not always easy to identify in his stories, mainly due to chaotic fantasies or retrospective elements related to the liberal, populist & marxist days. His main writings on anarchism are quoted in the 12 pages report called "Bjørneboes anarkisme/Bjørneboe's Anarchism" published by Folkebladet/ANORG FORLAG (1981). http://www.anarchy.no/a_nor.html




    2006 --
    (en) History, Alexander Atabekian - An anarchist on the roads of freedom by Cemal Selbuz
    1 message
    a-infos-en@ainfos.ca <a-infos-en@ainfos.ca> Tue, Sep 19, 2006 at 1:20 AM
    Reply-To: a-infos-en@ainfos.ca
    To: en <a-infos-en@ainfos.ca>
        In the last quarter of the 19th century, Alexander Atabekian was an
    active figure in the anarchist movement of Europe, especially for the
    Russian anarchist movement & Armenian revolutionary movements.
    In the last quarter of the 19th century, Alexander Atabekian was an active
    figure in the anarchist movement of Europe, especially for the Russian
    anarchist movement & Armenian revolutionary movements. He published several
    pamphlets including the essays of Bakunin, Kropotkin & Errico Malatesta in
    Armenian & Russian through the Anarchist Library which he founded in Geneva.
    Max Nettlau proposes that it is the self-sacrificing efforts of Alexander
    Atabekian, who was studying medicine in Geneva, that made anarchist
    publications in Armenian become known (between 1891-1894) (Max
    Nettlau, Anarchisten und Syndikalisten Band V).

    In the early years of his education (1888-1890) Alexander Atabekian
    contributed to the typesetting of «Hinchak» («Sound of the Bell»)
    which was the periodical of Hinchakian Social Democratic Party, being
    published by an Armenian socialist, Avetis Nazarbekian. The articles and
    essays in «Hinchak» were mainly composed of the Ottoman genocide
    over Armenians & the Armenian resistance to it & the pogrom executed
    on Armenians in Georgia & Azerbaijan.

    Atabekian continued to the anarchist propaganda activities addressing the
    Armenian & Ottoman villagers & established relations with the
    militants & anarchists in Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF) after
    he joined the anarchist movement in Europe (1890).

    ANARCHO-COMMUNIST ALEXANDER ATABEKIAN

    The essays written by Peter Kropotkin in 1879 & which appeared on the
    paper «Le Revolt» were provoking individual & collective revolt
    actions & emphasizing the importance of the strikes’ transformation
    into rebellions. These essays were collected by Elisee Reclus & published
    under the name of «Words of a Rebel» in Paris in 1885. This pamphlet
    was very popular between the young anarchists of the period. Alexander
    Atabekian also joined the anarchist-communist movement after reading
    «Words of a Rebel». He started to work in old Ukrainian Kuzman’s
    printing house (which was the only place anarchists could attain in Geneva)
    in order to collect the Armenian & Russian essays.

    The pamphlets he prepared here were: «To the Armenian villagers» and
    «Letter to Armenian Revolutionaries from an International Anarchist
    Organization» (Max Nettlau, Anarchisten und Syndikalisten Band V).

    Besides preparing these pamphlets, Atabekian was establishing relations
    with the anarchists in Geneva, Paris & Italy. Kropotkin, Max Nettlau,
    Stoianoff, Paraskev, Jacques Grave & J. Gross would be the first
    anarchists for him to meet & exchange letters. Luigi Galleani, P.
    Stoianoff & Elisee Reclus (who faced prosecution after their actions in
    Paris in 1st of May, 1890) came to Geneva & met Atabekian. Here they
    printed the manifest which was written to the memory of the anarchists
    who were executed in Chicago (llth of November, 1887) in Kuzman’s
    printing house & postered it in the streets of Geneva.

    Atabekian, together with Stoinoff, met Kropotkin in London & declared
    that he was undertaking the plan to deliver the pamphlets to the first
    anarchist organization in southern Russia. After he returned to Geneva,
    Atabekian - fairly experienced at creating multipurpose & practical
    printing devices - carried his work in Kuzman’s printing house to the
    boarding-house he stayed. (This lodging house would later be the place in
    which the manuscripts of Bakunin were preserved. Some parts of the
    manuscripts were anonymously published by Atabekian in Les Temps
    Nouveaux later on). He printed the first volume of Bakunin’s «Paris
    Commune & Idea of the State» in Russian in Anarchiceskaya Biblioteka
    (Anarchist Library) which he founded in his room (Jaap Kloosterman, Les
    papiers de Michel Bakunin a Amsterdam).

    Other Armenian & Russian pamphlets he published in anarchist library
    were:

    Kropotkin: Political Rights (1893), Decomposition of the State (1892),
    Anarchism (1893), Revolutionary Minorities (1894), Spirit of Revolt (1893,
    was published in Libre de la Federation in unfinished form), Elisee Reclus:
    To Our Farmer Brothers, Errico Malatesta: Between Peasants (This article
    was published with an preface for Armenians, 1893), Jacques Grave: Why
    Are We Revolutionaries? (1894) (M. Nettlau, Anarchisten und
    Syndikalisten Band VS. 481.82)

    In his article titled «Anarchism & Armenian Movements in the
    Ottoman Empire», Anahide Ter Minassian notes that there is the
    insertion «published with the consent of Ministry of Education» (in
    Ottoman language) in the first pages of the pamphlets published by
    Atabekian. (Osmanii Imparatorlugu’nda Sosyalizm ve Milliyetcilik
    (1876-1923), ed. Tuncay, Mete - Jan Zurcher, Erik)

    These pamphlets were in circulation among the Armenian immigrants.
    This circulation was organized by Stoianoff who went to Southern Caucasia
    and Istanbul & also to Bulgaria after being exiled from Paris. Some
    sources argue that Atabekian tried to distribute the pamphlets in Izmir and
    Istanbul also. (It is hard to conceive if it was done by himself or via other
    people. Also the archives belonging to Atabekian are scattered through four
    countries & much of it couldn’t be classified yet).

    The condition that the massacres against the Armenians in the Ottoman
    Empire (Sason, Samsun, Zeytun etc.) took a constant state affected
    Atabekian deeply. «...He was so affected by the events of 1895 that he
    was unable to continue his activities as far as I know» (M. Nettlau
    Anarchisten und Syndikalisten Band V).

    Atabekian continued his medical degree in Lyon & Paris. He was
    graduated in Geneva with his Ph.D. thesis on quinsy. After being notified
    with the sentence of exile which was given for his former anarchist
    activities in Paris, he left Europe & first travelled to Bulgaria & then
    Reshd region of Iran, where he would stay for sixteen years.

    «HAMAYANKH» («COMMUNE»)

    «Hamayankh», Atabekian’s first anarchist periodical in Armenian,
    was published five issues in Paris in 1894 (Max Nettlau).The periodical
    consisted of eight pages & the first pages were containing articles about
    anarchism & about Armenian revolutionary movements in general. The
    other pages were separated for short news about anarchist movements of
    the world & political events, under the title of «International
    Revolutionary Movement». The articles about massacres & resistances
    mainly consist of the pamphlets published by ARF. One of these
    pamphlets, «Sason & Mus Combats» is written in a nihilist & lyric
    rhetoric. Besides publishing ARF’s articles, «Hamayankh» also
    criticises the authoritarian & centralist structures of the Armenian
    revolutionary movements.

    «Hamayankh» was well appreciated among the Armenian immigrants
    in the West & the Balkans (Max Nettlau). Stoianoff made it possible to
    distribute it to the Armenian revolutionists coming from the .Balkans,
    Southern Caucasia & Turkey.

    There are not any articles signed by Atabekian in «Hamayankh». It is
    possible for him to have written under a pseudonym after the legal
    prosecutions & the exile sentence in Paris. Anahide Ter Minassian
    explains the absence of the name Atabekian in the articles as a possible
    precaution for the constant prosecutions against the anarchists.

    Reshd region of Iran was another place that «Hamayankh» was
    published in. Minassian alleges that «Hamayankh’s» publication in
    Iran is attributed to Atabekian himself. The title of this periodical reflects
    the anarchist views of its publisher. Its publication date (1880) is quite early
    too» (Tuncay - Zurcher, 199). Karekin Levonyan, too, writes that Iran
    version of «Hamayankh» was published in 1880 & the publisher was
    Atabekian (Armenian Press, 1794-1934). The date 1880 is problematic in
    the context of Atabekian’s biography.

    Atabekian was born in Shusha, Transcaucasia in 1868. He lived there until
    he graduated from high school. The fact which is indicated in many sources
    is that his participation in anarcho-communist movement happened in 1890
    and his travel to Iran took place after 1896. This makes the publication year
    1880 for «Hamayankh» too early. If the fact that the other information
    about him in both the two sources are in consensus (except the date) is
    taken into consideration, it seems possible that the date 1880 is amiss.

    ARMENIAN REVOLUTIONARY FEDERATION (ARF) & THE
    LIBERTARIANS

    «You cannot predict how an outstanding comrade of mine whom I met
    here & shared a deep friendship in the meantime provides me great
    tranquillity. He is an immigrant from Constantinople who constantly risks
    not only his freedom but also his life & who is one of those
    misunderstood rebels. Despite the fact that he is a libertarian who is
    convinced in our thoughts, he acts along with Armenian Revolutionary
    Federation due to the weakness of the libertarians in the East. He
    doesn’t want to spend time here in vain. He is a shoemaker & works
    from 4 in the morning to 9 in the evening for a very little money. He
    doesn’t want to stay here for long because of his decided & contender
    personality. His self-sacrifice to participate the combat again is admirable.
    He works in worst conditions in order to gather a few pennies.»
    (Atabekian’s letter to Jacques Gross from Sofia, November 16-28,
    1896. IISG Amsterdam).

    ARF was founded in Tbilisi in 1890. In the beginning, the organization was
    constituted by anarchists, socialists & nationalists. It is said that
    Khristaphor Mikaelyan, one of the founders, was once a supporter of
    Bakunin & was always a defender of direct action & self-government
    (Minassian). Mikaelyan was an icon of freedom in Armenian literature for
    his militancy & authorship of essays. Like Atabekian & other
    libertarians from Istanbul, he also had been to Bulgaria. He died in Bulgaria
    while he was testing the bomb which was designed to be used to
    assassinate Sultan Abdulhamid II in Yildiz (Avetis Aharonian, The
    Fedayees).

    «Droshak Library» of ARF had a rich collection. Kropotkin’s
    «Spirit of Revolt» & «An Appeal to the Young» were too published
    by published by «Droshak» («Flag»).

    ARF’s propaganda actions appealing to the Muslim population and
    militant actions against the Ottoman government affected the intellectuals
    who initiated the second «Young Turks» movement. Fifty armed ARF
    militants marched to the government centre in 1894 to protest the
    massacres against the Armenian population. Later they raided the Ottoman
    Bank. Armed conflicts, bombardments & captive holding events lasted for
    a whole day. These events centred the gazes of the world to the Armenians
    in the ottoman Empire besides leading to a great excitement in Istanbul.
    The style & method of the act was a first for Istanbul. Perhaps it was the
    first «modem» action style. This action led to Young Turks’ using
    new propaganda methods, who were hitherto trying to get organized by
    secret gatherings. Young Turks gained possession of a printing press in
    Galata. They distributed the declarations which were written by Abdullah
    Cevdet & printed in a thousand copies.

    The actions of ARF & massacres in 1894 & 1895 deeply affected the
    thoughts of Ottoman intellectuals. The declaration of the Young Turks
    called the peoples of Ottoman Empire to a common war against the
    despotic regime (Yuriy Asatovic Petrosyan, JonTurkler, Istanbul 1974).

    In the meantime an anarchist group of fourteen people coming from
    different countries of Europe & from ARF rustled in Istanbul (Sukru
    Hanioglu, Abdullah Cevdet).

    Armenian libertarians showing activity in ARF sent a declaration in 1896 to
    Socialist International in London.

    «Atabekian sent a declaration titled ‘Aux socialistes revolutionnaires
    et libertaires’ (To the Revolutionary & Libertarian Socialists) and
    signed by the name of Libertaires Armeniens to the International Congress
    in London (July 18, 1896). I translated the same declaration for ‘Der
    Sosyalisf (September 26, 1896)». (M. Nettlau, Anarchisten und
    Syndikalisten Band V, 482).

    Minassian notes that Armenian libertarians included in their declaration the
    argument that the European states were participating in the crimes of
    Sultan Hamit & they (libertarians) were declaring “the dawn of the
    social revolution” in the East.

    MOSCOW 1917 & THE DEATH OF PYOTR KROPOTKIN

    After working as a doctor for many years in Iran, Atabekian came to
    Moscow in 1917. There is little information relating to his years in Iran. It is
    said that he met the Iranian-Armenian communist Ardeshir Avanessian
    there, & that Avanessian worked in the pharmacy of Atabekian for a long
    time (Iran Socialist & Communist Parties, Organization & Groups
    1917-1991).

    Atabekian attended to the discussions regarding to the October Revolution
    in the newspaper «Anarxia» (the publication of the anarchist
    federation). He published thirty articles expressing his high hopes to
    transform the October Revolution into an anarchist revolution and
    afterwards his criticism of Bolsheviks’ possession of the government.
    In November 1917, when the Bolsheviks gained the possession of the
    government, Kropotkin said «This will ruin the revolution» for the first
    time to his close friend Atabekian.

    Atabekian & G. Sandomirsku founded a printing press in 1918 which was
    organized as a cooperative one. Here, they published the first
    anarcho-cooperative periodical of Moscow, «Pocin». The typesetting
    and layout of Pocin was done by Atabekian himself. The periodical mainly
    consisted of the memories & letters of Kropotkin who was a close friend
    of Atabekian & who was admired by him. The periodical lasted for eleven
    issues & five of them included Atabekian’s observations of Iran and
    Middle East.

    In January 1921, Kropotkin who was lying in his house in Dimitrov, had
    Atabekian, his doctor & comrade, with him. Atabekian didn’t leave
    him alone until his last breath.

    Deteriorating with each passing day, Kropotkin died in 13th of April 1921.
    The formal funeral ceremony of the Bolsheviks was rejected by his family.
    His funeral was organized by an anarchist committee including Atabekian.
    Kropotkin’s funeral became the last & greatest anarchist
    demonstration in Russia.

    One month after the death of Kropotkin, Bolshevik dictatorship repressed
    the uprising of Kronstadt sailors cruelly. Series of operations against
    anarchists were initiated throughout the whole Russia. In the private
    penitentiaries of Cheka (Russian secret police organization) tens of
    anarchists were shot & executed. Hundreds of anarchists were
    imprisoned or exiled to Chechnya & Kyrgyzstan. Alexander Atabekian
    took his share from the Bolshevik tyranny, too. He was arrested by Cheka
    in 1920 with the charge of opposition to the Act of Press. He was sentenced
    to six months in a concentration camp. In 1921, when he was arrested
    again, he was sentenced to exile to Caucasia. With the intervention of
    Kropotkin’s family, the sentence was consolidated (Repression de
    I’anarchic en Russie sovietiste, Editions de la « Librairie Sociale»
    Paris).

    What happened to Atabekian afterwards? A complete enigma. The sources
    in Amsterdam argue that he died in a Soviet concentration camp in 1940,
    while A.Burkov (from Yerevan) argues that he died in Moscow. French
    sources allege that he was lost in exile. Another source, the author of
    «Anarchists in Russian Revolution», Paul Avrich asserts that
    Atabekian, like other Russian anarchists, was lost.

    It is (un)known that Greeks, Jews & Armenians «in this geography»,
    like Atabekian, constitute an extensive literature. Besides the fact that
    much of this collection stays in different countries, the rare & few pieces
    in Turkey still couldn’t be collected & classified. The discourse of
    “this geography” or “these lands” which seems to be
    “perfect” should be liberated from being a political discourse from
    now on. We are going to publish other essays & articles by Atabekian in
    the following issues.
    ===============================
    * This article was written originally in Turkish language.
     Published in No 25 (July 2006) «Abolishing the Borders
    from Below», an anarchist journal from Eastern Europe.
    _______________________________________________
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    2007 -- INDEXED “CUCO” Juan Nieto Martínez («Cuco»).
  • Juan Nieto Martínez Fugado de la prisión habilitada de Gérgal (Almería) el 18 de julio de 1939, en compañía de «Carahermosa» y varios más.

    "Carahermosa", también natural de Gérgal, sería su primer lugarteniente. Se esconden en la Sierra de Alhamilla y su primera acción importante la realizan en la primavera de 1942, en Santa Fé de Mondújar. Luego cambia su base a la Sierra de Gádor, merodeando durante todo el verano por las zonas de Berja, Dalias, Alhama de Almería, Bentarique y Alhabia. En el otoño, la partida sube hasta la Sierra de los Filabres. desde donde inicia sus correrías por Bayarque, Tijola, Lúcar y Velefique. En el verano ,de 1945, la partida instala de nuevo sus bases en la Sierra de Alhamilla y corre por la zona de Níjar.

    Entre 1945-46 operan como destacamento de protección de un grupo de guerrilleros y de material procedente de Orán, África del Norte, que desembarcan en el Cabo de Gata, cerca de la Rambla de Morales, y a los que deben acompañar hasta tierras de Jaén (Sierra de Cazorla), cruzando la Sierra de los Filabres y adentrándose por la de Baza. El año 1946 el grupo guerrillero actúa de nuevo, desde la Sierra de Alhamilla, por la zona de Tabernas y de Santa Fé de Mondújar. A fines de junio de 1947, en una de las casas-refugio de Almería - la de la calle de Murcia - es descubierto "Cuco" y varios de sus hombres, cuando esperaban el momento de embarcar hacia África.

    Pese a un violento combate, en medio de un nutrido tiroteo, los guerrilleros logran romper el cerco de las fuerzas represivas y escapar por el mar pocos días después. El "Comandante Moya" se hace cargo de la partida, que sigue en la Sierra de Alhamilla, que limitará sus acciones a la zona de Tabernas, hasta que, en la primavera de 1948, el resto de la partida, con "Moya" a su cabeza, se reúne con sus compañeros en África.


    /// “CUCKOO” (

  • Juan Nieto Martínez («El Cuco»)). Escaped from the prison of Gérgal (Almeria) the 18 of 1939 July, in along with “Carahermosa” and several others.

    “Carahermosa”, also natural of Gérgal, would be its first lieutenant. They hide in the Mountain range of Alhamilla and his first important action they make it in the spring of 1942, in Santa Fe of Mondújar. Soon it changes to its base to the Mountain range of Gádor, roaming throughout the summer by the zones of Berja, Dalias, Alhama of Almeria, Bentarique and Alhabia. In the autumn, the game raises until the Mountain range of the Filabres. from where it initiates his excursions by Bayarque, Tijola, Lúcar and Velefique. In the summer, of 1945, the game again installs its bases in the Mountain range of Alhamilla and runs by the zone of Níjar.

    Between 1945-46 they operate like covering detachment of a group of guerrillas and material coming from Orán, Africa of the North, who disembark in the Cabo de Gata, near the Boulevard of Morals, and to which they must accompany until territories of Jaén (Mountain range of Cazorla), crossing the Mountain range of the Filabres and entering themselves by the one of Trick. Year 1946 the guerrilla detachment acts again, from the Mountain range of Alhamilla, by the zone of Tabernas and Santa Fe of Mondújar. By the end of June of 1947, in one of them house-refuge of Almeria - the one of the street of Murcia - is discovered “Cuckoo” and several of its men, when they waited for the moment for embarking towards Africa.

    In spite of a violent combat, in the middle of a nourished shooting, the guerrillas manage to break through the encirclement of the punitive forces and to save by the sea few days later. The “commander Moya” becomes position of the game, that follows in the Mountain range of Alhamilla, that will limit its actions the zone of Tabernas, until, in the spring of 1948, the rest of the game, with “Moya” to his head, meets with his companions in Africa.

    MEMBERS OF Juan Nieto Martínez («Cuco») guerrilla .GROUP INCLUDED:

  • José García Hernández «Alcubillero» Spanish militant, member of the group of Juan Nieto Martínez «Cuco», killed at Collado del Cortijo Las Cruces, March 7, 1943, along with Juan Membrive Membrive http://losdelasierra.info/



    Tomás Herreros, anarquista
    2007 -- updates from ephemeride anarchiste sept 12, 2007 Dernière mise à jour : 12 septembre 2007

    Nouvelles biographies: Tomás Herreros (Tomás Herreros Miguel)
    Le 22 février 1937, mort à Barcelone de Tomás HERREROS MIGUEL (pseudo supposé: Timoteo HERRER). Militant et propagandiste anarchiste et anarcho-syndicaliste espagnol.

    Nouveaux événements: Action Directe contre le CNPF, attentat contre le maire de Barcelone, .

    Enrichissements : assassinat du président de la République française par un anarchiste, rafle d'anarchistes le 1er janvier 1894, Photos de Pedro Vallina, de Kotoku, de Libertad, de Lefrançais, de S. Larcher, de Landauer, Edward Carpenter, d'A. Sadier, de Mirbeau, d'Haywood, du journal "Generacíon consciente", de Duval, de l'exécution des anars de Xéres, de l'arrestation de Ravachol, de l'attentat de Vaillant, de celui de Caserio, d'Angiolillo, contre le roi d'Espagne (en 1905), au Théâtre du Liceu, de la répression de Milan, de l'exécution de six anars, de l'exécution de Caserio, et de celle de Vaillant, de l'attentat au café Terminus, du commissariat rue des Bons-enfants, et de l'attentat de Nobiling, du Procès des trente, de l'arrivée de Louise Michel en France, et d'une couverture d'une brochure sur les lois scélérates, état de Radio Libertaire après la saisie.

    http://www.ephemanar.net/imagesdeux/reclue_e_rafle.jpg I HAVE SAVED ALL THE NEW IMAGES, most to misc folder, a few in their relevant folders, with slight addons to epheride's image name (the year, etc) http://www.ephemanar.net/index.html


    ?
    2500 -- Landmark Follow-up:
    TEXTXXXXXXXXX
    SECONDTEXTXXXXXXX
    1. Troll -- not sighted online, but must be lurking somewhere on a Seattle booster page 2. Watts Towers -- I’ll check it out & let you know 3. Binoculars in Venice http://naid.sppsr.ucla.edu/venice/mapsdocs/new-map35.htm http://www.cf.ac.uk/uwcc/archi/jonesmd/la/surf/chiat.html [binocs from sidewalk]
    [upward view under binocs]
    7. Plug in Oberlin http://www.sculpturecenter.org%24spindb.query.oosilist. oosiarti.Oldenburg.Claes..159 [Mary Ann Sullivan] http://www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/oldenburg/olden.html [Nathan Edwards] http://ds.dial.pipex.com/edwards.family/nathan/co/page10.html [same without text] http://ds.dial.pipex.com/edwards.family/nathan/co/imag35.html 8. Birdies in KC http://www.nelson-atkins.org.sculpture.shuttlecocks.olden1.html [Nathan Edwards] http://ds.dial.pipex.com/edwards.family/nathan/co/page8.html 9. Matchbook in Spain http://www.ben.esy6.k12.ne.us/ite/oldenburg/match.html 10. Free in Cleveland http://www.sculpturecenter.org%24spindb.guery.oosilist. oosiarti.Oldenburg.Claes..159 http://www.ben.esu6.k12.ne.us/ite/oldenburg/free.html & one I didn’t even mention 11. Rusty Horseshoe in Marfa, TX http://www.chinati.org/english/img_large_judd1.html & there are more where those came from.






    ?
    3000 --



    3009 -- CRONOLOGIA DO ANARQUISMO NA AMÉRICA LATINA http://www.agrorede.org.br/ceca/edgar/CRONOLOGIA.htm



    3500 -- Carfree Quotations
    A Carfree Home Page

    Following are some quotes that oppose the automobile or raise serious questions as to the long term viability & effects of car culture. So read these words & ditch your car.

    Featuring quotations by...

    • orange diamond dingbatIlya Ehrenburg
    • orange diamond dingbatRepo Man
    • orange diamond dingbatJane Holtz Kay
    • orange diamond dingbatJack Kerouac
    • orange diamond dingbatR.A. Lafferty
    • orange diamond dingbatPhil Ochs
    • orange diamond dingbatAnonymous
    • orange diamond dingbatJames Howard Kunstler
    • orange diamond dingbatBooth Tarkington
    • orange diamond dingbatMarshall McLuhan
    • orange diamond dingbatMichael Harrington
    • orange diamond dingbatJohn Akre

      Ilya Ehrenburg

      It’s a small world. Everyone knows that: Deterding, Citroen, storks, tourists. & this tiny world has too many people. Once upon a time there was a deluge. now Holland is drying out the Zuyder Zee. Once there was a plague, People got used to it & survived it. Laboratories prepare longevity like saccharine, & rejuvenated Methusalems giggle friskily. But the world isn’t getting any bigger. It’s crowded now, like a clearance sale at a department store. War’s been done away with. People can only live by using their elbows.

      But then the automobile came to man’s rescue. It doesn’t wait for any notes, it doesn’t demand 14 points like Wilson. Meticulously & efficiently, it cleans the earth. All inoculations & all conferences are powerless against it. The body is quickly removed by truck, the car is carefully wiped, & the record is identified by a multi-digit number.

      At first such things were known as "catastophes." Now people speak of "accidents." Soon they’ll stop speaking altogether. Silently they’ll haul away the victim & silently write down the number.

      Sentimental neighbors wipe their noses, of course, & philosophically minded people argue about the "new peril." Commissions discuss protective laws. But the automobile keeps right on doing its job. Sit Henry Deterding was destined to create an oil empire. Monsieur Andre Citroen was destined to turn out cheap cars. Karl Lang the cabby was destined to cross intersections. The automobile works honestly. Long before its birth, when it is still just layers of metal & piles of drawings, it diligently murders Malayan coolies & Mexican laborers. It is born in agony! It shreds flesh, blinds eyes, eats lungs, destroys minds. At last, it rolls out of the gates into the world which, before its existence, was known as "bright." Instantly, it deprives its supposed owner of his old-fashioned peace of mind. Lilac withers, chickens & dreamers dash away in terror. The automobile laconically runs down pedestrians. It gnaws into the side of a barn or else, grinning, it flies down a slope. It can’t be blamed for anything. Its conscience is as clear as Monsieur Citroen’s conscience. It only fulfills its destiny: It is destined to wipe out the world.

      Ilya Ehrenburg, 1929 (from The Life of the Automobile)

      Back to the Top


      Repo Man

      "The more you drive, the less intelligent you become."

      From the movie Repo Man

      Back to the Top


      Jane Holtz Kay

      "'One one-thousand,' environmentalist David Burwell counted, clocking an instant in the polluting life of the automobile. In that single second America's cars & trucks travelled another 60,000 miles, used up 3,000 gallons of petroleum products, and added 60,000 pounds of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. If the canon of the environmental movement is to 'tread lightly on the land,' nothing treads more heavily than the licentious motor vehicle. Traffic is what the eye can see; a car-packed lifestyle & landscape oppress our existence. The motor vehicle & its by-products sully the earth at every turn. 'A car,' to quote another truism, 'is a machine that produces pollution.' Multiply the single engine of contaminants by 200 million motor vehicles and you have our major environmental villain."

      Jane Holtz Kay, 1997 (from Asphalt Nation: How the Automobile Took Over America & How We Can Take It Back)

      Back to the Top

      Jack Kerouac

      "dont know how to drive, just typewrite."

      Jack Kerouac, 1953 (from a letter to Neal & Carolyn Cassady)

      Back to the Top

      R.A. Lafferty

      Consider the man on horseback, & I have been a man on horseback for most of my life. Well, mostly he is a good man, but there is a change in him as soon as he mounts. Every man on horseback is an arrogant man, however gentle he may be on foot. The man in the automobile is one thousand times as dangerous. I tell you, it will engender absolute selfishness in mankind if the driving of automobiles becomes common. It will breed violence on a scale never seen before. It will mark the end of the family as we know it, the three or four generations living happily in one home. It will destroy the sense of neighborhood & the true sense of Nation. It will create giantized cankers of cities, false opulence of suburbs, ruinized countryside, & unhealthy conglomerations of specialized farming & manufacturing, it will breed rootlessness & immorality. It will make every man a tyrant.

      R.A. Lafferty (thanks to Adbusters for this quote)

      Back to the Top


      Phil Ochs

      My Kingdom For a Car

      I’ve found my freedom/ Her & I been flying down that highway of gold/ My shirtsleeves are rolled, my Colt 45 is cold./ I go fast, till I’m going faster.

      Look how far we’ve come, look how far/ A car, a car, my kingdom for a car.

      How I love the highway/ Picks me up & takes me wherever I please/ I race through the trees bring space to her knees/ I am master of all that’s flying past me.

      Look how far we’ve come, look how far/ A car, a car, my kingdom for a car.

      Take me to tomorrow/ Let me go on racing with the wind in my hair/ There’s smoke in the air but I do not care/ If you want me, you will have to pass me

      Look how far we've come, look how far/ A car, a car, my kingdom for a car.

      Come to me baby,/ We will leave this town it was not made for a man/ We’ll find a new land, but the traffic is jammed/ I went far but it’s a time for walking

      Look how far we’ve come, look how far/ A car, a car, my kingdom for a car.

      Phil Ochs, 1968

      Back to the Top


      Anonymous

      "Get a horse."

      Early anti-automobile quote.

      Back to the Top


      James Howard Kunstler

      Anybody who thinks we're going to be using cars twenty-five years from now the way we've been accustomed to using them in the recent past ought to have his head examined. That phase of our national history is over....

      The regime of mass car use is an offshoot of our historical aversion to civility itself. The car allows Americans to persist in the delusion that civic life is unnecessary. As a practical matter, this regime is putting us out of business as a civilization.

      James Howard Kunstler, 1996 (from Home From Nowhere)

      Back to the Top


      Booth Tarkington

      "I’m not sure he’s wrong about automobiles," Eugene said. "With all their speed forward they may be a step backward in civilization -- that is, in spiritual civilization. It may be that they will not add to the beauty of the world, nor to the life of men’s souls. I am not sure. But automobiles have come, and they bring a greater change in our life than most of us suspect. They are here, & almost all outward things are going to be different because of what they bring. They are going to alter war, and they are going to alter peace. I think men’s minds are going to be changed in subtle ways because of automobiles; just how, though, I could hardly guess. But you can’t have the immense outward changes that they will cause without some inward ones, & it may be that George is right, and that the spiritual alteration will be bad for us. Perhaps, ten or twenty years from now, if we can see the inward change in men by that time, I shouldn’t be able to defend the gasoline engine, but would have to agree with him that automobiles ‘had no business to be invented.’"

      Booth Tarkington (1918) (from The Magnificent Ambersons)

      Back to the Top


      Marshall McLuhan

      In the 1930s, when millions of comic books were inundating the young with gore, nobody seemed to notice that emotionally the violence of millions of cars in our streets was incomparably more hysterical than anything that could ever be printed. All the rhinos & hippos & elephants in the world, if gathered in one city, could not begin to create the menace & explosive intensity of the hourly & daily experience of the internal-combustion engine. Are people really expected to internalize—live with—all this power & explosive violence, without processing & siphoning it off into some form of fantasy for compensation & balance?

      Marshall McLuhan (1963)(from Understanding Media)

      Back to the Top


      Michael Harrington

      The car imposes huge indirect costs on the society. Some of the most obvious are the salaries of highway patrolmen, the cost of traffic systems, the price of parking lots. & Charles Abrams has computed the annual cost of the traffic jam -- in terms of time & wages lost, extra fuel consumption, vehicle depreciation, etc. -- at $5 billion.

      Michael Harrington, 1968 (from Toward a Democratic Left)

      Back to the Top


      John Akre

      Whether the people are inside or out. Automobiles are a story unto themselves. They've come so far in such a short time. They have taken over everywhere. They break thru the forests & the dunes & the mountains & bring civilization faster & wilder than the railroads ever could. They aren't bound by two rails. They suggest an absolute freedom, freedom that could take the mind to anywhere. They can go even where there are no roads; they can run over everything old & suggest a constant present. They seem like so much freedom but they actually are so much dependence. When you gain a car you lose a self. Cars keep driving to the furthest reaches, past where the roads peter out. The people stay inside them, enclosed in glass & steel.

      Eyes of night
      in full daylight
      squeaks don't stop trucks

      A car can drive. A car can give drive. A car can give you drive. That's why you never stop. That's why you never begin.

      John Akre, unpublished novel (from Billion Million Thousand Hundred Novel Not Extinct)

      Back to the Top


      Back to A Carfree Home Page



      Back to Jakre John's Home Page
      Copyright © 1998 John Akre
      This page last updated 7 November 1998
      http://home.earthlink.net/~jakre/carfree/quotata.htm




      3500 -- NEW POEM DAILY http://www.poems.com/
      http://www.poems.com/archpoet.htm

      3500 -- ADD BLOOD UPDATES

      : typefaces Add Addresses type face to use Barbedor T OzHandicraft BT Poor Richard Tahoma Adolescence AdLib BT Eurostile T Calligraph421 BT Exotc350 Lt BT JuiceItcD Viner Hand ITC Bermuda Solid CAC Moose CAC Saxon bold Calligraph421 BT Creepy EraserDust KidTYPEPaint OrbusMultiserif Papyrus Space Toaster Viner Hand ITC CAC Krazy Legs CAC Krazy Legs Bold AdLib BT


      Circle A
      3500 -- http://recollectionbooks.com/bleed/images/anarchy2.gif


      ?
      3500 -- breeding bolsheviks


      3501 -- LABOR SPIES Leadville strike

      Another divisive issue during Pitkin's first term was the Indian reservation system which was created to force the Indians onto set-aside land in order to open the region to non-Indian settlement & development. One of the most tragic & illustrative e vents of the frustration created by the reservation system was the Meeker Massacre in present day Rio Blanco County. The Utes had maintained a long history of peaceful relations with the white man, especially with John Wesley Powell who lived among them in 1868 & 1869. This changed when Nathan C. Meeker accepted the position as Indian agent to the White River Utes in 1878 in order to pay off a huge debt owed to Horace Greeley. Using the utopian community model developed by Greeley, Meeker attempted to make the White River Ute settlement into a Christian farming commune. After a year of attempting to culturally transform the Utes, the frustrated Indians revolted.

      When the tribe discovered that Meeker had called for military reinforcements, they kille d him, burned the reservation, & took women & children captive who were later released due to the efforts of Ute Chief Ouray & former Ute Indian agent General Charles Adams. The tribe also ambushed Major T.T. Thornburgh & three troops of cavalry a t Milk Creek on SEPTEMBER 29, 1879. Thornburgh was killed & the troops were put on the defensive for six days. On October 5th Colonel Wesley Merritt, with over three hundred soldiers, ended the Ute revolt at the Battle of Milk Creek. The result for th e Utes was to be moved to yet another reservation in Utah.

      The next struggle that Pitkin had to work through was the 1880 Leadville Strike. The community of Leadville was part of the California Mining District, a district in which half of the population were miners. One man, Michael Mooney, saw a need for the development of a representative body that would aid these workers against corporate tyranny. When Mooney & the miners demanded a wage increase & an eight-hour workday for those employed in the wet mines, the California Mining District officers refuse d. Mooney led the miners in a strike that became so violent & destructive that the Lake County law enforcement activities were paralyzed. The citizens of the county petitioned the governor to send in the militia & declare martial law. Pitkin, unsur e of his constitutional right to do so, allowed Lieutenant Governor Tabor to actually issue the orders while he conveniently went on an unplanned trip to Cheyenne. In short, with his reelection campaign coming up soon, Pitkin allowed Tabor to take the responsibility should the Leadville strike worsen. This set him up for glory if the constitutionality of his decision was upheld. Ultimately, the strike was successfully broken by the militia.



      http://www.h-net.msu.edu/~labor/threads/thrclaborspy.html


      http://www.state.co.us/gov_dir/gss/archives/govs/pitkin.html

      3501 -- In 1884, August Reinsdorf attempted to blow up the Kaiser Wilhelm & his Princes as they opened the national monument at Rudesheim. http://struggle.ws/revolt/ws98/ws55_prop_deed.html August Reinsdorf. [August Reinsdorf] London: Fraye Arbayter Velt, 1906. 8pp. [IISH Y Bro 2725/3] A speech from his trial. http://metalab.unc.edu/yiddish/library/anarkh-jp.htm Johann Most: August Reinsdorf und die Propaganda der Tat. Verlag Edition AV'88, Frankfurt/Main, ca. 100 S., ca. 10 DM

      August Reinsdorf, a very remarkable young German who was later executed for conspiracy against the life of the Kaiser,

      http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/goldman/living/living1_6.html


      3501 -- Auguste Vaillant explained why he, an anarchist, who strove for a society of peace, would resort to acts of violence.

      "I have seen capital come, like a vampire, to suck the last drop of blood of the unfortunate pariahs. Then I came back to France where it was reserved for me to see my family suffer atrociously. This was the last drop in the cup of my sorrow. Tired of leading this life of suffering & cowardice I carried this bomb to those who are primarily responsible for social misery".
      http://struggle.ws/revolt/ws98/ws55_prop_deed.html


      3502 -- Signac/Adam/Mauclair/Feneon Date: Mon, 24 May 1999 14:55:13 -0400 From: "Bill Koehnline" To: "Recollection Books" Dave,

      Perhaps these sentences are at the heart of what you want. They include all four of your targets, plus others.

      " . . . bombs represented above all the most effective means of attracting attention to their revindications & those of the underprivileged into whose camp society had relegated them. Whereas the philosophers of anarchism, such as Elysée Reclus, opposed "propaganda by action," Fénéon pointed out that anarchist terrorism did more to spread propaganda than twenty years of pamphlets. . .

      . the writers & painters who professed extremist views were anarchists with all the altruism of their hearts, the purity of their souls, and the elegance of their demeanors. In the theories of anarchism they found many elements that corresponded to their own yearnings: an ultra-radical individualism, love of liberty, pity for the disinherited, passionate solidarity, & glorification of humanity. Some, like Pissarro, who had studied Marx as well as Kropotkin, reasoned that ‘the movement of ideas in present society tends with extraordinary energy towards the elaboration of new philosophical & scientific systems destined to become law in societies of the future.’ Others explained in more sentimental terms why they were anarchists. Signac, for instance, listed among the reasons for his convictions ‘the sufferings of many; logic; kindness; honesty; physiological laws (the rights of the stomach, of the brain, of the eyes, etc.); the need to feel happiness around oneself.’

      "Those who more or less openly manifested their sympathy for the anarchist movement were Pissarro & his sons, Signac, Seurat, and Luce among the painters; Kahn, Tailhade, Régnier, Adam, de Gourmont, Merrill, Viélé-Griffin, Mauclair, & even Mallarmé among the poets; Fénéon, Mirbeau, Alexandre, & Geffroy among the critics, as well as many of their friends."

      -- John Rewald Post Impressionism, p. 155






      3502 -- Theo Van Rysselberghe Date: Mon, 24 May 1999 23:23:09 -0400 From: "Bill Koehnline" To: "Recollection Books" Dave,

      Art fact: Who spent more money on art than any other person who has ever lived? Adolf Hitler. He spent 163,975,000 reichsmarks, the equivalent of $65,590,000, "the greatest individual outlay for beauty ever recorded, especially for a man who knew & cared nothing about it." -- Cynthia Saltzman, Portrait of Dr. Gachet, p. 188. PS We will be out of state the next three days, so I won't see any e-mail that happens to come in until Friday. You have Dorothea Lange coming up on Wednesday. She's online at masters-of-photography, J Paul Getty Museum ArtsEdNet, Sheldon Gallery U of Nebraska, & Cheekwood Museum, Tennessee. Easy acces through Artcyclopedia. You have a great image of hers in the Bleed for 0526 (1998).

      Bill







      3502 -- Dave,

      You didn't say you wanted any more, but here's the larger file from which I made yesterday's selection on an artist named Arp http://sunsite.dcc.uchile.cl/wm/paint/glo/dada/ WebMuseum, Paris [There is no Arp entry in the long list of individual artists, but Arp is mentioned in the one-paragraph description of Dada. Ernst & Baargeld are not mentioned there.] http://www.peak.org/~dadaist/English/Graphics/arp.html Dada Archive http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/dada/arp.html International Dada Archive http://www-fa.c4systm.com/Fine-art/Arp_jean/index.php3 Fine Art Presentations, text mode http://www-fa.c4systm.com/Fine-art/Arp_jean/index2.php3 Fine Art Presentations, thumbnail --, Abstract Composition, Knossos http://www.si.umich.edu/Art_History/demoarea/details/1961_2.44.html http://www.si.umich.edu/Art_History/UMMA/1961/1961_2.44.jpg --, Arrangement according to Laws of Chance (Collage with Squares), 1916-17 http://www.moma.org/collection/drawings/arp_arrangement.html --, Configuration, 1927 http://www.artonline.it/edicola/artdos/103/i05m-103.html --, Coquille Crystals, 1938, Kroller-Muller Museum, Otterlo, Netherlands http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/art/20th/sculpture/arp02.jpg --, The Elements, Leaf Transformed into a Torso http://www.si.umich.edu/Art_History/demoarea/details/1962_2.32.html http://www.si.umich.edu/Art_History/UMMA/1962/1962_2.32.html --, Enak’s tears (Terrestrial Forms) http://www.peak.org/~dadaist/Art/tears.jpg --, Forest http://www.peak.org/~dadaist/Art/forest.jpg --, Fruit (Coupe ou Fruit) http://www.si.umich.edu/Art_History/demoarea/details/NO030.html http://www.si.umich.edu/Art_History.UMMA/NO03/NO030.jpg --, Gris Noir http://www.chin.gc.ca/Exhibitions/Canadiana/Enhigh/content/institut/1/aggvdc1.htm#1 http://www.chin.gc.ca/Exhibitions/Canadiana/Enhigh/content/ institut/1/f90_20_1.htm --, Human Concretion http://www.artchive.com/artchive/A/arp/human_concretion.jpog.html --, Petite Sculpture de Rève http://www.norton.org/collect/european/euro.htm --, Sculptures, Kroller-Muller useum, Otterlo, Netherlands http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/art/20th/sculpture/arp01.jpg --, Travel Kit of a Da’ http://www.peak.org/~dadaist/Art/travelkit.jpg --, The Venus of Meudon http://artmuseum.arizona.edu/artgallery.html http://artmuseum.arizona.edu/images/arp.jpeg http://www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/arp_jean.html Citing neither the WebMuseum (wm) nor either of the Dada archives (peak.org/~dadaist, lib.uiowa.edu/dada) nor the Art History Department of the University of Michigan (umich.edu/Art_History), Artcyclopedia identifies instead nine online exhibits of the work of Jean Arp, links verified by InfoLink, April 16, 1999:

      Mark Harden’s Artchive http://www.artchive.com/artchive/ftptoc/arp_ext.html Norton Museum of Art http://www.norton.org/collect/european/euro.htm

      Citta Dell’Arte/City of Art http://www.artonline.it/edicola/artdos/103/i05m-103.html

      University of Arizona Museum of Art http://artmuseum.arizona.edu/artgallery.html

      Museum of Modern Art, New York http://www.moma.org/collection/drawings/arp_arrangement.html

      Canadian Heritage Information Network http://www.chin.gc.ca/Exhibitions/Canadiana/Enhigh/content/instit ut/1/aggvdc1.htm#1 http://www.chin.gc.ca/Exhibitions/Canadiana/Enhigh/content/institut/1/f90_20_1.htm

      Boston College Fine Arts Department http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/art/arp.html http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/art/20th/sculpture/arp01.jpg http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/art/20th/sculpture/arp02.jpg

      Iconoclast http://www.tc.umn.edu/~whit0580/igloo/dada/arp.html http://www.tc.umn.edu/~whit0580/igloo/dada/arp1.html http://www.tc.umn.edu/~whit0580/igloo/dada/arp2.html http://www.tc.umn.edu/~whit0580/igloo/dada/arp3.html

      U of Michigan SILS Art Image Browser http://www.si.umich.edu/Art_History/demoarea/htdocs/_browser/ _Artist/_Artist__A/ARP__HANS_Hans_Arp/ http://www.si.umich.edu/Art_History/demoarea/details/1962_2.32.html






      3503 -- Dave,

      Here are my first gleanings from the second book, one page full of references to S, F, & Adam:

      More on Paul Signac & selected associates. "Seurat would meet his friends at . . . The regular Monday gatherings in Signac’s studio in the Avenue de Clichy, where Signac welcomed his painter friends & some men of letters such as . . . Paul Adam . . . etc.

      "On other occasions, Seurat, together with Signac . . . joined a group of poets & writers where from 1884 to 1886 almost every day gathered . . . Félix Fénéon, Paul Adam . . . & their friends.

      "At this brasserie, symbolism was born.

      "All the little reviews had in common a feverish eagerness, a self-righteousness, a lofty intolerance, & an even loftier independence of spirit, together with a great frugality. They practically never paid contributors, & Fénéon . . . far from drawing a salary, actually sometimes defrayed printer’s costs.

      "Their fondness for . . .the most precious, archaic, & unusual words . . . took such proportions that Paul Adam soon felt compelled to issue a Small Glossary to Serve for the Comprehension of the Decadent & Symbolist Authors.

      "At the Taverne Anglaise, there appeared most of Fénéon’s painter friends, Pissarro, Seurat, Signac . . . ""Those who were born between 1855 & 1865 were . . . Seurat . . . Signac . . . Fénéon (born in Italy of French Parents) "Some had means which permitted them to work independently . . . Seurat, Signac . . .

      "Paul Adam, who bore the enviable distinction of having been condemned for the alleged immorality of one of his novels was [a dandy] & in addition was generally accompanied by a ‘rheumatic greyhound.’

      "Fénéon shared their pencant for oddities; when he did not wear his silk top hat he would sport a greatcoat or full tippet cape . . . his pointed beard contributed to making him look like Uncle Sam. Fénéon’s attie was completed by a small black felt hat, dark red gloves, and . . . black patent leather shoes.

      "Fénéon occasionally told stories that would have made young maids blush . . . Signac was . . . outspoken & loud; he reveled in the use of an extensive but unprintable vocabulary.

      " . . .all were committed to the extreme left. Political matters were of grave concern to them, & their convictions were . . . inseparable from their works."

      -- John Rewald, Post Impressionism

      That's all for now. Would you like to see more quotes, my own summary in a paragraph or two, or what? Bill the Scrivener






      3504 -- There are thirteen sources of info about Paul S, at least images of his works, which I found at one of the three urls you gave me yesterday:

      Paul Signac (1863-1935) http://artchive.com/artchive/S/signac.html http://www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/signac_paul.html Artcyclopedia notes that in addition to Mark Harden’s Artchive (artchive), noted above, exhibits of the work of the artist can be found at the following pages, links verified April 16, 1999: Carol Gerten’s Fine Art WebMuseum Fondation Bemberg Museum, France Museum of Fine Arts, Houston Pace Prints Art in Context Boston College Fine Arts Department Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco Jim’s Fine Art Collection U. of Michigan SILS Art Image Browser Malek’s Home Page

      From: Recollection Books To: Bill Koehnline Sent: Friday, May 21, 1999 12:17 AM Subject: Re: History of Impressionism

      I have bits & pieces scattered through the database on Signac, but I'll run a seach on what we've got & see if any of it is helpful or useful at all. Dave

      Bill Koehnline wrote: Dave I haven't resorted to the World Wide Web in search of factoids about the four hosemen you listed in your second message recently received, but I have checked a used book -- your stock in trade, I believe. It is in fact a very well used book, the 1961 edition, revised & enlarged, of John Rewald's basic book on Impressionism. Paul Signac was born in Paris on November 11, 1863, & was the last painter to join the Impressionist group before it dissolved. At the age of sixteen. Signac was excited about new art. He visited the fifth exhibition of the group, which took place throughout the month of April, 1880. Gauguin exhibited seven paintings & a marble bust. When Signac started making sketches after Degas, Gauguin threw him out, saying "One doesn't copy here, sir." In June, 1880, Claude Monet organized a one-man show which made a great impression on Signac. In March, 1882, the group pulled together another exhibition, & among the visitors were Seurat & Signac, who came separately to study the works of their elders. & this is when Felix Feneon first comes into the story. He was at the time recently appointed o a position in the War Ministry, but he was interested in art, & he closely examined the paintings in the show. In 1886 Signace\ became a follower of Pissarro by definitely adopting divisionism as a technique. In the eighth (and last) exhibition of the group, Seurat & Signac were included. That summer he was with Lucien Pissarro, Camille's son, & exchanged some letters with Seurat. & after that, it is no longer a part of the History of Impressionism, which I have at my fingertips, but a part of the History of Post-Impressionism, which is at my daughter's house on the other side of town. But that's a beginning, even two beginnings. Always a beginner, Bill








      3505 -- A 09:38 26/05/98 +0100, vous avez écrit : >>From: "Claudio Batistuzzo" >Date: Sun, 24 May 1998 01:21:48 -0300

      >I'm the greatgrandaughter of Italian anarchist Pietro Riva, from Brescia, >>Italy, who came to Brazil at the end of last century to settle here the >>"Colonia Cecilia" - an experiment of an anarchist community. = >Can I get more information on this topic? >Thanks. >Cleide at http://unccvx.uncc.edu/~DRGABACC/Newslet3.htm in an old page probably built in 1993 this information: FELICI, Isabelle (52 rue Damremont 75 018 Paris) is finishing a Ph.D. on Italians in the Brazilian anarchist movement from 1890-1920, beginning with the Colonia Cecilia, & analyzing thirty Italian-language anarchist papers published in Brazil in the following years. (may be this work is finished & publicated). & a movie named "La Cecilia" was made in 1975 by Jean-Louis Comolli (a French or Swiz, I don't remind, director). It's in french. It's referenced at the International Movie Database at:
      http://us.imdb.com/Title?Cecilia,+La+(1975) __________________________________________ Everest Pardell e-mail: everest.pardell@univ-lyon2.fr http://www.nothingness.org/ra/digests/May-98/May27-98-55.html




      3506 -- this is baader-meinhof timeline http://www.baader-meinhof.com/who/sympathizers/weisspeter.html


       ?
      3507 -- ADD BLOOD UPDATES

      I'm just a typical American boy from a typical American town I believe in God & Senator Dodd & keeping old Castro down And when it came my time to serve I knew better dead than red But when I got to my old draft board, buddy, this is what I said:

      Sarge, I'm only eighteen, I got a ruptured spleen & I always carry a purse I got eyes like a bat, my feet are flat, & my asthma's getting worse O think of my career, my sweetheart dear, & my poor old invalid aunt Besides, I ain't no fool, I'm a goin' to school, & I'm working in a defense plant

      I've got a dislocated disc & a racked up back I'm allergic to flowers & bugs And when the bombshell hits, I get epileptic fits & I'm addicted to a thousand drugs I got the weakness woes, & I can't touch my toes I can hardly reach my knees And if the enemy came close to me I'd probably start to sneeze

      (chorus)

      I hate Chou En Lai, & I hope he dies, but one thing you gotta see That someone's gotta go over there & that someone isn't me So I wish you well, Sarge, give 'em Hell Yeah, Kill me a thousand or so And if you ever get a war without blood & gore Well I'll be the first to go

      (chorus)

      Phil Ochs, "Draft Dodger Rag," http://www.cs.pdx.edu/~trent/ochs/lyrics/draft-dodger-rag.html


      http://www.cs.pdx.edu/~trent/ochs/

       ?
      3507 --

      For I stole California from the Mexican land Fought in the bloody Civil War Yes I even killed my brother And so many others And I ain't marchin' anymore

      For I marched to the battles of the German trench In a war that was bound to end all wars Oh I must have killed a million men And now they want me back again But I ain't marchin' anymore

      (chorus)

      For I flew the final mission in the Japanese sky Set off the mighty mushroom roar When I saw the cities burning I knew that I was learning That I ain't marchin' anymore

      Now the labor leader's screamin' when they close the missile plants, United Fruit screams at the Cuban shore, Call it "Peace" or call it "Treason," Call it "Love" or call it "Reason," But I ain't marchin' any more.

      Phil Ochs, I ain't marchin' anymore




      http://www.stanford.edu/~mbucheli/chronology.html
      http://www.cs.pdx.edu/~trent/ochs/

      3508 -- sixties archive civil rights

      Go to our UPDATED Sixties Net!


      The SIXTIES were an exciting, revolutionary, turbulent time of great social and technological change: assassination, unforgettable fashion, new musical styles, Camelot, civil rights, gay & women's liberation, a controversial and devisive war in Vietnam, the first manned landing on the moon, peace marches, World's Fairs, flower power, great TV & film & sexual freedom.

      Don Fass--an editor & broadcaster who grew up then & wrote & reported about much of it--is gathering the history, sounds, images & feel of the 60's for you right here.

      You'll find the Kennedys, the Space Program, Woodstock, artists from Peter, Paul & Mary & Bob Dylan to Led Zeppelin, the Grateful Dead, Beatles & Stones, Carnaby Street, psychedelia, Martin Luther King, the Haight-Ashbury & even the radio show, Don & Deanna On Bleecker Street at this site...brought to you by MetroNews & SC Foundation and with the help of the Public Domain Foundation, AST Computer, Motorola & The Trepp Family Foundation.


      lenny.gif COPY MOVED TO RECOLLECTION UB.NET IMAGES DIRECTORY IF NOT IN BLEED IMAGE DIRECTORY

      starlogo.gif


      Tell your friends, bookmark us & check back regularly, or e-mail, snail mail or call us at 1-500-437-NEWS between 9am-Noon Pacific Time or Noon-3pm Eastern Time with your suggestions, links & feelings,... or for some great exclusive interview cassette tapes we have of 60's personalities (proceeds benefit National Childrens Coalition).

      We're going to begin to publish personal recollections of the Sixties. Please e-mail or snail mail yours (limit: 250 words per person so we can feature more people. Participate & help capture that very special era!

      Be sure to see our BEATLES TRIBUTE we've just added...

      Peace & Love!


      New SIXTIES! E-Newsletter
      and E-ROCK too!!


      Sponsorship Information

    • orange diamond dingbatI HAVE A DREAM-Dr.Martin Luther King,Jr.
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      NEW

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    • THE BEATLES AGAIN!

      As a young reporter, I had the joy of meeting John, Paul, George & Ringo, (and Derek Taylor, Cynthia Lennon, the NEMS people, Murray the K, Sid Bernstein & Brian Epstein), going to the London premiere of Help! and seeing them perform several times, including twice at Forest Hills Stadium, twice at Shea Stadium, & at the only concert that we could actually hear them singing clearly above the screams, at NY's Paramount Theatre in a Cerebral Palsy Benefit, opened by Steve & Eydie Gorme... I covered their filming & tours for TEEN HERALD, a forerunner of Rolling Stone magazine.

      THE BEATLES changed music forever & they helped to bring us out of our mourning for John F. Kennedy..

      Living on Manhattan's Upper West Side near the Dakota, my friends & I were devasted by John's senseless death, near what is now Strawberry Fields in Central Park. I wrote several columns titled "Just Imagine... Gentle John..."

      But the BEATLES never really stopped being a part of us all of us... Now, 25 years after they last performed together, in a way, they are back together. Back to give us something very special. Enjoy these links and more to come, including our own tribute. Email us & share your feelings..and check back here soon!

      DON FASS, Editor, ENN/SC METRO

      FAB LINKS

    • orange diamond dingbatBeatles ABC 1995 Anthology (Official)
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    • COMING SOON

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    • FEATURED ON


      SIXTIES
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      3509 -- ANARCHIST ARCHIVE Todd May's post-structuralist anarchism, & works by activists in academia at the moment like A.J.Plows,






      3509 -- UPDATE OLD LINKS Kipp Teague's The Prisoner Page has MOVED! Stand by to be transferred to http://www.retroweb.com/prisoner.html... Kipp Teague (teague@retroweb.com),


      3509 -- hello all --ANARCHY ARCHIVES ART

      i wrote a post to the list, many months ago, about the dissertation i am preparing to research & write on the subject of 'anarchist literary theory'. at the time, i called anarchist literary theory 'a subject which i'm not sure exists yet', noting that although a few prominent anarchists (such as Kropotkin, goldman, goodman, & read) had written about art & literature, these writings were undertheorized & inadequate -- in any case, hardly parallel to the marxist canon of lukacs, brecht, benjamin, adorno, eagleton, etc. very recently, my research for the dissertation has taken an interesting turn. i now think that my assessment of 'anarchist literary theory' as an unborn/stillborn genre is not quite correct, or not as accurate as i had thought. probably the single biggest thing to change my mind thus has been discovering a book by richard sonn -- a revised version of his dissertation, actually -- titled *anarchism & cultural politics in fin-de-siecle france*. it treats of the debates around language, aesthetics, & poetics in paris circa 1890-1900.

      many of the major issues i'll be writing about were already active concerns for the figures sonn writes about, such as felix feneon, Émile Pouget, stephane mallarme, Camille Pissarro, paul signac, paul adam, & camille mauclair.

      not only were the contacts between anarchists & the major Symbolist & Neo-Impressionist poets & painters frequent, as i already knew to some extent -- they were also quite thoroughly politicized, & they explicitly made the political character of art as an issue. they were particularly active in framing the polarized positions in the debate over 'committed' art (or 'art with a social tendency', to use the jargon of the time, i.e., art with an explicit political content) vs. 'pure' art ('art for art's sake', radical aethetic form), which no one on the left has yet resolved.

      i wanted to share this ongoing discovery & at the same time ask if others on the list know of some good sources treating related subjects.

      for instance, it would be invaluable to me to find collections of *critical* writing (preferably in english, as my french is bad) by anarchists like feneon, mauclair, & adam -- particularly critical work on contemporary artists & writers (i know that mauclair wrote a book about mallarme, but i can't seem to find an english translation).

      any suggestions would be appreciated.

      --jesse.



      http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/7404


      3509 -- ANARCHIST SAMPLER QUOTES http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/5065/index.html


      3509 -- ANARCHIST ARCHIVES Contents | Next Article Social Anarchism 19 1994 Anarchist Studies, Volume 1, Number 1, Spring 1993 Reviewer: Colin Ward For a number of years, a group mainly of academics have been producing a Bulletin of Anarchist Research in Britain. Several of them were contributors to the volume For Anarchism: History, Theory & Practice, warmly reviewed by Neala Schleuning in Number 17 of Social Anarchism. Now they have taken their activities one stage further by producing an academic journal, to appear initially twice a year. It is edited by Tom Cahill of Lancaster University (author of the excellent paper on cooperatives & anarchism in the For Anarchism volume), with an impressive editorial board. It is published by a commercial publisher, & its future obviously depends upon building up a basic raft of institutional subscribers. Consequently, those readers who are in the academic world should, if they want this new addition to our periodical literature to survive, put pressure on their departmental librarians to subscribe. (I think I should add, parenthetically, that I know people who automatically sneer at the mention of the word "academic,'' but note that they are usually highly educated people. I, on the other hand, as a propagandist, innocent of academe, find that whenever I am in a college or university, I invariably escape from the bar to the library to loot facts that I can't find elsewhere.) The new journal, of much the same size & length as this one, has a not dissimilar content. Murray Bookchin attacks the claims of anarcho-syndicalism, with particular reference to the Spanish experience, Richard Cleminson discusses Wilhelm Reich's views on "mass sex economic therapy,'' again in a Spanish context, & Richard Kostelanetz puts the music of John Cage in an anarchist perspective. David Berry conducts a survey of the 17 anarchist journals published in France today, ranging from Le Monde Libertaire with its enviable weekly print run of between 10,000 & 15,000 copies & anarcho punk fanzines distributing 300. France has a very rich libertarian literature. Extended review articles include Ruth Kinna on George Crowder's Classical Anarchism, Max Cafard on Norman O. Brown's most recent book, & Brian Morris making an illuminating comparison between Bill McKibben's The End of Nature and Kirkpatrick Sale's Dwellers in the Land. There follows a section of regular book reviews, & a listing of English-language anarchist journals. (Friends of Social Anarchism will be gratified to find it described as "one of the best intellectual journals in English.'') There are also notes on anarchist gatherings: the recent Kropotkin conference in Russia & the launching of a Social Ecology Network in London, which the reporter found fascinating for the way that "the best & worst of the green & eco-anarchist milieu asserted themselves.'' I think that the appearance of this journal could be made significant. Our task as spreaders of the anarchist approach is to move it from the margins into the mainstream of social ideas, & people come to the anarchist idea through a bewildering variety of routes. For example, I can remember a gardener explaining in Freedom that he was drawn to anarchism by a fellow horticulturalist through a common love of chrysanthemums. So I hope that Anarchist Studies can find its way onto the magazine shelves of college libraries. Who knows who might pick it up? Anarchist Studies. Vol 1, No 1. Spring 1993. Edited by Thomas V. Cahill, Dept. of Politics & International Relations, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YL, UK. Subscription rates (2 issues a year): Individuals $24 US, Institutions $28 US. Publisher: The White Horse Press, 1 Strond, Isle of Harris, Scotland, PA83 3UD, UK. http://www.nothingness.org/sociala/sa19/19ward1.html


      ?
      3509 -- steinlen http://www.hack.org/mc/mirror/www.spunk.org/texts/writers/meltzer/sp001591/app1.html
      Dessin de Steinlen Les Communards (Le Seuil)

      3509 -- ANARCHIST ARCHIVES Contents | Next Article Social Anarchism 19 1994 Anarchist Studies, Volume 1, Number 1, Spring 1993 Reviewer: Colin Ward For a number of years, a group mainly of academics have been producing a Bulletin of Anarchist Research in Britain. Several of them were contributors to the volume For Anarchism: History, Theory & Practice, warmly reviewed by Neala Schleuning in Number 17 of Social Anarchism. Now they have taken their activities one stage further by producing an academic journal, to appear initially twice a year. It is edited by Tom Cahill of Lancaster University (author of the excellent paper on cooperatives & anarchism in the For Anarchism volume), with an impressive editorial board. It is published by a commercial publisher, & its future obviously depends upon building up a basic raft of institutional subscribers. Consequently, those readers who are in the academic world should, if they want this new addition to our periodical literature to survive, put pressure on their departmental librarians to subscribe. (I think I should add, parenthetically, that I know people who automatically sneer at the mention of the word "academic,'' but note that they are usually highly educated people. I, on the other hand, as a propagandist, innocent of academe, find that whenever I am in a college or university, I invariably escape from the bar to the library to loot facts that I can't find elsewhere.) The new journal, of much the same size & length as this one, has a not dissimilar content. Murray Bookchin attacks the claims of anarcho-syndicalism, with particular reference to the Spanish experience, Richard Cleminson discusses Wilhelm Reich's views on "mass sex economic therapy,'' again in a Spanish context, & Richard Kostelanetz puts the music of John Cage in an anarchist perspective. David Berry conducts a survey of the 17 anarchist journals published in France today, ranging from Le Monde Libertaire with its enviable weekly print run of between 10,000 & 15,000 copies & anarcho punk fanzines distributing 300. France has a very rich libertarian literature. Extended review articles include Ruth Kinna on George Crowder's Classical Anarchism, Max Cafard on Norman O. Brown's most recent book, & Brian Morris making an illuminating comparison between Bill McKibben's The End of Nature and Kirkpatrick Sale's Dwellers in the Land. There follows a section of regular book reviews, & a listing of English-language anarchist journals. (Friends of Social Anarchism will be gratified to find it described as "one of the best intellectual journals in English.'') There are also notes on anarchist gatherings: the recent Kropotkin conference in Russia & the launching of a Social Ecology Network in London, which the reporter found fascinating for the way that "the best & worst of the green & eco-anarchist milieu asserted themselves.'' I think that the appearance of this journal could be made significant. Our task as spreaders of the anarchist approach is to move it from the margins into the mainstream of social ideas, & people come to the anarchist idea through a bewildering variety of routes. For example, I can remember a gardener explaining in Freedom that he was drawn to anarchism by a fellow horticulturalist through a common love of chrysanthemums. So I hope that Anarchist Studies can find its way onto the magazine shelves of college libraries. Who knows who might pick it up? Anarchist Studies. Vol 1, No 1. Spring 1993. Edited by Thomas V. Cahill, Dept. of Politics & International Relations, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YL, UK. Subscription rates (2 issues a year): Individuals $24 US, Institutions $28 US. Publisher: The White Horse Press, 1 Strond, Isle of Harris, Scotland, PA83 3UD, UK. http://www.nothingness.org/sociala/sa19/19ward1.html


      3510 -- A. Grover Cleveland
      Democratic president 1893-97 sought lower tariff, gold standard, civil service, honesty, morality against special interests - navy, sugar, banana growers opposed by silverites, bosses, socialists, businessmen

      1893 repeal of Sherman Silver Purchase Act Depression deepened after 1893 - Coxey's Army, Eugene Debs & Pullman strike 1894 need for trade expansion to prevent unemployment, labor unrest Republican party gained seats in 1894 elections

      B. Walter Gresham
      Secretary of State March 1893-May 1895 U.S. District Judge in 1877 railroad strikes feared Fred. Sorge's Socialist-Labor Party Postmaster-General for Republican Chet Arthur 1883 Treasury Secretary 1884 friends with anti-imperialists - Carl Schurz http://ac.acusd.edu/History/classes/diplo/political.html


      ?
      3510 --

      Pre - Invasion (before 1788)
      Aboriginal Australians as Anarchists.....Bob James


      1788 to 1800
      Pemulwuy - Indigenous resistance leader for the Eora........Question Mark Collective


      1801 to 1850
      Yagan - Indigenous resistance leader for the Nyungar........Question Mark Collective
      The flogging of a Master - Bushranging as Class Struggle 1836....Question Mark Collective
      The Story of GUOOF & Traveller's Home in the 1840's & 1850's .....by Dr Bob James


      1851 to 1880
      Sailor's riot in Sydney 1851....Question Mark Collective
      Peter Lalor & the miners' Eureka Stockade........Question Mark Collective
      Ned Kelly - Bush ranging resistance to the Squatocracy........Question Mark Collective
      Maritime Strike 1878-1879........Anarchist Media Institute


      1881 to 1900
      A Reader of Australian Anarchism 1886-1896....Bob James (Ed.)
      The beginnings of May Day in Australia....Joe Toscano
      The Haymarket Affair 'Down under'.....Michael Vandelaar
      Progress of Anarchism at the Melbourne Wharf 1889.....J.W. Fleming
      Women in the Early Anarchist Movement.....Bob James
      Melbourne Anarchist Club Notes 1889.....Honesty
      Maritime Strike 1890........Anarchist Media Institute
      News from Australia 1891.....J.Schellenberg
      Cooperation as a Remedy (Pyrmont Laundry Strike) 1891.....Creo Stanley
      Wily Wheelwomen of the 1890s....Question Mark Collective


      1901 to 1920
      Chummy Fleming & the opening of the first Australian Parliament....Takver
      Emma Goldman: the Australian connection.....Bob James
      International Notes (May Day 1910).....J.W. Fleming
      The I.W.W. in Australia....Mark McGuire
      Joe Hill's ashes in Australia........Question Mark Collective
      IWW in Aotearoa....Frank Prebble
      1913 General Strike in Aotearoa....Frank Prebble
      Lilian Tiering in the IWW....Ken Weller
      William Siebenhaar defends Monty Miller....Ian Turner
      'Ma' Westbrook & the IWW.....Ian Turner
      Paul Freeman - killed at Kursk 1921.....Tom Barker


      1921 to 1940
      The proletarian migrants: fascism & Italian Anarchists in Australia....Gianfranco Cresciani
      L'avanguardia Libertaria (Italian Paper 1932)....
      The Unemployed Workers Movement in Melbourne - 1920's-1930's....Jim Munro
      Raised a Radical - the Englarts in Brisbane 1920-1939....Vince Englart
      Homegrown Communism - recollections of the YCL in 1930s Brisbane....Ron Brown
      1934 Canecutters' strike in North Queensland....Peter Sheldon from Rebel Worker


      1941 to 1960
      A Sermon for Madmen (1941)....Max Harris
      The Necessity for Surrealism (1941)....James Gleeson
      Brisbane 1946 - Workers' Control on the wharf .....Takver
      Squatting after World War II - 1946-1947....Question Mark Collective
      The Queensland Railway Strike 1948....Doug Olive
      The Politics of Things (1955)....Harry Hooton
      John Olday's Memoirs in Australia ....ca
      Sydney Libertarianism & the Push....A.J. Baker
      Bulgarian Anarchists in Sydney....Bob James


      1961 to 1970
      Moralism & the C.P.A. - the 1962 Peace March....Question Mark Collective
      Vietnam Moratorium Sydney 1970 ....w.b.
      'Save the Lemmings' Melbourne 1970 ....anon.


      1971 to 1980
      Australian Draft Resistance & the Vietnam War (1971)....Michael Matteson & Geoff Mullen
      Sex & Censorship - 1971 ....Wendy Bacon
      Stop the F19 Freeway Campaign....Julie New
      Ford Riot at Broadmeadows - 1972....Question Mark Collective
      Anarcho Surrealist Insurrectionary Feminist Manifesto - AS IF (Melbourne 1973) ....AS IF Collective
      Anarchism & Feminism (1974)....anon.
      Feminism & Men - 1975....Chris Nicol
      Autonomous House - Alternative Technology (Sydney 1975) ....Friends of the Earth
      Towards an anarchist organisation & programme (1974)....anon.
      The organisational platform of the Federation of Australian Anarchists (1975)....anon.
      Brisbane SMG statement on the 1975 conference & proposed 1976 conference (1975)....Brisbane SMG
      Theses against Seperatism (1975)....anon.
      The Split - a Monash Anarchist Perspective (1976)....anon.
      Chrysler Factory at Tonsley Park (Adelaide) 1976-1978....Garry Hill
      Anarchism in Sydney 1975-1981....John Englart
      925 - working class poetry (1978-1983)....Takver


      1981 to 1990
      What is this Gay Community Shit? - The Sydney Gay Mardi Gras & the Left....Sasha Soldatow
      On Lesbian Separatism - Women wimmin womyn womin whippets....Julie McCrossin
      1984 & Social Control Conference
      'The State & the Explanation Of Nuclear Technology' (1984 & Social Control Conference) ....Val Plumwood
      Community Arts & Politics (1985)....Dwayne Campbell
      'A New Anarchism' - Examining 100 years of Australian Anarchism....Bob James
      1986 Australian Anarchist Centenary Celebrations Conference
      Anarcho-Feminist Celebrations - 1986 Camp
      1989 Beyond Social Control Conference
      The Melbourne Tram Dispute & Lockout of 1990....Dick Curlewis
      1990 Anarchist Organisation & Strategy Conference


      1991 to 2000
      War on the Wharfies 1998 (February - August 1998)....Takver
      Melbourne Support for a Free East Timor - September 1999....Takver
      ...Takver


      2001 to 2010
      No Gods No Masters anarchist & Autonomist conference - April 2001....Takver
      MayDay 2001 & the ghost of Chummy Fleming....Takver

      Divider: anarchist regional flag coloursGoto Page Top
      Some of the articles from Anarchism in Australia have been included in the above timeline, others haven't. Scabs, Coppers, Strikes & Footy was not included above as it covers numerous time periods.

      • Anarchism in Australia. An Anthology....Bob James (Editor)
        Prepared for the Australian Anarchist Centennial Celebration, Melbourne 1-4 May 1986 in a limited edition of 50 printed copies by Bob James. This covers 100 years of anarchism in Australia & includes material from the Melbourne Anarchist Club in 1886 to 1986. Includes material by or on Max Harris, Germaine Greer, Wendy Bacon, Ian Turner, Harry Hooton, & many others.

      • Scabs, Coppers, Strikes & Footy....Question Mark Collective
        Radical Politics & sport, in particular, Australian Rules Football, has a long history. Here is some of it.

      Send Email to Takver@onaustralia.com.au with questions or comments about this web site.
      Snail mail: P.O. Box 1078, Brunswick M.D.C., Victoria, 3056, Australia
      This Page: http://www.takver.com/history/timeline.htm
      Last modified: June 28, 2001

      http://www.takver.com/history/timeline.htm
      http://www.takver.com/history/raa/

      3513 -- Having been known to recommend a URL or two for your consideration in the past, I cannot restrain myself from inviting you to visit a new one, on line for the first time today. Please check out



      http://www.oakton.edu/news/events/gallery


      ?
      3514 -- lincoln toe truck




      3514 -- ARCHIVE LITERARY ANGEL AT MY TABLE, AN 157 M. New Line The true story of one the 20th century's most gifted writers. "An Angel At My Table" chronicles the life & extraordinary times of Janet Frame. Born in the 1920's, Janet's early years of fairy tales & schoolgirl pranks were tempered by family tragedy. She retreated to her beloved books & began to write poetry & stories. As the years passed her talent grew & so did the challenges to her unique & inspired vision. But Janet was a woman of rare courage & fierce determination. Her enormous gift for storytelling sustained her through the darkest hour, finally bringing her the success & happiness she so desperately wanted & deserved. Brilliantly captured by director Jane Campion (SWEETIE), one of the most critically acclaimed films in recent years, capturing over 20 major awards & prizes in film festivals around the world. http://www.wvlc.wvnet.edu/film/vidam.html


      3515 --

      Bill wrote:

       Three wishes: If you find anything to plunder, feel free.

      Two noteworthy artists were born on this date:  Minor White, American photographer, born 1908, & David Hockney, Brit who lives in California, born 1937. 

      A couple of sources for the latter are http://metalab.unc.edu/wm/paint/auth/hockneyandhttp://artchive.com/artchive/H/hockney_david.html 

      Tomorrow & the next day are also good days for artists to have been born. Pissarro was born in 1830 & can be found at http://metalab.unc.edu/wm/paint/auth/pissarro/ and http://artchive.com/P/pissarro.html Whistler began to whistle either July 10 or July 11.  There is agreement that the year was 1834. One of my favorites (not bookmarks), Giorgio de Chirico was definitely born on July 10, 1854.  You have cited the page at Washington University, St. Louis in the bleed for November 20.

      In addition, Jim Grattan has 22 images at his deChirico site,http://www.spectrumvoice.com/art/artists/major/c/chirco.htm And coming up on July 12 are the birthdays of Modigliani (1884) & Andy Wyeth (1917).  I haven't checked on Modigliani but there's a whole site dedicated to the three generations of the Wyeth family at the unforgettable address http://www.wyethcenter.com/ So there. Gallerynamesake Bill, also known as A.


      ?
      3515 -- situationist vaneigem rev everyday life

      "Contrary to the interest of those who control its use, technology tends to demystify the world. The democratic reign of consumption deprives commodities of any magical value. At the same time, organization -- the technology of new technologies -- deprives modern productive forces of their subversive & seductive qualities. Such organization is simply the organization of authority. Alienated mediations weaken people by making themselves indispensable. A social mask conceals people & things, transforming them, in the present stage of privative appropriation, into dead things -- into commodities. Nature is no more. The rediscovery of nature will be its reinvention as a worthy adversary by building new social relationships. The shell of the old hierarchical society will be burst open from within by the growth of material equipment." -- Raoul Vaneigem, "The Revolution of Everyday Life"


      ?
      3519 -- BAUDRILLARD, JEAN

      The dustbin of theory: Greil Marcus' hipster historicism [Gnosticism & aestheticization of history in the writings of rock critic turned philosopher] Lehmann C. The Baffler. Issue 8. 96. Page 91-98.

      Post-ality: the (dis)simulations of cybercapitalism ["Post-ality" as the total ensemble of practices that obscure the production practices of capitalism] Zavarzadeh M. Transformation. Issue 1. 95. Page 1-75.



      3520 -- miisissippi Here's to the state of Mississippi --
      For underneath her borders the devil draws no line;
      If you drag her muddy rivers, nameless bodies you will find.
      Oh, the fat trees of the forest have hid a thousand crimes;
      The calendar is lying when it reads the present time.
      Oh, here's to the land you've torn out the heart of --
      Mississippi, find yourself another country to be part of!

      ---Phil Ochs, Here's to the state of Mississippi (1964)



      4000 -- Tina Modotti: Woman with Flag ARCHIVE



      http://www.totentanz.de/kmedeke/anarchis.htm


      ?
      4000 -- Come, get out of the way, boys Quick, get out of the way You'd better watch what you say, boys Better watch what you say We've rammed in your harbor & tied to your port & our pistols are hungry & our tempers are short So bring your daughters around to the port 'Cause we're the Cops of the World, boys We're the Cops of the World Our boots are needing a shine, boys Boots are needing a shine But our Coca-cola is fine, boys Coca-cola is fine We've got to protect all our citizens fair So we'll send a battalion for everyone there & maybe we'll leave in a couple of years 'Cause we're the Cops of the World, boys We're the Cops of the World




      ?
      4000 -- LIBERTAD



      4000 --

      Rare, Out-of Print & Non-Existent Books

      --bookstore sign in Jacksonville, Florida


      4000 -- WARNING: Do not put head inside towel loop. --sign on towel dispensers on Washington State Ferries.







      4000 -- KOREA GREEN CROSS WINS EXCLUSIVE RIGHTS TO DIARRHEA --headline from the Korean Economic Weekly






      4000 -- "Being taken hostage is an adventure for the tourist, because the tourist will end up learning about the customs of the tribes as well as their good hospitality." --Abdullah Ahmar, speaker of Yemeni parliament, on the practice of taking foreign visitors hostage.




      ?
      4000 -- MORE IMAGES AT THIS SITE che poster — http://www.bananadine.com/101/


      ?
      4000 -- — http://www.northlandposter.com/cgi-bin/Web_store/web_store.cgi?mt=&page=shop-floor&cart_id=2896185.21558


      ?
      4000 --


      4002 -- ANARCHIST ARCHIVE

      Home | What's New | About the Project | D.I.Y. | E-mail
      Red & Black Book Project:
      Posters, Flyers & Pamphlets
      In PDF Format


      Posters


      Flyers & Pamphlets

      Home | What's New | About the Project | D.I.Y. | E-mail

      http://www.radio4all.org/redblack/posters.html




      ?
      4007 -- NY city guiliano


      4008 -- "ALIENS" 1994. UFO Aliens come to the U.S. in search of intelligent life....still looking. ...back next...

      Berry, David. "French Anarchist Volunteers in Spain, 1936-39 : Contribution to a Collective Biography of the French Anarchist Movement" - Appendix 4 - Forty-two French members of the Centurie Sébastien Faure
      Angelo, Joseph No further information. Blot, Roger No further information. Bonin, Raoul No further information. Carbonic/Carbonie, Lucien No further information. Chatelain, Lucien Having gone to Spain early on in the civil war, Chatelain died in combat in March 1937. Representatives of the Union anarchiste, the anarchist Comité pour l’Espagne libre and le Libertaire attended his funeral. Colder, Jacques Colder was a member of the CNT. Couillard, Henri No further information. Danné, Jules No further information. Dejoucklere, Désiré No further information. Ducourneau, Gabriel No further information. Duvernet, Georges No further information. Ethes/Etaes, Louis No further information. Ferrero, Emile No further information. Foilleret, Roger No further information. Gessaume, Georges According to the DBMOF, a Georges ‘Gesseaume’ volunteered to fight in Republican Spain, fought at Zapadores and was posted missing at Tortosa, 26 July 1938. Goirand, Jules The anarchist Goirand, also known under the pseudonym Transcoserp, was 41 in 1936. He was a member of the Century probably from its creation until at least the end 1937. Grignon Grignon was the ‘political delegate’ of the century in February 1937 Grimalt, Paul No further information. Hachon, Gaston No further information. Jorat, Georges This was the pseudonym adopted by the 16 year old Georges Sossenko in order to prevent his parents tracking him down. He was present at Caspe, at Azaila and on the Ebro. Léger, Robert Born in 1915, Léger was a member of the Conseil de la Chambre syndicale des cuisiniers (CGT) in Paris, of the Jeunesses syndicalistes and of the Jeunesses anarchistes comunistes, and originally went as a representative of his union to work at the International Brigades’ HQ as a cook. [1] Forced to leave for political reasons, he went to Barcelona, where he worked for internal security and border control. At some point - though it is unclear exactly when - he was also a member of the Centurie S. Faure. Lemoine, Marius No further information. Lesenne, Alfred No further information. Letdely, Fernand Leyteron, Jean Martin, Jean A Martin - but which ? - was delegate of the Century at the end of 1936. Jean Martin was still at the front in July 1937. Martin, Paul See above. Mayol, Jean Mayol was a member of the Century from early on in the war until at least the end of 1937. Monnard, Georges Monnard was delegate of the ‘1st Century’ of the IG of the Durruti Column (ie. the S. Faure Century). He was killed in an attack on Quinto in December 1936, having only joined the Century a short while before Montagut, Marcel---Is this the same Marcel Montagut who was a member of the Union anarchiste in Paris and managing editor of le Libertaire in 1930-32 ? Mougeot, André Mougeot was a member of the Century around July 1937. Neveu, René-A. Neveu was a member of the Century around October 1936. O., S. O., S. was a member of the Century around July 1937. Odéon, Pierre The 33 year old Odéon was a leading member of the UA, the Comité pour l’Espagne libre and, later, Solidarité internationale antifasciste. At the front at Caspe in August 1936, he helped create the Century. Having returned to do propaganda work in France in September, he rejoined the Century and took part in battles at Farlete and Perdiguera Ortolani, René No further information. Patou, Lucien No further information. Roche, Georges Joseph Roche was with the Century from October 1936 to January 1937. When arrested on his return to France, he told police he had been ‘recruited’ by the UA. Rohard, Fernand No further information. Rousseles, Albert No further information. Segara, Augustin Turmo, Antoine The anarcho-syndicalist Turmo was a member of the Century until at least November 1936. Wittner, Alexander No further information. [1] Most of the 19 other volunteer cooks sent to Albacete were also either anarchists or revolutionary socialists - we know nothing more about them. Contribution de : CREAGH Ronald Dernières modifications : 12 avril 2005 BERRY, David Cet auteur a également écrit : Dans une autre langue : ‘Fascism or Revolution !’ Anarchism and Antifascism in France, 1933-39 (en) Berry, David. "French Anarchist Volunteers in Spain, 1936-39 : Contribution to a Collective Biography of the French Anarchist Movement" - Appendix 6 - (en) Berry, David. "French Anarchist Volunteers in Spain, 1936-39 : Contribution to a Collective Biography of the French Anarchist Movement" - Appendix 1 - (en) Berry, David. "French Anarchist Volunteers in Spain, 1936-39 : Contribution to a Collective Biography of the French Anarchist Movement" - Appendix 5 - (en) Berry, David. "French Anarchist Volunteers in Spain, 1936-39 : Contribution to a Collective Biography of the French Anarchist Movement" - Appendix 3 - (en) Berry, David. "French Anarchist Volunteers in Spain, 1936-39 : Contribution to a Collective Biography of the French Anarchist Movement" (en) French Volunteers in Spain 1936 - 1939 : Contribution to a Collective Biography of the French Anarchist Movement (en) French Anarchist Volunteers in Spain, 1936-39 : (en) (...)




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      4009 -- bogart maltese falcon



      ?
      4009 --


      ?
      4500 --



      ?
      4500 -- sun




       ?
      4500 -- spooky lightning & shack image archive




      ?
      4500 -- miniearth

      http://members.xoom.com/AnarchoPoet/index2.html


      ?
      4500 -- MASON BOOK




      4500 -- postcard web sites http://www.suba.com/~noodles/postcard_obsessed/websites.html


      ?
      4500 -- 999.JPG



      ?
      4500 -- HIT PARADE




      ?
      4500 -- liberaire



      ?
      4500 -- IMAGES8



      ?
      4500 -- Shoplift



      4500 --
      http://www.3dtextmaker.com/cgi-bin/3dtext.pl

       ?
      4500 --



      ?
      4500 --


      4500 -- Trace the history of American Science Fiction from its beginnings to today, from the Golden Age to Cyberpunk. Find out what science fiction can tell us in the strange days of the 20th (and 21st?) century. Space ships, the Bomb, time travel, fantastic worlds, robots & androids, Women of Wonder, paranoid revelations, adventures in cyberspace -- JACK IN!


      4500 -- tons of links pk dick P.K. dick The OFFICIAL PKD FAQ is largely free of this problem... it was the second thing I made on the Web back in 1994... you can see some horrendous HTML if you look at the code, though I've been updating it slowly. So, seeing as how the OFFICIAL PKD FAQ is such a solid (if modest) place on the Internet (2000 hits per month), I will rescind my anti-plagarism rule & start grabbing everything I see. If one of your PKD resources goes offline, please take a moment & notify me at regulus@interport.net, & if I have it, I will take possession of the data & publish it. 1.Viewing Philip K. Dick Frequently Asked Questions (and answers) Overview/Biography by J.Margot Biographies Pictures! 2.Philip K. Dick, his work PKD Novels PKD in Other Languages PKD Short Stories Short Story Collections PKD's Non-Fiction http://www.users.interport.net/~regulus/pkd/pkd-int.html?92,64



      4500 -- Welcome to the American Science Fiction Interactive Timeline!

      This timetable lists the publication dates of major works of (mainlyAmerican) SF & allows you to explore events in politics, culture, & science on the WWW that occurred at the same time. This timetable is intended as an aid in understanding the cultural background of American SF.

      The timeline is divided into 4 periods: 1888-1914: The Post-Bellamy Years 1914-1938: Early SF & Pulp Magazines 1938-1950: The "Golden" Age 1950-present: Modern Science Fiction

      http://www.utexas.edu/dce/eimc/Web/scifi/jump.html?158,55



       ?
      4500 -- happy face bendy archie mcphee



       ?
      4500 -- radical librarian image http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/Cafe/7423/radlib.html



       ?
      4500 -- lenny Bruce image NOT BEEN USED AS OF 10/18/98



       ?
      4500 -- NEGRO LEAGUES BASEBALL POSTER IMAGE



      4500 -- Links to MORE frog Art for the unsatiable frog fanatics!

      Don't forget to visit the Frog of the Month! Oh yeah, & have you tried the Froggy Coloring Book? If you're looking for photos of a specific type of frog, check the Species Caresheet for that species, & dont forget all the links on the caresheet! If you are trying to identify a frog, you may want to try looking at regional guides: there are some online (look in the Leaping Pad under Regional Guides. Sandra's Froggy Page "Froggy Pictures" Has tons of photos (under Froggy Images ), Color & Black & White Froggy Clip Art, not to mention animated http://www.teleport.com/~dstroy/gallery/stillmore.html
      http://frog.simplenet.com/froggy/pictures.shtml

      ?
      4503 -- ? MOVING IMAG, EACH 18TH IF SUITABLE

      USED ON AUG 18


       ?
      4506 -- Burroughs


      ?
      4509 -- ANARCHIST IMAGE ARCHIVE REVOLUTIONARY ANARCHIST YOUTH



      4509 -- Nice collection of poster images from Spanish Revolution of 1936 (not anarchist posters, but...) ANARCHIST IMAGE ARCHIVE



      http://orpheus.ucsd.edu/speccoll/posters/vindex/index.html


      ?
      4509 -- Bound Together Mural Color Postcard

      Remembering American Anarchism - A mural by Susan Greene. This mural is painted on the side wall of Bound Together Anarchist Collective Bookstore in San Fransisco. They are located at 1369 Haight Street, San Fransisco, California 94117. If you are in the neighborhood, give them a visit. Back Row: 1) Albert Parsons 2) Lucy Parsons 3) Voltairine de Cleyre 4) Tom Mooney 5) Kozmick Ladye 6) Rinaldo Iturrino 7) Tyron Kennan 8) Emmett Grogan 9) Emma Goldman 10) Alexander Berkman Front Row: 11) Bartolomeo Vanzetti 12) Niccola Sacco 13) Enrique Flores Magon 14) Ricardo Flores Magón 15) Julian Beck 16) Judith Malina 18) Mollie Steimer 19) Senya Fleshin 20) Marcus Graham Backup copy of image Bound Together Mural on floppy archive disk Bleed #1 6/99






      ?
      4519 -- WORKERS CONTROL SPAIN

      http://www.liberipensieri.net/storia/spagna4.htm


      ?
      4600 --


      4700 -- Who gave the lecture The Impossibilities of Anarchism.... ... & who replied by writing The Impossibilities of Social Democracy?
      George B. Shaw, Vernon Richards replied about 60 years later (who says anarchists ain't up to date?).




       ?
      4998 --




      4999 --

      Dead Pigeon on Beethoven Street (1972)
      Action/Adventure
      Samuel Fuller
      (PG, Action/Adventure, 1 hr 42 min, Color)
       
      Summary: A government agent double & triple-crosses politicos by planting incriminating evidence on them in this pre-Watergate paranoia-fest.
       

       ?

      This:
      on our own,
      we move down the cuts of the streets,
      through the wet lamps,
      the staid sewers,
      and sleep in the pigeon alleys together.
      For I spent the first in Greenwich...
      You should have been there,
      and we could have shared
      the cool rain off the air-conditioners.
      I would have brushed aside the final
      dealer
      and kept you from the flesh addiction Death.



      Ode to Old Bill Lee by chris koch  





      4999 -- Oliver J. Pigeon's Homepage!!! Tons of links. http://www.azpigeons.org/links.htm


      5000 -- Moscow & Us (1920) by Otto Rühle
      New translation of a text written like 'Report from Moscow' on Rühle's return from the second congress of the Communist International.
    • Letter on Workers Councils (1952) by Anton Pannekoek
      New translation of a short letter to a German journal.

    • Pour une critique de l'idéologie anti-militariste (1975) by Jean Barrot (in French)
    • The Slow Burning Fuse by John Quail (1978) Added Chapters 6 & 7
    • 6 The Walsall Anarchists
    • 7 H. B. Samuels & the Commonweal
    • Added a lot of new links including :
      The Communist left in Russia after 1920 by Ian Hebbes Before his untimely death Ian Hebbes was working on a collection of texts by Russian communist left groups. This is a version of the introduction. [Marxist Labor Party site]

      New on the new Red & Black Notes website :
      Martin Glaberman - Revolutionary optimist Interview with Glaberman

    • Crawling from the Wreckage - Some thoughts on the Rebuilding the Left initiative (Toronto)
    • On Workplace Organization
    • New on the Class Against Class site :
      The Limits Of Matticks Economics : Economic Law & Class Struggle - by Ron Rothbart
    • New on the Troploin site :
    • Autre temps (2001) by JP.Carasso, G.Dauvé, D.Martineau, K.Nesic.
      Autres temps: Alice in Monsterland (English version of above) The english version is shorter and extensively rewritten
    • New on the Break Their Haughty Power site :
      Ontological "Difference" & the Neo-Liberal War on the Social: Deconstruction and Deindustrialization by Loren Goldner (2001)
    • An American National Bolshevik: Book Review of Kevin Coogan's Dreamer of the Day by Loren Goldner (2001)
    • Translation of "A Thousand Triumphant Ubus," from Votre Révolution n'est pas la mienne(1999) by Alain Tizon & François Lonchampt
    • New on the Killing King Abacus site a new edition of the journal :
      Notes on Insurrectionary Anarchism
      A Few Notes on Alienation
      Notes Toward a New Analysis of the Institutions of Domination
      Civilization & History: A Comment on John Conner's The Rise of the West
      Parody & Subversion: Notes on Roles
      Activism & Anarcho-Purism
      YaBasta: Politics Dressed in White Overalls
      Never Cry Wolf
      Brittle Utopias
      At the Center of the Volcano
      The End of the World by Mare Almani
      We Go On by Albert Libertad
      The Anarchist Ethic in the Age of the Anti-Globalization Movement
      Where Do We Meet Face to Face
      Alienation, Marvelous Pursuits & the New Nomadic Sciences
      A Balanced Account of the World: A Critical Look at the Scientific World View
      Money & Logos
      The Ferocious Jaws of Habit by Mare Almani
      China : Capitalist Discipline and Rising Protests

      New on the Kurasje site :
      The 'Bremen Left' around Johan Knief and Anton Pannekoek (in german)
      The circles around 'Proletarische Zeitgeist' (in german)
      New on the Robin Goodfellow site :
      Chronique de l'Etat (in french)
      New on the Wildcat (UK/US) site :
      May Day, Riots & Justice (May 2001)
      San Francisco Anarchist Conference (3-25-2001)

      Two websites have re-appeared but one seems to have gone off-line :-
      The A.D.E.L site is back on-line at a new URL though not all the links work yet

      The Brousse Collective site is also back
      "After a long silence due to the hacking of our website by a stupid & infantile guy, here we are again with new & older texts at the following address"

      New texts include :
      "Anarchist" !?, "Communist" !?
      Declaration of the Brousse Collective
      About conferentism
      The Theorie Communiste site has been offline for some weeks now

      Lastly links sections have been added for Love & Treason, Alienation com & Le Point d'Interrogations




      ?
      5000 -- — http://images.anarchosyndicalism.org/subversion/


      5000 --

    • Google


      Search WWW Search www.acluutah.org
      We are not responsible for the advertising links that
      Google promotes



      5001 --

      The Dead Pigeon River

      Did Champion International's Dioxin Pollution
      Create a "Widowsville" in North Carolina?


      By Anna Manzo & Scott Harris


      Even as a five-year-old in 1947, Mary Woody knew there was something wrong with the Pigeon River, which flowed behind her great-grandfather's home in Hartford, Tennessee. "It had foot-high white foam floating along the top, was brown in color & smelled like rotten eggs," Woody says. "But now it's not the smell that bothers us; it's the dioxin."




      5002 -- which Malatesta did in this Appeal & the Productor of Barcelona had done in discussing the subject when the aggressiveness of the communist anarchist groups of Madrid & of Gracia brought it to the front (1887);s. "La Revolte," July 9, August 6, 13, 1887.

      The editor of the "Productor" remarks that the question of distribution of the fruits of labor cannot be solved before the transformation of property & the abolition of governments; hence he appeals that this question be left aside for each group to be settled in their own way. etc.

      Malatesta took the point up again in his London speech of Aug. 3, 1890. which he himself resumed in the "Revolte"; of October 4 The same standpoint is again taken by a comrade of the ---Productor," writing in the "Revolte" of Sept.6 & 13, 1890 (dated Barcelona, Aug. 7): We are anarchists, we preach anarchy without an adjective. Anarchy is an axiom, the economic question is a secondary matter. This writer also contrasts Kropotkin 's "industrial village" (local production of everything) & Malatesta's views which may imply the exchange of products between large organizations in different parts, etc.

      There is no question that the Spanish exponent of this idea was Tarrida del Marmol, who probably discussed the subject also in his long speech at the international meetings held in Paris in SEPTEMBER, 1889, where I first saw him, & whom I heard more than once plead for "anarchism sans phrase", or "anarchism without a label." this online version [missing pages 44-51] Errico Malatesta The Biography of an Anarchist A Condensed Sketch of Malatesta from the book written by by Max Nettlau Published by the Jewish Anarchist Federation New York City. 1924




      5005 --

      "If little green men land in your back yard, hide any little green women you've got in the house.

      -- Mike Harding, The Armchair Anarchist's Almanac",


      5006 -- UPDATE
      Chu, also a native of Chekiang, went to Japan in 1903, studying political science & economics. He travelled to Europe in 1908, with Chang, & shortly thereafter, became involved in the anarchist movement.

      Chu was to remain in France until shortly after the outbreak of World War I, when he returned to China. But a few years later, he went back to Paris to study medicine & pharmacy. In this period, he participated in the establishment of the "University of Lyons" which will be discussed later. Chu's life ended in tragedy.

      After many years of service to the Kuomintang, in 1939 he threw in his lot With his old friend, Wang Ching-wei, & accepted the post of Minister of Foreign Affairs in Wang's Nanking government. After the allied victory in 1945, Chu was arrested & put to death. The Chinese Anarchist Movement, by R. Scalapino & G. T. Yu (1961). http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/worldwidemovements/scalapino.html



      5015 -- CONTENTS

      Reflections of a Proletarian. By Joseph Ishill VI

      To Elisée & Elie Reclus (verse) BY Rose Florence Freeman XVI

      Essays, Tributes & Appreciations by: PAGE PAGE PAUL RECLUS 1

      GUSTAVE BROCHER 105

      ELIE FAURE 27

      NADAR 109

      PROF. ALBERT HEIM 31

      L. GUERINEAU 117

      E. ARMAND (verse) 33

      HENRI SENSINE 121

      JEAN GRAVE 35

      Pierre Ramus 123

      ANNE COBDEN-SANDERSON 43

      WM. C. OWEN 127

      HAVELOCK ELLIS 47

      B. P. VANDERVOO 133

      PETER Kropotkin 55

      EDWARD ROTHEN 143

      CH. APPUHN 65

      PROF. PATRICK GEDDES 151

      HENRY S. SALT 67

      ZAMFIR C. ARBORE-RALLI 159

      Luigi Galleani LUIGI GALLEANI 69

      DR. N. ROUBAKINE 165

      DR. M. PIERROT 73

      LUIGI FABBRI 175

      BERNARD LAZARE 77

      JACQUES MESNIL 181

      FRANSOIS DUMARTHERAY 83

      DR. MAX NETTLAU 197

      JACQUES GROSS 85

      PROF. PAUL GHIO 209

      A. PRATELLE 87

      THERESE DEJONGH 221

      AMY PUTNAM 91

      ELISÉE RECLUS 241

      RICHARD HEATH 93

      JOHANN MOST 324

      L. ZIBELIN-WILMERDING 101

      C

      see pages at http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/bright/reclus/ishill/toc.html





  • ?
    5016 -- ANARCHIST ENCYCLOPEDIA ARCHIVES: Nicolas Walter

    Anarchism & Religion

    Thus the French Encyclopdie Anarchiste (1932) included an article on Atheism by Gustave Brocher: `A Denis Diderot (who both wanted to see `the last king strangled in the guts of the last priest') & Voltaire (whose motto was `Ecrasez l'infeme!'), Richard Carlile (who led the shift towards both atheism & anarchism).

    All progressive thought, culminating in humanism, depends on the assumption that every single human being has the right to think for himself or herself; & all progressive politics, culminating in anarchism, depends on the assumption that every single human being has the right to act for himself or herself. (A point worth mentioning is the connection of anarchism, as of liberalism & socialism, with the alternative religion of Freemasonry, to which several leading anarchists have belonged Proudhon, Bakunin, Louise Michel, Ferrer, Voline, & so on.) There is no doubt that the prevailing strain within the anarchist tradition is opposition to religion. William Godwin, the author of the Enquiry Concerning Political Justice (1793), the first systematic text of libertarian politics, was a Calvinist minister who began by rejecting Christianity, & passed through deism to atheism & then what was later called agnosticism. Max Stirner, the author of The Individual & His Property (1845), the most extreme text of libertarian politics, began as a left-Hegelian, post-Feuerbachian atheist, rejecting the `spooks' of religion as well as of politics including the spook of `humanity'. Proudhon, the first person to call himself an anarchist, who was well known for saying, `Property is theft', also said, `God is evil' & `God is the eternal X'. Bakunin, the main founder of the anarchist movement, attacked the Church as much as the State, & wrote an essay which his followers later published as God & the State (1882), in which he inverted Voltaire's famous saying & proclaimed: `If God really existed, he would have to be abolished.' Kropotkin, Errico Malatesta & Carlo Cafiero, the main founders of the Italian anarchist movement, both came from freethinking families (and Cafiero was involved with the National Secular Society when he visited London during the 1870s). Elisée & Elie Reclus, the best-loved French anarchists, were the sons of a Calvinist minister, & began by rejecting religion before they moved on to anarchism. Sébastien Faure, the most active speaker & writer in the French movement for half a century, was intended for the Church & began by rejecting Catholicism & passing through anti-clericalism & socialism on the way to anarchism. André Lorulot, a leading French individualist before the First World War, was then a leading freethinker for half a century. Johann Most, the best-known German anarchist for a quarter of a century, who wrote ferocious pamphlets on the need for violence to destroy existing society, also wrote a ferocious pamphlet on the need to destroy supernatural religion called The God Plague (1883). Multatuli (Eduard Douwes Dekker), the great Dutch writer, was a leading atheist as well as anarchist. Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis, the best-known Dutch anarchist, was a Calvinist minister who began by rejecting religion before passing through socialism on the way to anarchism. Anton Constandse was a leading Dutch anarchist & freethinker.
    Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman, the best-known Jewish American anarchists, began by rejecting Judaism & passing through populism on the way to anarchism. Rudolf Rocker, the German leader of the Jewish anarchists in Britain, was another child of the Enlightenment & spoke & wrote on secular as much as political subjects. In Spain, the largest anarchist movement in the world, which has often been described as a quasi-religious phenomenon, was in fact profoundly naturalistic & secularist & anti-Christian as well as anti-clerical. Francisco Ferrer, the well-known Spanish anarchist who was judicially murdered in 1909, was best known for founding the Modern School which tried to give secular education in a Catholic country. The two best-known American anarchists today (both of Jewish origin) are Murray Bookchin, who calls himself an ecological humanist, & Noam Chomsky, who calls himself a scientific rationalist. Two leading figures of a younger generation, Fred Woodworth & Chaz Bufe, are militant atheists as well as anarchists. & so on.

    This pattern prevails in Britain. Not only William Godwin but nearly all libertarians have been opposed to orthodox religion as well as orthodox politics William Morris, Oscar Wilde, Charlotte Wilson, Joseph Lane, Henry Seymour (who was active in the National Secular Society before he helped to found the British anarchist movement), James Tochatti (who was active in the British Secular Union before he turned to socialism & anarchism), Alfred Marsh (the son of the son-in-law of G. J. Holyoake, who founded the secularist movement), Guy Aldred (who rapidly moved from evangelical Christianity through secularism & socialism to anarcho-syndicalism). & of course Shelley is the poet laureate of atheists & anarchists alike.

    There have been few serious studies of anarchist psychology, but those that do exist agree that the first step on the way to anarchism is frequently the rejection of religion. Nevertheless, there are plenty of exceptions to this rule. In Britain, for example, Edward Carpenter was a mystic, Herbert Read saw anarchism as a religious philosophy, Alex Comfort moved from scientific to quasi-religious humanism, Colin MacInnes saw anarchism as a kind of religion; in the United States, Paul Goodman rejected Judaism but retained some kind of religion, & New Age nonsense has infected anarchists as well as so many other radicals. But the great exception is the phenomenon of Christian anarchism & religious anarcho-pacifism.

    Above all, Leo Tolstoy, who rejected all orthodoxies of both religion & politics, exerted a powerful double pressure towards anarchism "although he always repudiated the anarchist movement & towards religion by pushing Christians towards his idiosyncratic version of anarchism as much as he pushed anarchists towards his idiosyncratic version of Christianity. He influenced the Western peace movement (including such figures as Bart de Ligt & Aldous Huxley, Danilo Dolci & Ronald Sampson), & also movements in the Third World (especially India, including such figures as M. K. Gandhi & J. P. Narayan). A similar development in the United States is the Catholic Worker movement (including such figures as Dorothy Day & Ammon Hennacy).

    So the conclusion is that there is indeed a strong correlation between anarchism & atheism, but that it is not complete, & it is not necessary. Most anarchists are non-religious or anti-religious & most take their atheism for granted but some anarchists are religious. There are therefore several valid libertarian views of religion. Perhaps the most persuasive & productive one was that expressed by Karl Marx (before he became a 'Marxist') in the famous passage from his essay Towards the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right (1844): Religious distress is at the same time an expression of real distress & a protest against real distress. Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, the soul of a soulless situation. It is the opium of the people. The abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of the people is required for their real happiness. The demand to give up the illusions about their condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusions. The criticism of religion is therefore in embryo the criticism of the vale of tears whose halo is religion.

    The true anarchist attitude to religion is surely to attack not faith or the Church so much as what it is in so many people that needs faith & the Church, just as the truly anarchist attitude to politics is surely to attack not obedience or the State so much as what it is in most people that needs obedience & the State the will to believe & the will to obey. & the last anarchist hope about both religion & politics is that, just as the Church once seemed necessary to human existence but is now withering away, so the State still seems necessary to human existence but will also wither away, until both institutions finally disappear. We may yet end with Neither God nor master!

    Based on a talk given at the South Place Ethical Society on 14 July 1991. Back to Freedoms' home page Based on a talk given at the South Place Ethical Society on 14 July 1991. Back to Freedoms' home page http://noleaders.net/anok/features/walter/






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    7000 -- Asa Baber 1936 -

    People who read Playboy magazine for the articles are probably familiar with the work of Asa Baber. Through his column "Men," he has championed the cause of men's liberation. His best-known book, "Naked at the Gender Gap: A Man's View of the War Between the Sexes," is a collection of his columns, but Baber has also published a novel ("The Land of a Million Elephants") & two collections of short stories. "Naked at the Gender Gap" made him a popular guest on talk shows. Baber was born in Chicago, where his mother was a journalist, & attended Princeton University and Northwestern University. He also has an M.F.A. from the University of Iowa. Before coming to "Playboy," he taught at Robert College in Istanbul, Turkey, & the University of Hawaii.

    Works:

    The Land of a Million Elephants, 1970 Tranquility Base & Other Stories, 1979 Naked at Gender Gap: A Man's View of the War Between the Sexes, 1992 Papagenos & Other Stories, 1993

    http://centerstage.net/literature/whoswho/AsaBaber.html


    7000 -- Paul Carroll 1927 -

    Editor & poet Paul Carroll was born in Chicago, and earned his M.A. from the University of Chicago in 1952. He was the editor of "Big Table" magazine from 1959 to 61, and then worked as a book editor.

    Works:

    The Luke Poems, 1971 New & Selected Poems, 1978 Odes: Poems 1952-68, 1969 The Poem in its Skin, 1968 Poems, 1988 http://centerstage.net/literature/whoswho/PaulCarroll.html


    7000 -- INDEXAE

    Radical Novel: 1900 - 1954

    By Paul Garon
    Copyright © 1994 Paul Garon
    Used by permission.

    One day back in the seventies, I was browsing through Walter B. Rideout's The Radical Novel in the United States, 1900-1954 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1956). Many of the authors discussed were then unknown to me: Robert Cantwell, George Allan England, Josephine Herbst, to name a few, but I'd heard of Howard Fast & I'd read Nelson Algren, Upton Sinclair, Richard Wright, James T. Farrell & a few others. At this time, my wife & I were just starting Beasley Books. We discussed Rideout & the books he cited. The novels were intriguing, we enjoyed the ones we had read, & they were an important attempt to view American history from a radical & working class perspective. They documented the rise of organized labor in the US, while they confronted such issues as the growth of corporate industry & the centralization of finance, rapid urbanization, immigration, & the changing status of women & blacks. We decided to add to our already existing specialty of modern literature the categories of fiction, poetry & plays by writers on the left.

    Rideout seemed a good place to start. He defined the radical novel as "one which demonstrates, either explicitly or implicitly, that its author objects to the human suffering imposed by some socioeconomic system & advocates that the system be fundamentally changed." The final clause is the most important, for many novelists sympathized with the victims of the system without advocating fundamental changes to the system itself.

    For Rideout, the first such novel, in the twentieth century, was I. K. Friedman's By Bread Alone (1901), a novel inspired by labor struggles at Homestead, Pennsylvania, in 1892. Isaac Kahn Friedman was a Chicago Socialist & settlement-house worker who later became a successful journalist, but he never lost his radical perspective. His novel was a harbinger of the transformation in socialist thought from "utopian" to "scientific" socialism, but the literary tendencies toward utopias, romance & sentiment still exerted a strong pull, & it took at least a decade for more materialist viewpoints to win out in the minds of the socialist novelists.

    Two other works highly thought of at the time were Edwin Brenholtz's "romance of the future," The Recording Angel (1905) & Leroy Scott's union novel, The Walking Delegate (1905) -- both seem slightly dated now -- but the first radical novel to have serious social consequences in the twentieth century was Upton Sinclair's The Jungle. As a young man, Sinclair had primed himself with Cervantes, Hugo, George Eliot, Dickens & most of all, Thackeray, but it was the hardship of trying to support himself with his writing, combined with his reading of the socialist Wilshire's magazine, that ultimately converted him to Socialism. He intended The Jungle to open the eyes of America to the evils of wage slavery, & he was stunned when his novel was instead seized upon as an exposé of the unsanitary stockyard & meat-packing industry. He may have contributed to the the passing of the Pure Food & Drug Act, but that had not been his aim. The Doubleday edition of The Jungle preceded Sinclair's own Jungle Publishing Company imprint by a few hours, but collectors prefer the latter edition with the Socialist Party symbol on the front board and, hopefully, a Sustainer's Edition bookplate on the front pastedown. Make sure your copy is one of the earliest ones to come off the press, with "1906" in perfect type on the copyright page.

    Sinclair founded the Intercollegiate Socialist Society in 1905 & Jack London, who was already famous by this time, was its first President. London had set his sights on becoming a professional writer, but his more revolutionary material didn't sell particularly well. Indeed, the dystopian The Iron Heel is his only novel to be cited by Rideout, although a case could be made for several others, including the short stories Goliah & The Dream of Debs in Revolution & Other Essays (1910). Another well-known personality of the era who turned out at least one radical novel was George Cram Cook, organizer of the Provincetown Players. His The Chasm was first published in 1911 in yellow cloth, but later copies were bound in cloths of other colors.

    The writers who produced radical fiction in the first decades of the twentieth century tended to favor certain subjects, & while the details changed with each passing decade, the essential themes that attracted their attention did not: These themes included conversion to Socialism, fantasies about the coming of Socialism to America, labor struggles, the viciousness of the rich, & the sexual depravity of the capitalist male. The writers who produced these many works ranged from the obscure to the well-known, according to today's standards, but in their own time, nearly all of them were prolific journalists or novelists.

    Arthur Bullard ("Albert Edwards"), a staff member of the socialist newspaper The Call, wrote Comrade Yetta, wherein a young girl's experiences in the garment trade lead her to Socialism via the IWW (Industrial Workers of the World). It is in this novel that the IWW is first given serious treatment, but at least two novels were written by IWW members, & both are legendarily scarce: Charles Ashleigh's Rambling Kid (1930) & Harold Lord Varney's Revolt (1919). Ashleigh migrated from the UK to the US where he joined the IWW, but he returned to England subsequently. Varney soon repudiated his leftist cohorts, & became first a Republican, & then a supporter of Italian fascism.

    A vivid & accurate picture of class struggles is depicted in Ernest Poole's best-seller The Harbor, an impressive radical novel whose message so struck the book-buying public that it quickly went through 22 printings! Finding a first printing is far from easy, however. Other novels of the teens to depict labor troubles are James Oppenheim's The Nine-Tenths (1911) & Upton Sinclair's King Coal (1917). To this list one could add a few less substantial but still affecting works: Florence Converse's The Children of Light (1912), Zoe Beckley's A Chance to Live & Walter Hurt's The Scarlet Shadow, published by The Appeal to Reason in 1907. While several of these novels were inspired by the tragic garment district fire at the Triangle Waist Company in 1911, Hurt's novel was based on the Western Federation of Miners' Colorado bombing case of 1905. In this case, IWW leader Big Bill Haywood, Charles Moyer, & George Pettibone were kidnapped in Denver & taken to Idaho to stand trial for the death by bombing of ex-Governor of Idaho Frank Steunenberg. The three were acquitted, partly due to the expert legal defense engineered by Clarence Darrow.

    The ebb & flow in the growth of the radical movement seemed to be reflected in the number of radical novels produced each decade, & by this standard, the teens & twenties were thin years, indeed. But the novels that were written then are not without interest. Among the fantasy novels of the coming era of Socialism, George Allan England's Darkness & Dawn (1914) trilogy (published in one volume), The Golden Blight (1916) & The Air Trust (1915) are the most intriguing, & the latter title was cited by Lyman Tower Sargent in British & American Utopian Literature 1516-1975. England's work is briskly sold in the science fiction & fantasy markets of today, but few are aware of his importance from a radical perspective. He even ran as a Socialist candidate for Governor of the State of Maine in 1912.

    The evils of the capitalist attracted the attention of many writers, but the most sophisticated novel emphasizing the lack of moral principles among the rich was Abraham Cahan's The Rise of David Levinsky (1917). James Medill Patterson's A Little Brother of the Rich (1908) is also noteworthy partly because the wealthy author, having finished his brush with Socialism, went on to found the reactionary Chicago TRIBUNE & the (equally reactionary) New York Daily News. Like The Harbor, this radical novel was reprinted several times shortly after its release, & one must open many copies--after rejecting the Grosset & Dunlap editions--before finding one without a later printing statement.

    Reginald Wright Kauffman's The House of Bondage (1910) (reprinted 16 times in two years), Hutchins Hapgood's An Anarchist Woman (1909), Sinclair's Sylvia's Marriage (1914) & Damaged Goods (1913), Elias Tobenkin's The Road (1922), Floyd Dell's Moon-Calf (1920) & The Briary-Bush (1921), as well as Max Eastman's Venture (1927) & Estelle Baker's The Rose Door (1911), all deal with sex or prostitution. The Rose Door also poses some interesting bibliographic problems. There are a number of copies with 1911 on the title page, some of which were issued with plates & some of which were not. Further, there are also obvious later printings with a 1913 title page date, with plates (and tissue guards). These plates, however, are different than the plates in the 1911 copies! We know from the publisher's archives that on several occasions Baker did give money to the Charles H. Kerr Company (her publisher), & it's possible that the pattern of her donations determined which printings were illustrated & which were not, but priority is impossible to assign at the present time.

    The period under discussion was also characterized by immigrant novels like Elias Tobenkin's Witte Arrives (1916), political novels like I. K. Friedman's The Radical (1907), & anti-war novels like Upton Sinclair's Jimmie Higgins (1919). Institutionalized religion was attacked in Kauffman's The Spider's Web (1913), free love celebrated in Bullard's A Man's World (1912), & the new woman heralded in Vida Scudder's A Listener In Babel (1903) & Oppenheim's The Nine-Tenths, among others. The contradictions besetting such a woman were explored by Henry Berman in Worshippers (1906), while Mary Marcy's Out of the Dump was one of two novels cited by Rideout for their attacks on organized charity. The other was Caroline H. Pemberton's The Charity Girl, never published as a book, but serialized in The International Socialist Review. The breadth of subject matter for these novelists is wider than it first appeared.

    To more fully comprehend the goals of these works & their creators, one can investigate other manifestations of the radical social thought that produced them, & the easiest way to do this is to browse through copies of The International Socialist Review (1900-1918), The Masses (1911-1917), The Liberator (1918-1924) & New Masses (1926-1948). Understanding the contributions these authors made to the radical press of their day reveals them as diverse & intriguing. James Oppenheim, for example, was a prolific poet, a lay analyst & an early follower of C. G. Jung, & the founder & editor of The Seven Arts, an important literary magazine of the time. Vida Scudder was an active Christian Socialist, Mary Marcy was an editor of The International Socialist Review, while Henry Berman had six plays published by Brentano's in 1931. Daniel Aaron's Writers on the Left (NY: Harcourt, 1961) is an illuminating work in understanding the cultural networks that linked these writers & their causes.

    Among the few radical novels written in the 1920s are highspots like Agnes Smedley's Daughter of Earth (1929) & Samuel Ornitz' anonymously issued -- & enormously popular -- Haunch, Paunch, & Jowl (1923). The 1920s also witnessed the first appearance of Jim Tully's novels of the lower classes, for example, Beggars of Life (1924), as well as Upton Sinclair's fine drama about Sacco & Vanzetti, the two-volume Boston (1928). Sinclair co-published many of his own books -- Boston is one example -- but collectors prefer the trade editions to the Sinclair-published editions (with the important exception of The Jungle). Frequently there was no "trade" issue, but with Sinclair's major works, there was usually a Boni & Liveright, a Farrar, or a Viking edition. Sinclair & Ornitz were among the few radical novelists who kept up their radical productions over a period of many decades; twenty-five years after Haunch, Paunch & Jowl, Ornitz was imprisoned as a member of the "Hollywood Ten," the group of Hollywood writers who suffered contempt citations & prison sentences for their refusal to cooperate with the House Committee on Unamerican Activities.

    The main literary events of the twenties weren't "literary" at all, but their force would be considerable in shaping the radical fiction of the 1930s. The first such event was the birth of the Communist Party, with its significant connections to the Soviet Union. The Socialist Party had continued to grow until around 1912, after which its membership began to decline, thanks partly to disagreements about US participation in World War I. This, combined with the jailing of enormous numbers of IWW members & the deportation of anarchists & other radicals, left the radical movement in shambles & the Socialist Party fatally weakened; for the most part, it ceased to be a vital force in US radical politics. Another cataclysmic event was the stock market crash of 1929 & the subsequent Depression. Further, while America was struggling against what seemed like economic disaster, the Soviet Union was heralding the success of its first Five-Year Plan. These forces--the birth of the CP, the wrecking of the IWW & the decline of the SP, & the worsening economic Depression--combined to draw many aspiring writers into the orbit of the Communist Party of the United States.

    Active Communists encouraged the formation of John Reed Clubs in major cities to inspire the writing of proletarian literature, & countless leftist little magazines sprang into being, magazines with names like Anvil (edited by Jack Conroy), Blast, & -- one that hung on -- Partisan Review. Proletarian literature, as a term, was first used by Michael Gold in 1921, but it was his decade-later refinement of the term, endorsed by V. F. Calverton & Waldo Frank, that functioned as the concept under which Marxian fiction of the Depression era would be written & evaluated.

    The 1930s was the decade of Steinbeck's In Dubious Battle (1936) & The Grapes of Wrath (1939), & Dos Passos' The 42nd Parallel (1930) & The Big Money (1936), but Dos Passos favored reform & persuasion, not revolution, & his work, like Steinbeck's -- whose politics were not sufficiently radical either -- went uncited by Rideout. Because of this exclusionary tendency, many collectors resist being confined by Rideout's precision. Indeed, for them The Grapes of Wrath seems to be the epitome of proletarian fiction. But let us remember that it's the revolutionary perspective, the "Marxian viewpoint," of the author that is the guiding principle in determining what is or isn't "proletarian literature." Before breathing a sigh of relief, however, note, too, that even the left was not unified on this matter, & throughout the early thirties, as well as at the 1935 American Writers' Congress, critics were arguing about whether the salient fact of proletarian fiction was the class loyalty of the author, the revolutionary viewpoint of the author, the class membership of the author, or the subject matter of the novel. (See Henry Hart, ed., American Writer's Congress (NY: International, 1935) for some of these discussions, & James F. Murphy's The Proletarian Moment. The Controversy Over Leftism in Literature. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991, for an analysis.))

    For Rideout, who focused on the revolutionary viewpoint of the author, proletarian fiction came chiefly in four varieties: conversion novels, strike novels, novels of middle-class decay, & "bottom dog" novels about the down-and-out. But some books could fit in several categories, & some were difficult to classify at all. One of the most popular of the 1930s novels was Michael Gold's Jews Without Money (1930), more of a fictionalized memoir than a novel, but it was an appealing book that was reprinted dozens of times throughout the decade. Like Jack Conroy's The Disinherited (1933), which sold only 2700 copies, 1000 of which were remaindered, or Henry Roth's stunning Call It Sleep (1935), each of which traces the devlopment of its young & poverty-striken protagonist, it bridles a bit under such a rigid taxonomy, but the utility of Rideout's categories is the way in which they display the main preoccupations of the proletarian writers of the time. The "conversion to Marxism" was also chosen as a theme by authors as diverse as Maxwell Bodenheim (Run, Sheep, Run & Slow Vision), Waldo Frank (The Death & Birth of David Markand), Thomas Boyd (In Time of Peace), Albert Halper (The Foundry), & Meyer Levin (The New Bridge). Bodenheim is, of course, better known for his popular novels like Replenishing Jessica & Naked on Roller Skates & for being a bohemian "character," whereas Thomas Boyd is best known for his sombre anti-war novel, Through the Wheat (1923), & Meyer Levin is best remembered for Compulsion, a novel of the Leopold & Loeb murder case.

    One of the best radical novels from the literary point of view was Robert Cantwell's Land of Plenty (1934), which sold only 3000 copies, a high figure for a proletarian novel. Like Clara Weatherwax's Marching! Marching!, which won the proletarian fiction prize sponsored by New Masses & The John Day Company, it chronicles a strike in the Pacific Northwest, but unlike that work, it has vision & polish more reminiscent of Edward Dahlberg's affecting Bottom Dogs (1930) or Nelson Algren's Somebody in Boots (1935), both novels of the lumpenproletariat, the vagrants, the paupers & the drifters of the US during the 1930s. Algren's book is reported to have sold only 770 copies. But even among the novels of middle-class decay, an admittedly rather dull-sounding category, can be found some of the most accomplished work. Two trilogies stand out: James T. Farrell's Studs Lonigan, consisting of Young Lonigan (1932), The Young Manhood of Studs Lonigan (1934) & Judgment Day (1935), & Josephine Herbst's Pity is Not Enough (1933), The Executioner Waits (1934) & Rope of Gold (1939).

    Rideout cited 16 strike novels of the thirties, but there are few polished novels among among them. It may be that aside from Mary Heaton Vorse, in Strike! (1930), Fielding Burke, in Call Home the Heart (1932), & of course, Robert Cantwell, in Land of Plenty, the other novelists relied too much on the inherent capacity of the strike itself to hold their reader's interest. Vorse was a practiced journalist, & Olive Tilford Dargan's skill were well above average in the works she penned as "Fielding Burke," but even such stalwarts as Sherwood Anderson (Beyond Desire, 1932) turned out weak books for this occasion.

    There were other highspots of thirties radical fiction, however, & these included Edward Anderson's "bottom dogs" novel, Hungry Men (winner of a $1000 DD prize in 1935), Scott Nearing's novel of raciscm, Free Born (1932), William Cunningham's narrative of the armed uprising of Oklahoma farmers, The Green Corn Rebellion (1935), Tom Kromer's Waiting for Nothing (1935), Thomas Bell's All Brides Are Beautiful (1936), Josephine Johnson's strike novel, Jordanstown (1937), Richard Wright's Uncle Tom's Children (1938), & Dalton Trumbo's famed anti-war novel, Johnny Got His Gun (1939). In addition to these works, most of which are cited by Rideout, Daniel Fuchs' Summer in Williamsburg (1934), Homage to Blenholt (1936), & Low Company (1937), Hans Otto Storm's Pity the Tyrant (1937), & B. Traven's The Death Ship (1934) are all examples of radical novels not cited by Rideout. Nearly all of them are scarce. If you're pretty rugged in the delayed gratification department, you can confidently insist that your post-1920 novels have dust jackets, although many have found that setting a dust jacket cut-off point at 1930 or even 1935 makes more sense for them. Your pocketbook will have to help you decide.

    A number of works by women authors are also now being recognized as radical novels. The fact that leftists advocated equal rights for women was no guarantee that women's literary productions would be evaluated "equally". Indeed, Michael Gold's constructed the notion of proletarian literature as an almost completely masculine enterprise by drawing on standard rhetorical stereotypes wherein the bourgeoisie was associated with notions of femininity & decadence while the proletariat was linked to ideas of masculinity, strength, & purity. But the revolutionary women writers recognized that the female body was a site where the contradictions of gender, race & class were often played out, & their work emphasized contraception, abortion, rape, & the repression of sexuality -- "women's issues"!

    Because Rideout limited his 1930s novels to the more explicitly proletarian works that fit Michael Gold's description, books written from the point of view of female leftist intellectuals--important works like Tess Slesingers's The Unpossessed (1934), Lauren Gilfillan's I Went to Pit College (1934), or Mary McCarthy's The Company She Keeps (1942)--were ignored. Bessie Breuer's The Daughter (1938) & Beatrice Bisno's Tomorrow's Bread (1938) are other revolutionary novels ignored by Rideout's criterion but emphasized by Paula Rabinowitz in Labor & Desire. Women's Revolutionary Fiction in Depression America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991), who points out that writers like Monique Wittig, Marge Piercy, & Alice Walker are the heirs to this tradition.

    By the late thirties, the proletarian novel was a dying breed, but what had caused this? And, more important, what replaced it? James T. Farrell, always an independent thinker, had published A Note on Literary Criticism (1936)--well worth a collector's attention -- wherein he plainly confronted the contradictions besetting "proletarian fiction," but this was essentially an aesthetic statement, a literary salvo, whereas it was a combination of political factors that led novelists away from the Communist Party & its aesthetic principles.

    In the late 1930s, both party members & their fellow-travellers, were confronted with the Moscow Trials, the Civil War in Spain, & the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact. Spain became a central focus of activity in the US, unifying the left, & itself becoming the subject of many poems, stories & novels (See Frederick R. Benson's Writers in Arms. The Literary Impact of the Spanish Civil War (NY: NYU, 1967)). But it wasn't long before US Communists had to answer for Stalin's treachery to anarchists, Trotskyists, & other leftists in Spain, & for many US communists, this was impossible to do. This, combined with the wholesale murder of all the "old Bolsheviks" still alive in Russia, & topped off by a "deal" with Hitler, led many intellectuals & writers straight out of the Communist Party.

    By the end of WW II & the beginning of the McCarthy era, the Party was in bad shape, having lost whatever "unity" it had attained through the common enemies of Hitler, fascism, & the Spanish Civil War. A few members hung on, however, one of whom was the prolific Howard Fast. Fast was alone responsible for eleven Rideout-cited novels in the period 1940-1954, & one of his best was one of his earliest, The Last Frontier (1941). A year earlier, Meyer Levin had published Citizens (1940), an excellent novel about the massacre of steel workers on Chicago's far South Side. Levin's works had always sold well, but he wasn't the only radical novelist with a good track record. Indeed, the radical novelists of the forties & fifties -- while few in number -- often turned out best-sellers, like Nelson Algren's National Book Award-winning The Man With the Golden Arm (1949), Richard Wright's Native Son (1940) or Willard Motley's Knock on Any Door (1947). All three books were book club choices, but the latter two books, both by black authors, occasionally fool the first edition collector. Native Son must not only state "First Edition" on the copyright page, but it must be bound in blue cloth with red stamping, not the book club binding of gray cloth stamped in black, with the book club dot on the rear board. The dust jacket must be typographic, & not the book club's pictorial dust jacket. Knock on Any Door must have a "(1)" at the foot of the last text page like most 20th century Appleton first editions, & the dj blurb on the rear panel must be about Willard Motley, not about Knock on Any Door.

    Ruth McKenney's Jake Home (1943) chronicled the daily life of a communist organizer, as did Beth McHenry & Frederick N. Myers in Home is the Sailor (1948) & Grace Lois MacDonald writing as "Margaret Graham" in Swing Shift (1951). But only McKenney's name is familiar to the average reader, mostly because of her My Sister Eileen. Other important radical novels of the later decades are Albert Maltz' chronicle of communist daily life, The Underground Stream (1940) & his anti-war novel The Cross & the Arrow (1944), Chester Himes' labor novel, Lonely Crusade (1947), Ira Wolfert's crime novel, Tucker's People (1943), & Wallace Stegner's story about IWW hero Joe Hill, The Preacher & the Slave (1950). Maltz' greatest fame came as a screenwriter and, later, as a member of the "Hollywood Ten."

    Rideout's survey, like ours, ended in the 1950s: dismal years of the blacklist when the stream of radical novels really seemed to be drying up. Luckily this was not so. & from our vantage point in the 1990s, we can see that later social disjunctions also produced radical novels: stories of the New Left, radical feminist novels, novels of Vietnam, and--just as in George Allan England's day--radical fantasy fiction of the future is still being produced in prodigious quantities, all just waiting to be collected!

    This article originally appeared in Firsts 4:3 (March, 1994)


    This article first appeared in Firsts 5:3, March, 1994, & is Copyright © 1994 Paul Garon. No portion of this article may be reproduced or redistributed without the express written permission of the author.

    For more articles by ABAA members, please visit our Member Publications section or, for further information on book collecting, please check out our Book Collecting Links.
     


    http://abaa.org/collectors/bc-radicalnovel.html




    7000 -- Robert Henri's first class of artists at the Henri School of Art, opened in 1909, included Andrew Dasburg, Morgan Russell, Stuart Davis, & Patrick Henry Bruce, all of whom exhibited in the Armory Show. After he was forced to close his own school, Henri taught at the Ferrer School, financed by anarchist Emma Goldman, where Samuel Halpert & Man Ray were some of his first pupils. Man Ray recalled that "I found his ideas more stimulating than any direct criticism." (Perlman, 1991, 104)

    http://www.people.virginia.edu/~sls8y/galleryN/tour.n2.html


    7000 --

    Anarchist & Jews story of an encounter
    International Study Conference
    Venice, May 5-6-7th, 2000

    The large number of Jewish anarchists at the end of the last century & the first half of this one (some of them of considerable intellectual standing and/or prominent in the anarchist movement) is of historical interest to both those interested in anarchism & in Judaism/Jewish history. Until now there have been no systematic & thorough studies of this convergence of two apparently distinct traditions. This convergence was linked to a particular historical period & a relatively precise social context. It first appeared in the Pale, that immense area of eastern Europe, the cradle of Yiddish culture, where Jews were forced to live under Tsarist laws.

    Then came the ever stronger attraction between the Jewish tradition & the libertarian utopian one, which became clear among Yiddish emigrants in England, Argentina & the USA (including Emma Goldman in the first generation, Paul Goodman, Noam Chomsky and Murray Bookchin in the second).

    In these countries the driving force behind the emerging Jewish workers movement, made up primarily of immigrants from eastern Europe, were the young anarchists who had been brought up in the fear of God & respect for religious tradition, only to be later caught up in the great wave of revolutionary utopianism. They represented the radicalism of a proletariat for whom the Messiah was one of the spokesmen of libertarian ideology. It was not just that centuries of community self-government had made the people of Israel receptive to the theories of mutual association, federalism and autonomous communities put forward by the libertarian thinkers. Rather the very ethics of Jewish spirituality and Messianic thinking (which Martin Buber saw as Judaism's most original legacy to modern radical thinking) with their eschatological aspirations to a radically different future made a number of Jews move towards libertarian ideas. The same could not be said of the Jews of western culture who were largely assimilated into the societies they lived in, with a few notable exceptions such as the Frenchman Bernard Lazare & the Germans Gustav Landauer and Erich Muhsam.

    Judaism & anarchism came together again in Palestine & later in the Kibbutzim of Israel, both through the direct involvement of anarchists & even more strongly through the influence of the libertarian communist traditions on the guiding principles & organisational structures of the Kibbutz. One kibbutz scholar recently wrote that, whatever their founders may have thought & their current members may think, the Kibbutzim are the ideological heirs of the libertarian tradition: of Kropotkin rather than Marx & anarchism rather than marxism.

    The international meeting on this subject, to be held in Venice on May 2000, is organized by the Centro Studi Libertari of Milan & the Centre International de Recherches sur l'Anarchisme (CIRA) of Lausanne. The three day meeting includes a Study Conference that will take place at the Auditorium located in Campo Santa Margherita & various events, including theatrical and musical performances, debates & original documentary films, that will take place in the Venice Faculty of Architecture.

    The Study Conference, sponsored by the History Department of the University of Venice, will have participants from Europe & beyond, with a simultaneous translation Italian/English/French. A more detailed program of the meeting will be available by the end of March 2000. http://www.anarca-bolo.ch/csl/ve052000/en-pres.htm




    7000 -- Nestor Machno la rivoluzione anarchica in Ucraina
    (VHS, colore, 60 minuti, 25.000 lire) edizione italiana a cura del Centro studi libertari/Archivio Pinelli

    Nestor Ivanovic Machno (1889-1934) è stato il personaggio centrale di una rivoluzione libertaria in Ucraina, schiacciata nel sangue. Hélène Châtelain (regista teatrale e cinematografica, di famiglia russo-ucraina) ha riesumato dopo oltre settant'anni di silenzio testi, immagini e documenti che tracciano la vita straordinaria di Machno, morto poverissimo in un infimo alberghetto di Parigi. Poverissimo come era nato, in una famiglia di contadini.

    Ma dal 1917 al 1921 Machno è il leader di un movimento anarchico contadino che spazza una regione grande più di metà dell'Italia, coinvolgendo milioni di uomini e donne in un grande esperimento di autogestione libertaria. L'armata machnovista, costituita per lo più da contadini, supera nel 1919, al culmine dell'insurrezione, i 50.000 effettivi… Nelle storie ufficiali dell'URSS di tutto questo non se ne trova traccia. Neanche una parola. Se non per una breve e brutale condanna, assoluta come il silenzio. Dopo la sconfitta militare da parte dell'Armata Rossa, Machno è costretto a lasciare l'Ucraina e nel 1925 si rifugia infine a Parigi. Lo insegue una domanda di estradizione, da parte di Mosca, per "tradimento della patria, omicidio e saccheggio".

    Con la fine del regime sovietico, Hélène Châtelain è potuta tornare nei luoghi della machnovitchina e ricostruire, anche attraverso testimonianze originali, la storia dell'epopea machnovista. Gli anarchici nella Resistenza 1943-1945

    (VHS, 42 minuti, colore, 25.000 lire)

    Quando nella primavera del 1945 l'insurrezione dilaga in tutto il Nord Italia, gli anarchici, già protagonisti nei primi anni '20 della resistenza popolare ad uno squadrismo che sta per farsi regime, poi del confino, del «fuoriuscitismo» e della tragica esperienza della rivoluzione spagnola, sono ancora una volta armi in pugno contro il fascismo. Dopo l'8 SETTEMBRE / SEPTEMBER 1943 in tutto il centro-nord si costituiscono le prime bande, poi diventate formazioni autonome in alcune aree o parte integrante delle organizzazioni militari costituite dalle varie forze antifasciste: Brigate Garibaldi, Matteotti, Giustizia e Libertà…

    Questo ventennio di resistenza, che parte dagli Arditi del Popolo e arriva a quei partigiani che non si sono fermati il 25 aprile 1945, viene così raccontato attraverso immagini e filmati d'epoca (come un comizio di Errico Malatesta del 1920 o l'entrata dei partigiani a Milano nell'aprile 1945) e attraverso le testimonianze originali di partigiani anarchici attivi in diverse regioni del Nord Italia. Un racconto collettivo da cui emerge chiara la passione che ha mosso questi uomini e queste donne, per i quali la lotta partigiana era vissuta non come una semplice opposizione armata ad un regime liberticida ma come l'inizio di una rivoluzione sociale. Spagna 1936: l'utopia si fa storia (VHS, 45 minuti, b/n, 25.000 lire)

    testo di Pino Cacucci voci di Francesca Gatto e Paolo Rossi

    Spagna 1936, un popolo in armi contro il fascismo e per la rivoluzione sociale egualitaria e libertaria nelle immagini di un documentario girato tra il 1936 e il 1937 da operatori del Sindicato de la Industria del Espectaculo di Barcellona aderente alla CNT (Confederaciòn Nacional del Trabajo). Finalizzato all'epoca a sollecitare la solidarietà internazionale antifascista, il commento originale del documentario, intitolato Fury over Spain, era in inglese, con una retorica adeguata allo scopo. Alla metà degli anni Settanta, verso la fine dell'era franchista, il Comitato Spagna Libertaria di Milano ebbe dagli archivi iconografici della CNT copia di questo filmato per il quale riscrisse la colonna sonora secondo lo «spirito dell'epoca». Vent'anni dopo, il Centro Studi Libertari/Archivio «Giuseppe Pinelli» ha rimesso in circolazione questo filmato con un commento sonoro nuovamente rimesso allo stile dei tempi. E con le stesse immagini, beninteso. Perché la memoria di un evento storicamente enorme non si perda.

    http://www.anarca-bolo.ch/csl/index.htm




    7000 -- Oliver Chaffee (1873-1946)

    Untitled

    Referred to as "modern before modernism was popular," Chaffee was an artist who dedicated a lifetime to the pursuit of a personal visual vocabulary, one that whould enable him to express himself & his love of light & color as they interact with nature & the objective world. His diversified education, although rooted in academic tradition & realism, included experimentation with Impressionism, Fauvism, Expressionism, Cubism, and Primitivism.

    In a tribute at Chaffee's in 1944, his friend, artist Hutchins Hapgood provides a glimpse of the real Oliver Chaffee: "It is hard to separate Oliver Chaffee the artist from Oliver Chaffee the man. His art bodily lifted from his life, and symbolized in form. It is singularly pure, childlike, & yet naive. There is in it the maturity of loveliness, & that quality was marked in his personal life. Art may be defined as the quality of childhood maintained in mature years. The child is full of wonder, everything arouses his imagination. He is filled with the fresh beauty & meaning of life. But as he grows into a man, he is generally confronted with the problems of practical life, which tend to kill the original simple vision. When the child survives, in spite of all the experiences of man, is when the artist may appear."

    http://www.netspace.org/~dbilbao/gallery/oc.htm


    7000 -- A MODERN LIFE

    Essay by Rachael Sadinsky

    1 - Intro, New York 1886-1912, Paris 1912-1913, N.Y. 1913-14 2 - Providence 1914-1916, New York 1916-1926 3 - Lexington Kentucky 1926-1944

    PROVINCETOWN 1914-1916

    When war made travel to Europe impossible, New York’s cultural avant-garde summered in Provincetown, Massachusetts. Despite the community’s radical seriousness, both artistic and political, summers in Provincetown were relaxed & free spirited, a season marked by comraderie & creative endeavor. Holliday, whose Greenwich Village Inn on Washington Square was the meeting place for The Masses, opened a boarding house in Provincetown. Stuart Davis first summered there in 1913.13 The following year he was joined by Fisk & Demuth, both having just returned from Paris. Marsden Hartley joined his friends in 1916, upon his return from Germany. The playwright Eugene O’Neill also summered in Provincetown where he conscripted his fellow artists, writers, & others in The Masses crowd to join his newly created theatrical troupe, the Provincetown Players, in staging plays in the fish house on Mary Vorse’s dock.

    Fisk became a regular among the Provincetown summer residents. In 1915, he roomed with Demuth at Holliday’s boarding house; O’Neill lived across the street. In 1916, Fisk & Demuth rented a cottage on the beach & spent their summer hard at work: witnesses reported that "the two men painted assiduously during the summer. . . ."14 Hartley, who was the guest of John Reed and Louise Bryant, later described the season as "the Great Provincetown Summer."15

    In his own writings, Fisk described the steamy nights & raucous parties of the summer gatherings. His thinly veiled autobiographical story titled A Provincetown Night or The free Woman starts with "The evening was fat, sensuous, and hot -- it was typical of a P-town midsummer night. . . .":

    Both he & Charles had been invited to a party at Louis’ [Holliday] -- it was the first big gathering of the colony at P-town. . . . They were all to appear in costume & supply their own drink. He was dressed & painted with much approval from everyone as an Arabian Prince. . . . The whole crew from the dunes will be there -- Hutch [Hutchins Hapgood], Mary[Heaton Vorse] & her poet. . . . The crowd has just started the little theatre movement & held the first play at Mary !s wharf-- Suppressed Desires was produced with the two authors in the cast -- It was amusing & badly acted. The crowd was all at Louis’ when we arrived everybody was there, no one missing & it seemed most of them had an early start, that they had all warmed up before the hour set for the fiesta. . . .16

    NEW YORK CITY 1914-1926

    At the ends of these summers, the crowd returned to New York & the convivial bohemia of Provincetown merged seamlessly with their lives in Greenwich Village. The Village was welcoming to activists, artists, nonconformists, & any one else galvanized by the modern era. Boisterous gatherings at restaurants & intellectual salons buzzed with discussions about new poetry & new theater, new labor unions, Sigmund Freud & new psychology, new womanhood & birth control. As the anarchist Hippolyte Havel explained, "Greenwich Village is a state of mind, it has no boundaries."17

    http://www.edwardfisk.com/provincetown.html




     ?
    7000 -- Her name be Martha:
    http://www.roadsideamerica.com/pet/martha.html

    See probable false sighting: http://www.ncf.carleton.ca/~bz050/HomePage.pigeon.html

    Article: http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/~sustain/bio65/lec03/PPigeons.html

    Bad pigeon joke: http://www.computan.on.ca/~jeff/funnyfarm/p/pink_pigeons.html

    Texass: Scientific & Common Names of Texas Doves & Pigeons

    Columbiformes -- Doves & Pigeons E. migratorius Linnaeus 1766 -- Passenger Pigeon EXTINCT http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/nature/wild/birds/txdov.htm

    Passenger Pigeon --Ectopistes migratorius
    http://gladstone.uoregon.edu/~ercarlso/map.html

    "Passenger Pigeons"


    Slowly the passenger pigeons increased, then suddenly their numbers
    Became enormous, they would flatten ten miles of forest
    When they flew down to roost, & the cloud of their rising
    Eclipsed the dawns. They became too many, they are all dead
    Not one remains...

    http://www.ethanrussell.com/robison.htm

    "Extinction is Forever" http://www.ris.net/~tony/ppigeon.html

    Earth First: http://www.hrc.wmin.ac.uk/campaigns/ef/dt/pigeon.html

    This exhibit was created with specimens from the Museum's collection. Like the Dodo, it is a vivid reminder of extinction caused by humans. http://www.amnh.org/Exhibition/Expedition/Treasures/Passenger_Pigeons/pigeons.html

    How far may we go astray?
    It seems that the military pigeons of those days were stronger & had a greater tenacity then our modern race pigeons.The military pigeons had to accomplish their duty in the most difficult circumstances : bad weather, flying at night, different home lofts, shower of bullets ....
    All pigeons (AB)used during the wars are heros. Pigeons are more trustworthy than modern technology. We can take them everywhere we go, they will always accomplish their duty.
    Animals never betray.

    A complete list of pigeons awarded "THE DICKEN MEDAL" http://www.comanco.com/newpage11.htm

    Bill K wrote:

    Two billion of these birds had once lived in eastern North America. For Pynchon fans, you might refer to his treatment of the extermination of the Dodo in "Gravity's Rainbow." I'm sure Jim can cite you chapter & verse on that if you don't have it at your fingertips.




     ?
    8000 --


    9000 -- SPANISH REVOLUTION POSTER ANARCHIST ARCHIVE INDEX

     <

    Visual Index to Posters of the Spanish Civil War

    <

    Introduction

    Visual Index (Entire Poster Collection)

    Catalogue

    Chronology of the War

    Acknowledgements

    Lists of References

    Afterword: Herbert R. Southworth Collection

    Index of Posters from the Visual Front catalogue

     

     

     

     
    Copyright UC Regents 1998, All rights reserved


    http://orpheus.ucsd.edu/speccoll/posters/vindex/


    9000 -- Michael Flurscheim


  • orange diamond dingbatFLURSCHEIM, Michael.
    (1844-1912), Aotearoa anarchist propagandist.
    (Radical Tradition)
    Added 8/13/2001

    "Trouble Makers" - Anarchism & Syndicalism. The early years of the Libertarian Movement in Aotearoa / New Zealand

    Michael Flurscheim.....A Pioneer of Todays Green Dollar System

    Michael Flurschiem arrived in Wellington in 1898. He was a supporter of the single tax movement & monetary reform. On arrival he was greeted by the Single Tax Society & spoke at a meeting of the Socialist League & Trades Council. Flurscheim was a wealthy industrialist from Germany who decided to sell his business & devote his money & time to the promotion of monetary reform. Its philosophy was based on the same principles as todays green dollar systems. In October 1898, he established the New Zealand Commercial Exchange Co Ltd with offices at the corner of Willis & Manners Streets, Wellington. Those who joined the exchange agreed to carry out transactions without the use of money, a barter system using exchange notes. It was stated on the notes that "the holder of the note is entitled, on or within a reasonable time after presentation, to goods or services of the New Zealand Commercial Exchange Co Ltd, who are liable to supply goods or services". Flurscheim vigorously promoted the advantages of the scheme. He wrote many articles & letters to the press, published a pamphlet "Business without Gold" & launched a journal "The Commercial Exchange Gazette" later renamed the "Pioneer of Social Reform". He was convinced the exchange would flourish.

    'There is nothing to prevent our club from gradually embracing all members of the community, & it is in the interests of every member to help extend the circle so as to have it embrace all trades, so that anything wanted by the members can be supplied in mutual exchange.'

    His efforts had the desired effect. Several hundred shopkeepers & trades people joined the exchange within a few months. But the scheme began to falter. The main reason for this was a campaign of slander in the press by a one time friend and business associate. This tended to undermine the credibility of the exchange bank. Flurscheim withdrew from all involvement. He left Wellington & established another exchange in Auckland, & by June 1901, it had enrolled a thousand local members. In 1902 he wrote 'Clue to the Economic Labyrinth" which he dedicated to the people of New Zealand. In this book he advocated land nationalisation, the abolition of interest & a co-operative exchange system. He also advocated the co-operative control of production & distribution.

    Flurscheim left New Zealand in about 1905. Many of his business ventures, including a soap factory in Wellington failed and he eventually returned to Germany where he died in 1912.

    Frank Prebble

    Michael Flurscheim was born in Franfurt 1844. He had 2 brothers & a few sisters. He was very famous in the town of Gaggenau in Germany. After he left NZ he went to the USA/Mexico & had 3 children by his second marriage. There is a direct descendent of Michael alive in Mexico today.

    Christian Flurscheim - Perth WA.

    (Email to Takver 3 July 2000) http://www.takver.com/history/nz/tm/tm05.htm




    9000 -- Lesbia Harford- The Rebel Girl

    Provided by the Question Mark Collective as part of a forthcoming anthology on Australian Troublemakers to be published by Melbourne based Scam Publications.

    Lesbia Keogh (later Harford) was born in 1891. The eldest of four she was afflicted with defective heart valves which restricted her mobility & caused her to tire easily, a chronic problem that was to increase with age. Raised initially in middle class conditions her position was to slide rapidly with a family bankruptcy & the subsequent departure of her father who ran off to the West Australian goldfields. These changed conditions & the fact that her mother entered paid work to ensure an education for her children can be credited with giving Harford a view of society based around both class struggle & feminism.

    Harford began writing poetry in her adolescence & continued her work upon entering Melbourne University in 1915. One of the first women to study Law she stood outside her fellow students not just for her gender & ill health, but for the fact that she was forced to work holidays & weekends to maintain her studies. Attracted initially to free thought & socialism she began attending lectures & joined a number of student political societies. A strong believer in free love she also entered into a number of relationships whilst maintaining a fiercely independent streak.

    Lesbia Harford began a number of friendships at this time that were to sustain her through the troubles of later life. One of these was Kate Lush with whom she was lovers for a short time. Another was famous Italian-Australian communist writer Guido Barrachi with whom she also had a physical relationship. A third was Percy Laidler, a left wing bookseller who was a member of the Victorian Socialist Party, the Industrial Workers of the World & a general mainstay of the Melbourne Left.

    The Poems of Lesbia Harford, Edited by Nettie Palmer, Melbourne University Press, 1941. The Poems of Lesbia Harford, Edited by Drusilla Modjeska & Marjorie Pizer, Sirius Books, 1985. The Invaluable Mystery, Lesbia Harford, McPhee Gribble/Penguin Books, 1987. Earthly Paradise, D. Emmerson, Playbox Theatre, 1991. Solidarity Forever, Bertha Walker, 1974. "Lesbia Harford- forgotten poet", Marjorie Pizer, Me Jane, 1974. http://www.takver.com/history/harford.htm


    9000 -- One member of the Wellington Socialist Party was the anarchist Philip Josephs. Josephs was a Russian Jew who worked as a tailor. In January 1905 he spoke in support of the Russian revolution & became a member of the party. For two years he ran their economics class & contributed to the "Commonweal". In an article entitled "Trade Unionism in New Zealand: Is it a failure", he describes the state of the workers movement and the effect of the arbitration act on unionism in general.

    'The Conciliation Board & arbitration Act has dealt Trades Unionism in New Zealand its death blow ... The workers have been robbed of their fighting weapon, the strike. The union meeting is a place for transacting routine business only, instead of a rendezvous of the advanced guard of progress & a school of preparation for the great coming event, the social revolution.'

    Josephs remained an active member of the party & helped revive the Anti-Militarist League in Wellington in 1912, & was elected secretary. He often advertised Freedom Press pamphlets in various publications including the Maoriland Worker. In July 1913 he along with others set up the anarchist Freedom Group. The Maoriland Worker reported on July 18th that

    'At No 4 Willis Street on July 9th, a meeting was held to form an Anarchist Group, to be called the Freedom Group. Its object is the self education of its members & the propagation of anarchist principles. It was decided to have weekly meetings, commencing at 8pm every Wednesday, at Joseph & Co's rooms, 4 Willis Street. "The subject of the discussion next week is "What method should we adopt to change the present system?". It is announced that those interested will always find a warm welcome, and visitors are invited to take part in the discussions.'

    The Freedom Group appears to have lasted for at least a year so maybe they did have "street fights with the coppers", or perhaps this relates to an incident during the November General Strike. Philip Josephs remained active for a number of years. In 1915 he was arrested for possessing banned literature when the police raided his workshop. He apparently returned to Russia after the 1917 Revolution & was back in Aotearoa in the early 20's although we cannot be certain of this. A. G. Solomon was involved in the Russian Famine Relief Campaign in 1922 & an Army Intelligence document from 1927 suggests that Solomon & Josephs were the same person.

    Another anarchist involved with the Wellington Socialist Party was Thomas Fauset McDonald. He arrived from Australia around 1906 & was involved with the Hutt Valley Socialist Society in early 1908. McDonald was a doctor specialising in tropical diseases. He had been active in the English movement in the 1890's & was a friend of Nettlau's. However McDonald was a racialist who published several articles & pamphlets outlining his ideas. He was condemned by his comrades in the Socialist Party in an editorial in the "Commonweal" in July 1907 when he became president of the White Race League.

    Frank Prebble

    For More info on Dr Fauset McDonald see:

    On the Social Question, Dr Fauset MacDonald, in 'The (Sydney) Worker', July, 1896

    http://www.takver.com/history/nz/tm/tm07.htm




    9000 --

    Another anarchist involved with the Wellington Socialist Party was Thomas Fauset McDonald. He arrived from Australia around 1906 & was involved with the Hutt Valley Socialist Society in early 1908. McDonald was a doctor specialising in tropical diseases. He had been active in the English movement in the 1890's & was a friend of Nettlau's. However McDonald was a racialist who published several articles & pamphlets outlining his ideas. He was condemned by his comrades in the Socialist Party in an editorial in the "Commonweal" in July 1907 when he became president of the White Race League.

    http://www.takver.com/history/nz/tm/tm07.htm
    http://www.takver.com/history/raa/raa29.htm

    9000 -- anarchist Monty Miller:

    Monty Miller of course, is claimed by every one here - Stalinists, 'laborites", Democrats - he's a national hero, now. But he was an Anarchist. Not loosely labelled - a name he gave himself & kept for 70 years ...... Mrs Westbrook was converted from the old Slowcialist Party - sat at the foot of the grand old man when she was a girl. He inspired her with disgust of all politicians & other vermin... The two between them are a century of Australian history. She is a living link with the best man in the 19th century.... very few remember Monty in the flesh today.

    Monty Miller fought in the Eureka Stockade at 18 & was imprisoned with the IWW on a no-conscription issue at 80. That looks like a record.

    (The Eureka Stockade, 1854, Australia's first fight for Democracy. 15,000 goldminers revolted against Government licensing. In a pitched battle over 20 were killed.)

    Monty Miller of course, is claimed by every one here - Stalinists, 'laborites", Democrats - he's a national hero, now. But he was an Anarchist. Not loosely labelled - a name he gave himself & kept for 70 years ...... Mrs Westbrook was converted from the old Slowcialist Party - sat at the foot of the grand old man when she was a girl. He inspired her with disgust of all politicians & other vermin... The two between them are a century of Australian history. She is a living link with the best man in the 19th century.... very few remember Monty in the flesh today.

    Mrs Westbrook was living with Monty in West Australia when the IWW came over from the Eastern States. About 1910, '11, '12, American seamen had spread the flames of discontent in the southern continent. Locals had been started in Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide. In 1912(?) Westy became a foundation member of the first West Australian local in Fremantle.

    AUSTRALIAN ANARCHIST HISTORY MONTY MILLER Monty Miller lived an extraordinary life. He was born in 1831. He was a pikeman at the Eureka Stockade at Ballarat in 1854 and he was involved in workplace struggles all his life. He joined the Australian 'local' of the Industrial Workers of the World (I.W.W.) when he was 75 & became a thorn in the side of capital & the Billy Hughes Federal government during the First World War. Monty Miller was one of the most active & spectacular members of the I.W.W. a direct action, anti-parliamentary industrial union that flourished in Australia between 1907 to the mid twenties. Monty Miller was billed as a 'One Big Union Pioneer' & in his mid eighties & cris-crossed the country talking at Public Meetings on behalf of the I.W.W. He was imprisoned on many occasions for his trouble. In 1916 at the age of 83 he was sentenced to six months jail for sedition because he opposed conscription & the First World War. He was released after serving a few weeks of his sentence but was re- arrested in 1917 at the age of 84 & sentenced to six months jail with hard labor at Long Bay Goal because he continued to oppose conscription. Monty Miller's contribution to the Australian labor Movement is remembered by the Rebel Worker Group in Sydney. They established the Monty Miller Press over a decade ago to produce anarchist publications & continue to produce anarchist pamphlets. http://www.takver.com/history/hooton_iww.htm
    http://www.takver.com/history/sydney/syd7581.htm http://www.au.iww.org/australia/history/westbrk.html

    9000 -- anarchist Ma Westbrook

    Monty Miller of course, is claimed by every one here - Stalinists, 'laborites", Democrats - he's a national hero, now. But he was an Anarchist. Not loosely labelled - a name he gave himself & kept for 70 years ...... Mrs Westbrook was converted from the old Slowcialist Party - sat at the foot of the grand old man when she was a girl. He inspired her with disgust of all politicians & other vermin... The two between them are a century of Australian history. She is a living link with the best man in the 19th century.... very few remember Monty in the flesh today.

    Mrs Westbrook was living with Monty Miller in West Australia when the IWW came over from the Eastern States. About 1910, '11, '12, American seamen had spread the flames of discontent in the southern continent. Locals had been started in Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide. In 1912(?) Westy became a foundation member of the first West Australian local in Fremantle.

    'Ma' Westbrook: I first met Mrs Westbrook in 1934. It was the time of the bleakest depression & when Wobbly theory & practice was at its lowest ebb. At the end of the first "great" war the ideals of the IWW had swept the world, including Australia, & the movement had been savagely suppressed. In 1934 there was to my knowledge no IWW local or group functioning anywhere. It was illegal. Mrs Westbrook fought singlehanded to keep the ideals alive. For a quarter of a century - from 1920 to 1934 - when I met her & from then to this year of disgrace, 1945, Mrs Westbrook WAS the IWW so far as the Eastern States were concerned. She is now 76. Her house was the centre of very libertarian hope. While the comrades marched their dupes back & forward, round and round, in true Duke of York tradition, she proclaimed without ceasing - job control, to hell with politics, democratic unionism, direct action.... It was against the stream all the time. She never wavered an inch... I remember mentioning her to an 'advanced' back-to-front Lenin-Trotskyist acquantance. "Ma Westbrook" he said, "Oh she's no good, won't move with the times, shes a wobbly & they're hopeless. Once a wobbly, always a wobbly." He little knew how true he was. There's too much virtue made of this 'elasticity' - this ability to 'change one's mind.' It's too easy. We want the integrity of stubborn men who chart a course early, & stick to it. Ma Westbrook took her cue from Monty Miller, Australia's first & greatest Anarchist. http://www.takver.com/history/hooton_iww.htm
    The Esplanade was founded by Monty Miller, a union organizer & veteran of the "Eureka Stockade". Miller spoke there from 1890 until his arrest for his opposition to military conscription in 1917. The Esplanade speakers corner died out in the 1970's. In 1975 the WA government banned all political meetings in Forrest Place.Which was another place of political protest. Since then Speakers Corner has not been revived. http://speakerscorner.live.com.au/
    http://www.au.iww.org/australia/history/westbrk.html

    9000 -- Syd Nicholls - radical comic artist The I.W.W. - Fatty Finn Connection Revealed.

    Provided by the Question Mark Collective as part of a forthcoming anthology on Australian Troublemakers to be published by Melbourne based Scam Publications.

    Syd Nicholls' fame amongst the public largely rests on his most famous creation Fatty Finn. However the artist was also responsible for one of Australia's most controversial cartoons of the First World War. In another achievement he produced Australia's first comic book & helped launch the careers of a number of well known Australian artists in the process. The following article details his career & his many battles with publishing industry bosses.

    Sydney Wentworth Nicholls was born in Tasmania in 1896. Originally named Jordan he became Nicholls when his mother remarried. He spent much of his childhood in New Zealand where his stepfather worked constructing railway bridges. In 1910 he got his first job with the NSW printing firm of W.E. Smith. At the same time he began studies at the Royal Art Society in Sydney under the tutelage of Norman Carder & Dattilo Rubbo. Two years later, at the age of 16, he had his first cartoon published in the pages of the International Socialist. The satirical piece featured an attack on the former radical turned Prime Minister, Billy Hughes. By 1914 he had work published in the Bulletin & was reportedly hanging out with a variety of wild bohemians. Throughout his career his work appeared in radical & union journals such as The Worker, The Tribune, The Seaman's Journal & Education.

    http://www.takver.com/history/nicholls.htm


    9000 -- Hilda Monte - the name by which she was known in socialist & "intelligence" circles (real name unknown) was born in Berlin around 1914. Jewish parentage but apparently nonpracticing. She became a revolutionary socialist as a girl in the 1920s. Originally in the youth section of the KAPD (opposition communist party) & an admirer of Rosa Luxembourg, she later became a member of the anti parliamentary council-communist movement (may have known van der Lubbe - of Reichstag fire fame). After 1933 she linked up with small groups of activist s prepared to use terrorist tactics against the Nazis....Anti parliamentary council communists, Spartakists & anarcho-syndicalists were involved in this action. They were not allied but here was a certain amount of criss-crossing.

    Around 1937 Monte was brought to the attention of the authorities but escaped arrest by marrying (nominally) John Olday (A.W.Oldag), an anarchist/spartakist who had British nationality by virtue of a Canadian father (but had always lived in Germany) They were deported - He came to England (wrote "Kingdom of Rags") - she does not appear to have come until 1939. He was gay & they did not cohabit.

    She was trying to return to Germany to continue the struggle (reportedly involved in another plot against Hitler) Olday obtained financial assistance from George N. Strauss a millionaire industrialist (Lab. MP for Vauxhall) for this plot... she possibly had contact with groups of Council-communists in Paris & Amsterdam & Anarchists in Birmingham(UK)

    When the war started she was viewed with suspicion by British Intelligence (recently entered the country, citizenship by marriage to a husband with whom she didn't live & was reportedly a jewess wanting to go back to Germany) who despite later propoganda had a very ambivalent attitude towards anti-nazi activists. Around this time Strauss withdrew his support (under pressure?)

    In the UK Monte appears to have mixed with (mostly German) Socialist Vangaurd group (Luxembourgists) though they had support from Fenner Brockway of the ILP (later Lab. MP & Lord). She worked on a plan of her own (with a Birmingha m based group) & asked British Anarchists through Olday to find another backer. This was actor Leslie Howard (very anti-nazi) Howard not only got her released but also persuaded British intelligence to let her return to Germany on a "mission". They had little to lose. Unfortunatley they appear to have insi sted (no proof here) that she undertake espoinage as well as resistance. She was captured in 1942/3 - her fate is unknown but can be guessed

    I'm told that Israel (Yad Veshem?) has an archive on her, possibly also in the US archives of records taken from the Gestapo/German Police

    Hilde Monte can be found at the Spunk archive page http://www.hack.org/mc/mirror/www.spunk.org/library/places/germany/sp000712.txt which presents Monte as a council communist. This would also make sense of the marriage of convenience between Olday & Monte. 3 as opposed to pacifism & "peace movements" - A.W.B. note.

    http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/8195/ger_int.htm http://www.hack.org/mc/mirror/www.spunk.org/library/places/germany/sp000712.txt




    9000 -- W.R.Winspear (1861-1945) - Anarchist or Socialist?

    Introduction

    W.R. Winspear was a pivotal figure in the radical labor movement of the 1880s & 1890s. His newspaper, The Radical, later called The Australian Radical, has been called the first regular socialist newspaper in Australia. He was also active in the socialist movement, & anti-conscription campaigns of the first World War. In 1936 he was honoured for his role in the anti-conscription campaign during the First World War. He died at the age of 84 in 1945.

    This essay examines how several historians have interpreted Winspear's politics. Bob James has gone back to primary sources to question Winspear's politics & motivations. His research clears the path for a fuller biographical appraisal of Winspear & his contribution to the radical tradition in Australia.

    Takver, February 2000 Available Writings of W.R. Winspear

    A pamphlet by Bob James published 1987 for the Hunter Labor History Society with assistance from the Newcastle Workers Club Copies Available from:

    Hunter Labor History Society PO Box 5242D Newcastle West NSW 2302 Australia Anarres Books PO Box 150 East Brunswick VIC 2057 Australia

    Introduction

    Only a full-blown biography could attempt to provide all the detail, all the ups & downs in the life of William Robert Winspear. This pamphlet will not claim to be a comprehensive account of the major peaks & troughs. Too much piecing together of the scattered fragments of an idealist's existence still remains to be done even for that.

    In this partial tribute to the editor of what has been called 'the first regular socialist paper in Australia' I have focused on his politics & on the way historians have so far referred to his politics, in order to clear some of the briars on the path to that necessary & appropriate fuller appraisal.

    For if we bring together references to Winspear in the so-called sympathetic literature we find anomalies so large and so strange as must force us to seriously question what has passed for labor history so far in Australia. The flaw is not merely in the eyes of individual historians, there is also an accumulated sloppiness, superficiality and, more importantly, a bye & large general attempt to gloss over & bury basic truths. Supposedly in the interests of bolstering the chances of radical social change against the conservatives, some historians have done great damage to their own credibility & to the transmission of the anti- establishment message by pretending among other things that only the centralised, hierarchical form of socialism is valid, indeed the only one that existed in substantial form in Australia. This latter claim is factually wrong, & shows, if it is seriously believed, a combination of wishful thinking & poor methodology, but the whole approach reduces to the point of absurdity the lives of the people its practitioners claim to be remembering. It does this by ignoring the context which is much more diverse & complex than the glossy version implies.

    If we start with the account provided by G. D. H. Cole, a respected British author & historian the beginnings of the problem, the sloppiness, begins to emerge.

    Then in 1887, 'a group of immigrants from Great Britain founded at Sydney the Australian Socialist league. There were only six of them; but they started a journal, The Australial Radical. Then they quarreled. The proprietor of The Radical became an anarchist & the league repudiated him & started a new journal, The Socialist. Neither had a long life.

    - G. Cole, History of Socialist Thought, Vol 3, pt 2, p 869.

    Cole was here writing about a very minor series of items in his broader canvas which was concerned with the other side of the world, nevertheless his 'research' was probably based on letters written to him some years afterwards. Certainly within the ASL which began in Sydney in 1887 there was a quarrel between Winspear, the proprietor of The Radical & others over his advocacy of anarchism. But they weren't all immigrants from Britain, the ASL didn't start The Radical & neither did they start The Socialist.

    This is just one example. A number of Australian historians writing in the 60's & 70's didn't get much closer to the real ASL.

    But the overwhelming sense which has lingered from the Cole account, corrected or not, has been that anarchists and socialists, necessarily do not get on & must separate. Again Cole is only one example. But what can one conclude from putting this account alongside the claim that The Radical was the first regular socialist paper in Australia and/or next to Nairn's claim in Civilising Capitalism that Winspear was 'an anarcho-socialist'.

    The usual spectrum of union & radical opinion was reflected at the [1892 PIP] conference, single taxers & the rest, including an anarcho-socialist, W. R. Winspear who was opposed to trade-unions; but they were all members of, labor leagues & the changes they made to the [PIP] platform were chiefly trade union demands.

    - B. Nairn, Civilising Capitalism, ANUP, 1973.

    One could at least fairly deduce from the two quotes that Winspear's anarchism was of importance to him. Nairn is no radical & we might deduce from his own politics & from the fact that this is his only reference to Winspear that the 'anarcho- socialist' label is simply a mistake based on ignorance & the sort of thinking that has left radicals and minorities of many kinds out of 'official' history.

    But if we then go back & look at Verity Burgmannn's chapter on Winspear in Eric Fry's Rebels & Radicals from which The Socialist paper description is taken we would search in vain for any references to decentralised politics. & this is where the larger problem shows and threatens to envelop all of us: her claiming of The Radical for socialism takes on a different significance.

    Despite the ready availability of source materials to those prepared to look & the significance of the stigmatisation of anarchism to the loss of radical vigour, many, certainly the older Australian political historians give the impression of being politically illiterate and historically blind. Overall, a similar myopia prevails here as in other historiographies, namely. theories of self-management, descriptions of rank-and-file struggles & attempted solutions, & studies of institutional or status-quo repression have all been neglected.

    There has been a considerable resurgence of academic interest in anarchism in the Northern Hemisphere in the past 10 to 15 years but the mistakes of the past have by no means all been rectified. It is still possible to find, among so-called 'left-leaning' accounts, State- terror & coercion described in far less emotive terms than that of the anti-authoritarians. It is still possible to find so-called social analysts confusing wealth with power, the most irritating being that of Marxist historians & anarcho- capitalists. Chomsky points out that it is still the norm to find both leninist & liberal ideology justifying the selective reporting and distorting of facts in order to denigrate "mass movements & ... social change that escapes the control of privileged elites".

    The attempt by people who see themselves as Marxists to portray anarchism and decentralised socialism as an irrelevance must be seen as just another blow in the struggle between Marx & Bakunin, now continued posthumously. It is a struggle with elements of pettiness but it is also of central importance to everything these writers referred to are considering - no less than a fight for the body & blood of socialism (not the corpse as some might have it). The question of the need or otherwise to centralise decision-making power, before, during & after a revolutionary event, remains the question.

    In cooler terms, the struggle is over the definition of socialism as legitimating factor, the property deeds of the revolution & just as the debate went on in the times described by historians, so it continues in 'the history' itself.

    Historians writing today, in failing to comprehend the significance of this for themselves, have failed to suitably assess their sources & have, at least when it has suited them, taken the accounts provided by past writers literally. Thus, at its extreme in the present context, anti-anarchist historians have used definitions of anarchism by non-anarchists to explain anarchism & thus to justify their discounting of anarchism. This is like misogynists using male definitions of the female experience to justify misogyny.

    This sort of approach is particularly exposed when applied to the likes of Winspear who was a key player in the actual debates between the centralised & the decentralised views.

    The Radical

    When he, his newly-married wife Alice & her father began producing what he incidentally also called a socialist paper in March 1887, Winspear espoused a list of demands ranging from Australia for Australians, neutrality of Australia, adult suffrage, payment of MP's, direct taxation, colonial federation & local government to election of an Australian Governor or President.

    While he held that 'Government as it is at present is simply a comedy which is not even well played' he did not in the beginning agree with the view of the editors of 'Honesty' the Melbourne Anarchist Club paper begun the same year that 'all Government is evil & that because present governments are bad, a good Government is impossible'.

    The Australian Socialist league had held its first meeting in May 1887 but it was not until after it had a second birth in August that it & The Radical staff found one another & joined forces. The ASL's first manifesto was almost exactly the same as that for the Melbourne Anarchist Club which had begun the year before. One reason for the close similarity was that David Andrade & his brother William Andrade were founder members of the MAC, & William had come to Sydney in 1886 & had begun looking around for people to join him in producing a Sydney Anarchist Club. Discussions produced the ASL which was undoubtedly more anarchist than centralist in its early years, but the one important difference between the two manifestoes shows the beginnings of a movement away from the anarchism of David Andrade, the dominant theoretician of the time. His anarchism was derived from Proudhon via Benjamin Tucker, while that prevalent in the ASL tended towards the communist form. However when Winspear debated these matters he succumbed to the Andradean-version, so that when the ASL group in Sydney repudiated him it was not because of a socialist-anarchist hostility but because of a collectivist-co-operativist split.

    The MAC split at about the same time & also between the Andradeans & a more communist-oriented anarchism brought forward by Jack Andrews who became, incidentally, one of the founder members of a Melbourne branch of the ASL. Despite the difference in their views or perhaps because of it, Andrews & Winspear provide extremely interesting material in the pages of the Australian Radical during 1888-1889 as they debate with each other and some others such issues as revolutionary violence, co-operatives, contraception, credit notes, education & of course socialism.

    During a strike by coal-miners in the Newcastle area, a strike which produced the ominous sign of military transporting cannon by railway flat-tops to intimidate mining camps, Winspear produced a substantial pamphlet called: The Crisis: An Open Letter to the Miners of Northumberland. After speaking of the current struggle he went on to argue that the miners set aside some of their wage each week to establish 'distributive' stores which could provide food, clothing & furniture at reduced rates because of the cutting out of 'middlemen & speculators'. Such co-operative outlets would be ultimately furnished with stock from co-operatively-run mines, farms, banks, newspapers, etc, etc, until, Winspear envisaged, Co-operative Villages would spring up all over the country spreading 'the glorious gospel of Universal Co-operation, Fraternity or Socialism'.

    This was published in August, 1888. On 11 May, 1889, the paper reported that 'Co-operative distributive stores are now doing good business in Hamilton, Wallsend, Lambton, Stockton, Islington, Burwood, & others are said to be in process of formation in other places'.

    At this point the ASL & The Radical are parting company even though each has less chance of survival on its own. McNamara & a rump of the ASL claim The Radical stands for values all true socialists oppose. A curious though perhaps expectable claim.

    Verity Burgmannn, whose work I have some respect for, then makes 2 statements about the resulting 1890 situation, just one page apart which, if they were noticed & put together by contemporary readers must cause great consternation:

    p. 169:- He [Winspear was determined he] would lay the foundation for a new idea - the supremacy of the Individual. The methods it has adopted are impartial & non-partizan criticism, fairplay to all, & reliance upon the survival of the fittest.

    p. 170:- In the years since the Labor Party's formation, however, socialist ideas and organisations had developed considerably, & he was able to find in the Australian Socialist Party [in 1910] the 'true socialist party he had longed for in 1890'.

    I tend to think that these seemingly opposed statements overlap, but without explanation from Burgmannn and without indication that she has looked at the necessary anarchist materials, one wonders how the author sees them as co-existing. Jack Andrews developed the idea of a positive relationship between communism & individualism around 1889, & may well have influenced Winspear away from co-operatives. But Andrews would not have been at home in the ASP, I suspect.

    Here, my point is simply that these ideas are far too basic, too important & too contentious to be simply stated and left.

    The ASL as one might expect, was initially opposed to parliamentary politics but had been moved by 1891 to a more reformist position under pressure from an influx of careerists & opportunists who saw a chance for self-promotion in the formation of a labor party. The process of stigmatisation which followed the framing of Chicago anarchists, key labor leaders after the 1886 Haymarket explosion was also significant in undermining the anti-Parliamentary position. In combination, the worldwide repression directed at all labor radicals after May 1886 especially forced agitators to reconsider the more respectable, thus safer, parliamentary road to reform. In July 1891 the Sydney ASL purged itself of all self-avowed anarchists in the same resolution that excluded persons with a criminal record from its platforms and stopped ASL agitations on behalf of the unemployed. These measures were part of the larger realignment of labor forces with a trade-union movement that was allowed to continue only if it became the handmaiden of a parliamentary party. In the debate over tactics the direct actionists lost & the pragmatists won. Thus the centralisers necessarily achieved hegemony over the decentralisers. The struggle continued of course. Rose Summerfield, an anarchist, established a further branch of the ASL in 1892 in Broken Hill.

    Both Winspear's public & private life were having to endure great changes. He topped the poll for Councillor to West Ward on Hamilton Council (Newcastle) in February 1891 & over the next 12 months attempted to influence local policy towards social welfare issues. There is almost no detail available of discussions within Council but Winspear appears to have made few waves. He then simply ceases to be a Councillor in 1892, perhaps to concentrate on his printing press as revenue raiser in an increasingly hostile environment.

    The family, about the mid-1890's, moved to Sydney where apart from political work about which very little is known, he engaged in some doubtful business deals, became more desperate, tried burglary, was caught & jailed for 18 months. Alice, now burdened by a number of small children, unable to follow her budding writing career, or any other paid employment, perceived her one way out of poverty & starvation would also produce an improved situation for her children. She hanged herself.

    In another paper sometimes produced in Newcastle, The People & Collectivist, some of this tragedy is recounted by Harry Holland who later became Labor Party leader in New Zealand. Alongside the article on Mrs Winspear the paper has some definitions of Socialism, none of which, I believe Mr Winspear would have opposed. Nevertheless, 'Otus' ie Holland says in the article:

    Bob (Winspear) was always opposed to the socialists - he was a pronounced individualist ...

    Even in responding to the distress of a 'respected' friend, Holland continues the struggle over the definition -'socialism' can only be of the kind he favors. Holland himself ran foul of the dog-in-the-manger attitudes a few years later when told by the ASL executive that The People was spending too much space on trade-union activities.

    There are many gaps in the Winspear story. As his family has increased rapidly (his views about contraception appear to have been unformed, while those of his wife are equally unknown) emphasising the need for survival strategies, so with Alice's death & his need to re-establish himself after jail, even his efforts on behalf of 'labor' electoral candidates which Holland applauded up to 1898, appear to cease.

    He re-emerges publicly in 1910. From this time when his material shows up in the International Socialist weekly paper until September 1916 when he resigns from the dual posts of treasurer & editor he worked long & hard, in many forms, for the Australian Socialist Party & the 'true' socialism he claimed to have been searching for from 1890. There is no doubt however that his views have changed & that his class-based rhetoric from 1910 bears little resemblance to his ideas about voluntary cooperation & survival of the fittest 20 years earlier. How much in substance they had changed is, I believe, still open to discussion however.

    These are of course the years of the IWW & agitation for One Big Union & inevitably the same arguments about the definitions broke out as had split the ASL in 1888-89, & many groups since.

    Cartoon from International Socialist. Feb 7, 1914

    The IWW in the United States split into a Detroit-based group & a Chicago-based group, & while there is much loose usage of terms & much personal abuse obscuring the issues, it can be generally said that the Chicago group was more attuned to a decentralised approach than the other.

    In Australia, splits, not as clearly geographically based, bubbled along producing unfortunate acrimony. Ian Turner wrote:

    On the revolutionary political front, the IWW Club had fallen away by mid-1913 ... the SLP was complaining of 'apathy & indifference', . . . the membership of the VSP was down ... & the desperate efforts of the political socialists to meet the IWW challenge by uniting their declining strengths all foundered on sectarian bitterness.

    Meanwhile, the IWW (Chicago-style) flourished.

    I. Turner, Industrial labor & Politics, p. 66.

    As editor Winspear was nominally most responsible for the anti-anarchist tone which developed in the I.S. paper.

    There appear to be many elements in the debates. There is argument over the relative placing of unions viz-a-viz 'the Party', whether to have a Party, which candidates to support, whether to indulge in 'direct action', whether to strike now or later, & such seemingly unrelated areas as eugenics. Those people I'm grouping together as decentralisers are variously labelled by the I.S. as 'anarchist', 'direct action IWW', 'anti-political IWW' 'anti- socialist IWW' and 'syndicalist IWW'. Even within this paper though the traffic is not all one way.

    No doubt some elements of this decentralised group, then as now, were a disorganised, destructive burden on their colleagues but there were other decentralisers whose worth simply could not be trivialised or denigrated. Some of the best cartoons used are by Robert Minor, a North American anarchist.

    Particularly interesting in hindsight is the following quote the I.S. says comes from the Sydney Worker of 13 March 1913:

    The suffragettes are once more demonstrating that the only way for the 'under' people of England to obtain political rights is by the continued destruction of property.

    This is by (later Dame) Mary Gilmore. Winspear had to editorially acknowledge developments in WA in 1915 which apparently caused him to ban items of news from the Perth group. These developments included decisions by Annie Westbrook & Monty Miller, both founder members, to leave the WASP.

    ... Monty Miller has always stood for anarchism & should never have been in any Socialist Party. If Mrs Westbrook accepts Miller as a guide, philosopher & friend she should have been with him outside of any politico-industrial party. We congratulate our anti-Socialist fellow-workers on the acquisitions to their ranks.

    (I.S., 17 April, 1915, p.3)

    Intriguingly, Eric Fry in his chapter on Miller in Rebels & Radicals, "Australian Worker" more fairly describes Miller as a socialist, but so that readers won't get the 'wrong' impression, simultaneously separates him from the anarchists of the MAC, of which he had been a member, back in the 1880's. Fry locates Miller within the anti-(Parliamentary) politics, direct-action IWW, which, in Fry's version, is the only IWW & thus suffers no splits & debates not at all the different paths to the OBU.

    This juggling act, of course, allows Fry to gloss over Miller's relations with other socialist groupings such as the A.S.P. and to remark no incongruity at the use made of Miller by many socialist organisers in the 1916-1920 struggles, during which Miller himself was twice jailed for anti-conscription, anti-militarist activities.

    Winspear's resignation, September 1916, almost coincides with the first victory by the anti-conscription forces, & the onset of the real repression by the Hughes-led State apparatus, especially of the IWW. For the next 20 years, again there is virtually a total gap, partly because of the lack of research done to date, & partly because of the consequences of continued repression of radical organisation & changing economic circumstances. Winspear was quite possibly ill or indisposed for much of the time. When he was honored in 1936 for his anti-conscription efforts during the 1914-18 war, there are few remarks made to suggest that he had worked in that 20-year period as he had in the previous 4. He seems to have had little liking for the Bolsheviks and/or the Communist Party according to Burgmannn, but retained a lively, well-informed interest in political events & continued his writing, but for whom is unclear. One piece of information is the reference by R. S. Ross in November 1917 that Winspear was 'freelancing'. Why this would be so at that politically tumultuous time is a question still to be answered.

    Did Winspear resign only because of illness, or because of raids from the security police which occurred just as he was leaving the I.S.? Was there an ideological component?

    His fables & his editorials when he succeeded Holland had been especially concerned with the dangers of patriotism & it is probable that he will be longest remembered for his scathing attacks on 'the leprosy of militarism' culminating in his poem The Blood Vote introduced into the conscription struggle just as he retired from active involvement in the I.S. He had been equally strongly opposed, back in 1888, to revolutionary violence when debating with Jack Andrews in The Radical.

    His longer pamphlet Economic Warfare (1915) indicated that since 1890 he had certainly taken Marx on board but he was still exhorting his readers to freedom through self-activity, not emphasising co-ops as he had been, but emphasising workers' control of industry. While asserting economic production the dynamism for history & social change & the class war is the central motif. But in setting out his ideas about the way forward there is very little Marx.

    He has 3 key ideas:

    (1) the propaganda so far has been haphazard & too theoretical;

    (2) State socialism must be opposed in every way by every means &

    (3) Party government must be overthrown & replaced with industrial self-government.

    'So far our speakers & writers have fired at random taking no account of the economic conditions that so largely govern the views of those they seek to win'.

    He argues for a high level of specialisation in both the content of propaganda & in the selection of people for particular tasks. Speakers should bone their arguments to their audiences & be relevant not theoretical. The specialisation should extend to creating handy reference books on strikes, & to sending people to Parliament just to harass the members of parties & to expose their failings. A third task in Parliament of equal significance would be the stalling of attempts at bailing out small businesses or particular industries with schemes of nationalisation as the class war intensified. No government is suited to be an employer & labor Governments are no exception in his argument:

    Our railways & post office are excellent examples of the futility of endeavouring to gain freedom through governmental schemes of nationalisation ... Government was founded before the age of machine production was set in & it is unsuitable as a means of administering the resulting new organisation.

    He appears to be critical of his colleagues as well as the know nothings & finishes: "These ideas may seem to require too high a level of organisation, but so far we've all been too haphazard to achieve 'the industrial republic we dream of'.

    Conclusion:

    It's too early to know what to make of W. R. Winspear in toto. What we can be sure of are two things:- firstly, a certainty that W. R. Winspear should be honored for his long-term commitment to social change. He, his paper and his various projects are all important parts of our history. Secondly, this story, fragmentary though it is, poses questions which the Hunter Labor History Society & similar bodies should not ignore. For not only do we need to ask questions about the retrieval & maintenance of 'labor' history, but about the standards we're prepared to accept in its presentation & publicising. In particular I can no longer accept the notion of history as being about grand flows, or great clashes between generalised concepts eg class war, or Communism V the West, or equally simplistic lies. History is a result of people's actions & thoughts, fears & attempts to survive. History as it is transmitted must reflect diversity & complexity, tangles of emotions, plans & false starts, failure, disillusion & compromise, along with the glittering prizes, if any.

    Bob James March, 1987.

    Available writings by W.R. Winspear

    From 'A Reader of Australian Anarchism 1886-1896 .... edited by Bob James 'Land Nationalisation, State Socialism & Modern Socialism', W. R. Winspear, in The Australian Radical May 26, 1888 (extract) 'Revolution & Physical Force' by W.R. Winspear, in The Australian Radical, June, 1889. 'The Blood Vote', W.R. Winspear. Anti-conscription campaign flyer. Coutesy of Mitchell Library, N.S.W.

    Related Sources:

    'The Mightier Pen. William Robert Winspear' by Verity Burgmann in Rebels & Radicals edited by Eric Fry. 1983 Allen & Unwin.





    9000 -- The unions & their political inspirers have undertaken the task of acting as policemen against those who distribute revolutionary literature, when necessary beating them up. In Italy, the Stalinist union leaders have granted to the employers the right to fire, without notice or compensation, workers guilty of distributing literature or any type of agitation.(2) In France, most of the factory rules permit as much & the restrictions on thought go so far that even the most rebellious workers are afraid to express themselves & so keep quiet. The situation is no better in Germany, England or the U.S., no more than in Russia or Spain. Thus, thanks to the convergent action of capital & the union organisations, the working class finds itself reduced to clandestinity even at the work place, which is where it is exploited & fucked over.

    UNIONS AGAINST REVOLUTION — G. Munis http://geocities.com/cordobakaf/munis.html


    ?
    9000 -- swf, audio http://www.peterkuper.com/sept11th/sept11th.html
    http://www.inxart.com/flash/bush.swf

    ?
    9001 -- Enrique Roig de San Martin (1843-1889), founder of the weekly El Productor & the new theoretician & organizer of the Cuban proletariat. The strikes which occurred at the end of the 1880's were all inspired by anarchists & were organized via El Productor. This publication & Roig de San Martin helped to create a revolutionary organization called the Workers' Alliance of obvious Bakuninist inspiration.
    http://www.yelah.net/articles/cuba


    9001 -- Article
    Black Flag 212 index

    A short History of Polish Anarchism



    An anarchist movement of Narodnik ( Russian anti-capitalist democratic activists of the late 19th century) & Anarchist ideas from Russia and Western Europe came into existence at the turn of the 1th century. The ideas were by no means uniform, from the uncopromising & controversial Nieczajew [nechaev?], gallant Bakunin, anarcho-communist prince Kropotkin or Leo Tolstoy, promoter of a pacifist christian negation of statehood.

    The first & most significant anarchistic group in the pre-independence Poland originated in 1903 in Bialystok & consisted in an enormous part of Jewish people. In the next years some similar centres came into being in Nieznow, Warsaw,Lodz, Siedlce, Czestochowa, Kielce & a couple of other towns.What particularly intensified activity in all centres was news from the Russian Revoluution, Bloody Sunday in St Petersburg. These groups took part in terrorist activity as well as propoganda actions such as attempts on police officers' & factory owners' lives. There were also bank robberies to gain funds. Nowadays the majority of us anarchists entirely reject such methods but to understand the motivation to act in this way it is important to realise the level of cruelty & despotism of the tsar's authority. For example in Warsaw, on Governer general Saklow's order, 16 young anarchists, (about 18 years old) were murdered by the authorities & their bodies thrown into the Vistula. Shots at demonstrating workers were not uncommon either.

    At the same time material popularising the ideas of anarcho-syndicalism came pouring in. Adherents of this kind of anarchism repudiated terrorism claiming it did not contribute to an increase in society's consciousness, but on the contrary averted it from anarchism & caused disarray in the movement. That is why anarcho-syndicalists encouaraged other anarchists towards propagandistic activity & joining trade unions.

    The best known theoreticians of Polish anarchism were Edward Abramowski, Waclaw Machajski & the anarcho-sydicalists Dr Jozef Zielinski and Augustyn Wroblewski. Edward Abramowski claimed to be a non-state socialist . However it should be noted that the word "socialism" at that time did not have such a limited meaning as it has nowadays & a majority of groups of liberation, leftist groups & struggles for independence identified with it. Abramowski presented his views in works such as "Ethics & Revolution", "Republic of Friends " & "A Public Collusion Against Government". As an alternative to the state system were , in his opinion, gratuitous ????? trades set up by rules of common affairs & mutual services associated in bigger co-operatives. Only they are a support of a real freedom, give welfare, order, justice and brother hood to the individual. Furthermore they are organised from the grassroots, spontaenaeously without compulsion.Existing associates should form on a specified territory a free commune without authority & police. However the lack of a supposedly indispensable repression machinery does not mean the eruption of chaos into human life art all. The reverse happens- it releases energy & fervour that were being reduced in a system so far & that make people wanting to create the surrounding reality & to find themselves in it. An example of a big growth of social consciousness in the big solidarity days & then the repression of 13/12 ?????? is the best evidence of an enormous potential in people who have realised that they can change something in their life & surroundings at last. But let's return to Abramowski's theories. An unquestionable authority of those days, Tolstoy, had a considerable influence on his views. Follwoing him he advocatied non-paymnet of taxes & refusing to join the army. At the same time as being against the church as an institution he referred to Jesus' sermons which in his opinion denied statehood & authority. In his book "A public collusion agfainst governemnt" he gave some instructions about how people should struggle with the Tsar for thier own national maintenance. it certainly did not mean promoting another dictatorship which statehood is. Abramowski was also ( as every anarchist) opposed to national socialism. He prophetically warned "The politics of modern socialism is not a politics of strengthening & extending national authority that tends not towards setting people free but towards towards authorising everything which can be authorised only in their life." ????????????

    January 1892 the anarchists celebrated the first Cuban Regional Congress. They recommended that the Cuban working class join the ranks of "revolutionary socialism" & take the path of independence as proclaimed by Marti in a final "Manifesto" they wrote a phrase which has passed to history "...it would be absurd for one who aspires to individual freedom to oppose the collective freedom of the people...". The Spanish authorities suspended the congress, closed down the anarchist press, declared illegal the Alliance & deported or imprisoned the better-known congress's participants.

    The war of independence advocated by Marti exploded in Cuba in February 1895. Anarchists joined the struggle for freedom, among them Enrique Creci, who died in combat in 1896. Lamentable for everyone, the promises & social paths promised by Marti disappeared with him, when the apostle of Cuban independence died while fighting Spanish troops in May 1895. The war ended with U.S. intervention in 1898 & the defeat of Spain. Both in exile & in Cuba, the anarchists during this period acted ceaselessly to raise funds, to support the struggle, & in addition, to carry out campaigns in anarchist circles in the U.S. & Europe. Two young Italian anarchists joined the war: Orestes Ferrara & Federico Falco. The assassination of Spanish Prime Minister Canovas del Castillo by the Italian anarchist Angiolillo in 1897 with the direct participation of Emeterio Betances, a Puerto Rican doctor representing the Cuban exiles in Paris, was without doubt one of the most important factors in Spain's defeat. Canovas declared upon Cuba a war of systematic extermination, "suppress the revolt", he proclaimed, "to the last man & to the last peseta". At the same time he withstood pressure from the U.S. State Department & the N.Y. press. In the heyday of European colonialism & imperialism, Canovas belonged to the same elite of Emperors, Kings & politicians who not only oppressed its own people but also extended their domination to the less advanced world. His influence & reputation was not only among the Vatican, the Austro-Hungarian, the Russian or the German Empire but also in the high circles of power & money in England, France & Italy, who certainly approved Canovas's repression in Cuba.

    The three shots which terminated Canovas's life also put an end to his criminal tactics in Cuba. His successor, Mateo Sagasta, was a weak & inept politician, without respect or sympathy among his peers either in Spain or in the rest of Europe. His policies of "appeasement" toward the U.S. escalated inexorably the provocations of the new American imperialism. The Spanish empire ceased to exist. Indifference prevailed in Europe.

    During the U.S. intervention in 1899, the anarchists fermented a strike in the bricklayers' guild. It was suppressed violently, even though in the end the strikers obtained some increase in wages. This strike had the complete backing of the weekly !Tierra! edited by Abelardo Saavedra & Adrian del Valle. 2. The First Republic

    Important strikes took place under the first independent Cuban government: cigar-makers, bakers, carpenters, masons, were fiercely repressed, just as during the worst times of colonial rule. The republic of liberals or conservatives did not address itself to "social problems" & had forgotten the promise made by Marti "with everyone & for everyone".

    The Mexican revolution has a serious impact on Cuban workers & campesinos; the writings of Ricardo Flores Magónn and the guns of Emiliano Zapata were a spur to the consciousness of the long forgotten sugar cane workers, employed in the country's largest industry. In 1915 the Manifesto de Cruces was proclaimed, which, by its literary qualities, was a hymn of anarchist comabativity: "We must sustain our cry with the force of our arms" & "Silence is compromise" are the best representative statements of a group of workers that asserted the right to better destinies than that of the hereditary hunger they suffered for generations, especially when they were the most productive force on the island. In this same year the first Peasant Federation (Federacion Campesina de Cuba) on Las Villas province was founded, among its organizers being: Fernafido Iglesias, Laureano Otero, Manuel Lopez, Jose Lage, Benjamin Janeiros, Luis Meneses, Santo Garos, Miguel Ripoll, Francisco Baragoitia, Andres Fuentes, Tomas Rayon & Francisco Ramos. Due to the abuses committed by the U.S. and Spanish sugar companies which controlled the lion's share of national production, the anarchists attempted to conduct several strikes, but failed because of the repression unleashed by the government in Havana under President Garcia Menocal, using the pretorian army & the Rural Guard to murder & persecute the strikers. This was the most active period in the entire history of the Cuban Libertarians & lasted for more than twelve years & ended with the physical liquidation of the anarchist movement's most selfless members.

    In that period there were many regular periodicals of a libertarian orientation, although many of those responsible for publishing were eventually deported: La Batalla, Nuevos Rumbos, Espartaco, Via Libre, Voz Rebelde, Solidaridad, Memorandum Tipografico, El Boletin Tabacalero, & of course !Tlerra!. The most outstanding anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist figures collaborated intensely, Marcelo Salinas, Antonio Penichet, Manuel Ferro, Jesus Iglesias, Ernesto Illas, Francisco Montanes, Pauline Diez & Adrian del Valle among others. Some held to the ideas of Peter Kropotkin, Elisee Reclus, others were sympathetic to Malatesta or Pietro Gori, others maintained the tradition of Bakunin; and the rest & the majority moved toward the incipient anarcho-syndicalism that came from the Spanish National Confederation of labor, Confederacion Nacional del Trabajo (CNT). In 1922 Alfredo Lopez, an anarcho-syndicalist from the Printers' Union, organised the labor Federation of Havana, Federacion Obrera de La Habana (FOH), in which the most combative workers' unions, groups & labor associations of the capital were incorporated. Alfredo Lopez initiated the most dynamic stage of a long social & labor process; he helped to organise unions, libertarian schools, workers' centres, nature clubs & a workers' college, Popular University Jose Marti, Universidad Popular Jose Marti. In those troubled and turbulent years, the anarchists, without economic resources & without any help, first organized, gathered & oriented the majority of the workers, rural & urban, throughout the island.

    In 1925 & under the responsibility of Alfredo Lopez, backed by three workers' congresses in Havana, Cienfuegos and Camaguey respectively, created the National labor Confederation of Cuba, Confederacion Nacional Obrera de Cuba (CNOC), an umbrella organisation of all the unions, fraternal associations, guilds, brotherhoods & mutual aid associations in Cuba: 128 collectives & more than 200,000 workers were represented by 160 delegates. The most outstanding members in addition to Lopez, were Pascual Nunez, Bienvenido Rego, Nicanor Tomas, Jose A. Govin, Domingo Rosado, Florentino Pascual, Luis Trujeda, Pauline Diez, Venancio Rodriguez, Rafael Serra, Antonio Penichet, Margarito Iglesias & Enrique Verona. The most important element of the CNOC bylaws was "the total & collective rejection of electoral action". There were in addition, other labor-related accords & slogans: the classic demand for an eight-hour day, & for the right to strike, & a unanimous pledge not to bureaucratize the newly-established organization.

    The new president of Cuba, Gerardo Machado, a typical caudillo considered the political attitude of the workers "not very patriotic" & unleashed a relentless & merciless persecution against the CNOC & its leading militants. Machado ordered the cowardly murders of Enrique Varona, the organizer of the railway workers, Margarito Iglesias, Secretary of the Factory Workers' Union & Alfredo Lopez, General Secretary of the CNOCC. Machado jailed or deported every anarchist or anarcho-syndicalist activist, member or militant, he could lay his claws on, & declared illegal any union or guild he desired. For over eight years Machado attacked the work of the anarchists, providing an opportunity for the recently founded Communist Party to set itself in a position of force, within the ranks of the CNOC. Years later, toward the end of his regime, the Communists even signed a pact with Machado. http://www.yelah.net/articles/cuba


    9001 -- The complete suppression of political rights & the right to hold meetings inside or outside the factory; overtime imposed by the employer or the inadequate base pay (norm) for the official working day; fines & disciplinary measures at the discretion of the employer, who also dictates the factory rules; time studies & innumerable controls, piecework, hierarchical divisions within the proletariat based on wages & technical "qualifications"; collective contracts which only benefit capital, continuous increase of productivity to the detriment of the producers, prohibition of strikes in fact or by law; in short, everything which in the West transforms the union organizations into more & more negative institutions received a strong impetus from the Russia of the 1930's & was to inspire capital & unions throughout the world.

    UNIONS AGAINST REVOLUTION --- G. Munis http://geocities.com/cordobakaf/munis.html



    9001 -- —


    ?
    9001 -- — nice lady


    9001 --


    "I watched Buffy the Vampire Slayer.

    At one point she breaks into a secret government military complex to rescue her friend, Oz the Werewolf.

    Surrounded by hordes of soldiers she points a small one handed pistol crossbow at the general's head & says, "Nobody move or I do a William Burroughs on this guy!!"

    The soldiers look at her & keep advancing.

    Her buddy Zander looks at her & says, "Bore him to death with free prose?"

    She screams, "Was I the only one awake in English class that day!? I mean I'll shoot him in the head!""

    — P.H., MoocHead





  • Grenade Banks
    9002 -- grenade bank http://newman.baruch.cuny.edu/digital/redscare/default.htm


    9003 --

    Première partie : L’anarchisme traditionnel et la reconstruction du mouvement 1945-1960 6 Après la libération, Maurice Joyeux assista au congrès libertaire de juillet 1945. Membre du comité national de la Fédération anarchiste, il entreprit à maintes reprises des tournées de conférences ; collaborateur du Libertaire, il en assuma la gérance à partir d’août 1947 et ce jusqu’en 1949.

    En décembre 1950, il perdit ses postes de responsabilité à la FA et au journal à la suite de dissensions qui tenaient plus aux personnes qu’à l’idéologie. pour s’être opposé à la « ligne Fontenis », il sera de ceux exclus en 1952. Protagoniste de la reconstitution ne 1953, il entra au congrès de Vichy en 1956 au comité de rédaction du Monde libertaire ; le congrès de Trélazé en 1960 le reconduit dans ses fonctions. Maurice Joyeux est aussi membre de « l’Association pour l’étude et la diffusion des philosophies rationalistes » constituée en vue d’éviter une nouvelle prise en main de la Fédération.

    Hostile à la guerre d’Algérie, comme tous les anarchistes, Maurice Joyeux l’était aussi à la guerre d’indépendance, n’y voyant qu’une révolution bourgeoise. Au point de vue syndical, il a milité activement à la CGT-Force ouvrière où se retrouvent la majorité des anarchistes syndiqués. Il a mis l’accent depuis 1947 sur la notion de « grève gestionnaire » dont il est possible de résumer ainsi le contenu : seul l’égalité économique supprime les classes au sein de l’entreprise ; elle justifie donc la prise en main par les travailleurs des moyens de production et d’échange. lorqu’une grève éclate dans une ou plusieurs grandes entreprises, voire à l’échelon régional ou national, les exemples de 1936 (et de 1968 plus tard) permettent d’affirmer que c’est seulement durant une courte période de deux à trois semaines que tout est possible :

    « C’est l’instant où, de grève revendicative, de grève de refus, la grève doit devenir expropriatrice puis gestionnaire. C’est l’instant où les usines doivent se remettre à tourner sans leur direction et sous le contrôle des organisations syndicales, des comités d’entreprises, des conseils d’ouvriers, la manière importe peu. C’est l’instance de la chance révolutionnaire. »

    Au sein de la Fédération anarchiste, Maurice Joyeux anime le groupe « Louise Michel » qui publie La Rue, revue trimestrielle culturelle. M. Joyeux est un personnage incontournable du milieu anarchiste et pour l’historien, une source de premier ordre de par ses écrits théoriques et ses mémoires personnelles.

    Ce panorama d’ensemble des personnalités nous paraîtrait incomplet si nous ne faisions pas mention d’un homme qui a profondément marqué son époque et les militants anarchistes. Nous parlons ici de Sébastien Faure (1858-1942). S’il n’est pas en prise directe avec la période qui nous intéresse, son prestige et son aura dans le milieu anarchiste en font une référence essentielle pour les anarchistes d’après-guerre. Sébastien Faure ne fut pas à proprement parler un théoricien de l’anarchisme, mais surtout par l’écrit et par la parole, un vulgarisateur. C’est par ses conférences qu’il acquit une audience nationale. Sur le plan doctrinal, S. Faure intervint lorsque certains militants, à la suite des Russes exilés, Archinov et Makhno notamment qui considéraient que la très insuffisance structuration du mouvement expliquait pour une grande part ses défaites face aux bolcheviks, conseillèrent aux militants français de discipliner l’Union anarchiste sur le plan de la théorie et de l’action. Faure prit ses distances à l’automne de 1928 et préconisa « la synthèse anarchiste, opposant le resserrement de tous les éléments libertaires au groupement par tendance unique » . Il milita alors à l’AFA (Association des Fédéralistes anarchistes) et collabora à la Voix libertaire. Il prônait ainsi non la synthèse des théories anarcho-syndicaliste, communiste libertaire, et individualiste anarchiste, mais la coexistence dans une même organisation de tous ceux qui se réclament, sous quelque forme que ce soit, de l’idéal anarchiste. Il laisse à sa mort un prestige indéniable qui finit de le consacrer parmi les figures emblématiques du mouvement anarchiste.

    Les différents parcours des militants nous permettent de tirer quelques conclusions sur l’état d’esprit de ces derniers. Les hommes qui reconstruisent le mouvement après 1945 ont pour la plupart déjà une certaine expérience du « milieu » et de la tradition anarchiste. En s’attardant sur leur âge, on remarque que pour une très forte majorité, les militants ont tous entre quarante et cinquante ans. Même si les effectifs anarchistes de l’immédiat après-guerre devaient compter quelques jeunes (notamment avec l’apport des Auberges de jeunesses ou comme le confirme la fondation du Cercle libertaire des étudiants en février 1948), il est intéressant de constater cette prédominance des hommes d’expérience ; en effet, ces derniers peuvent, face aux jeunes générations, servir d’exemples, mais aussi effrayer dans la mesure où ils arrivent en cette fin des années quarante avec certaines certitudes sur les orientations idéologiques et tactiques à donner au mouvement et sur les causes des échecs anarchistes antérieurs à 1939 !

    Il est tout aussi intéressant de remarquer que pour la plupart, ces hommes ont été très influencés par deux événements : la victoire des bolcheviks en 1917 et la guerre d’Espagne. Ces deux aspects ont renforcé une caractéristique commune à tous les anarchistes d’avant-guerre :le rejet inconditionnel du marxisme et de toutes les formes qu’il a pu prendre. En effet, la révolution bolchevique a discrédité terriblement l’idéal anarchiste tandis que les événements de 1921  d’une part, et de 1936 à 1939 d’autre part, ont définitivement consacré le divorce entre les deux théories. D’un autre côté, la victoire et l’établissement du régime franquiste en Espagne amène nombre de militants ibériques à s’exiler. En France, ces derniers ne restent pas inactifs et reprennent leurs activités, parfois aux côtés des libertaires français. Cet aspect est important dans la mesure où les espagnols, forts d’un prestige immense dans les milieux libertaires, s’évertuent d’une part à « imposer » ou plutôt faire connaître les idées qui leur ont permis d’avoir une action décisive, et cette influence se ressent aussi dans les diverses motions de soutien et d’aide des  groupes anarchistes (et plus particulièrement de la FA) aux exilés ou à ceux des libertaires espagnols qui résistent à Franco. D’un point de vue sociologique et de recrutement, leur influence est largement décelable. Mimmo Pucciarelli apporte des éléments de renseignements sur cette question .  L’exemple de Romain, venu à l’anarchisme en 1951, est significatif. Son premier « contact » avec l’anarchisme s’opère par une rencontre avec des réfugiés espagnols.

    D’un point de vue sociologique, l’énumération des « figures marquantes » montrent l’appartenance de quelques-uns à la « classe ouvrière » : Beaulaton, Vincey. Les autres figures ne sont pas strictement « classable » en raison de nombreux changements de profession. On peut peut-être les mettre dans les prémices de la classe moyenne qui se formera après la Libération.

    Si l’action proprement dite est plus ou moins mise de côté à la fin des années quarante (si l’on excepte les tournées de conférences), les problèmes d’ordre théorique et tactique ne vont en prendre que plus de valeurs. Si après 1945 l’heure était à la réconciliation et à l’unité, la question de l’efficacité des théories anarchistes va faire vaciller cette unité de façade et mettre en danger la présence même de l’anarchisme en France.

    B) Les anarchistes et l’implosion du mouvement

    On a vu précédemment les différentes conceptions que l’on pouvait avoir de la théorie anarchiste. Ce sont justement ces différences d’idées, de vues et d’appréciations qui vont dès 1950 sclérosé le mouvement « officiel ». Devant les difficultés que connaît la pensée anarchiste pour se faire une place, notamment face à l’évident succès du communisme, la question d’une efficacité plus grande va revenir en force et engendrer un phénomène récurent dans les organisations libertaires : la cristallisation des tendances. C’est au début de l’année 1950 que se constitue un groupe clandestin au sein de la Fédération, l’Organisation Pensée Bataille (OPB), dont le père est Georges Fontenis. Crée dans le but de promouvoir l’anarchisme social révolutionnaire et de doter l’anarchisme français d’une réelle structure, l’OPB traduit bien le malaise dans lequel le mouvement s’engouffre : « Ce malaise et cette indigence suscitent une réaction qui  va aboutir à l’émergence d’un courant dit « communiste libertaire » ou de retour à « l’anarchisme social et révolutionnaire » issu du courant ouvrier antiautoritaire de la Première Internationale. »  Durant deux années, les cohabitations de tendances vont se faire sans trop de difficultés, bien aidé par le Libertaire dont le prestige reste assez haut, chacun essayant de promouvoir au sein de l’organisation ses conceptions. Il faut aussi souligner que la fin de cette unité en 1950 serait la fin du mouvement dans son état actuel. Néanmoins, plusieurs événements vont précipité la sclérose du mouvement et la lutte entre les tendances. C’est pourquoi nous allons nous attacher à éclairer les raisons d’une crise inévitable pour ensuite l’analyser plus profondément afin de mieux comprendre l’implosion du mouvement et le choc ressenti par les militants.
     

    Prémices d’une crise

     Après le congrès de Bordeaux de juin 1952, une première scission se produit au sein de la Fédération anarchiste. Plusieurs militants sont exclus ou quittent d’eux-mêmes la Fédération. Le congrès de Paris de 1950 avait institué le système de vote dans l’organisation, résultat d’une lutte importante entre les militants. C’est au congrès de Bordeaux que Fontenis, qui tenait dès lors l’organisation bien en main, demanda qu’à l’avenir on votât par mandats, ce qui était contraire à toute la tradition anarchiste. Il obtint cependant une majorité de 103 voix contre 45, mais les opposants déclarèrent solennellement qu’ils ne reconnaissaient aucune valeur à cette décision et une première scission en résulta en octobre ; en outre des exclusions furent prononcées à l’encontre de Joyeux, Aristide et Paul Lapeyre, Fayolle, Arru, Vincey, etc.

      Les militants qui ne se retrouvent pas dans la nouvelle orientation idéologique de l’organisation vont se réunir et il en ressort la sortie de l’Entente anarchiste, Bulletin de relation, d’information, de coordination, et d’étude organisationnelle du mouvement anarchiste. Le premier numéro est daté du 30 octobre 1952. Emanant du congrès du Mans du 11 octobre 1952, elle est « un organe destiné à mettre en contact, en dehors de tout exclusivisme, les fédérations, groupes et individus, se réclamant de l’anarchisme. »  Le congrès du Mans rassemble seize participants, quatre membres du groupe du Mans, cinq du groupe d’Angers, un du groupe de Saintes, deux de Paris et quatre isolés dont Hem Day et un militant espagnol. Réunie notamment autour de Raymond Beaulaton, Georges Vincey, Tessier, Louis Louvet, André Prudhommeaux ou Fernand Robert, l’Entente anarchiste apparaît clairement comme une tentative de sauvegarde d’un certain anarchisme, « opposé » à l’anarchisme-lutte de classe symbolisé par Fontenis et ses acolytes.

    Dès le premier numéro, c’est à  Raymond Beaulaton qu’il revient de fixer le débat et le sens des critiques : « Venons en directement au fait. L’unité anarchiste du lendemain de la guerre fut vite brisée. Il y a deux ans, au congrès de Paris, le système de consultation par le vote fut institué. En deux ans, cette unité fut détruite. »  Il reproche ainsi aux gens du quai de Valmy leur tendance et leur attitude autoritaires, au nom de la loi de la majorité, qui selon Beaulaton n’a rien à voir avec l’anarchisme. Naturellement, il est d’abord question de la critique de la Fédération anarchiste et de son orientation. Pour Georges Vincey, elles sont sans aucun doute autoritaires : « Ce sont des méthodes d’autorité que le LIB diffuse dans le public et pratique dans son organisation. »

    Si la critique de la déviation autoritaire de la FA est le principal fait de ralliement, on peut ressentir dès le premier numéro un état d’esprit qui va longtemps coller à la peau des anarchistes français. Cet état d’esprit se caractérise ainsi sous une double forme : d’une part un rejet inconditionnel de l’ennemi marxiste, d’autre part des questions sur le rôle des anciens et de l’évolution idéologique de l’anarchisme. C’est Fernand Robert qui attaque le premier : « Le LIB est devenu un journal marxiste. En continuant à le soutenir, tout en reconnaissant qu’il ne nous plaît pas, vous faîtes une mauvaise action contre votre idéal anarchiste. Vous donnez la main à vos ennemis dans la pensée. Même si la FA disparaît, même si le LIB disparaît, l’anarchie y gagnera. Le marxisme ne représente plus rien. Il faut le mettre bas ; je pense la même chose des dirigeants actuels de la FA. L’ennemi se glisse partout. »  On peut donc tirer une première conclusion de cette scission : le retour d’un antimarxisme virulent dans le milieu anarchiste. D’un autre côté, Chopin, un militant du groupe du Mans, signale une pensée qui va marquer les anarchistes ( on pourra le vérifier plus tard avec les événements des années cinquante et soixante) : « Un camarade signalait que le mal venait de l’abandon des vieux militants. Si les anciens étaient restés nous n’aurions pas vu s’instituer le système du vote. »  Après ce qu’il vient de se passer, il est désormais clair que les anarchistes exclus ou partants qui se réunissent auront un regard très attentif à toute tentative de prise en main sur une organisation anarchiste.

    Au delà des critiques, plusieurs propositions sont approuvées dès la première réunion ; celles de Louvet tout d’abord, déclarant qu’il n’y a plus d’organisation anarchiste, qu’il faut la refaire et propose qu’il soit fait une sorte d’association autour du groupe du Mans. Ensuite, c’est celle de Vincey qui veut un « bulletin idéologique qui serait diffusé le plus possible. »  Enfin, François Robert propose que ceux qui enverront des articles au bulletin payent au nombre de feuilles que leur prose prendra.
    Dans l’immédiat, cette assemblée d’anarchistes se révèle très importante et marque les trois points principaux qui vont servir à définir idéologiquement cette association.

    « 1°- Affirmation qu’être anarchiste, c’est reconnaître que l’individu est à la base de la Société. Que l’expression de l ‘anarchisme se conçoit à travers la Liberté.

    2°- Les anarchistes doivent se soutenir dans leur lutte contre l’autorité, dans tous leurs efforts, initiatives individuelles ou collectives, et envisager une organisation adéquate rejetant la loi majoritaire.

    3°- Les anarchistes réunis au Mans envisagent que le prochain congrès de la FA soit ouvert à TOUS les anarchistes. »
    Sans déclarer une rupture définitive avec l’organisation nationale, les anarchistes réunis au Mans ne cachent pas leurs désaccords avec cette dernière, tant d’un point de vue tactique et organisationnel en rejetant le vote, que d’un point de vue idéologique où un rassemblement de tous les anarchistes est souhaité. Bien sûr, ces revendications, dans le climat assez tendu entre les deux camps, apparaissent plus comme une volonté de défiance que d’un besoin de réconciliation, étant donné qu’ils s’atta