Cat Has Had the Time of His Life

    thin line

    Our Daily Bleed...

JUNE BLEEDWORK PAGE, grab bag of collected dates names materials for the Daily Bleed Calendar, etc

ANARCHIST ARCHIVE CONTENTS Foreword THE GERMAN DRAMA Hermann Sudermann Magda The Fires of St. John Gerhart Hauptmann Lonely Lives The Weavers The Sunken Bell Frank Wedekind The Awakening of Spring THE FRENCH DRAMA Maurice Maeterlinck Monna Vanna Edmond Rostand Chantecler Brieux Damaged Goods Maternity THE ENGLISH DRAMA George Bernard Shaw Mrs. Warren's Profession Major Barbara John Galsworthy Strife Justice The Pigeon Stanley Houghton Hindle Wakes Githa Sowerby Rutherford & Son THE IRISH DRAMA William Butler Yeats Where There Is Nothing Lenox Robinson Harvest T. G. Murray Maurice Harte THE RUSSIAN DRAMA Leo Tolstoy The Power of Darkness Anton Tchekhof The Seagull The Cherry Orchard Maxim Gorki A Night's Lodging Leonid Andreyev King-Hunger

-- Jacoby, Henry

Period : 1903-1986 Total Size : 0.35 m. Finding Aid : Preliminary list

Biographical/historical note : Pseudonym: Sebastian Franck; born in Berlin 1905, died in Geneva 1986; trained commercially & as a social worker; member of the anarchist-pacifist Freie Jugend from 1924; cooperated with Ernst Friedrich & his Anti-Kriegsmuseum; influenced by Alfred Adler's 'Individualpsychologie', he held contact with Alice & Otto Rühle; joined the Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands (KPD) in 1930; worked illegally after the Nazi take-over with the dissident communist Landau group, was arrested & served two & a half years hard labor; emigrated to Prague in 1936, then to Paris; member of the Funken- Gruppe & contributor to their Der Funke & Kritische Parteistimme; emigrated to New York, worked with the Office of Strategic Studies (OSS) from 1943 & contributed to The Call & Politics; employed by the Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1946-1968, eventually as head of her Geneva office; contributed to the independent socialist Funken 1950-1958 as Sebastian Franck & published the autobiographical works 'Von Kaisers Schule zu Hitlers Zuchthaus' 1980 & 'Davongekommen. 10 Jahre Exil' 1982.



Peter Kropotkin, All Star
1866 -- Kropotkin had visited the Lena goldmines early in his life, & indeed his experiences there when two revolts occurred, caused him to quit the military & begin his move towards radicalism & anarchism.

(I don't have the exact dates — ed.).1866: In this year, Peter finally realized that he had to leave the military. This decision stemmed from two events. The first took place when Peter visited the Lena gold mines on an expedition. The conditions here were even worse than those that Peter had experienced in other towns in the Amur region were. A series of letters to his brother conveys Peter's shock at the manner in which workers were treated. He suggested that the only way to remedy the situation would be to drastically alter the existing economic system. The second event occurred in June. A group of Polish exiles staged an uprising with the hope of escaping to China. The Siberian administration quickly took care of the situation by sending in the army. The army restored order, & the five leaders of the uprising were shot. Given, the conditions that he had just witnessed at the Lena gold mines, Peter understood why the Poles would want to escape. Furthermore, he could not justify to himself the use of the army when the revolt posed no real threat to anybody. In the next few months Peter immersed himself in reading, studying works by J.S. Mill, Renan, Heine, Herzen, & Proudhon. NEED TO FIND EXACT DATE, OR ASSIGN ONE & ADD THIS TO JUNE

1876 -- By the end of June, Peter had come with an elaborate plan to escape during one of his daily walks on the hospital grounds. Many other people were to be involved in distracting the guards, signaling that the coast was clear for the escape, & to drive Peter away in a carriage. When the day of the escape arrived, disaster struck. His accomplices could not find any red balloons, which was to be the sign that the coast was clear. The escape did not happen on that day, & for that Peter was lucky. A line of peasant carts had been blocking the escape route. If Peter had tried to escape, he surely would have been recaptured.

During the next 24 hours, Peter's friends worked frantically to come up with a new plan. After much work, they made the necessary changes to Peter's original plan. One problem remained, they had to let Peter know what the changes were. This was accomplished by hiding a written summary of the plan inside a watch. Then, one of Peter's close friends, visited him, giving him the watch as a gift. Peter was told to examine the watch carefully. When he did, he found the note. He now knew of the new plan. The next day everything went as planned. Peter escaped from the prison, & none of his accomplices were apprehended. That night, the group celebrated in one of St. Petersburgpis finest restaurants. They guessed (correctly) that the police would never look for them here. The next day Peter left Russia at the Finnish border. From Finland he took a ship to England. Peter's first few month's in England were spent establishing contacts. His main objective was to let Guillaume know that he wanted to work for the Jura Federation again. Guillaume was delighted to hear this & asked Peter to begin writing articles for the Bulletin de la Federation Jurassienne. He also spent some time writing for the Imperial Geographic Society. However, his primary interests laid with the worker's movement. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- see/coordinate LINK TO BLEED REF:
[Further details]


1884 : 12 000 grévistes à Anzin ; le mouvement, fondé sur le refus du salaire au mérite, durera 56 jours.

1891 : 36 000 grévistes pendant 15 jours dans le Bassin Nord-Pas-de-Calais.

1891 : A Fourmies, l’armée tire sur les mineurs en grève, 9 morts et 60 blessés.

1893 : 42 500 mineurs en grève pendant 49 jours dans le Nord-Pas-de-Calais. Le mouvement se solde par un échec.

1906 : Après la catastrophe de Courrières (Pas-de-Calais), qui fait plus de 1 000 victimes, 45 000 mineurs se mettent en grève pendant 2 mois.

1914 : L’ensemble des bassins se met en grève pendant 2 mois. La loi sur les retraites est appliquée, en plus de l’obtention de la journée de 8 heures.

1936 : Grève générale dans les mines. A l’issue des accords de Matignon, les mineurs obtiennent deux semaines de congés payés, 38 h 40 de travail pour le fond et l’institution des délégués du personnel.

1986 : Grève à Carmaux (Tarn) contre la fermeture de la mine.

1987 : Grève en Lorraine pour le « minimum de production garanti ».

1988 : Violents affrontements à Merlebach (Moselle).



1885 -- Le 23 août 1948, mort d'Adrienne MONTEGUDET née Victorine VALDANT, à Bayonne. Militante communiste et syndicaliste révolutionnaire puis libertaire.

Née le 12 juin 1885 dans une famille paysanne de la Creuse, elle deviendra institutrice. Mariée à Léon Montégudet, ils militent ensemble au sein du parti communiste et de la C.G.T. A la mort de celui-ci, elle poursuit son militantisme et anime en 1921 les "Comités Syndicalistes Révolutionnaire" à Aubusson. Son activité ne manque pas de lui attirer l'attention des autorités et elle échappe de peu à une révocation. Secrétaire de l'Union Départementale C.G.T de la Creuse, elle poursuivra cette fonction au sein de la C.G.T.U en 1922, après la scission syndicale. Sa rencontre avec un militant d'origine italienne l'amène un temps à Moscou où elle devient professeur de français.

En 1927 elle est de retour en France où elle tente d'impulser une propagande dans le milieu paysan, mais rompt avec le parti communiste. Elle retourne en URSS en septembre 1930 pour le Congrès de l'Internationale syndicaliste rouge, mais se montre très critique envers le régime soviétique et les délégués français qui refusent de voir les réalités.

A partir de 1931 elle collabore à "l'Emancipation" journal de la Fédération de l'Enseignement puis fréquente le groupe de Monatte qui édite "La Révolution prolétarienne". Elle quitte ensuite la Creuse pour Marseille où elle prend part en 1936 aux réunions anarchistes et devient secrétaire du Comité des femmes libertaires. Elle apporte alors son aide aux réfugiés italiens puis espagnols. Au début de la guerre mondiale, elle s'installe à Antibes puis à St-Paul-de-Vence où, en contact avec Célestin Freinet, elle prend en charge un groupe de réfugiés Tchèques (juifs pour la plupart) quelle cachera en Creuse puis près de Bayonne.

1886 -- Italy: Basta ! Bisogna Abolire lo STAto ! Crimini e Misfatti dello stato italiano dalle origini ai giorni nostri MOVING DATES

1876 - 1886 La meridionalizzazione dello stato italiano : la sinistra al potere

1878 18 Agosto. Le truppe regie uccidono a fucilate Davide Lazzaretti, esponente guida di una comunità religiosa, e alcuni suoi seguaci, alle Forche di Arcidosso (Grosseto). Predicavano l'avvento di una democrazia repubblicana su basi egualitarie e tanto è bastato allo stato per sopprimerli.

Davide Lazzaretti :"lassù sul monte Amiata è morto Gesù Cristo, da vero socialista, ucciso dai carabinier" nato nel Grossetano ad Arcidosso, nel 1834, barrocciaio, ateo e anarchico si era convertito al cattolicesimo nel 1868, ma si mise a parlare oltre che di Dio anche di terra e di giustizia sociale e di libertà, fondando nell'Amiata una sovversiva comune agricola; fu ucciso dai reali carabinieri il 18 agosto del 1878, in occasione di una processione pacifica non autorizzata, con grande sollievo del papa Pio IX e del governo di sinistra allora al potere di Depretis.

1885 24 Giugno. Le truppe dello stato italiano occupano Saati, a 30 chilometri da Massaua, nonostante le proteste del Negus di Abissinia.

1886 22 Giugno. Lo stato, per mano del prefetto di Milano, scioglie il 'Partito Operaio' e sopprime il suo giornale 'Il Fascio Operaio' ordinando l'arresto dei dirigenti con l'accusa di aver costituito "un'associazione di malfattori".

1887-1900 Autoritarismo statale e avventurismo coloniale : trasformisti e reazionari al potere [^] [Polyarchy] [Basta!] [Indice : crimini e misfatti]

[Source: Crimini e Misfatti]

1898 -- Does Daily bleed have REFERENCE TO RIOTS REVOLTS OF 1898?, ETC

After the May riots & revolts of 1898 in Italy & Ferrer's week in Barcelona, July 1909, the June revolt of the Romagna & of Ancona was the strongest popular rising in Europe since the Paris Commune & the Spanish insurrections of 1873.

[Source: Max Nettlau, Errico Malatesta: The Biography of an Anarchist.]

1931 -- 6-12 need to translate Avellaneda, Argentine, un groupe d'activistes anarchistes conduit par Juan Antonio MORAN abat de cinq coups de revolver le major Rosasco qui dînait dans un restaurant. Celui-ci, serviteur zélé de la dictature du Gal Uriburu, était responsable de la répression et de l'éxécution de nombreux militants. Durant l'opération, l'anarchiste LACUNZA trouvera également la mort.

1937 -- NEED exact date? Dr. Juan Negrín (1889-1956), who became prime minister of the Republic in May 1937, remains something of a controversial character. Negrín's apologists see him as the supreme pragmatist, a man forced by circumstances to toe the communist line. His detractors regard him as an opportunist, whose overweening ambition led him to turn a blind eye to communist excesses, including the many political assassinations carried out by the party in the final days of the conflict.

1949 -- from: The American Inquisition by Cedric Belfrage

Chapter 10: 1949: "I Appreciate Your Permission To Weep"

Beginning in mid-1947, a New York grand jury spent 12 months of weekdays listening to Elizabeth Bentley & other familiars who had pinpointed Russian spies, & then to the spies. After Hoover's men had visited hundreds of thousands of the spies' contacts, 12 Party leaders were indicted.1 The charge was not spying but "conspiracy to advocate the overthrow of the government by force & violence."

The Smith Act trial at Foley Square initiated a nationwide series over the next years. Far from being an obstacle to the government, the Act's patent unconstitutionality multiplied the agony of the victims, plunging them into a murk of unreality & spinning out their ordeal into ever costlier months & years. Together with deportation, Subversive Activities Control Board (from 1950), Taft-Hartley, Loyalty Board & assorted hearings, the trials compelled heretics to run at furious speed in a vain attempt to stay in the same place. The argument that they did not "advocate force & violence" was doomed in advance, for the government was ready to prove that they did, with scores of familiars & countless excerpts from Marxist texts. Committees proved it — or anything else that was required — simply by framing a question to which they knew there would be no reply. As an added precaution the court always charged "conspiracy."

1956 --

June 1952

Serge Berna, Jean-Louis Brau, Guy-Ernest Debord & Gil J. Wolman secretly form the radical Lettrist International tendency within the lettrist movement.

30 First projection of Guy Debord's film Howls for Sade in Paris.
75 minutes, 35mm, black & white.
Voice-over: Gil J. Wolman, Guy Debord, Serge Berna, Barbara Rosenthal, Jean-Isidore Isou.


Early 1953

Guy Debord writes Never Work! on a wall in the rue de Seine.

June 1954

22 Potlatch #1, internal bulletin of the French Lettrist International group, Paris. Editor-in-chief: André Frank Conord.

June 1956

Toutes ces dames au salon! (All the Ladies in the Room!), tract denouncing the exhibition The Oil Industry in the Eyes of Artists, held at the Palais de Beaux-Arts, Brussels, 2 to 14 June, signed by members of the Lettrist International (Michèle Bernstein, Mohamed Dahou, Guy Debord, Jacques Fillon, Alexander Trocchi, Gil J. Wolman), the Les Lèvres nues group (Paul Bourgoignie, Jane Graverol, Marcel Mariën, Paul Nougé, Gilbert Senecaut), the Nuclear Art Movement (Enrico Baj, Sergio Dangelo, Asger Jorn) & several independent artists (Ernest Carlier, Paul Joostens, Herbert Read).

July 1956

Eristica #1. Journal of the International Movement for an Imaginist Bauhaus. Editor: Giuseppe Pinot Gallizio. Editorial Committee: Enrico Baj, Christian Dotremont, Walter Korun.

November 1956

2 Potlatch #27, information bulletin of the Lettrist International, Paris.

Publication in Les Lèvres nues #9 of Guy Debord's article, 'Theory of the dérive,' in which the word 'situationist' makes its first appearance.

1963 --


January 1963

Les aventures de la dialectique (Adventures of the Dialectic), and, the following week, La Revanche de la dialectique (Revenge of the Dialectic), postcard comics announcing the new mailing address for Internationale Situationniste.

Internationale Situationniste #8. Central bulletin published by the sections of the Situationist International. Editor: G.-E Debord. Editorial committee (Central Council of the SI): Bernstein, Debord, Kotànyi, Lausen. Martin, Strijbosch, Trocchi, Vaneigem.

March 1963

In Paris, the SI meets Tsushi Kurokawa & Toru Tagaki, delegates to Europe of the Japanese Zengakuren movement.

June 1963

22 June to 7 July Destruction of the RSG-6, Exi Gallery, Odense, Denmark. SI exhibition (Thermonuclear Maps by J.V. Martin, Victories by Michèle Bernstein & Directives by Guy Debord). The Situationists & the New Forms of Action in Art & Politics, text by Guy Debord in Danish, English & French.
Clandestine reissue of the English tract Danger! Official Secret RSG-6, published in April by Spies for Peace, revealing the location & secret plans for a government fallout shelter for Region 6.
Belgian situationist Rudi Renson is arbitrarily prevented from crossing the Danish border while traveling to the exhibition.

August 1963

Erection, in Sejs Forest, near Silkeborg, of the stone carved by Asger Jorn in December 1960 in memory of Christian Christensen.

1964 --

Chronology 1964


Signes gravés sur les églises de l'Eure et du Calvados (Etchings on the Churches of Eure & Calvados), Bibliothèque d'Alexandrie, volume II, published by the Scandinavian Institute of Comparative Vandalism under the direction of Asger Jorn, Copenhagen & Paris, one chapter of which will be reprinted as Jorn's brochure De la méthode triolectique dans ses applications en situlogie générale (The Application of the Triolectical Method in General Situology).


España en el corazón (Spain in the Heart), tract by the SI (Western European Region) in Spanish & French regarding a new form of propaganda experimented with in Spain (clandestine erotico-political tracts).

Following the engagement of the daughter of the Danish king to the Greek sovereign, the SI distributes a photo of Christine Keeler declaring in Danish: 'As the Situationist International says, it is far more honorable to be a whore like me than the wife of a fascist like Constantin.'


Internationale Situationniste #9. Editor: Debord. Editorial committee: Michèle Bernstein, J.V. Martin, Jan Strijbosch, Raoul Vaneigem.

Contre le cinéma (Against Cinema), by Guy Debord, fourth — & final — monograph in the Bibliothèque Alexandrie, published by the Scandinavian Institute of Comparative Vandalism, Århus. Preface by Asger Jorn ('Guy Debord & the Problem of the Accursed').


3 'The Situationist International,' note by Michèle Bernstein in a special issue of the Times Literary Supplement on the avant-garde.

1967 --


January 1967

Et ça ne fait que commencer (And That's Just the Start of It), tract by the SI (signed by Jean Garnault & Théo Frey) & the AFGES (signed by André Schneider & Bruno Vayr-Piova), Strasbourg.

11 Avis (Notice), flyposter announcing the closure of the Strasbourg University Psychological Aid Centre (BAPU) by the AFGES "considering that the BAPU's are the manifestation in the student milieu of a repressive psychiatry's parapolice control, whose obvious function is to maintain [...] the passivity of all exploited sectors."

15 Exclusion of the Garnautins (Théo Frey, Jean Garnault & Herbert Holl), French section. Because of her solidarity with the Garnautins, édih Frey is also excluded.

22 Attention! Trois provocateurs (Warning! Three Provocateurs), tract explaining the exclusion of the Garnautins, signed by Michèle Bernstein, Guy Debord, Mustapha Khayati, J.V. Martin, Donald Nicholson-Smith, Raoul Vaneigem & René Viénet, Paris.


Sexologie de la misère. Misere de la sexologie (The Sexology of Poverty & the Poverty of Sexology), tract distributed in the university residences of Lyon, Nantes, Paris, Strasbourg & Toulouse.

March 1967

Second edition of On the Poverty of Student Life, Paris. The tract is subsequently published in several languages, including an English edition translated by Christopher Gray & Donald Nicholson-Smith as Ten Days that Shook the University with a postscript ('If you want to make revolution, do it for fun'). An inferior translation by Tony Verlaan later appears in New York, & a third partial translation is published in Seattle. A complete translation is distributed in Sweden, while partial versions appear in radical journals in Spain (Acción Communista) & Italy (Nuova Presenza & Fantazaria).

15 to 24 Ny-irrealisme, Operation Playtime. Exhibition of anti-paintings by Michèle Bernstein (The Victory of the Spanish Republicans) & J.V. Martin (the Golden Ships series), & five Nothing Boxes by René Viénet, Århus, Denmark. J.V. Martin's brochure Ny-irrealism is reprinted in Situationistisk Revolution #2.


Resignation of Michèle Bernstein, French section. Bernstein nevertheless continues her association with the SI for around three years.


The Explosion Point of Ideology in China, anonymous tract written by Debord denouncing Mao's Cultural Revolution, Paris, reprinted in Internationale Situationniste #11.

1968 -- Now that the insurgents Have gone back to survival. Boredom, forced labor, & ideologies, We'll take pleasure in sowing Other May flowers to be picked one day. FINAL CHORUS

1968 -- actually the 6-25, but needs to be redone, updated:

England: The deadline for the Union's demands to be met passed without response from the University, & an occupation of administrative offices in the Parkinson Building began. The students' demands were reiterated at an OGM held in the occupied Parkinson Court the following day (12). This time direct action was fully supported by Jack Straw & Union News. The sit-in continued until the early evening of Friday 28 June, before ending with a march back to the Union Building.

The Outcome The University refused to negotiate formally with the students while the sit-in continued, and conceded none of the students' demands concerning either the Security Adviser or disciplinary procedures. A Committee on Concern with the Activities of the Security Force, appointed by the Senate on 24 June 1968 & chaired by Professor E. Grebenik, concluded that the students' calls for a public enquiry were unjustified. (14) No such enquiry was ever held. In Union News & other student assessments it was acknowledged that, in material terms, the sit-in "achieved virtually nothing". (15)(16)

The Hunt For Red Jack The more famous Jack Straw has subsequently become, the more journalists have hunted for skeletons in the cupboard - always fruitlessly. Jack Straw was recognised in student political circles as hard-working & ambitious, & if he was occasionally compared to Chairman Mao (e.g. "Great Helmsman & Teacher Jack Straw", Union News 3 November 1967) it was certainly not because of any ideological similarities to the Chinese dictator. His role in May-June 1968 is best understood as an example of the tendency for union leaders to appear to adopt a militant stance, not in order to promote radical demands, but rather to reassert control over their members, bolster their own power, & strengthen their negotiating position. This was how Jack Straw's actions were interpreted by Sir Roger Stevens, in an acute assessment of these events. (17)(18) This document also conveys something of the University authorities' sense of shock that anything of this nature could have happened at Leeds.

1968 -- 6-12 to translate Paris '68: Le gouvernement décide la dissolution de plusieurs groupes d'extrême-gauche, ainsi que du "Mouvement du 22 mars" à l'origine de la révolte estudiantine. Les manifestations interdites par la police se terminent en affrontements, des nombreuses barricades sont à nouveau érigées au quartier latin.

1968 -- The Paris, May 68 student coalition fermented & gained momentum around a series of events: the arrest of student members of the National Vietnam Committee, police brutality, & government & university hierarchy impertinence.

Things came to a violent confrontation between student demonstrators & the police on May 10th ('Night of the Barricades'). By May 13 government discontent spread into the labor force & workers began joining in the protest with a series of strikes & factory occupations."By May 24, barely two weeks after the great demonstration of May 13, approximately ten million workers were on strike in France" (p.8). Due to many factors, most prominent being the divisions within the French left, de Gaulle's 5th Republic government was able to diplomatically end the strikes by negotiating with the PCF (the French Communist Party), & the CGT (Confédération général du travail). The uprising was a failure in the minds of the radical French left (called 'gauchistes') whose goal was the overthrow of the de Gaulle government & establishment of socialism. On a symbolic level, however, May 68 represented a moral victory in demonstrating the far reaching effects of a small but united collective front.

1968 -- The rank & file resisted, while the trade union leaders welcomed the return to order. The PCF welcomed de Gaulle's electoral challenge & did not want to be associated with any 'extremist' attitudes.

After June 7th those still resisting were, as they put it, isolated & therefore subject to the most violent repression yet. One school student was drowned in the Seine in the battle to end the Renault occupation at Flins, & two workers were shot dead at the Peugeot factory in Sochaux.

On the 12th the government banned several student organisations & some 'left' groups. The national union of students called off all street activity to avoid further clashes. The movement was losing its impetus almost as fast as it had grown. Then on the 16th, the Sorbonne was finally retaken by a vast police assault. There were a few clashes in the Latin Quarter, but no barricades. The movement was finally over.

1969 -- Internationale Situationniste 1969


June 1969

Situationist International #1. Review of the American section of the SI, New York, USA. Editorial Committee: Robert Chasse, Bruce Elwell, Jonathon Horelick, Tony Verlaan.

July 1969

Internazionale Situationista #1. Review of the Italian section of the Situationist International, Milan. Editor: Gianfranco Sanguinetti. Editorial Committee: Claudio Pavan, Paolo Salvadori, Sanguinetti.

28 Guy Debord announces his intention to step down as editor of Internationale Situationniste.

September 1969

Internationale Situationniste #12. Review of the French Section of the SI. Editor: Debord. Editorial Comittee: Mustapha Khayati, René Riesel, Christian Sébastiani, Raoul Vaneigem, René Viénet.

2001 -- A 79 Year Old Woman Who Bowls: An Interview with Diva Agostinelli, Anarchist

Born in Jessup, PA, in 1921, to an Italian anarchist coal mining family, Diva Agostinelli is one extra-ordinary person. I hesitate to say that I think of Diva as role model because, even though she is a "part of history" she continues to teach & learn alongside of radicals, not above them. Diva often, in response to a question, says she doesn't have an answer but then goes onto to relate an experience or situation that lends itself to understanding.

Diva left Jessup when she was 16 & went to Philadelphia where she attended Temple University. Afterwards, she went to NYC & joined the Why? magazine group (later renamed Resistance).

Why? was a group that split off from the Vanguard group & included Audrey Goodfriend, David Koven, & later, David Wieck, Diva's lifelong companion. She worked with this group from 1942 to the mid-50's & met many other people who came in & out of the circle, including John Cage, Murray Bookchin, Paul Maddock [Mattick?], Robert Duncan & James Baldwin.

It was at Why?'s weekly meeting, at SIA hall, in NYC, (run by Spanish anarchists) where Baldwin first publicly read parts of "Go Tell it on the Mountain." The first time Diva met Goodman, he was on the floor demonstrating a Riechian orgasm! But, the famous personalities dim in the face of Diva & her comrades' life long dedication to anarchism. Whether she was on a speaking tour, writing pieces for the magazine, teaching history, or running a school library, Diva has never given in. Consider her mantra, of sorts, when things get rough: If you've succeeded in the real world, then you need to figure out how you failed.

What follows is more of a conversation than an interview. Diva's life doesn't lend itself to a structured session of questions & answers. I spoke with Diva in Troy, NY, (where she has lived for the past 40 years) on March 3, 2001. ~ Rebecca DeWitt

I was going to be Voltairine de Cleyre, Louise Michel, Sofia Perovskaya

Franz Flagler went into the merchant marines; he felt he had to do something. He was working on his ship, trying to get refugees Israel. David Koven joined the merchant marines. I mean people had to do. Cliff Bennet went on the lam before he was sent to jail. David (Wieck)

Diva, David Koven, & Audrey Goodfriend, former members of Why? ?


2005 -- The writer & somatherapist Roberto Freire is well-known for his books, novels, plays & essays where the anarchist ideas which led to the creation of Soma are always present. His research of an anarchist therapy is now recognized as an original contribution to psychology & he has more than thirty years experience working in various Brazilian states.

Leia mais:

Check out the release of "A Liberdade do Corpo" in the Books & Publications section

Roberto Freire

Apart from creating his own clinical method, Freire has also contributed to literature on the philosophy of pleasure with his concession-less defence of pleasure as a vital necessity. Cléo e Daniel was his first novel, which became a best-seller amongst students in the seventies, selling more than 200,000 copies as a newspaper-book, a daring editorial option at that time. Without a doubt, it was this potent mixture of literature & Freire's own choice of lifestyle which led to the creation of Soma.

Os ingredientes? Não é difícil encontrá-los, claros e diretos, por exemplo nos ensaios "Utopia e Paixão", "Sem Tesão Não Há Solução" e "Ame e dê Vexame": a ideologia do prazer como arma revolucionária de combate ao sacrifício imposto pelas sociedades autoritárias e hierárquicas. O tesão passou a ser a bandeira de luta de Roberto Freire desde seu rompimento com a Psicanálise e com a Psiquiatria tradicional, na década de 1960. Formado em Medicina, Roberto trabalhou em ambulatórios psiquiátricos e fez formação psicanálitica. Afastou-se por divergências ideológicas, achava-as equivocadas e adaptadoras ao sistema social vigente, e aventurou-se pelo jornalismo, teatro e literatura. Como escritor encontrou sua liberdade criativa e reencontrou sua paixão pela Psicologia. No final da década de 60, volta a clinicar e a pesquisar um método terapêutico mais próximo de sua ideologia de vida, o anarquismo no cotidiano.

Today, after more than thirty years working with Soma in various cities in the country, Roberto Freire supervises the work of the somatherapists of the Brancaleone Collective & continues writing. He is due to publish his autobiography Eu é um outro in the next few months as well as new volumes of his series for children João Pão, as aventuras de um menor abandonado.

Also visit the sites of Roberto Freire's sons


Brancaleone was created in 1992 as a collective dedicated to the research, development & practice of Soma. Currently, the headquarters are in Rio de Janeiro & is made up of the somatherapists João da Mata, Jorge Goia & Vera Schroeder & of trainee therapists Ana Lopes, Fábio Veronesi & Marcelo Leal.

João da Mata was born in 1968 in Recife, Pernambuco where he began training in Medicine in the eighties. He became a somatherapist at the beginning of the nineties with Roberto Freire. João coordinates therapy groups in São Paulo & Rio de Janeiro where he lives. Together with Roberto Freire, he published SOMA - vol.3 - Body to Body a resumé of the theory & practice of Soma (available in English on this site). In 2001, he published A liberdade do corpo in which he explores the utilization of capoeira angola as an instrument of personal & social transformation within groups of Somatherapy. João is also a photographer & a video documentary maker. He received an award in the festival Brasilidades, promoted by the Museum of Modern Art / Rio de Janeiro for his film 'O Brasil de Walter Firmo'. He also publishes articles in the periodical 'Libertárias', produced by NU-SOL (Núcleo de Sociabilidade Libertária - PUC - São Paulo)

Jorge Goia was born in 1963 & has been a practicing somatherapist since completing his training in 1993 with Roberto Freire. He coordinates groups in Florianópolis, Porto Alegre & Rio de Janeiro where he lives. He graduated in Social Communication from the University of Londrina (Paraná). As a journalist, he worked between 1986 & 1991, editing the news programme "Paraná Norte". He has also been reporter & editor of the TV station Coroados (Londrina), TV Verdes Mares (Fortaleza) & TV Manchete (Fortaleza). In 2001 completed his master's degree in Social Psychology from the State of Rio de Janeiro University (UERJ). His thesis was "Conversations with an anarchist therapist - Roberto Freire & Soma", in which he sought to document the research hitherto undertaken in the practice of Soma & relating this to contemporary French philosophy, mainly the work of Michel Onfray, Michel Foucoult, Gilles Deleuze & Félix Guattari. He is currently doing a PhD in Social Psychology in UERJ, also about Somatherapy. He also writes for libertarian journals & is a photographer &

Vera Schroeder was born in 1973 & graduated in Social Communication, specialising in Marketing at the Escola Superior de Propaganda e Marketing (ESPM) in São Paulo. In 1995, she began her training with Roberto Freire & currently coordinates groups in São Paulo & Rio de Janeiro where she lives. She worked in Borrifos Artistic Production, producing debates, musical & theatrical shows in cultural centres, universities & schools. From this experience she set up her own production team, "Fulô - Cultural & educational production". She has developed various projects to bring back into focus Popular Brazilian Culture, with special attention on Ariano Suassuna, Paulo Moura & the guitarist Paulo Freire. In September 2002, "Fulô" will produce a series of debates in the Cultural Centre of the Bank of Brazil (CCBB). The series has been entitled "A Política da Palavra" (The Politics of the Word) & will welcome such writers & thinkers as Roberto Freire, Margareth Rago, Edson Passetti, Carlos Heitor Cony & Ferreira Gullar, amongst others. She has been published in the Canadian magazine "Adbusters" & "Letralivre" in Rio.

2006 --
  1. In imperial Japan sexual equality had many champions, though definitions of what constituted equality varied markedly. The following discussion concerns three women who were among the most radical of its advocates: Kanno Suga (1881-1911), Itô Noe (1895-1923) & Kaneko Fumiko (1903-1926). All three, it will be noted, died young. Not one of them, moreover, died from natural causes but, rather, at or in the hands of the State. This may come as no surprise since all were anarchists or (in the case of Fumiko) strongly influenced by anarchism; as we shall see below, two of the three were even self-confessed traitors who believed in political violence as a necessary strategy. These three women did not fall foul of state power due specifically to their advocacy of sexual equality, yet this was an intrinsic part of the political standpoints & identities they embraced. If it had not been for their resistance to hierarchical notions of male-female difference & their demands for equal recognition & treatment by society, their fates may have been different. The self-denial & self-effacement traditionally expected of women was, for each of them, not an option, for it ruled out the possibility of a true subjecthood & destiny of her own choosing.
  2. Not unusually, tradition in Japan held that femaleness & an individual identity & destiny were oxymoronic. Thus, when the Tokugawa (1603-1867) authorities chose to execute a woman, she would be given a man's name. This was not unlike the view of progressive medieval Buddhists that enlightenment was not, after all, out of the reach of women. In male bodies, transformed at the point of death through the grace of Amida Buddha, they might gain immediate entry to the Pure Land. Either style of 'annihilation' meant dying a 'man'. However, after the Meiji imperial restoration of 1868, Western-style modernity brought with it a new view of women as modern citizens. The Meiji Constitution, Civil Code & political assembly laws fell far short of according them equality in terms of their rights or duties to the nation, yet the new criminal code promulgated in 1880 spelt a certain equality for women in granting them equal access to criminality.
  3. Under the Meiji (1868-1912) criminal code, no longer was the 'name of woman' incompatible with the severest of penalties. As a woman the anarchist-feminist, Kanno Suga, could in 1912 be sentenced to death for the intent, not an attempt, to assassinate the Meiji emperor. As a woman she could be, & was, lawfully executed.[2] This was together with eleven male comrades, anarchists & other socialists—or, not quite together, since Suga was garrotted separately from them, one day later. Years later in 1926, another woman, Kaneko Fumiko, was sentenced to death, once again for lese-majesty, for conspiring to import bombs from the mainland to use on the imperial family. Politically, Fumiko identified with nihilistic egoism, a position strongly associated with individualistic anarchism influenced by European moral nihilists such as Nietzsche & Max Stirner. For egoists then in Japan, the assertion of the individual will, self-determination & the liberation of the Self were all-important. In some cases this position may have led to a lack of social conscience or narrow self-centredness that ruled out collective political action, but this was not the case with Fumiko. None the less, for her it was largely the assertion of the individual Self & will, through political resistance, that would lead to the mitigation, if not necessarily the destruction, of State & bourgeois power.
  4. What was just as central to egoistic thinking was the importance of an individual identity. Having a name was important to Fumiko partly because she had grown up a musekisha [legally unregistered person] (a person not registered legally in a family register, not even as an 'illegitimate' child). Thus, it was fortunate that being sentenced to death no longer necessitated having her identity effaced. In her prison memoir she was scathing about the effects on a child of having no legal existence until the age of nine, being denied entry to schools & facing other forms of discrimination.[3] Fumiko, it might be noted, had her death sentence commuted to life imprisonment. Not long after that, however, she took what she saw to be her own life in her prison cell. At first the special circumstances of her death in prison were thought suspicious by some, yet Fumiko's threats to kill herself during her testimonies left little doubt that she did take her own life—even if torture & beatings were not uncommon in Japanese prisons then, sometimes resulting in death. Intimates such as her (socialist) lawyer & anarchist comrades then & later believed she had killed herself, as a political statement. She had retorted whilst ripping to shreds the imperial pardon commuting her sentence to life imprisonment: 'You toy with people's lives, killing or allowing to live as it suits you.... Am I to be disposed of according to your whims?'[4]
  5. Fumiko had been arrested immediately after the Great Kantô earthquake of 1923 at the same time as patriots, including civil & military police, were doing the state the favour of ridding Japan of known or likely subversives. Those murdered included the former Bluestocking (Seitô editor & anarchist-feminist publicist , Itô Noe, who like Fumiko had been greatly inspired by egoism.[5] Noe's murder was not a legal one but, even if it had been, by now there was no danger of her losing in death the highly individualistic identity that had been important to her. In all three cases, these women were accorded the 'right' of execution, whether lawfully or unlawfully, together with their male partners.
  6. Inhering in these events are multiple ironies, one of which has already been suggested: the fact that women had few rights under the law & no equality, except when it came to equal 'discipline & punishment' in the sense outlined above. A further irony lay in the likelihood that in all three cases, the main targets of the authorities were the women's male partners. Suga was one of a handful of guilty defendants amongst the total of twenty-six sentenced either to death or 'life' & was even accused by lawyers in the case of being the 'ringleader' of the Meiji high treason plot—a charge that was somewhat exaggerated. Yet the undisputed leader of the anarchist wing of the early socialist movement was her lover, the anarchist theorist, Kôtoku Shûsui, who had been responsible for introducing anarchism to Japan. Kanno's interrogations reveal that the authorities were intent on ridding themselves of him, regardless of the fact that he had lost interest in the assassination plans well before their arrests.[6] Noe's partner, Ôsugi Sakae, was the subsequent leader of Japanese anarchism by the 1920s. He was a flamboyant figure whose popularity in radical Left circles derived from his being a theorist & active publicist. Since by then he had embraced anarcho-syndicalism, his influence was particularly strong in the radical wing of the union movement. Ôsugi was infamous in other circles, however. According to the mainstream press he was a dangerous troublemaker, & was the sort of radical leader targeted in the government's attempts to introduce in the early 1920s a bill to control the 'twin evils of anarchism & communism.' There must have been jubilation in some quarters on the day of his death. The captain of the squad of MPs who strangled him, Noe & a small nephew 'extra-legally' was brought to trial but let off virtually scot-free. Finally, Fumiko's partner, Pak Yeol, was not only the leader of a small group of nihilists & anarchists, but he was Korean rather than Japanese. Korea had been a Japanese 'protectorate' since 1905 & a colony since 1910, & the police kept a particularly vigilant watch on Koreans in Japan—especially students & others involved in political groups.
  7. The circumstances of the arrest of this group of mainly Koreans are therefore complicated both by Pak Yeol's nationality & by the fact that they were arrested just after the earthquake. After this natural disaster a massacre of some actual Japanese subversives occurred, together with potential subversives numbering hundreds of Chinese & thousands of Koreans. Clearly, most were simply ordinary laborers & the like who were unfortunate enough to become scapegoats—caught & lynched amidst the post-earthquake panic & public hysteria. Pak & Fumiko's group had called themselves the 'Futeisha' ['society of outlaws, rebels or malcontents'], satirising the way Koreans were referred to by the authorities as troublemakers. If it had not been mostly comprised of Koreans, the group probably would not have been arrested, supposedly for their own 'protection'; furthermore, the charges may not have escalated from vagrancy, to an explosives control law violation, & then to treason, with which Pak & Fumiko were ultimately charged. Pak was not entirely innocent of the charges of trying to import explosives, even of hoping to use them on the emperor or crown prince.[7] However, sympathisers had good cause to suspect a 'lawful' conspiracy to use his case both as warning to others not to resist Japanese imperialism & as a post-hoc justification of the massacre of mostly Koreans. The Japanese authorities had been censured by the foreign press & diplomats for allowing such an atrocity to occur, so the case enabled them to claim that Koreans had indeed been plotting subversion: the Pak Yeol/Futeisha case was proof positive of the real danger of Koreans' 'causing trouble' amid the post-earthquake destruction & mass confusion, trying to take advantage of it for their own rebellious ends. Ultimately, Pak's death sentence, like Fumiko's, was reduced to life imprisonment, ostensibly through the 'benevolence' of the Japanese emperor. Nevertheless, it was Pak, not Fumiko, who had always been the main target of the authorities.
  8. The authorities' actions (both lawful & unlawful) with respect to Suga, Noe, & Fumiko underscored a further irony. For such actions revealed a recognition that women, too, could constitute a danger to state & society in their own right. Despite hegemonic constructs of feminine nature as passive, & regardless of woman's lack of a true subjectivity of her own, independent of a male Other (emperor, parents, husband, child), she could still be almost as fearsome a potential force of disorder as a man.[8] In the minds of law—and policy-makers & conservative ideologues—woman was undeniably different, yet still she could be accorded a certain sort of 'equality' when it came to social control through force or through the force of ideas.
  9. In the discussion that follows, I begin with an account of how law in imperial Japan was underscored by the conviction that women, being essentially different, required even fewer rights & freedoms than those granted to men. Indeed, as I shall show, they were singled out for special attention when it came to denying them free political expression, membership & assembly. Their duties to emperor & nation were styled as different, too, though some sought to represent womanly (mothering & other nurturing) duties as equal in national import. Woman's essential difference did not save them, however, when it came to legal or extra-legal punishment for 'thought crimes' that were grave enough when committed by men, but 'unheard of' & treacherous indeed when perpetrated by women. Woman, it seems, was not always a fount of virtuous, ego-less passivity after all: despite the reinforced negative ideal of womanhood that had taken shape by 1912, the end of Meiji, she (still) had her 'yin'/dark & destructive side.[9]
  10. Following this account of government policies on women & dominant gender constructs, I consider how the written & unwritten 'law' on feminine difference, & the limited 'rights' & 'equalities' that went with it, did not go uncontested. Amongst those women who engaged in their own reinventions of feminine subjectivity & interpretations of sexual equality were Suga, Fumiko & Noe, each of whom advocated an 'out-law' equality that laid claim to an independent subjecthood, yet 'sameness' with their men. This included the demand that, being positioned the same politically, they should not receive special treatment due to their womanhood; they should be treated the same by state & society. & that they were ultimately—at least when it came to the political consequences of their resistance. Though some interpreters have found psycho-biographical approaches too tempting to resist, I doubt that any of the three had a 'death wish',[10] even Fumiko who was the most explicit of the three in demanding equality with her partner, especially in death. Perhaps she was not the only one of the three who felt a grim satisfaction at being accorded by the state this rare measure of equality. Unfortunately, however, their battle for equality with their men was continued beyond their deaths by various commentators, some of whom very nearly negated what they had achieved. This constitutes one final irony to be discussed in the concluding pages of the paper—the fact that well-meaning contemporaries & 'sympathetic' scholars alike have continued to gender each woman in terms of an essential feminine difference rather than sexual equality.
  11. The approach I take in this paper has been inspired, in large part, by my reflections on the relationship between the identity politics of these Japanese women & two broad styles of feminism often distinguished as feminisms of (sexual)) 'equality/sameness' & feminisms of (sexual) 'difference'. As used here, the latter category of 'feminisms of difference' does not refer to an emphasis on class, racial, ethnic or other differences between women, but rather to arguments for an essential sexual difference between women & men. An emphasis on an essential difference did not originate with Western 'second-wave' radical feminists & separatists (from the 1960s), though it has often been associated particularly with them—as well as with the 'French feminists', Julia Kristeva, Luce Irigaray, Hélène Cixous, & other post-/neo-Freudians or Lacanians. Their works on psycho-sexual difference & their influence are widely known.[11] Though difference-oriented feminists have added their voices to feminist critiques of traditional gender constructs of feminine/masculine difference, whether they have succeeded in transcending the essentialism that inheres in conventional constructs or have merely inverted the hierarchies involved in such binarisms is open to question. It is a question that is neither within the scope of this paper, however, nor relevant to its particular focus on feminisms of equality.
  12. As already intimated, there is no doubt that Suga, Noe & Fumiko all subscribed to a feminism of equality or 'sameness'. What is not so clear, however, is the question of whether one would necessarily expect anarchists to do so, especially those who adhere to individualistic anarchism. Amongst postwar second-wave feminists the tendency to emphasise women's equality to men to an extent tantamount to claiming that women are at base the same, was common amongst both liberal & socialist feminists. Morwenna Griffiths, author of a work that sets out distinctions between feminisms, especially with regard to conceptions of the self & identity politics,[12] notes that, according to the 'liberal' view, the self is 'not gendered ... [but] individuated by its particular needs & desires'; & these are much 'the same for both sexes'. Thus far, this approach is suggestive of all three women. What would not have been acceptable to them, however, is the latter part of this liberal proposition cited by Griffiths as follows: there being 'no male or female, only persons ... as soon as the playing field is levelled [legal equality achieved], everyone can go ahead & realise their own ambitions, meet their own needs, & have perfect freedom to become unequal individuals'.[13] This is not a revolutionary, nor even particularly radical vision. Even Fumiko, the least convinced of the three that a revolution in Japan (such as had occurred in Russia) would bring social equality in its wake, would have seen this proposition to be a bourgeois cloak for ongoing economic or class inequalities. Like Suga & Noe, Fumiko's was the sort of feminism of 'equality/sameness' rightly associated more with socialism. Socialism in its various forms, however, is left out of the equation by Griffiths because her model of different feminist approaches to the self or individual identity hinges upon modernist versus postmodernist (liberal & post-liberal or poststructuralist) feminisms.[14]
  13. The association between 'equality feminism' & both liberalism & socialism, the latter usually being seen to include anarchism, has been common but not necessarily universal. This, too, is a model. Fumiko might be seen to be an exception to the rule because, despite the fact that she was a more determined & consistent advocate of sexual equality than were Suga or Noe, she was also the least 'socialist' of the three. She & Noe, both, subscribed to a highly individualistic form of anarchism, but unlike Noe, Fumiko was not so concerned with trying to square egoism with collectivist (anarchist) struggles & goals. Fumiko was also less 'socialist' in being less idealistic & utopian than either Noe or Suga in her belief that socialist revolution would bring in its wake a new ruling class & renewed oppression of the masses. The fact that her 'socialism' is in question does not mean that she was less class-conscious than they, nor any less opposed to capitalism. The issue of whether individualistic anarchists are rightly included in the broad ranks of socialists along with collectivistic anarcho-communists or syndicalists, or whether their individualism makes them ultra-radical liberals, is open to debate. Either way, however, the general association between equality feminism & socialism & liberalism still stands: all three of these prewar Japanese advocates of what can now be seen to be a feminism of equality or sameness fit the pattern. Each of them, furthermore, demanded from the state, society, male comrades & partners a sexual equality that, arguably, was tied to a vision of social equality that was more far-reaching & meaningful than that typically held by liberals, feminist or otherwise, then or since.

    The 'Law' on Sexual Difference & 'Equal' Rights
  14. In imperial Japan, as elsewhere, gender constructs rested upon public-private binarisms: the Meiji maxim 'good wife, wise mother' [ryôsai kenbo] hinged upon a public-private dichotomy that was almost as strict as in earlier samurai society. Meiji law standardised restrictions on women's rights to a public voice, to property, & so on, while the State also attempted to force upon Japanese people of all classes, the so-called feudal family, the prototype of which was the rigidly stratified & phallocratic samurai ie. Through the new civil code of 1898, the government sought to lock even peasant women into this strictly patriarchal ie, treating them like legal minors subject to the authority of male family heads & educating them in the ways of premarital & marital chastity.[15] The latter did not apply to men, who under Meiji law could not be divorced on the grounds of adultery. Before Meiji, premarital sex as a prelude to the free choice of spouse was common in peasant society; divorce, too, had often been initiated by peasant women. However, the state's attempts to subject sexual & marital practices to a homogenisation (or 'samuraisation'[16]) both through law & ideological propagation was having some impact on village life even by the end of the period, 1912.[17] Though there had been some legal rights accorded to females—the right since 1872 to at least an elementary education, for example, & some new employment opportunities of varying quality for women of different classes—the question of whether the post-1868 Meiji 'revolution' represented progress for Japanese women of all classes is therefore moot.
  15. Related to such legal changes was the fact that the new 'good wife, wise mother' construct had gained ground particularly after the passage of the Law on Political Associations & Assembly in 1890. Under its Article Five, women were treated as a special case—required symbolically to join the exalted ranks of public servants whose ostensibly non-partisan duty to the State required them to be banned from 'political' activity. Actual & potential good wives & wise mothers were now permitted to dedicate themselves to a selfless service of modern public goals so long as they were those identified as such by the State. The only women who could be politically active in public & remain unmolested by police were those, in the Patriotic Women's Society, for example,[18] who did 'charity' work in support of war efforts from the time of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05. Other philanthropic organisations such as Japan's own temperance union, the proto-feminist Kyôfûkai [Women's Society for Moral Reform], also tended to blur the boundaries between charitable work & politics in their fight against prostitution & concubinage.[19]
  16. Paradoxically, then, women who stepped over the line drawn by the state between patriotism & politics or pro- & anti-state activities were accorded equal punishment. Kanno Suga, for example, had begun serving a prison term in 1910 for a publications offence; it was while she was in prison that she was also charged with treasonous conspiracy & sentenced to death with other comrades. What was not equal was the fact that female democrats or socialists did not have the right to be as active politically as their male colleagues, given the provisions of Article Five. According to this legislation women could not join political associations or attend political meetings. In short, the state & conservative ideologues accorded women similar or different treatment, & applied varying constructs of womanly identity—as force of light or darkness, source of disorder or fount of virtue —at their own convenience.
  17. In some respects, the emerging hegemonic ideal of a modern woman appeared to be an advance on traditional gender constructions that had primarily been negative. Now, for example, a mother had the capacity to be wise; indeed, she was encouraged to be so. Through the new universal education system she could receive the sort of education that would enable her to educate the children she bore her husband in the 'moral' duties of modern citizenship. This applied even to his (sic) sons, so it seems that the old samurai idea that too much contact with women would result in the effeminisation of boys was losing its force.[20] Women gained a small measure of equality with the legal right to at least an elementary education; & before long higher education was also available to females—but in special colleges with a specialised feminine curriculum. Yet the new good wife-wise mother was still, essentially, a non-person because the negative logic behind the construct remained unchanged. Her Self was still, as in Confucianism & Buddhism, a non-self. Self-effacement & self-denial continued to be demanded of her, though she was granted a wider field of masculine figures for whom she could sacrifice herself. Gone were the days when a woman had 'no lord but her husband' (and his sons & paternal relatives) to venerate & obey; she could now serve the emperor, as well as his vast array of agents in public authority. In the new patriarchal 'family state' [kazoku kokka], headed symbolically by the emperor in the guise of national father-figure, it seemed that a woman could for the first time have a formal public role. But, whether she be housewife, factory girl, philanthropist or patriot, the role still had to be one of service. In reality, this was still a private role, writ large. Androcentric definitions of feminine (non)identity were now employed to show how the traditionally virtuous (i.e., samurai) woman who was nurturing & self-sacrificing could, in a modern nation, be dutiful daughter, virtuous wife & wise mother even to her national 'family'.[21]

    Resistance to Difference; & Out-law Equalities
  18. Little wonder, then, that feminists from the late nineteenth century in Japan directed much of their social critique at this ideological construct of 'good wife, wise mother' or at its legal counterpart, the family [ie]. They resisted it in practical ways in their everyday lives, too, often with great hardship—by working & living independently of their families, by choosing their own partners, or by stepping outside the realm of the conventional wife & mother in becoming politically active.
  19. Kanno Suga, Itô Noe & Kaneko Fumiko all moved in prewar Japan's small Leftist circle, & they all lived the final years of their lives in Tokyo. Suga's short career as a journalist, then increasingly radical socialist-feminist & finally anarchist was terminated just before Noe's Bluestocking & anarchist career began. Noe & Fumiko were contemporaries in Tokyo in the early 1920s but, while Fumiko appears to have been acquainted with Ösugi through lecture meetings & had probably met Noe, it is unlikely that she knew her well. The two had much in common ideologically, however, in their shared commitment to egoism. Partly through Ôsugi's writings, egoism had become popular in Japan's radical leftist circle in the second decade of the 20th century (after Suga's time), though by the twenties it had partly been displaced in Ôsugi's own thinking by anarcho-syndicalism. Though historians have tended to assume that Noe necessarily followed Ôsugi's lead, perusal of her late writings reveals a primary identification with egoism, particularly in an essay published in a feminist magazine in April 1923, Josei Kaizô , which she entitled 'The Happiness of Revivifying the Ego.'[22] Whilst anarchism was commonly seen to be the State's anthithesis or potential negation, at the individual level Noe & Fumiko could not have embraced a doctrine more absolutely opposed to the dominant gender construct of self-effacing feminine (non)-identity than moral nihilism or egoism.
  20. The insistence of both Noe & Fumiko on what we would now call a feminism of equality/sameness was apparently more inspired by egoism than by feminism.[23] Certainly, both of the two self-proclaimed egoists said as much, though in reality their egoism may not have been easily separable from feminist principles. This was suggested in their writings or testimonies where Noe & Fumiko each went to great lengths to emphasise their equality with their respective male partners: first & foremost, they were their comrades, not mere (common-law) wives, lovers or even friends or companions. The egoist political-personal partnerships they idealised were far from the 'good wife, wise mother' ideal; nor was this the 'bourgeois companionate ideal'[24] of love-matches or marriages. In Fumiko's case this 'comradeship' was extended to claiming to be an equal threat to society & demanding a sentence equal to Pak's, even though she expected it to be the death penalty.
  21. Fumiko let it slip late in the Supreme Court proceedings in 1926 that, in order to receive the same penalty as Pak, she had actually gone so far as to exaggerate her guilt in order to receive the same penalty as Pak.[25] She had not, after all, conspired with him to import bombs to use on the imperial family. He had tried to keep from her the knowledge of his attempts to procure explosives for this purpose. If he did this in an attempt to protect her, it does not suggest that he was in fact treating her as an equal. During the preliminary proceedings in 1923, Pak agreed with interrogators that Fumiko had been involved in the conspiracy only after being made aware of how she had implicated herself in it. There was good reason, therefore, for the authorities to doubt Fumiko's equal guilt of the lese majesty charge. Yet still she achieved her aim; & the fact that she was sentenced to death & then to life imprisonment together with Pak probably had much to do with her behaviour & threats whilst in custody. For example, when she finally admitted her lack of guilt with respect to the specific charge, she nevertheless added that she would have wholeheartedly supported Pak's plans to assassinate members of the imperial family (the prime symbols of class & racial inequalities), had she known of them. Fumiko was often scathing in her condemnation of social inequalities & injustice, class & racial discrimination, the authorities & even the imperial family, & she warned her captors more than once that they would come to regret it if they released her from prison. In fact, she was so impassioned in her stand, hostile & cynical toward figures of authority that the authorities subjected her to a psychological examination. Yet she was found to be quite sane.
  22. The claim to equality/sameness on the part of both Fumiko & Noe also extended to de-emphasising specifically female aspects of their experience. Noe was unlike Fumiko in being self-consciously a feminist & the mother of several children, yet in her late writings Noe styled herself as 'essentially' an egoist & partly for that reason, perhaps, seemed to want to avoid the subject of motherhood. She discussed the children mostly in relation to Ôsugi's ('ideal anarchist') fatherhood & their ideal revolutionary partnership. Partly, this avoidance may have been due to a desire to dissociate herself from either the conservative ideal of the 'good wife, wise mother' or from feminist maternalists whose demands for state welfare protection for working mothers she had already opposed. As Vera Mackie has pointed out, for some maternalists mother's love was so creative & powerful that it was 'the fount of all that is good, the seedbed of human compassion', & even 'the source of patriotism [and] the source of social order'.[26] Noe may have wanted to avoid being associated with this (patriotic) claim to maternal/feminine difference & superiority, but what was clearer was her apparent need as an egoist to lay claim to a selfhood independent of state & society, husband & children. The 'difference' from Ôsugi that she underlined was in the area of contributing to the Cause differently, & was the product of radical individualistic notions of the unique 'I': it did not hinge upon notions of sexual difference. The same can be said of the other self-styled nihilistic egoist, Fumiko. She recounted in one testimony that at the beginning of her political-personal partnership with Pak she had insisted that their relationship be based on mutual respect: he was to forget she was a woman & treat her just as he would any comrade.[27]
  23. As for Suga, it would seem that she had not always been consistent in laying claim to an equality with Kôtoku & other male comrades. Though it seems out of character for her, according to one of the defendants' lawyers, in Suga's final statement in court she attributed the conspirators' failure to realise their plans for rebellion to her 'womanly lack of spirit'.[28] If the lawyer did faithfully reproduce her words, it would seem that she was suffering from the humility expected of a woman in such a situation, especially one presuming to speak for male comrades. Elsewhere, however, her emphasis was on the commitment to anarchist struggle they shared & on the victory they would share even amidst apparent defeat. Their 'sacrifice' or their martyrdom would serve to help the Cause live on. Together with this recourse to a shared & equal triumph, Suga underlined her own personal victory, for her character was such. She said in her prison diary on January 1911, that she had 'never been prepared to accept defeat.' Furthermore, like Noe later, the one area in which Suga emphasised her difference from her sexual partner, Kôtoku, was in their different but equal contributions to the Cause. This was a difference based on her inclination to radical 'direct action' rather than theorising (this being what Kôtoku was suited for: proselytising, including communicating the news of their struggle & the trial to comrades in the international anarchist movement); it had not stemmed from her womanhood.[29]
  24. In their individual ways, Suga, Noe & Fumiko each resisted dominant essentialist notions of male/female difference. In the first instance, they did this by belonging to political associations & by working for radical social change together with male partners & other comrades. It should be recalled that this was against the law for women whose higher 'service' to the public or national good placed them above the divided world of politics. Women, it seems, were to be 'equal' in their contributions as modern citizens, so long as they contributed to the hegemonic notion that Japan was uniquely endowed with social 'harmony'. In addition, however, Suga, Noe & Fumiko all responded directly in their writings & testimonies to an androcentric view of women that held that in order to be true women they should sacrifice them (already non-) selves to the interests of a range of paternal figures, as well as to the welfare of their children. At this time, in this 'family state' the name of woman had to be effaced because, despite the fact that the state's antitheses or enemies could now conceivably be female, woman's identity was 'up for grabs' by anyone but woman herself.
  25. Those who attempted to define or, more, to assert their own 'true' selves risked being dismissed as 'hysterics' or worse. Witness the court's doubts about Fumiko's sanity, as well as the tendency during the earlier treason trial for even the defendants' lawyers to be unsympathetic to Suga, the so-called 'ringleader' of the plot, & to blame her for the plight of her comrades. She was the archetypal feminine figure of evil & destruction, it seems, while others who were equally guilty (excluding Kôtoku) would doubtless have been seen as 'sincere men of will'. It was common then & later in Japan for people to admire at least the 'sincerity' demonstrated in acts of violence, political assassinations & the like, even if they were carried out by political rivals or enemies. Being a woman, however, Suga could not share in this samurai-style popular heroism.
  26. It must be noted that this lack of sympathy for Suga long extended to her treatment in works of history—where her romantic liaisons & even her chastity or, rather, her lack of it, have too often been of more interest to scholars than her political writings, ideas & actions.[30] Perhaps they should have heeded Suga's own retort about men of her time which was basically a comment on hypocritical sexual double standards: they would do well to look to their own chastity & become 'good husbands & wise fathers', she said, before harping on chastity & virtue just for women.[31] To my mind, whilst each woman's representation of her sexual partnership is justifiably of interest, scholars have overlooked the part that such a representation played in her positioning of herself politically & her contestation of gendered discourses of difference. Even in relatively recent sources,[32] the romances of these anarchist women are the main focus. What this has meant is that these women have been represented in ways that diametrically oppose the political ends to which they presented themselves in relation to male partners they claimed as comrades & equals.
  27. Representations of Fumiko as the Japanese 'woman who sacrificed herself for Pak & Korea' are perhaps the most glaring examples of gendered constructions of her character, motives & political stand that directly contradict her own political project. On the one hand her socialist lawyer eulogises about the 'pure womanly self-sacrifice' that led her to 'die for Pak & Korea';[33] on the other Fumiko herself denies, in her prison memoir & testimonies, that the struggle for Korean liberation was her own, heaping scorn in egoistic fashion on any sort of self-sacrifice and, on a number of occasions, putting a Stirneresque view that 'the own will of me is the State's destroyer.'[34] Often, she indicated a rejection of altruistic self-sacrifice for anyone or anything (e.g., the masses), just as Noe had done a few years earlier. Yet, as noted above, Fumiko was even more sceptical than Noe of standard altruistic & utopian ideals of (communist or anarchist) revolution, & the elitism involved in them. For Fumiko, resistance constituted 'jiga shuchô', the assertion of the individual ego or will, which was the only way to counter state & ruling class power. Thus, she styled herself in the mode recommended by Stirner or Nietzsche: living life to the full (through resistance), & dying proudly in the knowledge that death, too, was for oneself & 'one's own free choice':

    One's limbs
    may not be free
    and yet—
    if one has but the will to die,
    death is freedom.[35]

    This was one of Fumiko's prison tanka, traditional short poems of 31 syllables. The 'glorious, pure self-sacrifice of woman' indeed!

  28. In denying that they were different because of their sex & in laying claim to an 'out-law' equality that was beyond the imagination of most contemporaries, Suga, Noe & Fumiko played a part in determining their own destinies. They put themselves outside the 'law' on feminine difference in a variety of ways and, by so doing, risked more than losing a contest over their true identities—more than mere social censure anyway. Noe put herself at risk by becoming the partner of the most infamous anarchist of the day and, worse, by publicising her pride in their revolutionary partnership, commitment & achievements. Both she & Fumiko set up a contrast between their own sexual/familial relationships & conventional relationships that were 'warped' by society & relations of power. To cite another of Fumiko's poems:

    Bent over,
    watching others from beneath
    my thighs—
    the state of the world
    I need to look at, upside-down.[36]

    In Fumiko's writings the inverted, or distorted, or warped nature of modern society was a common theme.[37] This may have derived from a Marxian-style assumption of the social alienation suffered under capitalism, or perhaps from an anarchist tendency to counterpose this to a true, original way of Nature in which people could be fully human & free. Similarly, a couple of years earlier, Noe had noted in a journalistic article entitled 'A Couple's Life of Love,' that the same society that saw her & Ôsugi's anarchist life together as abnormal accepted the sort of family in which people were raised 'cowering & warped' as if in a prison.[38]
  29. The two 'traitors', Suga & Fumiko, refused to give the authorities the satisfaction of throwing themselves on their mercy & begging for forgiveness. The same can be said of Noe who more than once expressed fears in her writings for Ôsugi in particular, but also for the family as a whole. The two 'traitors', Suga & Fumiko, refused to give the authorities the satisfaction of throwing themselves on their mercy & begging for forgiveness. All three remained committed & defiant despite the real dangers they faced. Naturally, there were other women in their time who also demanded to be treated as equal both by comrades & political antagonists in various struggles for social justice & change. However, Suga & Fumiko took this demand to its logical conclusion when they were in prison facing the death penalty. To save themselves they might have gone the way of claiming an essential sexual difference, even the 'feminism of difference' that then existed in Japan, namely, the maternalism that emphasised, among other things, woman's intrinsic & superior peace-loving qualities. They could have thrown themselves on the sort of paternalism that might bring mercy to individuals whose prime contribution to the state was seen to be biological. ('Fancy executing actual or potential "mothers of the nation"!') To do so, however, would endanger the sort of equality to which each laid claim—an anarchistic position that ruled out special protections for women, especially those granted by a State. This, moreover, was a state whose pretensions to 'benevolence' all were sceptical of, but none more so than Fumiko, egoist par excellence.[39]
  30. Fumiko was, undeniably, the most dismissive of any difference in essentials between men & women & the most determined advocate of an out-law equality that would extend even to death, with her Korean ('outlaw') male partner. But she had had the examples of Suga & Noe to follow. She must have known of Suga's execution in the Meiji high treason case along with her lover & ten other comrades, & she certainly knew of the fate of Ôsugi & Noe. The following poem may have been dedicated to them:

    I recall the vow
    I made
    to the spirits of departed friends.
    It's SEPTEMBER 1st![40]

    SEPTEMBER 1 was the day of the earthquake in 1923 & it was shortly after it that Noe & Ôsugi were murdered & Fumiko herself arrested. Whether the reference was to them or to murdered Korean friends, one wonders what sort of 'vow' she might have made on this day of commemoration. It is impossible to know for certain. It would be consistent with her declarations elsewhere if it were a pledge to avenge those murdered, or to ensure that her destiny/death would be of her own choosing. Alternatively, it could have been a vow to die, one way or another, like Suga & Kôtoku or Noe & Ôsugi, together with her equal partner in 'crime' or, rather, in out-law passions & (identity) politics.
  31. Enemies & sympathisers alike would seem to have been intent on effacing not the proper names[41] but the political identities so painstakingly constructed by these three women. Yet still their own voices can be heard through all the gendered hype about 'woman' in their own time & since. One might recall that Suga-the-'woman' necessarily lacked a true will or rebellious spirit (read: manly 'sincerity'). The same defence lawyer who reported Suga's (?) words about her failure stemming from her 'womanly lack of spirit' was generally very sympathetic toward the Meiji high treason defendants, but saw her as 'absurd'. Noe-as-'woman' apparently had a passive follower-mentality, even if she was attracted to anarchism & acquainted with egoism before meeting Ôsugi & retained more of a commitment to egoism than he did—possibly because it had a particular utility for her feminism of equality. Overshadowed, no doubt, by the in/famous Ôsugi & too busy with the children to spend as much time on her own political career as she would have liked, Noe was still intent on carving out an egoist identity of her own in 1923—the year of her death.[42] Finally, & most laughably, perhaps, there was the 'Fumiko' to whose pure womanhood her lawyer attributed her capacity for self-sacrifice for her man & his country.
  32. The socialist lawyer, Fuse Tatsuji, made these remarks to a welcoming committee of comrades on the day Pak was finally released from prison at the close of the war in 1945, nearly twenty years after Fumiko's death. On that day Fumiko, the nihilistic egoist, would have been turning in her grave (which was, by the way, in Korea, her ashes having been taken there by comrades!) to hear his well-meant but very inventive eulogy to her. His assessment of the two's relative contributions to the struggle might appear to be near-equal. After all, even if Pak had battled his destiny & emerged victorious, as indicated in the title of Fuse's biography of him,[43] he was merely to be congratulated on his 'wonderful, farsighted survival', while all were to pay 'homage' to Fumiko's 'pure-hearted & stubborn' death in prison. According to Fuse, her taking what she saw as her own life whilst in prison symbolised a 'glorious love of her comrades that crossed ... national boundaries.' As is often the way with constructs of feminine nature, this 'homage' to woman was double-edged. Not only was Fumiko being enlisted as a martyr to a Cause (Korean nationalism) she had specifically rejected as not her own, & gendered in terms of self-sacrifice which went against the grain of her egoism; she was also being represented in terms of a sexual difference from Pak that she herself had denied. Yet, for Fuse, Fumiko's difference from Pak was apparently based on more than merely her 'womanly' impulse to self-sacrifice. Pak's 'farsighted' political stand of opting to survive his prison term was, it would seem, the more pragmatic & therefore rational of the two. One need hardly ask what it was, according to this picture of Fumiko, that lay behind her 'purehearted & stubborn' preference for death over surviving, as Pak had done, in order to carry on the struggle. If in doing so he was able to resist his 'destiny', did it mean that Fumiko had submitted to her fate? Is it 'woman's' fate to be ruled by the emotions? To return in closing to an observation I made at the beginning of the paper, in imperial Japan sexual equality had almost as many definitions as champions. Few of its champions, however, had the capacity to comprehend how far-reaching, indeed how farsighted women such as Fumiko, Noe or Suga were in their advocacy of it.


    [1] This essay is similar, in part, to a recent paper on Itô Noe entitled 'Anarcho-Feminist Discourse in Prewar Japan: Itô Noe's Autobiographical Social Criticism' which I contributed to Anarchist Studies (U.K.) 9, 2 (October 2001): 97-125. This was focussed upon her egoistic resistance in her late writings & her 'autobiographical' style as itself egoistic resistance. A full-length work on the other two women discussed here, Kanno Suga & Kaneko Fumiko is: Hélène Bowen Raddeker, Treacherous Women of Imperial Japan: Patriarchal Fictions, Patricidal Fantasies, London & New York: Routledge, 1997.

    [2] Kanno Suga's prison diary, 'Shide no michikusa' (A Pause on the Way to Death) has been translated in Hane Mikiso, ed., Reflections on the Way to the Gallows: Rebel Women in Prewar Japan, New York: Pantheon, 1988, pp. 58-74. Cf. Bowen Raddeker, 'Death as Life: Political Metaphor in the Testimonial Prison Literature of Kanno Suga,' Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars 29, 4 (1997): 3-12.

    [3] Kaneko Fumiko, Nani ga watashi o kôsaseta ka [What made me like this?], Tokyo: Chikuma Shobô, 1984, p. 53. This prison autobiography is available in English translation: Jean Inglis, trans., Kaneko Fumiko: The Prison Memoirs of a Japanese Woman, New York & London: M.E. Sharpe, 1991. Cf. Bowen Raddeker, 'The Past Through Telescopic Sights—Reading the Prison-Life-Story of Kaneko Fumiko,' Japan Forum 7, 2 (Autumn 1995): 155-69.

    [4] Cited in Setouchi Harumi, Yohaku no haru [Blank Spring], Tokyo: Chûkô Bunko, 1975, pp. 335-36.

    [5] On the Bluestockings see Sharon Sievers, Flowers in Salt: The Beginnings of Feminist Consciousness in Modern Japan, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1983.

    [6] This was according to Kanno's police interrogations & trial testimonies, for example: Kanno's Sixth Preliminary Court Interrogation, 13 June 1910, reproduced in Kanno Sugako Zenshû [The Collected Works of Kanno Sugako], III, Shimizu Unosuke, ed., Tokyo: Kôryûsha, 1984, pp. 248-50.

    [7] Fumiko, certainly, & possibly also Pak tended to exaggerate their guilt, so it is difficult to separate bravado from reality. However, their & the group's testimonies (the authenticity of which were not questioned by defence lawyers then or later) show that there were such plans afoot. See, for example, Kaneko Fumiko, 'Tokyo District Court Preliminary Interrogation,' no. 3 (22 January 1924), in Pak Yeol, Kaneko Fumiko Saiban Kiroku [Records from the trial of...], Tokyo: Kokushoku Sensensha, 1977, pp. 15-19.

    [8] Sharon H. Nolte & Sally Ann Hastings, 'The Meiji State's Policy Toward Women, 1890-1910,' in Recreating Japanese Women, 1600-1945,ed. Gail Lee Bernstein, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1991, pp. 151-74.

    [9] This sort of point was made in Nolte & Hastings, 'The Meiji State's Policy Toward Women, 1890-1910.'

    [10] Hane Mikiso (Reflections on the Way to the Gallows) has taken a psychobiographical approach to Fumiko's character, suggesting that she had a 'death wish' & was somewhat unbalanced. However, this ignores her determination to resist & to be accorded the same treatment as her male, Korean partner.

    [11] Different feminisms (liberal, socialist, radical, & also the 'poststructuralist'/psychoanalytic feminism of Kristeva, Irigaray & Cixous) are discussed in: Chris Weedon, Feminist Practice & Poststructuralist Theory, Cambridge MA & Oxford UK: Blackwell, 1987. See, especially, pp. 14-19, 63-73.

    [12] Morwenna Griffiths, Feminisms & the Self: The Web of Identity, London & New York: Routledge, 1995.

    [13] Griffiths, Feminisms & the Self , p. 77.

    [14] Griffiths' model of two broad types of feminism, modernist & postmodernist, is based upon different conceptions of the Self as either an essentialised, 'core' or centred Self inspired by liberal-humanist individualism or an acentric/decentred Self (or multiple/dispersed Selves) inspired by theorists associated with poststructuralism such as Roland Barthes & Jacques Derrida. Her liberal vs 'post-liberal' approach leads her to overlook socialist feminism, as noted. Even more problematic is where a brand of 'socialist' feminism such as individualistic anarchism/egoism might fit into her schema. This is alluded to below, & I have discussed it in more detail in connection with Itô Noe in Bowen Raddeker, 'Anarcho-Feminist Discourse in Prewar Japan,' pp. 115-20.

    [15] Cf. Robert J. Smith, 'Making Village Women into "Good Wives & Wise Mothers" in Prewar Japan,' in Journal of Family History 8, 1 (Spring 1983): 70-84; Mariko Asano Tamanoi, 'Songs as Weapons: The Culture & History of Komori [Nursemaids] in Modern Japan,' Journal of Asian Studies 50, 4 (November 1991): 793-817.

    [16] Jean-Pierre Lehmann, The Roots of Modern Japan, Houndmills & London: Macmillan, 1982, pp. 97-8.

    [17] Such trends notwithstanding, ethnographic studies of village life much later in the 1930s still revealed more independence for peasant women in the area of sexual & marital practices: see Ella Lury Wiswell & Robert J. Smith, The Women of Suye Mura, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983; & Smith, 'Making Village Women into "Good Wives & Wise Mothers" in Prewar Japan.'

    [18] Sheldon Garon, 'Women's Groups & the Japanese State: Contending Approaches to Political Integration, 1890-1945,' in Journal of Japanese Studies 19, 1 (Winter 1993): 5-41.

    [19] As Christian opponents of concubinage & prostitution, these moral reformers had sometimes moved in the same circles as early Christian socialists, inviting state suspicion. On the Kyôfûkai, see Sievers, Flowers in Salt: Beginnings of Feminist Consciousness (especially Chapter Five, 'The Women's Reform Society'), pp. 87-113.

    [20] Winston L. King, Zen & the Way of the Sword: Arming the Samurai Psyche, Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 1993, pp. 144-48.

    [21] Nolte & Hastings, 'Meiji State's Policy toward Women.'

    [22] Itô Noe, 'Jiko o Ikasu koto no Kôfuku,' reprinted in Itô Noe Zenshû II [Collected Works, in 2 vols], Tokyo: Gakugei Shorin, 1986, pp. 495-505.

    [23] Bowen Raddeker, 'Anarcho-Feminist Discourse in Prewar Japan,' pp. 114-15.

    [24] Vera Mackie, Creating Socialist Women in Japan, 1900-1937, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997, p. 52.

    [25] A copy of this statement made on 26 February 1926 in the Supreme Court in Fumiko's handwriting is included in Trial Records, pp. 739-48.

    [26] Yamada Waka, one of the more conservative of the 'Bluestockings,' cited in Mackie, Creating Socialist Women, p. 190.

    [27] Kaneko, Preliminary Court Interrogation, no. 4 (23 January 1924), in Trial Records, p. 20.

    [28] Defence lawyer, Hiraide Shû, cited in Itoya Toshio, Kanno Suga: Heiminsha no Fujin Kakumeika Zô [Kanno Suga: Portrait of a Woman Revolutionary of the Commoners' Society], Tokyo: Iwanami Shinsho, 1970, p. 197.

    [29] Kanno's Sixth Preliminary Court Interrogation (13 June 1910), in Collected Works, III, pp. 248-50.

    [30] Earlier sources were often over-influenced by the dismissive & judgmental treatment of Suga by a jilted lover, Arahata Kanson. An exception to this rule, fortunately, is the editor of the above-cited edition of her collected works, Shimizu Unosuke.

    [31] Kanno Suga, 'Hiji Deppô' ['Rebuff,' published 15 April 1906], reproduced in Kanno's Collected Works, II, pp. 111-14.

    [32] Sources in Japanese on Suga, Noe or Fumiko have often sported titles such as 'Hangyaku to Ai to' (Treason & Love), in Shisô no Kai e (Kaihô to Kakumei), 21, Josei—Hangyaku to Kakumei to Teiko to, ed. Suzuki Yûko, Tokyo: Shakai Hyôronsha, 1990, pp. 30-52.

    [33] Fuse Tatsuji, Unmei no Shôrisha, Pak Yeol [Victor over Destiny, Pak Yeol], Tokyo: Seiki Shobô, 1956, pp. 25-27.

    [34] Max Stirner, The Ego & His Own, London: Jonathan Cape, 1971.

    [35] Akai Tsutsuji no Hana: Kaneko Fumiko no Omoide to Kashû [Red Azaleas: Reminiscences of Kaneko Fumiko & her Collected Poetry], Tokyo: Kokushoku Sensensha, 1984, p. 39

    [36] Akai Tsutsuji no Hana: Kaneko Fumiko no Omoide to Kashû, p. 29.

    [37] Kaneko, Nani ga Watashi o kôsaseta ka? [Prison autobiography], pp. 91-95.

    [38] Itô Noe, 'Ai no Fûfu Seikatsu—Watashitomo o musubitsukeru mono' ['A Couple's Life of Love—What Binds us Together,' first published in Josei Kaizô, April 1923], in Collected Works, II, pp. 475-80.

    [39] Even before her arrest Fumiko had criticised Japanese pretensions to paternalistic benevolence toward Koreans. She wrote in one of the group's newspapers that those assimilationists who were so 'showy' in parading their 'love of humanity' needed first to transform Japanese colonists & the colonial authorites in Korea (where she had lived for some years as a child) into humans with whom Koreans could assimilate. Later during the trial she emphasised that under the supposedly 'godly' imperial rule by the loving 'father of the nation', children in Japan were crying with hunger, suffocating in the coal mines, being crushed to death by factory machines. 'Fumiko,' 'Omotta koto, Futatsu-Mittsu' [A Few Things on My Mind'], in Kokutô, 2 (10 August 1922): (full page numbers of article please, p. 1 reprinted in Trial Records, p. 810; & her 12th testimony (14 May 1924), in Trial Records, pp. 57-62.

    [40] Kaneko, Red Azaleas, p. 33.

    [41] Re 'proper names', it should be noted that Fumiko had even before her arrest signed her name as 'Pak Fumiko', doubtless as a political statement against discrimination against Koreans & probably also against the father who had disowned her for living with a 'base' Korean. She also legally married Pak while in prison & wore Korean national dress into the Supreme Court, as he did, to show their contempt for the legal proceedings of Japan's imperialist state. I doubt that nationality, per se, would have been important to her, however, since she had distanced her more radical 'nihilism' from the movement merely for Korean independence.

    [42] Bowen Raddeker, 'Anarcho-feminist Discourse in Prewar Japan,' pp. 114-15.

    [43] Fuse Tatsuji, Unmei no Shôrisha, Pak Yeol (readers are reminded that the title of Fuse's biography of Pak was 'Victor over Destiny').

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2006 -- MOVEABLE, NAMES FROM ARTICLE, A history of Spanish libertarian youth paper "Ruta"; Translation published in 'The Cienfuegos Press Anarchist Review' Number 4, 1978 as 'Contributions to the history of anarchism "Ruta"' by Victor Garcia (Translated by Paul Sharkey)

Run names against Encyclopedia index to add, dates to Bleed, etc.; check that the papers are in the periodical dbase


'Juventud Libre' (Free Youth) 'Ruta's' management was successively in the hands of Fidel Miro, Jose Peirats, Manuel Peres, Santana Calero, Benito Milla, & Benjamin Cano Ruiz.

The last of 'Ruta's managers inside Spain, where it lasted until 26 January 1939, when the fascists took Barcelona, was Benjamin Cano Ruiz.

columns featured the finest pens of anarchist thinking. Felipe Alaiz had a column at the foot of the magazine's centre pages. The paper managed to keep to its regular weekly schedule. There was the eccentric doctor Diego Ruiz, Higinio Noja Ruiz, a writer who, had come from the coal pits & whose work was a marvel to us all on account of its profundity & extent. There was the poet Elias Garcia & Fontaura, & Cristóbal whom we lost track of in exile after fleeting appearances in the columns of 'Ruta' in France & of 'Cultura Proletaria' of New York. Not forgetting Lucia Sanchez Saornil, the founder of the feminist movement Mujeres Libres, & Soledad Estorach, another member of that movement & Carmen Quintana likewise;, Vicente Rodriguez Garcia (known as Viroga) another lively mind cut down in the fullness of its powers in the early years of exile; Ivar Chevik, a fine Catalan who hid his real name, Roig, behind this Slav-sounding nom de plume. & there was Liberto Sarrau whose regular column "Retractos al minuto" (up to the minute portraits) gave a sort of tongue in cheek biographies of swollen headed libertarian militants or ones who had slipped down what Sébastien Faure called the "slippery slope." Along with Amador Franco, Liberto Sarrau made up the youngest duo of writers whose work appeared in 'Ruta'.

'Ruta' had the backing of other anarchist papers like 'Ideas', 'El Quijote', 'El Amigo del Pueblo', 'Acracia' & other organs

'Muret Plenum' of 9 October 1944 in which it was laid down that the collaborationist path of the civil war in Spain was to be continued.

The first director of this exiled Ruta was a Catalan libertarian, Francisco Botey, from Maresma, staunch in his libertarian outlook in which there was no peace for deviations.

'Ruta', helped by 'Impulso' from Toulouse, & 'Solidaridad Obrera' & 'El Rebelde', both from Paris

Once again it had the backing of old, familiar contributors like Felipe Alaiz, Jose Peirats, Benjamin Cano Ruiz, Liberto Sarrau, Cristobal Garcia & Amador Franco & its pages were opened now to new talents like Raul Carballeira, Cristobal Parra, Moises Martin, Jose Galdo, Mejias Pena, Liberto Lucarini, Liberto Amoros. G. Germen & A. Roa, with Antonio Tellez outstanding as a talented illustrator without whom 'Ruta' would not have been what it came to be in that stage of its exile, deserving of a special mention.

lot of libertarians had a stand in this work, but particularly outstanding were a group of young people like Juan Cazorla, Raul Carballeira (killed on Montjuich on 26 July 1948 in an encounter with hundreds of killers operating under Qrlintela, the head of the Social Brigade, plus Guardia Civil & the "greys" or uniformed police) Liberto Sarrau, Mejias Pena, Liber Forti & others.

... publishing first hand reports from inside Spain, from the pen of Julian Fuentes, the pseudonym of a young libertarian who was its correspondent inside Spain up to the time when he too was captured in Barcelona.

1. 'Piel Roja' (Red Skin) is still a nickname for anti-collaborationist libertarians, while the moderates & advocates of collaboration are known as 'pajaros carpinteros' (woodpeckers) a term lifted from Rudolf Rocker's work: 'The Curse of Practicality'.

While Peirats

1948 'Ruta's publication was suspended, something which young libertarians in France attempted to remedy with the publishing of 'Neueva Senda' (New Route) as an internal bulletin with the choice of name attempting to maintain some connection with 'Ruta' (Road), but the paper died out a few years later. had been staying in America 'Ruta' had published long articles by him, which were later collected & published as 'Estampas del Exilio en America' (Portraits from Exile in America). The illustrations for issues of 'Ruta' were by Jesus Guillen, "Guilember" arguably, along with Antonio Lamolla, the most outstanding painter & illustrator 'Ruta' was able to call upon.

Venezuela: Apart from Victor Garcia, who has occupied the position of editor in chief since its inception, its contributors have included such renowned anarchists as Gaston Leval, Octavio Alberola, Benjamin Cano Ruiz, Fontaura, Jose Vallina, Carlos Zimmerman, Lone, Elgen Relgis, Marcelino Garcia, Ismale Viadiu, Munoz Cota, Cosme Paules, Vladimir Munoz, Pedro Bargallo, Felix Alvarez Ferreras, Floreal Castilla, Hermoso Plaja, Jose Peirats, Campio Carpio, Serrano Gonzalez, Solano Palacio, Panayot Chivicot, Tato Lorenzo & others. In connection with the first stage, mention must be made of the contribution made by Vicente Sierra, a tireless worker whose A.B. Dick offset

newcomers like Tomas Cano Ruiz, Angel Cappelletti, Nicolas Walter, Paul Avrich, David Wieck, Jose Ribas, Francisco Olaya, Murray Bookchin, Juan Gomez Casas, Carlos M. Rama, Eduardo Vlvancos, Salvador Cano Carrillo, Carlos Diaz, Floreal Castilla, Quipo Amauta . . .

2006 -- added to german wiki

muehsam *[ Max Nettlau page] Anarchist Encyclopedia (englisch) *[ Rudolf Rocker page] Anarchist Encyclopedia (englisch) *[ Errico Malatesta page] Anarchist Encyclopedia (englisch)

2006 -- MOVEABLE, MOVE TO BLEEDWORK Clastres Pierre, anthropologue anarchiste

Clastres (1934-1977)est le créateur de la notion de Mode de Production Domestique (MPD). Il montre, que par son organisation anarchique, le MPD fonctionne comme une machine anti-production, hostile à la formation de surplus, condition nécessaire à l'instauration d'un pouvoir séparé de type étatique. Oeuvres et textes.

Chronicle of The Guayaki Indians by Pierre Clastres, Paul Auster (Translator)

"Clastres was a French anthropologist who lived with the Guayaki, a little-known Paraguayan Indian tribe, in the early 1960s. A decade later, novelist Paul Auster, then living in Paris, was so impressed by Clastres' extraordinary chronicle, he dedicated himself to translating it for publication, a mission doomed to failure for 20 years, long enough for Clastres to die & for the Guayaki to vanish. Auster tells this sad tale in his introduction, which is essentially a missing chapter from his memoir, Hand to Mouth , & ends by concluding that at least we have the book. But this is no mere consolation prize, this is cause for jubilation.

Clastres comes alive in Auster's clarion translation. His frank respect for the Guayaki enlivens his insightful first-person account of their experiences together, while scorn for Western stereotyping of "savages" simmers beneath his riveting interpretation of their cosmology. Clastres' illuminating report on Guayaki life preserves the spirit of a lost culture that was in profound accord with the earth."

2006 -- MOVEABLE BLEEDWORK; Mexican anarchist chronology, copy saved in archives

2006 -- Lista de anarquistas portugueses / list of portuguese anarchists Origem: Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre.

José Correia Pires, Adriano Botelho, Aurélio Quintanilha, Francisco Quintal, Jaime Brasil, Antonio Pinto Quartin, Jorge Quaresma, Sebastião de Almeida, Fernando Barros, Adolfo Lima, Hilário Marques, Júlio Gonçalves Pereira, Armindo Sarilho, José Augusto de Castro, Augusto Godinho, Joaquim Moreira da Silva, António Dias Fontes, Mário Ferreira, Cristiano de Carvalho, José Rodrigues Reboredo, Margarida Barros, Virgínia Dantas, Luis Portela, Aníbal Dantas, Raul Zacarias, António Libório, Arnaldo Simões Januário, Deolinda Lopes Vieira, Clemente Vieira dos Santos, Miquelina Sardinha, Serafim Cardoso Lucena, Manuel F. Correia, Jaime Rebelo, António José Ávila, Campos Lima, Darwin Castelhano, António Teixeira Júnior, Almeida Costa, José de Almeida, Adolfo de Freitas, José Vaz Rodrigues, Valentim Adolfo João, António Alves Pereira, Manuel Joaquim de Sousa, José Francisco, Américo Martins Vicente, Artur Modesto, Augusto Tiago Ferreira, Luís Redondo, Pedro Ferreira da Silva, Álvaro A. de Oliveira, Helena Gonçalves, Mário Azevedo, Soares Lopes, Abílio Ribeiro, João Martins, João Silva, Miguel Correia, Alberto Dias, António Aleixo, José Marques da Costa, José António Machado, Alexandre Belo, Adriano Pimenta, Luísa Adão, Lígia de Oliveira, Eduardo Pereira, José Benedey, Mário Castelhano, Custódio da Costa, Álvaro da Costa Ramos, Miguel Alves, Pedro Matos Felipe, Emidio Santana, Abílio Gonçalves.

brazilian: José Oiticica (1882 - 1957)
Maria Lacerda de Moura (1887 - 1945) - Anarquista Feminista
Domingos Passos
Florentino de Carvalho (1889 - 1947)

2006 -- The platformist Fédération communiste libertaire (FCL), in Pattieu’s assessment, was more pragmatic. It articulated an official position of “critical support” for the MNA. It also cultivated links to the small anarchist movement that existed in Algiers in 1954. & it avoided condemning the FLN. Members of the FCL, like the Trotskyists, invested real hope in what they perceived to be a workers’ revolution which they believed would spread beyond Algeria, & Pattieu suggests that in spite of their official “critical” stance, this enthusiasm prompted their more or less unconditional support for the revolution. This support seems to have mainly taken the form of propaganda: flyers, posters, and newspapers. Members of the FCL used their paper, Le Libertaire, to publish articles & communiqués in support of the anti-colonial uprisings in Algeria from 1954 onward. Consequently, the state seized issues of Le Libertaire seven times between 1954 & 1956. The five editors of the paper were repeatedly prosecuted by the Ministry of the Interior. FCL activists were detained & interrogated on numerous occasions by French police in relation to the publication. Anarcho-communist Pierre Morain, for example, was prosecuted on charges related to the distribution of pro-revolutionary flyers & to the publication of two pro-MTLD articles in Le Libertaire. As a result, he spent a year & a half in jail. Ultimately, the criminalization & surveillance of the FCL activists contributed significantly to its dissolution in 1956, well before Algerian independence.

3000 -- jean shepherd

3002 -- Wal-Mart Public Secret Site of the Day:

"Work, buy, consume......

3500 -- Henry David Thoreau anarchist

Writer of one of the greatest & most influential classics of American radicalism: " Civil Disobedience", which was written as a lecture for the Concord, Massachusetts, lyceum in January 1848. Over the years it has served a powerful inspiration for Tolstoy, Gandhi & the Industrial Workers of the World, as well as for contemporary activists in the civil rights, anti-war & radical environmentalist movements.

"How does it become a man to behave toward this American government today? I answer, that he cannot without disgrace be associated with it.... Under a government which imprsons any injustly, the true place for a just man is also a prison." - Thoreau

3500 -- Peter Alexeyevich Kropotkin (1842-1921) anarchist

Born in Moscow to an aristocratic family, Kropotkin was originally destined for a military career. After his education at a select military school where his interests in Russian politics & natural science became firm, he chose service with a Siberian regiment where his experiences in studying reform were to shape his thought.

As an official in Siberia, in 1862, he made important geographical & anthropological investigations that yielded valuable results in correcting distortions in map representation. At the social level, he concluded that State action was ineffective while mutual aid was of great importance in the struggle for existence. He made a reputation in science & in his thirtieth year was faced with the decision of proceeding with his career or indulging political impulses. He renounced a scientific career.

Kropotkin joined the International in 1872 but was soon disappointed with its limitations. The well-known events that led to a split brought the Interntional to two opposite paths. The federative & libertarian wing drew Kropotkin's loyalties. Returning to Russia, after having fully worked out his theories & in order to propagate them, he was there arrested.

After a dramatic escape in 1876 he made his way to England & then to Switzerland to rejoin the Jura Federation, to Paris & back to Switzerland to edit Le Revolte.

The assassination of the Czar led to his expulsion. He fled to England & resumed his researches on the French Revolution. Discouraged by the political atmosphere, he & his wife returned to Paris. With others they were arrested in 1882 & tried in a spectacular public trial in which the accused conducted a brilliant defense enabling them to preach anarchism to Europe.

Returning to Russia after the 1905 Revolution, the remainder of his life was devoted to his writings. Among the best known of his works are, The Conquest of Bread; Fields, Factories & Workshops; Mutual Aid; & the unfinished Ethics.

(from Irving Horowitz, The Anarchists, 1964, Dell Publishing) "All things for all men, since all men have need of them, since all men worked to produce them in the measure of their strength, & since it is not possible to evaluate everyone's part in the production of the world's wealth... All is for all!"


Kropotkin, born into the Russian nobility, was known as the "Anarchist Prince." He eschewed authority of any kind and, like fellow anarchist Bakunin, advocated spontaneous & communal action to displace the authority of the State. He argued that the principles of 'self-interest" & 'survival of the fittest" were Darwinian distortions of human nature, & that the principle of "mutual aid" was the fundamental drive of human nature & social evolution.




"All things for all men, since all men have need of them, since all men worked to produce them in the measure of their strength, & since it is not possible to evaluate everyone's part in the production of the world's wealth... All is for all!"

"In order that the revolution should be something more than a word, in order that the reaction should not lead us back tomorrow to the situation of yesterday, the conquest of today must be worth the trouble of defending; the poor of yesterday must be worth the trouble of defending; the poor of yesterday must not be poor tomorrow."

"Lenin is not comparable to any revolutionary figure in history. Revolutionaries have had ideals. Lenin has none."

"Vladimir Ilyich [Lenin], your concrete actions are completely unworthy of the ideas you pretend to hold."

'sociability is as much a law of nature as mutual struggle... mutual aid is as much a law of animal life as mutual struggle."

"The two great movements of our century — towards Liberty of the individual & social co-operation of the whole community--are summed up in Anarchist-Communism."

"[U]nless Socialists are prepared openly & avowedly to profess that the satisfaction of the needs of each individual must be their very first aim; unless they have prepared public opinion to establish itself firmly at this standpoint, the people in their next attempt to free themselves will once more suffer a defeat."

3500 -- Ralph Chaplin IWW quote ARCHIVE Mourn not the dead

Mourn not the dead that in the cool earth lie-- Dust unto dust-- The calm sweet earth that mothers all who die As all men must; Mourn not your captive comrades who must dwell-- Too strong to strive-- Within each steel bound coffin of a cell, Buried alive; But rather mourn the apathetic throng — The cowed & the meek — Who see the world's great anguish & its wrong & dare not speak!

— Ralph Chaplin

We respect the Industrial Workers of the World as one of the social & political movements in modern times that draws no color line.

— W.E.B. DuBois, June 1919

3500 --



Certaines adresses donnent aussi accès
à des informations bibliographiques.

orange diamond dingbatApollinaire orange diamond dingbatAragon orange diamond dingbatHubert Aquin orange diamond dingbatMarcel Aymé orange diamond dingbatArtaud orange diamond dingbatAragon orange diamond dingbatIsaac Asimov orange diamond dingbatBalzac orange diamond dingbatBarbey d'Aurevilly orange diamond dingbatFrançois Barcelo orange diamond dingbat Baudelaire (1) et 2 orange diamond dingbatHervé Bazin orange diamond dingbatSimone de Beauvoir (1) et (2) orange diamond dingbatSamuel Beckett orange diamond dingbatRabah Belamri orange diamond dingbatTahar Ben Jelloun orange diamond dingbatJean Bernabé orange diamond dingbatJorge Luis Borges orange diamond dingbatEmmanuel Bove orange diamond dingbatAndré Breton orange diamond dingbatMuriel Cerf orange diamond dingbatAimé Césaire (1), (2) et (3) orange diamond dingbatRené Char (1) et (2) orange diamond dingbatChantal Chawaf orange diamond dingbatAndrée Chédid orange diamond dingbatYing Chen orange diamond dingbatPaul Claudel orange diamond dingbatJean Cocteau orange diamond dingbatAlbert Cohen orange diamond dingbatColette orange diamond dingbatMaryse Condé, orange diamond dingbatRaphaël Confiant orange diamond dingbatDidier Daeninckx orange diamond dingbatLéon-Gontran Damas orange diamond dingbatGerty Dambury orange diamond dingbatMaurice Dantec orange diamond dingbatFrédéric Dard orange diamond dingbatMahmoud Darwich orange diamond dingbatAlphonse Daudet orange diamond dingbatJoseph Delteil orange diamond dingbatRené Depestre orange diamond dingbatMarceline Desbordes-Valmore orange diamond dingbatDesnos orange diamond dingbatJoël Des Rosiers orange diamond dingbatPhilippe Djan orange diamond dingbatAndré Duhaime orange diamond dingbatMarguerite Duras (1), (2) et (3) orange diamond dingbatJames Ellroy orange diamond dingbatFrantz Fanon orange diamond dingbatLéon-Paul Fargue orange diamond dingbatFlaubert orange diamond dingbatLouis-René des Forêts orange diamond dingbatMichel Foucault orange diamond dingbatRomain Gary orange diamond dingbatArmand Gatti orange diamond dingbatThéophile Gautier orange diamond dingbatMaurice Genevoix orange diamond dingbatAndré Gide (1), (2) et (3) orange diamond dingbatJean Giono orange diamond dingbat Edouard Glissant orange diamond dingbatDéwé Gorodé orange diamond dingbatJulien Gracq orange diamond dingbatGilbert Gratiant orange diamond dingbatLouis Guilloux orange diamond dingbatPierre Gripari orange diamond dingbatHervé Guibert orange diamond dingbatAnne Hébert orange diamond dingbatMichel Houellebecq orange diamond dingbatVictor Hugo (1) et (2) orange diamond dingbatEugène Ionesco orange diamond dingbatEdmond Jabes orange diamond dingbatMax Jacob orange diamond dingbatAlfred Jarry (1) et (2) orange diamond dingbatPierre Jean Jouve orange diamond dingbatYacine Kateb orange diamond dingbatPierre Klossowski
orange diamond dingbatLaclos orange diamond dingbatLa Fontaine orange diamond dingbatThierry Laget orange diamond dingbatLamartine orange diamond dingbatLa Rochefoucauld orange diamond dingbatClaude Lévi-Strauss orange diamond dingbatPierre Mac Orlan orange diamond dingbatMaupassant (1), (2) orange diamond dingbatAndré Malraux (1), (2), (3) et (4) orange diamond dingbatAndré Maurois orange diamond dingbatMalherbe orange diamond dingbatDaniel Maximin orange diamond dingbatMérimée orange diamond dingbatGertrude Millaire orange diamond dingbatPierre-Yves Millot orange diamond dingbatPatrick Modiano orange diamond dingbatMolière orange diamond dingbatMusset orange diamond dingbatAlvaro Mutis orange diamond dingbatAlexandre Nadjjar orange diamond dingbatNelligan orange diamond dingbatNerval orange diamond dingbatPaul Nizan orange diamond dingbatBernard Noël orange diamond dingbatAmélie Nothomb orange diamond dingbatFrançois Nourissier orange diamond dingbatSerge Ouaknine orange diamond dingbatDaniel Pennac orange diamond dingbatGisèle Pineau (1) et (2) orange diamond dingbatJacques Poulin orange diamond dingbatPrévert orange diamond dingbatOlivier Py orange diamond dingbatRacine orange diamond dingbatPatrick Rambaud orange diamond dingbatC.F. Ramuz orange diamond dingbatJean Richepin orange diamond dingbatRonsard orange diamond dingbatEdmond Rostand orange diamond dingbatRousseau (1), (2) orange diamond dingbatRaymond Roussel orange diamond dingbatJules Roy orange diamond dingbatAlbert Russo orange diamond dingbatFrançoise Sagan (1) et (2) orange diamond dingbatAntoine de Saint-Exupéry orange diamond dingbatSaint-John Perse (1) et (2) orange diamond dingbatGeorge Sand orange diamond dingbatNathalie Sarraute (1) et (2) orange diamond dingbatSimone Schwarz-Bart orange diamond dingbatMadeleine de Scudéry orange diamond dingbatLeïla Sebbar (1) et (2) orange diamond dingbatJean Sénac Victor Segalen orange diamond dingbatLéopold Sédar Senghor orange diamond dingbatAbdelhak Serhane orange diamond dingbatSévigné (Marquise de) orange diamond dingbatGeorge-Bernard Shaw orange diamond dingbatSabine Sicaut orange diamond dingbatSaint-John Perse orange diamond dingbatClaude Simon orange diamond dingbatYves Simon orange diamond dingbatSully Prudhomme orange diamond dingbatJules Supervielle orange diamond dingbatJean Tardieu orange diamond dingbatPaul-Jean Toulet orange diamond dingbatMichel Tremblay orange diamond dingbatTroyat orange diamond dingbatValéry orange diamond dingbatEmile Verhaeren orange diamond dingbatVerlaine (1) et (2) et (3) orange diamond dingbatJules Verne orange diamond dingbatThéophile de Viau orange diamond dingbat Voltaire (1), (2) et (3) orange diamond dingbatBernard Werber (Adresse?) orange diamond dingbatZola (1) et (2) et (3)

Autres serveurs

Consultez aussi les rubriques "Actualité littéraire", "Entretiens" et "Libraires et Editeurs de livres"

Publications - Littérature francophone virtuelle

  • Antonin Artaud :
    Artaud : "A bibliography, a slideshow gallery, excerpts from pivotal texts by & on Artaud, & a list of links to other related sources".
    Antonin Artaud : Textes et bibliographie d'Antonin Artaud en espagnol.
    Über Antonin Artaud : Sur Artaud par Marie-Agnès Blanc en allemand.
    Antonin Artaud : Biographie, bibliographie et poèmes d'Artaud en anglais.
    artaud "impressions" : "Lire ce qu'on n’a pas lu, relire ce qu'on a mal lu".
    Web pages of cruelty : Liste de liens sur Artaud par "Bohemian Ink".
    "Artaud biography rages around Paris" : Livre de Moe Spencer, publié par "The Thresher Online".

  • Early History of California Schools by Will C. Wood
  • Dedication of the Bush Street School, by Mark Twain — 1864

    San Francisco — Fairs-Expositions
    San Francisco - Fire Department
    San Francisco - Genealogy
    San Francisco - General
    San Francisco - Geology
    San Francisco - Gold Rush
    San Francisco – Graft & Corruption
    San Francisco - Haight-Ashbury
    San Francisco - History Publications
    San Francisco - Hotels
    San Francisco – Japanese
    San Francisco - Journalism
    San Francisco – Labor
    San Francisco – Landmarks
    San Francisco – Maritime
    Next Page of History by Subject
    San Francisco History Index
    San Francisco History by Year
    Return to The Museum of the City of San Francisco.
    There have been visitors to the History Section.

    3500 --

    Founding of San Francisco, by Edward F. O'Day
    Ranch & Mission Days in Alta California, by Guadalupe Vallejo
    Overview of San Francisco History 1776-1906 from Cal. Historical Soc.
    Gladys Hansen's Earthquake Alamanac 1769-1994
    Vanished Waters of Southeastern San Francisco, by William C. Sharpsteen
    History of San Francisco Gold Rush-era Street Names, by Henry C. Carlisle
    Let Everyone Help to Save the Famous Hetch-Hetchy Valley, by John Muir
    Chronology of San Francisco Rock 1965 - 1969

    San Francisco History Index
    San Francisco History by Subject
    Visit the Museum Book Shop
    Return to The Museum of the City of San Francisco.

    San Francisco - Haight-Ashbury
    San Francisco - History Publications
    San Francisco - Hotels
    San Francisco – Japanese
    San Francisco - Journalism
    San Francisco – Labor
    San Francisco – Landmarks
    San Francisco – Maritime
    Next Page of History by Subject
    San Francisco History Index
    San Francisco History by Year
    Return to The Museum of the City of San Francisco.
    There have been visitors to the History Section.

    3500 --

    Hi Dave, Thanks for the excellent treatment of 'Forgotten Revolution' on your site. I'm strongly thinking of bringing out a new edition later this, because reaction to the special offer I had recently was so good. Have you checked out

    Fraternally, Liam Cahill Author of 'Forgotten Revolution'

    3500 -- Ruth Re: Daily Bleed: 6/10 GUSTAVE COURBET

    David-The 6/10 Daily Bleed got me all fired up...

    Just wanted to note that after Tolstoy repented of his mortal sins, he spent the rest of his life oppressing his family. That monastery he visited must have been run by the spiritual brothers of our present-day promise-keepers. Love, Ruth

    3500 -- Noam Chomsky (1928- ) anarchist Noam Avram Chomsky revolutionized the discipline of linguistics. His linguistics work argues that the acquisition of language is part of the natural or innate structure of the human brain. An anarchist & libertarian socialist, Chomsky first came to prominence in the political realm opposing the U.S. invasion of South Vietnam. Outspoken against all abuses of power, Chomsky is a particularly astute critic of U.S. foreign policy. Chomsky's analysis of the media illustrates the compliant nature of the information industries to the ideological objectives & imperatives of governments & corporate elites.

    (From "Philosopher All-Stars", trading-cards from the movie "Manufacturing Consent")

    3500 -- Josef Dietzgen (1828-1888)
    Otto Ruhle
    Kirkpatrick Sale
    E.B. Maple
    Paul Avrich
    Howard Zinn
    Dimitrios Roussopoulos
    Graham Purchase
    Victor Serge
    Stewart Home
    Raoul Vaneigem
    Guy Debord

    Paul Cardan (aka Maurice Brinton)
    Member of Solidarity / Socialism or Barbarism who wrote a lot of stuff in the 60's & 70's that updates libertarian socialism & a lot of historical material on Russia (Bolsheviks & Workers Control).

    Dr. John Cray
    Was the editor of the first anarchist daily paper (FORA paper in Argentenia)

    Captain Jack Whyte
    Was organiser of the Irish Citizens Army (1913 -16) the first workers milita in western Europe before he was an anarchist & then went on to fight with the CNT in Spain.

    3500 -- Cette attitude ambivalente, sinon ambiguë, doit être rapprochée de celle des anarchistes Pierre Kropotkine, Jean Grave et Paul Reclus, signataires parmi d'autres du Manifeste des Seize (1916), qui a provoqué une scission dans le mouvement anarchiste international en raison de son bellicisme anti-germanique. L'autre tendance, hostile à la participation à la guerre, était représentée par l'anarchiste italien Errico Malatesta 7. González Prada, fidèle à l'antimilitarisme et à l'internationalisme, mais toutefois partisan, a adopté une position de moyen terme, bien qu’il soit plus proche de la première option que de la seconde.
    Le Manifeste des Seize Par Hem DAY

    sous cette appellation, on a désigné, dans le mouvement anarchiste, une déclaration datée du 28 février 1916 qui fut publiée pour la première fois dans le quotidien syndicaliste La Bataille, le 14 AVRIL / APRIL 14 1916. Le n°16 des Publications de La Révolte et des Temps Nouveaux, du 15 octobre 1922, a reproduit in-extenso la dite déclaration, signée de quinze noms seulement ; cela provient de ce que Hussein dey, le seizième signataire supposé, n'était, en réalité, que la localité (Algérie) habitée par l'un des signataires : Orfila. Ainsi, le trop fameux Manifeste des Seize aurait du se dénommer, à plus juste titre, le Manifeste des Quinze. Mais ce serait commettre une nouvelle erreur de ne voir en cette déclaration qu'une adhésion de quinze anarchistes. Les événements de l'époque firent que, lorsque cette déclaration fut communiquée à la presse française et étrangère, quinze camarades seulement approuvèrent le texte, pressé que l'on était de le publier ; dans le numéro du 14 AVRIL / APRIL 14 1916 de la Libre Fédération, périodique communiste-anarchiste, paraissant à Lausanne, une bonne centaine d'adhésions nouvelles venaient s'ajouter aux précédentes ; elle émanaient de camarades français italiens (les plus nombreux), quelques uns de Suisse, d'Angleterre, de Belgique et du Portugal. Certaines étaient suivies de ces deux mots curieux : «Aux Armées» ; une même, dont l'adresse était : 7, rue de la Halle, au Havre était illisible. ... extraits de l'article «Seize» de L'Encyclopédie anarchiste, 1925-1934, pp. 2541-2553.

    3500 -- Arise ye starvings from your slumbers > > > > Arise ye prisoners of want > > > > For reason in revolt now thunders > > > > & at last ends the age of cant > > > > So away with all your superstitions > > > > Servile masses, arise, arise > > > > We'll change henceforth the old tradition > > > > & spurn the dust to win the prize > > > > So comrades, come rally, & the last fight let us face > > > > The Internationale unites the human race

    3500 -- WWI remarque war

    "A man cannot realize that above such shattered bodies there are still human faces in which life goes its daily round. & this is only one hospital, one single station; there are hundreds of thousands in Germany, hundreds of thousands in France, hundreds of thousands in Russia. How senseless is everything that can ever be written, or done, or thought when such things are possible. It must all be lies & of no account when the culture of a thousand years could not prevent this stream of blood being poured out, these torture-chambers in their hundreds & thousands. A hospital alone shows what a war is." - Erich Maria Remarque from All Quiet on the Western Front

    3500 -- Blackened Site ANARCHIST ARCHIVE

    @LINKS Anarchist Library Anarchist publications from the WSM Anarchists News - Irish free news sheet about anarchism a... Documents on methods of anarchist organisation Home page for Proudhon Reply to Wendy McElroy's "Individualist Anarchism vs. 'Libertarianism' ... The Platform & the International anarchist movement

    Ucsd Site Anarchist Black Cross Federation ~ part of Forever In Struggle: Consitution & Guiding ... Anarchist Communist Federation - Organising for Resistance Calendar of Anarchist Events 1998 & Beyond Mid Atlantic Infoshop The Anarchist Cookbook

    Geocities Site A-Infos Bulletin No. 1 from the Polish Anarchist Federation ... All about Anarchism An Anarchist FAQ Webpage

    Teleport Site Anarchist History & Education: FAQ Portland Activist Resources Portland Anarchist Web Page

    Misc. Commercial Sites Anarchist Archives Project Anarchist Reading List Halloween III: Are the Microsoft memos fake? J. Marais, French film star Joseph Labadie: Anarchist & Labor Agitator Prominent Anarchists & Left-Libertarians Welcome To Spiritual Anarchist's Home PageWelcome To Spiritu...

    Misc. Non-Profit Sites A.4 Who are the major anarchist thinkers? Anarchy Library Spunk Press - About the Anarchist Cookbook Spunk Press - Anarchist contacts

    Misc. Educational Institution Sites Anarchist Archive Cuba: The Anarchists & Liberty NEWS FROM GREECE

    Misc. European Sites Anarchy-list index for March 1993 Spunk Press Home

    Misc. European Educational Institution Sites Freedom Press Home Page The Seed home page

    3500 -- links to go

    3500 -- — NICE COLOR others:

    1 Elizabeth's unabashed

    2 Elizabeth's unabashed

    3 Elizabeth's unabashed

    4 Elizabeth's unabashed

    5 Elizabeth's unabashed

    6 Elizabeth's unabashed

    7 Elizabeth's unabashed

    8 Elizabeth's unabashed

    9 Elizabeth's unabashed

    10 Elizabeth's unabashed
    ? ? ? ? ?
    ? ? ? ? ? ?

    3506 -- BLACK RIBBON CAMPAIGN: the Black Ribbon Campaign. You might say that the Black Ribbon is just a more radical extension of the Blue Ribbon from the EFF. Where the Blue Ribbon advocates preservation of the American Constitutional "guarantee" of free speech, the Black Ribbon advocates the freedom to be found in overthrowing the oppressive state itself. Sort of a logical extension of the principal ...

    3508 -- History Modern History Ancient History Medieval & Renaissance Modern History Russian Revolution Pages Plus other links on Russian history The Weimar Republic Plus other links on German history Europe/Russia Links VOICE OF THE SHUTTLE: HISTORY PAGE History of Spain Dates in Hungarian History Eric's Links to Humanities Sites Rape of Bosnia Images of the Philippine-American War & Soldiers' Letters Home Anti-Imperialism in the United States, 1898-1935 GREECE: Quick History History & Historiography The History of Ghana ANOTHER VIEW OF COLUMBUS As much about the modern controversy as on Columbus Ancient History RESOURCES FOR HISTORY OF ANCIENT EGYPT The Assyrian Kings List The Code of Hammurabi:Babylon,1795-1750 BC Translations of Greek Texts Epic of the Peloponnesian War Ancient Macedonia Alexander the Great's Home Page The Later Seleucids History Speaks: Monarchy, Exile & Maccabees

    A Zionist account of the Maccabees revolt against the Seleucids Rome, Greece & the East Sparing the Hornets' Nest Rhodes & Rome The Ancient World & Multicultualism Not as Slaves, but as Friends & Allies: Rhodes & Rome The Antikythera Mechanism Plutarch's Lives The Celts vATTILA THE HUN & THE BATTLE OF CHALONS The Ancient World Web: The Ultimate Index of All Things Ancient Resources in Ancient History from University of Cambridge Annotated Chronology of Military Events Ancient Section Medieval & Renaissance

    THE AURORA OF 1192: ITS CAUSES & EFFECTS Articles on Medieval/Renaissance Subjects Plague & Public Health in Renaissance Europe

    3509 -- Ephéméride Anarchiste Bienvenue dans l'index des noms. PAGE 2 OF 3 EEE-M EDO Luis A EEKHOUD Georges E.L.Z.N ELIA Roberto ELOSU Fernand ENGEL Georges ETIEVANT Claude François Escuela Moderna ESGLEAS Germinal ESTER BORRAS José F.A FACERIAS José Lluis F.A.C.A F.A.C.B F.A.I FABERT Berthe

    Luigi Fabbri FABBRI Luigi
    FANELLI Giuseppe FANON Maurice FARRAS Alexandre (ou Aviño) FAUCIER Nicolas F.A.U.D FAUGERAT James FAUVET Pierre FAYOLLE Maurice FEDELI Ugo Fédération Jurassienne FELICANI Aldino FENEON Felix FERRE Léo FERRERO Pietro FIGNER Vera Fijols (soulèvement de) FISCHER Adolphe FO Dario FONT José (dit Facon Grande) FONTE Alfredo (dit El Toscano) FONTENIS Georges F.O.R.A Forçats de l'Ile du Salut (révolte des) FORTIN Félix FOURIER François-Charles-Marie FRANCHI Amerigo FREMION Yves FREMONT René FREINET Célestin FREZZI Romeo GALLEANI Luigi GARCIA GARNIER Octave GATTI Armand GAUTIER Emile GEBE (Georges Blondeau) GENET Louis GEYTER Pierre de GIBEAUX Yves GIL Enrique GIOVANNI Severino di GIOVANNITTI Arturo GIRAULT Emile GIRIER-LORION GODIN Jean-Baptiste André GODIN Noël GOHIER Urbain GOMBAS Enrique Agustin Gomez-Arcos GOMEZ Primitivo PRADA Manuel Gonzalez GORI Pietro GOURDIN georges GOURMELON Paul GRANADOS Francisco GRAVE Jean GROSS Jacques GUERDJIKOV Mikhael GUERIN Daniel GUILLAUME James GUILLON Claude GUSTAVO Soledad GUYAU Jean-Marie HHH HA KI RAK HALLE Maurice HASEK Jaroslav HAVEL Hippolyte HAYWOOD William Dudley HENRY Emile HENRY Fortuné HERMANN Paul HILLJoe (Joel Hagglund) HOEDEL Emil I.W.W IBELS H.G IBSEN Henrik IKONOMOV Vassil Insurrection des Canuts (1834) Internationale ISHIKAWA Sanshiro ISTRATI Panaït IXIGREC (COLLINO Robert dit) JACOB Alexandre Marius JACQUEMIN (Louis Eugène JAKMIN, dit ) JANVION Emile JOLIVET François Henri JOSPIN Robert JOSSOT Gustave-Henri JOVER Grégorio JOYEUX Maurice JULLIEN Henri KAMINSKI H.E. KELLER Charles KERAVIS René KNOCKAERT Jean-Baptiste KOTUKU Shusui Denjiro KRATOUNKOV Ilia Kronstadt (ou Cronstadt) KROPOTKINE Pierre KYU LI JUNG KYU LI EUL LABORIT Henri LACAZE-DUTHIERS Gérard de LACHEVRE Raymond LAFARGUE Paul LAFFORGUE René-Louis LAISANT Albert LAISANT Charles Ange LAISANT Maurice LACUNZA LAMBERET Renée LANGLOIS Denis LAPEYRE Aristide LAPEYRE Paul LARIVIERE Pierre LAUDE André LAURENT Louis Eugène LAW Jacob LAZARE Bernard LEGA Paolo Le Libertaire LEAUTHIER LEBEDEFF Jean Louis Lecoin LEFRANCAIS Gustave LEGAY Henri LEHNING Arthur LEMEL Nathalie LEPETIT Jules (Louis Bertho dit) LEVAL Gaston LIABEUF Jean-Jacques LIARD-COURTOIS Auguste (Courtois, dit) LIBERTAD Albert Joseph, dit LINGG Louis LISSAGARAY Prosper Olivier LIVROZET Serge LLACER LLUNAS PUJOLS José LOCHU René Lois scélérates LONDRES Albert LOPEZ SANCHEZ Juan LORION Jean-Baptiste (dit GIRIER-LORION) LORULOT André Lunigiana (mouvement insurrectionnel du) LUCETTI Gino LUCE Maximilien Jules LUCHENI Luigi LUCCHESI oreste LYNN Robert MACKAY John Henry MAC SAY Stephen MAC-NAB Maurice LE MAGUET Claude (Jean Salives) MAILFAIT Paulin MANE Theresa (Soledad Gustavo) MAHE Anna MAHE Armandine MAITREJEAN Rirette (Anna Estorges) MAITRON Jean MALATO Charles MALICET François Manifeste des Enragés Manifeste des 16 MARECHAL Sylvain MARCOS Sous-commandant MARESTAN Jean MARICOURT Thierry MARINI Giovanni MARPAUX MARTIAL Pierre MARTIN Constant MARTIN Pablo MASETTI Augusto MASSE Ludovic MATHA Louis MAURICIUS (Vandamme Maurice dit) MAURIN Emile (Murmain) MAYOUX François MAYOUX Jehan MAYOUX Marie MECKERT Jean MEILLOUR (LE ) Pierre MERA Cipriano MERCIER-VEGA Louis Victor MERLINO Saviero METAYER Paul METCHNIKOFF Léon METGE METT Ida MEUNIER Théodule MEYRVEIS MICHEL Louise M.I.L MIRBEAU Octave MOLINARI Luigi MONCALEANO Juan Francisco MONCASI Juan Oliva Monde Libertaire MONFRAY Marius MONIER (voir SIMENTOF) MONOD MONTAIGNE MONTEGUDET Adrienne MONTEHUS Gaston MONTEJO MONTSENY Federica MONTSENY Joan (Urales) MORAN Juan Antonio MORAND Jeanne MORIN Emilienne MORRAL Mateo MORRIS William MOST Johann MOULOUDJI Marcel Mouvement du 22 MARS / MARCH MOZZONI Anna Maria

    3509 --


    Sites web fançais et autres



    Copyright D.Petit 1998

    3509 -- The veteran Dan Chatterton, who had participated in the Chartist agitations of 1848, produced his own Anarchist paper Chatterton’s Commune-the Atheist Communistic Scorcher. This ran for 42 issues from 1884, produced in conditions of extreme poverty.

    Richard Whiting, in his once famous novel "No 5 John Street", makes Chatterton one of his leading characters, under the nom de plume of "Old 48",

    John Henry Mackay, the German Anarchist poet, wrote a novel of the London Socialist movement of the '80's called "The Anarchists", in which there is a very good pen-picture of Chatterton.

    "Chatterton, always of the poor, was always for the poor, & never shirked the fight. Original, & strong in character, he fought all his life for his class. Individualistic in temperament he believed that it was only in Communism that he could find liberty. A militant Atheist, he was too logical to reject a government in the skies & accept one on earth. He fought the politician as he fought the priest, for, as he often said 'They were twin vultures hatched from the same rotten egg.'"

    3509 -- When he is therefore attacked by what seemed to be youthful exuberance as in the Porvenir anarquista of Barcelona (end of 1891) there is little harm done.

    Other attacks are of no account, because malignity rivals in them with authoritarian intolerance, though they called themselves individualist. I allude to the publications beginning in Paris, 1887, & culminating in London about 1892 or 1893 & wound up by a curious trial for libel some fifteen years later. When the anarchist movement was hunted down by the persecutions of 1893 & 1894, it received a great impulse as early as in 1895 by the sudden & rapid development of French syndicalism. News of this reached London about the middle of 1895 & Malatesta had probably discussed the subject before with Emile Pouget who left for Paris in May. There was a meeting held in the rooms of Alfred Marsh, the editor of "Freedom," in Camden Town, N. W., Malatesta being present when these new developments & the International Socialist Workers' & Trade Union Congress of 1896 (London) were discussed; other meetings followed through the year. A last attempt was made in 1896 to maintain the solidarity of socialist & labor organizations of all shades of socialist & anarchist opinon the principle of the Bologna, Geneva & Berne Congresses of 1873 & 1876 — by meeting the social democratic organizations in friendly discussion. For this purpose delegates from syndicates arrived in numbers & were seconded by the French Allemanists, Domela Nieuwenhuis & Cornelissen of the Dutch Party, the German independents & anarchists with G. Landauer, by Keir Hardie, Tom Mann & many others. Errico Malatesta The Biography of an Anarchist A Condensed Sketch of Malatesta from the book written by by Max Nettlau Published by the Jewish Anarchist Federation New York City. 1924

    3509 -- Trial by Jury, by Lysander Spooner.

    Chapter I. The Right of Juries to Judge of the Justice of Laws Written circa. 1852, this work is astonishingly topical. Spooner defends one of the most important early principles of American constitutional law:

    "...that: in criminal cases, it is not only the right & duty of juries to judge what are the facts, what is the law, & what was the moral intent of the accused; but that it is also their right, & their primary & paramount duty, to judge the justice of the law, & to hold all laws invalid that are, in their opinion, unjust or oppressive, & all persons guiltless in violating, or resisting the execution of such laws."

    He most convincingly argues his point, showing that:

    "Unless such be the right & duty of jurors, it is plain that, instead of juries being a `palladium of liberty' --a barrier against the tyranny & oppression of the government-- they are really mere tools in its hands, for carrying into execution any injustice & oppression it may desire to have executed."

    3509 -- From Kropotkin's careful report in the "Revolte" it can be seen that he was one of the very few who had before his mind the clear purpose of arriving at a practical solution of the organizing problem; but he had uphill work to do & his feelings made him once cry out: we are of an appalling doctrinarism. Most delegates seemed to want an organization & did not want one, considering every practical step as interfering with their autonomy. Finally a London bureau of three (and three substitutes) is appointed, the address being "John Poor," 6 Rose Street, Soho Square, W., that is the house of the Rose Street Socialist Club. I heard Kropotkin mention Malatesta & Trunk (a German cabinet maker, of the Freiheit group), letters to be sent to Trunk - a practical measure, as the "John Poor" address was only a taunt to the governments.

    Gatherings of such a kind are exposed to be infested by spies; one of the most impudent ones was Serreaux, the individual which by order of the Paris police (Andreiux) supported the Parish Anarchist paper already alluded to. Kropotkin always suspected him, but poor Cafiero gave to that paper his finest articles ("Revolution) & others did the same.

    Errico Malatesta The Biography of an Anarchist A Condensed Sketch of Malatesta from the book written by by Max Nettlau Published by the Jewish Anarchist Federation New York City. 1924


    The pure revolution(R)/ Mattick: 8/27
    Emma Goldman (R)/ Wexter: 75/31 Bolshevik myth(R)/ Berkman: 127/32 In Russia-letter: 128/35 Class War(R: / Verso, £7.95)/ Fran Cetti: 148/33 Just a laugh(L)/ Jim O'Shauhnessy: 149/34 No laughing matter(L)/ David Groves: 150/35 It's actions which count(L)/ J Kahn: 151/34 Demanding the impossible(R: Peter Marshall/ Harper Collins, £25.00)/ Seth Harman: 153/31

    3509 -- From Kropotkin's careful report in the "Revolte" it can be seen that he was one of the very few who had before his mind the clear purpose of arriving at a practical solution of the organizing problem; but he had uphill work to do & his feelings made him once cry out: we are of an appalling doctrinarism.

    Most delegates seemed to want an organization & did not want one, considering every practical step as interfering with their autonomy. Finally a London bureau of three (and three substitutes) is appointed, the address being "John Poor," 6 Rose Street, Soho Square, W., that is the house of the Rose Street Socialist Club. I heard Kropotkin mention Malatesta & Trunk (a German cabinet maker, of the Freiheit group), letters to be sent to Trunk - a practical measure, as the "John Poor" address was only a taunt to the governments.

    Gatherings of such a kind are exposed to be infested by spies; one of the most impudent ones was Serreaux, the individual which by order of the Paris police (Andreiux) supported the Parish Anarchist paper already alluded to. Kropotkin always suspected him, but poor Cafiero gave to that paper his finest articles ("Revolution) & others did the same.


    The pure revolution(R)/ Mattick: 8/27 Emma Goldman(R)/ Wexler: 75/31 Bolshevik myth(R)/ Berkman: 127/32 In Russia-letter: 128/35 Class War(R: / Verso, £7.95)/ Fran Cetti: 148/33 Just a laugh(L)/ Jim O'Shauhnessy: 149/34 No laughing matter(L)/ David Groves: 150/35 It's actions which count(L)/ J Kahn: 151/34 Demanding the impossible(R: Peter Marshall/ Harper Collins, £25.00)/ Seth Harman: 153/31

    3510 -- AUTHOR ARCHIVE POST 1945 || A-D | E-J | K-O | P-Z || Edward Abbey Issac Asimov Kathy Acker Archie Randolph Ammons Maya Angelou John Ashbery Margaret (Eleanor) Atwood Canadian Paul Auster Nicholson Baker James Baldwin James Graham Ballard John Barth Donald Barthelme Beat Poets Anne Beattie Saul Bellow Charles Bernstein Robert Bly Richard Brautigan Gwendolyn Brooks Charles Bukowski William S. Burroughs John Cage Truman Capote Raymond Carver John Cheever Tom Clancy Lucille Clifton Robert Coover Gregory Corso Robert Creeley Don DeLillo Junot Diaz E.L. Doctorow Rita Dove Bob Dylan Steve Erickson Bret Easton Ellis Ralph Ellison Howard M[elvin] Fast Raymond Federman Lawrence Ferlinghetti John Gardner William Gass William Gibson Allen Ginsberg Nikki Giovanni Herbert Gold Kathryn Harrison Joy Harjo (Karen Strom) John Hawkes Joseph Heller Carl Hiaasen Susan Howe John Winslow Irving Shelley Jackson Randall Jarrell Jack Kerouac Ken Kesey Maxine Hong Kingston Galway Kinnell Jerzy Kosinski Maxine Kumin Denise Levertov Philip Levine Mark Leyner Robert Lima Audre Lorde Norman Mailer Bernard Malamud Cormac McCarthy Rigoberta Menchu James Merrill W.S. Merwin Michael Mollo N. Scott Momaday Rick Moody Toni Morrison Vladimir Nabokov Marsha Norman Joyce Carol Oates Sharon Olds Charles Olson Cynthia Ozick Marjorie Perloff Robert Pinsky Sylvia Plath Chaim Potok Richard Powers Thomas Pynchon Ishmael Reed Anne Rice Adienne Rich Tom Robbins Philip Roth J. D. Salinger Ntozake Shange Ron Silliman Louis Simpson W. D. Snodgrass Gary Snyder Susan Sontag Gary Soto Ronald Sukenick Amy Tan John Updike William T. Vollmann Kurt Vonnegut Alice Walker David Foster Wallace Eudora Welty Tennessee Williams Johm Alfred Williams Tom Wolfe Charles Wright James Wright American Literature on the Web,

    3510 -- AUTHOR ARCHIVE 1620 -1820 Joel Barlow William Bradford Anne Bradstreet William Byrd St. John de Crevecoeur Timothy Dwight Jonathan Edwards Benjamin Franklin Philip Freneau Alexander Hamilton Patrick Henry Lemuel Hopkins David Humphreys Thomas Jefferson Cotton Mather Thomas Morton Thomas Paine Mary Rowlandson Susanna Rowson Captain John Smith Edward Taylor John Trumbull Royall Tyler Mason Locke Weems Phillis Wheatley Michael Wigglesworth Edward Winslow John Winthrop John Woolman American Literature on the Web,

    3510 -- Blackened Site ANARCHIST ARCHIVE

    @LINKS Anarchist Library Anarchist publications from the WSM Anarchists News - Irish free news sheet about anarchism a... Documents on methods of anarchist organisation Home page for Proudhon Reply to Wendy McElroy's "Individualist Anarchism vs. 'Libertarianism' ... The Platform & the International anarchist movement Ucsd Site Anarchist Black Cross Federation ~ part of Forever In Struggle: Consitution & Guiding ... Anarchist Communist Federation - Organising for Resistance Calendar of Anarchist Events 1998 & Beyond Mid Atlantic Infoshop The Anarchist Cookbook Geocities Site A-Infos Bulletin No. 1 from the Polish Anarchist Federation ... All about Anarchism An Anarchist FAQ Webpage Teleport Site Anarchist History & Education: FAQ Portland Activist Resources Portland Anarchist Web Page Misc. Commercial Sites Anarchist Archives Project Anarchist Reading List Halloween III: Are the Microsoft memos fake? J. Marais, French film star Joseph Labadie: Anarchist & Labor Agitator Prominent Anarchists & Left-Libertarians Welcome To Spiritual Anarchist's Home PageWelcome To Spiritu... Misc. Non-Profit Sites A.4 Who are the major anarchist thinkers? Anarchy Library Spunk Press - About the Anarchist Cookbook Spunk Press - Anarchist contacts Misc. Educational Institution Sites Anarchist Archive Cuba: The Anarchists & Liberty NEWS FROM GREECE Misc. European Sites Anarchy-list index for March 1993 Spunk Press Home Misc. European Educational Institution Sites Freedom Press Home Page The Seed home page

    3511 -- archive harry kemp trains, tramps, interviewd by may swenson Kansas by Harry Kemp - 1912

    Let other countries glory in their past, But Kansas glories in her days to be, In her horizons limitless & vast, Her plains that storm the senses like the sea; She has no ruins gray that men revere - Her time is "Now," Her heritage is "Here."

    Source: Sunflowers, A Book of Kansas Poems

    Willard Wattles - 1916


    Indochinese shambles: 9/8 Aftermath(R)/ Pilger, Barnett: 82.03/32 Vietnam war: 77/20 Tet offensive: 106/24 The things they carried(R: Tim O'Brien/ Flamingo, £4.99)/ Charlie Hore: 151/32 Four hours in My Lai(R: Michael Bilton,Kevin Sim/ Penguin, £6.99)/ Brian McDonald: 165/30 Rethinking Camelot, JFK, the Vietnam war & US political culture(R: Noam Chomsky/ Verso, £9.95)/ John Saville: 166/28 Heaven & earth(F)/ Martin Smith: 172/26 The sorrow of war(R: Bao Ninh/ Secker & Warburg, £8.99)/ Clare Fermont: 176/31 In Pharaoh's army(R: Tobias Wolff/ Bloomsbury, £12.99)/ Neal Smith: 183/31 The empire strikes back/ John Newsinger: 189/20 Patches of fire(R: Albert French/ Secker & Warburg, £15.99)/ Esther Neslen: 208/29 Text

    3519 -- The destruction of the original libertarian movement in the United States, (by mass deportations & imprisonment), as well as in Europe (The Fascist victories in Spain, Italy & Germany) left a vacuum in which was possible for one Dean Russell of the capitalist "Foundation for Economic Education" to write an article in the FEE publication, "Ideas on Liberty" of May, 1955 entitled "Who is a Libertarian?" which advocated that the right should "trademark & reserve for our own use the good & honorable word 'libertarian.'" In other cases, conservative Science Fiction writers such as Robert Heinlein & Poul Anderson used the term in their writing to depict fictionally virtuous forms of capitalism. It should be noted that these writers & others like them (Ann MaCaffrey, Daniel F. Galouye, Keith Laumer, etc.) supported the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. For more information see the article "Starship Stormtroopers" by Micheal Moorcock.

    4000 --

    4000 -- ?????????????

    4000 -- LOGO

    4000 -- Fellow Worker Harry Hay

    Fellow Worker Harry Hay

    Harry Hay is the 87-year-old founder of the Mattachine Society, the first above-ground gay rights organization in Amerika. A lifelong communist, he spent some years organizing in the Communist Party USA before being purged for his homosexuality in the wake of the "McCarthy" Red Scare in the mid-late 1950s.

    He got there via the San Francisco General Strike of 1934, where he heard Harry Bridges speak & participated in the silent march commemorating the martyrs of "Bloody Thursday," when the San Francisco Police Department shot dead three unarmed longshore picketers.

    But before that even, he got his start in revolutionary consciousness in the Industrial Workers of the World-- also known as "the Wobblies". He was a member from 1926 to 1930, in the agricultural & maritime industries. He was "lined up" by a crew that had worked with Joe Hill in Utah, attempting to organize miners there. To this day he ascribes it as a fundamental part of his early education.

    In June of 1999, the General Executive Board of the IWW saw fit to offer Harry Hay an honorary lifetime membership in the organization, in recognition of & respect for a lifetime of service to the working class and the cause of queer liberation. He has accepted, & we in turn are deeply honored thereby.

    Welcome back, Fellow Worker Harry Hay! kisses & cheers!

    You can read the Industrial Worker (newspaper of the IWW) article about Harry Hay's lifetime membership in the IWW, by clicking here!

    You can read what Harry had to say about the IWW in the book The Trouble With Harry Hay.

    4002 -- RADIO SATELLITE DISH BROADCAST IMAGE thumbnail animated images:

    4003 -- shorts

    4004 -- WWI alternate history page WWI novel; Humphrey Cobb-"Paths of Glory"


    4009 -- Great Dictator chaplin WWII

    4500 --

    4500 -- 60S

    4500 -- stalin hitler wwii archive

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    4500 -- ampersand —

    4500 -- ishill initials —

    ? ? ? ? ?

    4500 -- © Copyleft by the Daily Bleed

    kritiker, animated
    4500 -- need save image to bb folder

    4500 --

    4500 --

    4500 -- indian

    4500 -- flag

    4500 -- Orion Society

    4500 --

    4500 --

    4500 --

    Re: Stuart Christie cover scan Date: Wed, 16 Apr 2003 07:45:54 +0100
    Dear Dave
    Not sure what size you'd want, so attached are three versions, which I think are around the right area. Let me know if none of them is quite right. Cheers for the website, by the way - excellent source of knowledge.
    Regards Alwyn

    Graffitti: No Shop

    4500 --


    5000 -- Looney Bin? Bin Bush, Bin Blair, Bin CIA, Bin Drug War, Bin Bin Laden.

    5000 --

    history of anarchism in ex Yugoslavia

    by: Marko Vukovic compiled from works of Trivo Indjic, Goran Ivanovic, "Anarchismus" (? Zurich ?) & personal revelations.

    Anarchist ideas came among South Slavic nations in the second half of 19th century. First of all, they were brought by people who worked or went to university in other European countries where workers' & socialist movement were more developed.

    Serbian socialist, Zivojin Zujovic (1838-1870), was one of the first Proudhon's followers. He was introduced to these ideas during his student days in Munich & Zurich where he studied law & economy. He was also the first socialist in Serbia & a teacher for another Serbian socialist, organizer & theorist Svetozar Markovic (1846-1875).

    In Switzerland existed a small colony of South Slavic students & revolutionaries, & they were connected with Bakunin & Slavic section of the famous Jura Federation. Among them were: Jovan Zujovic, Manojlo Hrvacanin, Pera Todorovic & others. At the beginning of July 1872, a congress of Serbian socialists was held in Zurich, & Bakunin was one of the guests.

    Libertarian socialism of 1870's & 1880's is inseparably connected with national liberation movements against Austro-Hungarian & Ottoman Empire. Many anarchists participated in the Bosnian-Herzegovinian uprising of 1875., & not only from south Slavic countries but also from Italy (Enrico Malatesta twice tried to enter Bosnia & join the uprising, both times without success), Russia & other European countries. There was a strong leftist stream within the movement itself, & it was led by Vasa Pelagic, side by side with Manojlo Hrvacanin (1849-1909) & Kosta Ugrinic (1848-1933).

    At the beginning of April 1871, Johan Most visited Ljubljana where he contacted the local Workers' society. Mitja Kunc, was one of the people who have spread Most's ideas.

    In the early 1880's Austro-Hungarian Empire intensified it's repression against radical socialists. This repression culminated in 1884. with numerous trials in Zagreb, Klagenfurt & Graz where many Croatian & Slovenian anarchists got sentenced.

    After that, anarchist influence from Rudolf Golouh, Giovanni Marcheli & Ivan Endlicher came from Trieste & Ancona to Slovenia, Istria and Dalmatia. There were public anarchist manifestations in Rovinj (1904) & Split (1908). The later even had a soccer club called "Anarhos" which existed for several decades (today N.K. Split).

    Croatian teacher, Milos Krpan, cooperated with Swiss anarchists since 1898, & agitated among socialists in Slavonski Brod. He tried to establish an international anarchist colony (1090 & 1910) on his estate in Dubovik near Slavonski Brod, but Austro-Hungarian Empire banned such activities, & anarchists agitation.

    Libertarian ideas came to Macedonia from Switzerland & Bulgaria through young Macedonian students. In 1897 & 1898, they had two anarchist newspapers in Geneve: "Glas" & "Otmatchtenie". There was also a Secret Macedonian Revolutionary Comity, which fought for establishment of Balcanian Socialist Federation. The ideas of Russian anarchist & popular movement were also excepted by Vasil Glavinov (1869-1929). He introduced them to Goce Delcev (1872-1903) - the leading figure in the Macedonian national liberation movement - who founded Secret Macedonian-Odrian Revolutionary Organization (Thesaloniki, October 1893) & led the revolutionary Ilinden uprising (1903). This uprising resulted with Krusevo Republic - first socialist republic in the Balkans which lasted for almost 3 months. Delcev was a close friend with Bulgarian anarchists Mihail Gerdikov & Vrban Kilifarski, & he fought side by side with many other Macedonian anarchists like Petar Mandukov (1879-1966) - author of "Azbuka anarhistickog ucenja" (published in Skopje, 1898) -, Dame Gruev (1879-1906), Jane Sandanski (1872-1915), Nikola Karev (1877-1905), Dimo Hadimov (1875-1924)...

    Macedonian anarchists also had a secret terrorist group "Gemidjija" from Thesaloniki (Jordan Popjordanov, Marko Bosnakov, Dimitar Mecev, Konstantin Kirkov, Pavel Satev, Milan Arsov, Vladimir Pingov) which tried to bring attention to Macedonian struggle through a series of attacks during April 1903. Some of the attackers were killed, others caught & sentenced.

    Struggle for national & social liberation of Bosnia & Herzegovina culminated in the appearance of a revolutionary - anarchist inspired - movement "Mlada Bosna". First, a great admirer of Kropotkin, Bogdan Zerajic (1886-1910), shot general Varesanin (governor). That happened in June 1910. Zerajic used his last bullet to commit suicide, while general stayed unhurt. The police chopped Zerajic's head & kept it as a specimen of an anarchist face while his body was secretly burried.

    Another young man, Luka Jukic, tried to kill governor Cuvaj in an armed attack in Zagreb (1912), but also without success. Jukic was sentenced to a life in prison where he stayed until the decline of the Austro-Hungarian empire, while August Cesarec (1893-1941) got 5 years. Cesarec was later an editor of a leftist newspaper "Plamen" & by some sources he participated in the Spanish Civil War. His life ended in an alleged escape attempt from the Ustase's concentration camp Kerestinec, together with 40 other "leftist" intellectuals.

    Members of "Mlada Bosna" organized the attack on Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo on 28. June 1914. First, a young typographic worker Nedeljko Cabrinovic (1895-1916) threw a bomb on Ferdinand but it didn't explode. Then Gavrilo Princip (1894-1918) shot & killed him from a revolver. 25 people were sentenced because of the attack. Danilo Ilic (1890-1915) was sentenced to death while others got long prison terms up to life. Most of them died in custody. Princip himself was sentenced to 20 years of hard labor where he was tortured & died of illness. At the trial, Cabrinovic declared his anarchist ideas as the main reason for the attack. He also died in custody, from hunger & mental pain, aged 20. Vladimir Gacinovic (1890-1917) was probably the main influence on "Mlada Bosna" & it's anarchist inspiration. He was a student in Geneve and Lozane, where he associated with Russian immigrants. He admired the works of Bakunin, Kropotkin & Russian popular movement while he made friends with Viktor Serge, Nathanson, Martov & Trotsky. Gacinovic was poisoned in August 1917 by a joint operation from Austrian, Serbian and French police.

    Revolutionary & literal work of Dimitrije Mitrinovic (1887-1953) which had a strong anarchist component also influenced South Slavic youth. Mitrinovic moved to London in 1914., where he lived the rest of his life. He was a friend with P. Kropotkin, G. Landauer, H. Read & other anarchists.

    Group "Preporod" from Ljubljana, gathered around the same titled newspaper (1910-1911) had a close contact with "Mlada Bosna". The most active Preporod's members were France Fabijancic & Ivan Endliher. These two groups were both interested in the liberation & integration of South Slavic nations & creation of a joint revolutionary movement. Endliher died in custody in an Austrian prison in Graz (1915), since he was also arrested after the murder of Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo.

    Revolutionary syndicalism came to Vojvodina from Hungary, & it was accepted by anarchists gathered around Krsto Iskurljev (1881-1914) who was very close to the famous anarchosindicalist Ervin Szabo.

    Libertarian ideas have found fertile ground among many Serbian socialists such as Dragisa Stanojevic (1844-1918), Mita Cenic (1851-1888), Pera Todorovic (1851-1907), Jovan Zujovic (1856-1936), Sava Popovic (1898-1942). First decade of the 20th century saw the rise of anarchosindicalism with newspapers "Proleter" (1906) & "Radnicka borba" (1907) & formation of a radical wing of Serbian Socialist Party - "direktasi" (1909, Nedeljko Divac, Vlajko Martinovic, Sima Markovic, Vasa Knezevic...). This group was later expelled from the party. One of the main actors of that era was Krsto Cicvaric (1879-1944), founder of many newspapers ("Hleb i sloboda", 1905; "Radnicka borba", 1907), anarchist clubs & the author of "Iz anarhistickog programa" (1909). He retired from the movement just after the first world war.

    Between two world wars anarchist movement couldn't develop under strict dictatorship of King Aleksandar. There were only small unlinked groups of workers & intellectuals. However, there were anarchists among Yugoslav Spanish volunteers, while some got introduced to these ideas on the spot.

    Just like between the wars, anarchism was under a lot of repression during Tito's rule, so the movement was practically silenced. In 1954, a translation of Malatesta's work into Slovenian was published in Trieste but it was never widely distributed due to the situation in the country.

    Anarchist movement was revitalized again in 70's & 80's when translations of Proudhon, Bakunin, Kropotkin, Guerin & Bookchin were published. This new movement mostly held ground in academic circles, & it's very often connected with "Praxis" magazine - banned by the authorities. Daniel Guerin personally visited island Korcula to attend one of the summer seminars organized by "Praxis". This era also records Laslo Sekelj's book "O Anarhizmu" - two editions. Contacts with the international movement were reestablished in 1984 when some anarchists from Croatia participated in the congress in Venice, & in April 1990., at the East-West meeting in Trieste.

    During the 80's in Zagreb existed a group called Autonomia, while smaller groups arose from the anarcho-punk movement. At present active groups are: Torpedo, Crni kriz, Krtica, Skrati & ZAP. Most of the people from the 70's & 80's prefer individual activism which is unfortunately limited only to open forums, written material & academic work.

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    7000 -- Friedrich came to share this pacifistic & anarchistic position, but put more emphasis on political organization & struggle--perhaps in part due to his own experiences in the youth movements & the revolutionary struggles that followed the First World War. The book's title, @U(War Against War), itself exhibits his demand for militant struggle against war & militarism. Near the end of his introduction, he calls for a general strike, draft resistance, & direct action against war & militarism, taking a more activist posture than his religious predecessors.

    Yet Friedrich always believed in & strongly advocated non-violent means of social change. He once told his grandson that: "If you want to do something for peace, you must always use your brains & not your muscles!" & Friedrich developed an insignia --two arms breaking a rifle--to emphasize that he was against violence. At present this insignia is still being used by pacifistic groups & conscientious objectors all over the world, including the War Resisters League in the United States & War Resisters International in London.

    Ernst Friedrich's Pacifistic Anarchism

    By Douglas Kellner Friedrich's anarchism was closer to the communal socialism of the Russian Peter Kropotkin than to Bakunin's more individualistic anarchism.{6} & in contrast to Tolstoy's more passive religious anarchism, Friedrich always opposed quietistic & nonrevolutionary forms of pacifism, publishing in his various journals statements like: "Without social revolution there can be no lasting peace....We must prepare systematically an uprising against war."{7}

    _War Against War_ made a strong impression on Friedrich's contemporaries & was widely read & discussed. Never before had a German audience been subjected to such horrendous images of the savagery & destruction of World War I.

    Previously, the public's only contact with the horrors of the First World War had been through individual experience, or through the mediation of artists & poets. Early on in the conflict, many Expressionist & other poets began publishing antiwar poetry evoking the massive brutality which many of them experienced first hand. & artists like Otto Dix, George Grosz & John Heartfield produced paintings, drawings & montages documenting the horrors of war.

    Friedrich helped form a "Revolutionary Pacifist Group" whose membership included such figures as Kurt Tucholsky, Walter Mehring, & the Expressionist writer Ernst Toller. During the last years of Weimar, Friedrich found himself in constant litigation against people who alleged that he had defamed them, & against state officials who accused him of "treason." In 1930, Friedrich was imprisoned for "high treason" for about a year because of the publication of antimilitarist writings intended for secret distribution among the army and police.

    7000 -- From: Social Anarchism Number 20 George Black & Robin Munro Black Hands of Beijing: Lives of Defiance in China's Democracy Movement

    Arif Dirlik Anarchism in the Chinese Revolution Reviewer: Gampo Mellichampe The Chinese anarchist is an individual confronted by a very special set of historical & philosophical circumstances, conditions nearly opposite those of the Western activist. The realities of being Chinese are such that no one escapes the virtue/vice of the extraordinary cohesiveness of the twin Confucian & Taoist tradition; the power of its combined social vision of utter "belongingness" is the foundation from which every revolutionary, artist, student, mountain recluse, or general sorehead in Chinese life must think & act.

    Cover image saved on disk, bleed archives images 2, anarchists, shifu.jpg

    Shifu : Soul of Chinese Anarchism by Edward S. Krebs See More Details Rowman & Littlefield; ISBN: 0847690148 ; Dimensions (in inches): 0.97 x 9.28 x 6.20 Other Editions: Paperback Editorial Reviews

    Book Description The most comprehensive study of Shifu available, this valuable work explores the life & political milieu of a central figure in Republican China. Born in 1884, Shifu was brought down in 1915 by overwork, poverty, & tuberculosis. Yet during that short span, he became the most influential anarchist of his time. Drawing on a wealth of primary source material, Krebs provides an intellectual biography of this committed revolutionary & analyzes the importance of Shifu's thought during the New Culture-May Fourth years as his followers fought for influence with the Marxists and later over the issue of alliance with the Nationalists. Placing Shifu's life within the dynamic intellectual & political currents of the time, the author describes Shifu's early work as an assassin within the anti-Qing movement. Examining the influence on Shifu of Confucianism & Buddhism, Krebs highlights reform Buddhism's close relationship with revolutionary activism. Most significantly, Shifu's unflagging work to propagate anarchism during the early years of the Republic & his interactions with other socialists reveal a hitherto unknown level of activity among socialist revolutionaries. This important book thus offers fresh insights not only into the anarchist movement itself, but into the broader history of Chinese socialism as well. About the Author Edward S. Krebs is an independent scholar & translator based in Georgia.

    see also image saved @ChineseRevolution.jpg

    Arif Dirlik Anarchism in the Chinese Revolution

    tion Date: June 1991 336 pages Subjects: History; Asian History; China; Politics Rights: World Paperback: $18.95 0-520-08264-8 £12.50 "A first rate piece of scholarship, accessible to both general readers and China specialists. . . . This book should stand for some time as the definitive study of the Chinese anarchist movement of the early twentieth century."--John A. Rapp, Journal of Interdisciplinary History

    Arif Dirlik's latest offering is a revisionist perspective on Chinese radicalism in the twentieth century. He argues that the history of anarchism is indispensable to understanding crucial themes in Chinese radicalism. & anarchism is particularly significant now as a source of democratic ideals within the history of the socialist movement in China.

    Dirlik draws on the most recent scholarship & on materials available only in the last decade to compile the first comprehensive history of his subject available in a Western language. He emphasizes the anarchist contribution to revolutionary discourse & elucidates this theme through detailed analysis of both anarchist polemics & social practice. The changing circumstances of the Chinese revolution provide the immediate context, but throughout his writing the author views Chinese anarchism in relation to anarchism worldwide.

    Arif Dirlik is Professor of History at Duke University. He is the author of Revolution and History: Origins of Marxist Historiography in China, 1919-1937 (California, 1978) & The Origins of Chinese Communism (1989).

    Chen Jiongming: Anarchism & the Federal State£©µÄÓ¢ÎÄÂÛÎÄ¡£

    some of the Chinese anarchists - Liu Shipei was the outstanding one among them, & then Shifu - drew on Taoism & Buddhism. However, this is not just the determination or constitution of Chinese anarchism by Daoism or Buddhism, but rather a two way, dialectical process. In other words, the Chinese past is being read in new ways with the help of anarchism & conversely there is a rereading of anarchism through Taoist & Buddhist ideas. What is important to me is the dialectic, & I stay away from the notion that the Chinese were somehow unconsciously under the sway of this or that tradition that then shaped their readings of anarchism....

    If you recall the parts in the book about Liu Shipei - & here the differences between anarchists become really important – there’s a feeling that nationalism opens up new questions that prepare the ground for anarchism, if you like, but also created new kinds of threats. For example, someone like Liu Shipei, could see correctly that for all the theoretical despotism of the Imperial State, nationalism promised far greater & far more intensive intrusion in society than had been the case under the imperial state. At this point, anarchism becomes a way of asserting the autonomy of the society against an intrusive nationalist society.

    9000 --


    avec Jean-Noël

    Rappel des faits

    Le 14 février 1998 avait lieu à Reims une manifestation contre la venue de Bruno Mégret du Front National. Cette manif, appelée par un Collectif d'une vingtaine d'associations syndicales, antiracistes et politiques rassemble environ 1.500 personnes. À l'issue de cette manif, une soixantaine de personnes restent durant trois heures à proximité de la salle Goulin, où se tenait le meeting du n2 du FN. Ce rassemblement se voulait pacifique et faisait face à environ 250 gendarmes mobiles.

    Or, vers 22h30, au moment où les premiers militants du FN quittent la salle, les passagers d'une voiture non identifiée prennent violemment à partie des manifestants isolés ; Jean-Noël Destrehem est nommément menacé, une autre manifestante matraquée. Suite à l'arrivée d'autres manifestants, les agresseurs prenent la fuite, tout en tentant à deux reprises, d'écraser les manifestants qui se trouvent face à eux.

    6mars / MARCH 6 1998. Jean-Noël est convoqué par la police pour Affaire vous concernant. Il passe 24 heures en garde à vue et ceux parmi nous qui l'accompagnent sont virés du commissariat avec menaces de la part du commissaire principal de Reims. Jean-Noël est mis en examen pour dégradation volontaire de véhicule de police.

    C'est ainsi que nous comprenons que l'altercation du 14 février s'est produite contre des officiers des Renseignements généraux et non des membres du FN, comme nous l'avions pensé au départ. Précisons qu'à aucun moment, les agresseurs n'ont signalé leur appartenance à un service de police.

    Juin 98. Dans son ordonnance de jugement, le juge Creton par ailleurs juge d'instruction, indique : Il est à noter qu'à aucun moment, les occupants du véhicule n'ont informé les manifestants de leur qualité de policier [...] Lors d'une caricature de tapissage, l'intéressé ayant les cheveux longs et se trouvant au milieu de quatre personnes (dont deux CRS) ayant les cheveux très courts, il était identifié parfaitement par les deux fonctionnaires de police [...] Sur le fond : Attendu qu'il ressort des pièces de la procédure, et des débats, que seuls les lieutenants Rosso et Messien, qui ont eu un comportement pour le moins incompréhensible [...] en conséquence il existe un doute sérieux quant à l'auteur des faits objet de la procédure qu'en conséquence JND doit être relaxé et les parties civiles déboutées de fait de leurs demandes, fins et conclusions.

    Le juge Creton remarquera également les contradictions dans les dépositions des deux lieutenants et de la stagiaire des RG. Au cours de l'audience de jugement, le substitut du procureur de la République s'en était remis au juge Creton en ne demandant pas de peine ! L'avocat des lieutenants des RG qui plaida en l'absence de ses clients fut consternant dans son silence ! En coulisse, à l'issue du procès, le substitut Auger indiquait que pour ce qui le concernait, il ne ferait point appel pour les deux RG. Il s'étonnait également de leur absence !

    C'est le procureur en chef Dintroz qui suivra l'appel formulé par les RG, en l'absence du substitut, mais, dit-on, le parquet est indivisible.

    3 mars / MARCH 3 99. Les flics mécontents du résultat font appel, près de 80 personnes se rassemblent pour soutenir Jean-Noël. le réquisitoire du procureur sera impitoyable, le juge a déjà un avis sur le dossier puisque sa femme est commissaire de police à Nancy.

    31 mars / MARCH 31 99. Verdict pour Jean-Noël : 3 mois ferme + 5 mois avec sursis ; 30.000 Ff de frais (amendes, parties civiles, réparations) ; 3 ans de mise à l'épreuve ; 1 an de suspension des droits civiques, civils et familiaux.

    Jean-Noël étant prévenu libre (il avait été relaxé en première instance), il n'a pas été emprisonné. Il se pourvoit en cassation.

    Décembre 99. Alors que les dossiers présentés devant la Cour de cassation mettent en général au minimum un an avant d'être examinés, Jean-Noël apprend quelques jours avant l'audience que son recours sera examiné en décembre. En une dizaine de minutes, l'affaire est réglée.

    Quelques jours après, il apprendra que son recours est rejeté (la Cour juge sur la forme et non sur le fond). Jean-Noël attend maintenant les décisions que vont prendre le procureur de la Cour d'appel de Reims et le juge d'application des peines. Il a décidé de porter l'affaire devant la Cour Européenne.

    Cette condamnation très lourde n'est pas la première, ni hélas la dernière, dans ce genre d'affaire opposant la police à des militants. Face à cette condamnation, ce déni de justice, nous vous appelons, toutes et tous, à montrer votre ferme opposition à ce genre de pratique de l'état par les moyens qui sont à votre disposition (presse, fax, média, internet) et à soutenir Jean-Noël (messages de soutien, dons, etc.).

    Pour les soutiens financiers, envoyer vos chèques à l'ordre de La Galère - Le Chat Noir, mention Solidarité Jean-Noël au dos, à l'association égrégore, BP 1213 à 51058 Reims Cedex. Nous en profitons pour remercier toutes celles et tous ceux qui ont déjà mis la main au porte-monnaie. 

    Organisation Communiste Libertaire



    9002 -- 0533 WORKING MATERIAL FOR THE DAILY BLEED & Anarchist Encyclopedia


    9003 -- cultural calendar

    9003 -- — Along with Antero & Batalha Reis, Eça creates the poet Carlos Fradique Mendes

    Antero sought inspiration in Proudhon 1st page of Proudhon’s De la justice dans la révolution et dans l’église

    9003 -- VONNEGUT, Kurt

    (1922-) US writer & satirist. Calls himself an anarchist. Sympathises with Working Class through black humour attacks against decadence of the ruling class; eg 'Galapagos', 'Player Piano' & 'Hocus Pocus' (review).

    Best known for 'Slaughterhouse Five' based on his experiences of being a POW in Dresden when the allies bombed it flat, causing fire storms & large loss of life. Kurt said he did not mourn Princess Di "I don't know why people are worshipping this tweed ... you've all gone loony?" 'Cat's Cradle' is about the end of the world from a simple military invention, about how the state & church pretend to oppose each other (personified by dictator Papa Monzano & prophet Bokonon) but in reality rely on each other;

      Papa Monzano, he's so very bad,
      But without bad Papa I would be so sad;
      Because without Papa's badness,
      Tell me, if you would,
      How could wicked old Bokonon
      Ever, ever look good?
    [Press 11/10/97. NAA. 'Cat's Craddle']


    Formed mid-1980s as a light-hearted reaction to serious political parties that don't appear to take promises & public concerns seriously. Promoted the "Great Leap Backwards" to return civilization to medieval times. Promised full unemployment, to raise the school leaving age to 65, & demolish all buildings on a last up, first down basis. Unfortunately became politically correct & therefore started to make serious policies. A number of Anarchists joined McGillicuddies & enjoyed the high-power hobnobbing with main stream politicians so much that they have joined the system that they once opposed.

    9003 -- N. Petrov, "Why I Am An Anarchist"

    9003 -- The friends of the Modern School welcomed seventy-five former students & friends last Saturday. We heard a very interesting talk by Dan Chodokorkoff, Executive Director of the Institute for Social Ecology in Plainfield, Vermont & faculty member of Goddard College on "Education for social Change: Journey Toward a Utopian Society". Any one who is seriously interested in studying anarchist theory should consider going there. Chris Mercogliano spoke about his new book "Making it Up as We go Along" about the history of the Free School in Albany which was founded over thirty years ago & still continues. The book is available from the publisher--unfortunately I seem to have lost the address.

    Bob Helms of the Wooden Shoe Anarchist Book Collective in Philadelphia spoke about his efforts to liberate Hippolyte Havel's ashes from a cemetery warehouse in Linden, NJ. We are trying to find someone who has the legal right to request their release. Peter Ford from New York also spoke about the The Atlantic Anarchist Circle, which some of you might be interested in joining.

    The meeting was saddened by the deaths of a number of comrades this year including Jack Frager, Hesh Pollack, Zack Shaw, Yvette West, & Lola Axelrod. Paul Avrich gave a very moving & interesting talk about the life of Abe Bluestein, who also died.

    Also discussed were efforts to preserve the site of the Modern SChool in Piscataway, NJ, now a vacant lot. Part of the land belongs to the county & we are hoping to have it made into a Park. Alfred Leavitt, the former student who would like to start a new Modern School was not well enough to attend this year (he's 104). Unfortunately some of the money he had hoped to donate to the school is being used for his care. He's still interested but the idea is on hold right now.

    A videotape of the event was made by Jerry Mintz & is available through his organization, Aero, for about 25 dollars.

    — Fernanda Perrone Project Archivist Special Collections/University Archives Archibald S. Alexander Library Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey 169 College Avenue New Brunswick, NJ 08901-1163 (732) 932-7006 fax: (732) 932-7012

    9003 -- Punk band Los Crudos has been added to the Counterculture section. Movement for Anarchy Team

    9003 -- increvables anarchistes recherche par dates de 1870 à l'an 2000

    Recherche chronologique
    avant 1870 1871... 79 1880... 89 1890...1910 1910... 1914...1918 1917...1921
    1920... 1930...1939 1940...1945 1945...1968 1968 1970...1991 1991...2000

    Avant 1871 :
    Stirner : l'extrême liberté ;
    P-J Proudhon, le père de l'anarchisme ;
    Michel Bakounine ;
    Histoire de l'AIT ;
    Dieu et l'Etat (Extrait du livre de Michel Bakounine)
    A propos de l'autorité (
    Extrait du livre de Michel Bakounine)

    1871,... :

    La Commune de Paris :
    La Commune de Paris ;  l'AIT pendant la Commune de Paris (textes et déclarations) ;
    Marx-Bakounine et la Commune de Paris
    ; La Commune par elle-même (textes et déclarations de la Commune) ;
    Courbet, Proudhon et la Commune de Paris ; la Commune de Paris, l'éducation et la culture ;
     Place au peuple, place à la Commune ! (texte de Jules Vallès) ; la semaine sanglante (22-29 mai 1871)

    La Commmune de Marseille :
    La Commune de Marseille ; Biographies de militants marseillais

    les insurrections communalistes en province : Lyon, Toulouse, Limoges, Le Creusot, St Etienne ...

    Le congrès de Saint Ismier 1872 : la naissance de l'anarchisme ?
    D'où vient le Drapeau Noir ?

    Biographies :
    Eugène Varlin ; Louise Michel ; Nathalie Lemel ; Crémieux Gaston, Alérini Charles ;

    1880, ... 1900 :

    Pourquoi sommes-nous anarchistes ? (E. Reclus) ;
    L'individualisme ;
    La grève des électeurs (O. Mirbeau)

    Expression :
    les Temps Nouveaux (hebdomadaire anarchiste) ;
    Zo d'Axa
    La chanson anarchiste avant 1914 ;
    le Père Peinard : hebdomadaire et almanach anarchiste
    La Mistoufe hebdomadaire communiste anarchiste dijonais
    Caricature et antimilitarisme ;
    Jules Grandjouan ; l'album photo des dessinateurs et affichistes de l'époque : Steinlen ; Grandjouan
    Gaston Couté ;
    le cinéma du Peuple ;

    Naissance du syndicalisme :
    Histoire des Bourses du Travail ;
    le syndicalisme révolutionnaire face à l'Etat (la CGT 1895-1914) ;
    Fernand Pelloutier : lettre ouverte aux anarchistes ;
    Propos sur le sabotage (E. Pouget)
    Le congrès d'Amterdam (1907) : Motions sur le syndicalisme ;
    Histoire des Prud'hommes (Georges Yvetot) ;

    1er - 4 Mai 1886 à Chicago, grève, meeting, attentat : naissance d'un mythe ;
    I.W.W. le syndicalisme aux Etats-Unis ;
    Sur les traces de l'anarchisme au Québec ;

    Luttes sociales :
    1er - 4 mai 1886 : naissance d'un mythe à Chicago ;
    V'là Cochon qui déménage, le syndicat des locataires ;
    1906, Conscrits tirez sur vos galonés !
    1er mai 1906 en France : grèves, manifestations... ;

    Les attentats, les lois scélérates :
    Bagnards anarchistes ; Les lois scélérates ;
    1892-1913 Anarchisme et banditisme ;
    Anarchisme et banditisme (articles de Malatesta) ;
    1892 - 1894, la police fiche les anarchistes ;

    L'éducation :
    La Ruche : une école libertaire avant 1914 ; les anarchistes et l'éducation sous Jules ferry ;
    Francisco Ferrer et l'école moderne ; Un siècle d'éducation libertaire ;
    Propos sur l'Education libertaire ;
    Paul Robin et l'orphelinat de Cempuis ;

    1910,... :
    Propos sur le Féminisme (Emma Goldman)
    le "Cinéma du Peuple" ;
    1892-1913 Anarchisme et banditisme ;

    A la veille de la "grande guerre" :
    Aujourd'hui insoumis, demain réfractaire, plus tard déserteur ;

    Biographies :
    Zo d'Axa (écrivain en marge ?) ;
    Libertad était un camarade !
    Elisée Reclus géographe et anarchiste ;
    Sébastien Faure
    Jean Grave (biographie) ;
    Jules Durand ;
    Benoit Broutchoux ;
    Gaston Couté ;
    Pierre Kropotkine
    A. Spies, A. Parson, Lingg, Hengel ... les cinq Martyrs de Chicago ;

    1914,... 1918 :
    La guerre :
    Lettre de démission au comité confédéral CGT (1914) ;
    Les anarchistes et la guerre de 14/18 ; le manifeste des seize & réponse au manifeste des anarchistes de Londres ; Malatesta réponse au manifeste des seize ; Déclaration de l'internationale anarchiste (1915) ;
    Louis Lecoin et devant le conseil de Guerre ;
    les mutineries de la Mer Noire (1919) ;

    1917 - 1921 :
    La révolution Russe :
    Ce que nous voulons (Izvestia de Kronstadt) ; Les prémices de l'insurrection à Kronstadt (Ida Mett) ;
    1921, l'orage éclate à Pétrograd (Emma Goldman, Alexandre Berkman) ;
    1917, l'autogestion à Kronstadt ; Octobre 1917 vu Piotr Archinov ;
    L'Ukraine & Nestor Makhno 1917 1923 ; Guerre ou Révolution en Ukraine ( N. Makhno 1918) ;
    Déclarations et Textes de l'Armée Insurrectionnelle d'Ukraine 1919 1920 ;
    2è Congrès régional des soviets d'Ukraine (Gouliaï Poliè) février 1919 ;
    Souvenirs d'un partisan Makhnoviste (1917 1921) ;
    1ère conférence des anarcho-syndicalistes russes (1918) ;
    1918, l'affrontement anarchistes - bolchevics
    l'affaire Lepetit, Lefèvre, Vergeat (1921) (les délégués de la CGT disparaissent en URSS);
    Résistances anarchistes en URSS (1921 193....) ;

    La révolution Mexicaine :
    la révolution Mexicaine

    l'Allemagne révolutionnaire :
    Les spartakistes (Berlin 1918 - 1919) ;
    Erich Mühsam et les conseils de Bavière ; Bavière 1919 république ou révolution ;

    1920... :

    Chine :
    Comment fonder une société véritablement libre et égalitaire ?

    la re-naissance de l'A.I.T.
    Déclaration du congrès de Berlin (décembre 1922-JANVIER / JANUARY 1923) ;

    Italie insurrectionnelle :
    Italie 1920 insurrection et conseils d'usine ;
    Congrès de l'USI et de l'Union anarchiste 1919 1920 ;

    Anarchisme et banditisme (articles de Malatesta)
    Malatesta (Biographie);

    le mouvement anarchiste en France :
    Le Libertaire (journal des anarchistes entre les deux guerres) ;
    Le Meeting de la Grange aux belles : les bochévics tirent sur les anarchistes (1924)

    le syndicalisme en France :
    l'affaire Lepetit, Lefèvre, Vergeat (1921) ;
    la naissance de la CGT -U, St Etienne 1922 (l'affrontement anarchistes / bolchevics dans la CGT-U) ;

    la Charte de Lyon (1926) CGT -SR ;
    Pierre Besnard et le syndicalisme révolutionnaire ;
    l'année syndicale 1924

    Sacco & Vanzetti :
    L'affaire Sacco & Vanzetti ;
    I.W.W. le syndicalisme révolutionnaire aux Etats-Unis ;

    Biographies :
    Ericco Malatesta
    Louis Lecoin
    Arthur Lehning ;
    Rudoph Rocker ;
    Jean Vigo ;
    Ba Jin (Pa Kin) ;

    1930 - 1936 - 1939:

    Le mouvement anarchiste dans les années 30' ;
    Résistances anarchistes en URSS (1921 193....) ;
    Le mouvement anarchiste "juif" ;

    La montée du fascisme :
    la résistance de la FAUD sous Hitler

    Le Front populaire 1936 :
    le 1er Mai 1936 ;
    Blum à l'action contre l'Espagne ouvrière ;
    Témoignage sur les grèves de 1936
    1936 : l'heure du syndicalisme révolutionnaire est arrivée ;
    du contrat collectif au contrôle ouvrier ;
    la fin misérable de l'expérience Blum (1937) ;

    La révolution Espagnole 1936 / 1939 :
    1936, à la veille de la révolution ;
    l'autogestion et l'oeuvre constructive des anarchistes
    La CNT et l'éducation ; Amposta village collectivisé (Catalogne)
    Les collectivisations en Espagne (A. Souchy) ; Calenda : le communisme libertaire en Aragon ;
    Gaston Leval et l'Espagne libertaire
    ; Principes et enseignements des collectivisations (G. Leval)
    Les industies collectivisées (Vernon Richard) ;
    Pourquoi les taxis de Barcelonne sont-ils rouges & noirs ? ;
    Mujeres libres ; Portraits de femmes anarchistes ;
    Guerre ou Révolution en Espagne 1936 1939 ?
    Mai 37 : la contre révolution stalinienne ; la Tchéka en Espagne ;
    la Colonne Durruti ; Ortiz un général sans Dieu, sans Maître ;
    Le Plénum des colonnes confédérales et anarchistes Février 1937 ;
    La défense de Madrid (vue par Cipriano Méra) ;
    A propos du film de Ken Loach "Land et Freedom" ;

    Biographies :
    Camillo Berneri et Francisco Francesco Barbieri ;
    Buenaventura Durruti ;

    1940 ... :
    les anarchistes et la guerre :
    Les anarchistes et la guerre de 1939 1945 ;
    1940, Que faire à la veille de la guerre ? ;
    Dans la résistance : l'apport du mouvement libertaire ;
    1944 : les dossiers noirs d'une certaine résistance ;
    "Contre vents et Marées" histoire de l'exil espagnol

    Le mouvement anarchiste Bulgare

    1945 ... 1968 :

    Anarchie avec un grand A, comme dans Culture :
    Articles de Georges Brassens dans le Libertaire ; Georges Brassens le Libertaire ;
    Jacques Prévert un poète libertaire ;
    Surréalisme et Anarchisme (articles et textes) ; André Breton est Mort ! ;
    Libérez les objecteurs ! Discours d'André Breton 1949 ;
    Le surréalisme c'est l'insurrection de l'esprit ;
    Albert Camus et la pensée libertaire ; Textes d'Albert Camus parus dans la presse libertaire ;
    Art et contestation (Michel Ragon) ;
    Je me bats pour aucun pouvoir (Armand Gatti) ;

    la décolonisation :
    Cuba : manifeste du socialime libertaire (1960) ;
    La Fédération Anarchiste et les guerres coloniales ;
    De Tunis à Casablanca, où mûrissent les fruits de la Colère (1954)
    Appel pour les syndicalistes Algériens (A. Camus) ;
    1956 : la mobilisation c'est la guerre ;

    La restructuration de la Fédération Anarchiste ;
    La véritable histoire du A cerclé ;

    Luttes anti-franquiste :
    "Contre vents et marées" histoire de l'exil espagnol ;
    Onze camarades condamnés à mort, sauvez les ! discours d'André Breton ;

    Luttes anti-staliniennes :
    1956, la révolution Hongroise ; Hongrie Soleil Levant (Déclaration du goupe surréaliste)

    Luttes antimilitaristes :
    Lecoin arrache le statut des objecteurs ; 1956 : la mobilisation c'est la guerre ;
    Libérez les objecteurs ! Discours d'André Breton 1949 ;


    Mai 68 :
    Pour un syndicalisme Lycéen (JANVIER / JANUARY 1968) ;
    Le mouvement du 22 mars à Nanterre (Interview de Jean-Pierre Duteuil) ;
    Introduction à l'anarchie de Léo Ferré (Janvier 1968) ;
    Ils ont voté et puis après...
    (interview de Léo Ferré sur mai 1968) ;
    Mai 68, sous les plis du drapeau noir ; Mai 68 : Début d'une lutte prolongée ;
    Mai 68 chez Creusot-Loire à St Etienne (Interview de Sébastien Basson)

    le Congrès de Carrare :
    Septembre 1968, le congrès international de Carrare (Italie)

    Les communautés libertaires (1968, ...)

    1969 :
    Attentat à Milan : Pinelli assassiné, Valpreda innocent !

    Biographies :
    Suzy Chevet ;
    Daniel Guérin (1904 1988) ;
    Maurice Joyeux ;

    1970,... 1980

    Anarcha-féminisme :
    Féminisme et anarchie ;

    Antimilitarisme :
    Fais pas le Zouave ! ; L'antimilitarisme des années 70's & 80's ;

    l'Alternative au quotidien :
    Les communautés libertaires (1968,...) ;
    NON à l'urbanisme concentrationnaire, pour un contrôle de l'espace urbain ;
    Merlieux : d'une municipalité vers une commune libertaire ;
    SEL : Goutte d'eau qui met le feu aux poudres ;
    Le pouvoir dans les sociétés primitives (Pierre Clastres)

    Luttes sociales, l'autogestion :
    Lip : On fabrique, on vend, on se paye
    ! (1974)
    Autogestion ou gestion directe ;
    En route vers les SUD(s) ; 1986 : Quel avenir pour les coordinations ? (étudiantes et salariées) ;
    L'anarcho-syndicalisme aujourd'hui (1983)
    1970 - 1988 retour sur les luttes syndicales (interview de Jacky Toublet) ;
    Ils ne veulent même plus travailler !

    Expression :
    Radio Trottoir (1978) ;
    Histoire de Radio libertaire ;
    Radio libertaire, une expérience sociale ;
    Armand Gatti et le théâtre ;
    Pierre Bourdieu sur Radio Libertaire
    Tout sur "le Poulpe" (Jean-Bernard Pouy) ;

    Portugal :
    La révolution des Oeillets 1974 - 1975 ; Développer l'action directe (A Batalha 1975) ;

    Luttes anti-staliniennes :
    Libérez Babar ! (Pologne 1982) ;
    Interview d'un libertaire polonais et tract antimilitariste du RSA (1983) ;

    1990 - 2000
    : que pensent ? Que font les anarchistes aujourd'hui ?

    Haut de page

    9003 -- US: Poets Against the War by Sam Hamill (Editor)

    Book Description Led by poet Sam Hamill, February 12, 2003 became a day of Poetry Against the War conducted as a reading at the White House gates in addition to over 160 public readings in many different countries & almost all of the 50 states. Since then, over 9,000 poets have joined this grassroots peace... ?

    9003 -- Daily Bleed: 4/6 LEONORA CARRINGTON Date: Fri, 26 Apr 2002 18:47:21 -0500

    Dear Comrade, More quibbling;

    I hope you got my previous message on the definite birthdate of Louis Riel. The Mormons are always right on these matters. In regard to the Bleed for today you shouldn'd call Herzen an "anarchist". His friendship for Bakunin qualifies him for the title of "Sympathizer" at best. Let's not get into what I think of Bakunin. I'M sorry if I seem to be a quibbling bugger. I really appreciate the Bleed, especially the literary references, & I could never get to your beautiful sense of irony.

    In Solidarity, Pat


    9003 --

    9003 -- More food for thought from my friend Randy. Let us pray this doesn't happen! VIETNAM 2 — PREFLIGHT CHECK 1. Cabal of oldsters who won't listen to outside advice? Check. 2. No understanding of ethnicities of the many locals? Check. 3. Imposing country boundaries drawn in Europe, not by the locals? Check. 4. Unshakeable faith in our superior technology? Check. 5. France secretly hoping we fall on our asses? Check. 6. Russia secretly hoping we fall on our asses? Check. 7. China secretly hoping we fall on our asses? Check. 8. SecDef pushing a conflict the JCS never wanted? Check. 9. Fear we'll look bad if we back down now? Check. 10. Corrupt Texan in the WH? Check. 11. Land war in Asia? Check. 12. Right unhappy with outcome of previous war? Check. 13. Enemy easily moves in/out of neighboring countries? Check. 14. Soldiers about to be dosed with *our own* chemicals? Check. 15. Friendly fire problem ignored instead of solved? Check. 16. Anti-Americanism up sharply in Europe? Check. 17. B-52 bombers? Check. 18. Helicopters that clog up on the local dust? Check. 19. In-fighting among the branches of the military? Check. 20. Locals that cheer us by day, hate us by night? Check.
    21. Local experts ignored? Check. 22. Local politicians ignored? Check.
    23. Locals used to conflicts lasting longer than the USA has been a country? Check.
    24. Against advice, prez won't raise taxes to pay for war? Check.
    25. Blue water navy ships operating in brown water? Check. 26. Use of nukes hinted at if things don't go our way? Check.
    27. Unpopular war? Check.
    VIETNAM 2, YOU ARE CLEARED TO TAXI. — Bleedster Linda

    9003 -- carlo tresca query responses in research folder; also regard oriole sole

    9003 -- Subject: A Memoric Note Date: 14 Nov 2001 13:46:56 +0000 From: "hammond guthrie" To: "Bleed"
    Another passing in the night - Ken Kesey "Hail To The Chief"
    Cheers, Hammond Guthrie / Portland, Oregon

    9003 -- 2003: TO DO: Dead: paranormal link & pages gone; DONE, mirrored in nixon folder in archives
    2005, Link & pages reappeared; 6/2006, server gone again DEAD LINK, SEARCH ON:

    9003 -- This is a fun (and topical) quiz. You should check it out.
    — Bob;f=1;t=000286#000000

    9003 -- Ted Joans tribute Date: Sun, 11 May 2003 16:24:20 -0700 From: "Denise Enck" To:


    I'm writing to you because in the past you have corresponded with me about Ted Joans, have bought one of his books from me, or I think you may be interested in hearing about this project. Please be assured that you are not on any mailing list & your email address will not be shared with anyone.

    This is a one-time mailing. If you have received this message in error, please accept my sincere apologies.

    By now you have probably heard that Ted Joans passed away at his home in Vancouver, B.C. several days ago. An obituary appeared in the San Francisco Chronicle: (There are a couple minor errors in it, but overall it is very good.)

    A tribute to Ted will soon be posted on my website. Please send your memories of Ted Joans, & any thoughts about him and/or his work, to me at for inclusion on the tribute webpage. Photos & recordings would be appreciated as well. Whether you knew Ted or not, I hope you'll share your thoughts. Pieces may be any length.

    All contributions received will be published online. You will retain the copyright to your work.

    The webpage will go online sometime in the next week, but there is no deadline for contributions. The page will be updated whenever we receive new material for it. Let me know if you'd like to be notified when the page goes online.
    Please forward or otherwise distribute this message.
    At the time of his death I was in the process of making a website for Ted & Laura. You can see it at if you like. Other Ted Joans resources & links are found at
    Thanks very much.
    all best, Denise Enck
    Empty Mirror Books specializing in the Beat Generation & modern poetry Empty Mirror Books Distribution distributing small press & spoken word poetry worldwide Denise Enck - Quanta Webdesign
    websites for organizations, individuals, small business, & the arts
    Post Office Box 972, Mukilteo, WA 98275-0972 USA toll-free fax & message phone: 1-877-570-6448

    9003 -- See “Daily Bleed” Gallery page, ... /ForeignMinersTax.htm move page to iverson, update this entry for 19th

    1850 - Four thousand Mexican miners gather in Sonora, California, to protest the Foreign Miners' Tax, which was enacted to drive them from gold fields. See “Daily Bleed” Gallery page, or set up bleed ref

    9003 -- Stepniak [Sergius Mikhailovich Kravchinsky] (1852-1895).

    need date of birth & death;
    Stepniak (or Stepnyak), 'Son of the Steppes', was the nom de guerre of Sergius Mikhailovich Kravchinsky. Involved with Kropotkin, Malatesta

    Stepniak had joined the rising against the Turks in Bosnia in 1876, & used that experience to write a manual on guerrilla warfare. He also joined the anarchist Errico Malatesta in his small rebellion in the Italian province of Benevento in 1877.

    In April 1877, Cafiero, Malatesta , Ceccarelli, the Russian Stepniak & 30 other comrades began an insurrection in the province of Benevento. They took the village of Letino...

    [Details, click here]

    Stepniak figures much in the lives of Wilfrid Michael Voynich & Ethel Lilian Voynich (Boole); see

    Entry in the Anarchist Encyclopedia entry,

    9003 -- Johann Neve in February 1887, Reuss, using Peukert as an unwitting accomplice, was able to trace Johann Neve in Belgium & have him handed over to the German police. Neve was one of the most wanted men in Germany. A truly heroic figure, modest & careful, he had chosen a life of exile on the Belgian/German border organizing the secret distribution of Anarchist literature, arms & explosives in Germany. His arrest was a major triumph for the German political police. Johann Neve died - or was murdered - in prison. Seymour's paper moved into a magazine format in March 1887 & steadily dwindled into insignificance.

    9003 -- Unlike Commonweal or the Anarchist it was not designed as a newspaper of combatants. Neither did it consider itself at any time the newspaper for the Anarchist movement but as the newspaper of the Freedom Group. The Group was not open, its 'membership was always limited & confidential' [21] The Group included in addition to Kropotkin, Dr Burns Gibson, Mrs Dryhurst, Frank Hyde & his wife, & Charlotte Wilson who was effectively the editor of Freedom.

    9003 -- But one eccentric could be described as a one-man Anarchist response to the social situation. This was the astonishing Dan Chatterton who published forty-two numbers of the wildly individual Chatterton's Commune - the Atheist Communistic Scorcher from 18 September 1884 until his death in 1895.

    Dan Chatterton lived in one of the most miserable slums in London, off Drury Lane. In his time he was well known among London socialists, an old Chartist who had recovered the fire of his youth in the new socialist movement.

    Dan Chatterton was an eccentric, a curiosity; yet he was also something of an institution. There are references to him in many papers & books of the period & Richard Whiting's account discounts his importance as an agitator. As Nicoll remarks, his pamphlet/newspaper 'reached an audience which more pretentious writers never do ( ... ) he never wrote above the heads of the people'. He deserves to be rescued from oblivion.

    9003 -- Lane submitted his Anti-Statist Communist Manifesto to the 1887 conference as a restatement of League policy after the Croydon branch called for electoral activity by the League. William Morris was the proposer of a motion from Hammersmith which wanted the League to postpone any discussion of the parliamentary question for a year. Morris was obviously trying to reconcile the two extreme wings but at the May 29 conference it rapidly became apparent that reconciliation was not possible -

    9003 -- It was a period of high unemployment & the mood of the unemployed was restive. The lesson of the West End Riot were clear enough - trouble meant attention & attention meant aid. But the authorities had been alarmed & were taking steps to make sure nothing like it happened again. Sir Charles Warren was appointed to reorganize the police in London and was being encouraged to keep the streets clear of 'loafers' & other members of the dangerous classes by the Tory government & press.

    As if to underline the fears of the authorities & the respectable classes, on Friday January 14 the unemployed rioted at Norwich. The riot broke out after the unemployed had marched from a meeting addressed by Mowbray & Henderson of the local Socialist League branch to the Guildhall to demand help. Here 'the insulting tone of the Mayor, the unconcealed contempt for their fellows on the part of the councillors & aldermen ( ... ) angered the crowd & they broke away'. [11] The mansions of the wealthy had their windows smashed & shops in the centre of Norwich were looted. Mowbray & Henderson were arrested & sentenced to nine & four months respectively for their part in the affair.

    The riot, if anything, made the League more popular & there were large demonstrations to welcome the men on their release. The situation improved somewhat over the summer but as winter approached unemployment rose again. A placard posted in Norwich in October 'by unknown hands' was threatening : 'Notice to all concerned : The unemployed do not intend to starve any longer. If employment is not found for them, they will soon make some.' [12] As a result 200 special constables were sworn in. More sensibly the local authorities tempered their show of force by providing public works. Commonweal later quoted two councillors :

    ...........Processions were organized. One to the Bow Street magistrate on 12 October was met with a blank refusal of aid & a suggestion that the unemployed enter the workhouse. 'Asked if he would give them food & shelter in prison if they sacked bakers shops he replied that they were "exceedingly impertinent" & "deserved no compassion".' Freedom noted that 'unfortunately this did no more than cause a march through the City'. [14] The police had already begun to attack processions of the unemployed though these attacks met with stiff resistance. On 15 October the police attacked a meeting of the unemployed in Trafalgar Square itself with both foot & horse 'hustling, charging, striking & trampling the people'. Attacks on meetings in the Square continued daily with ever increasing numbers of police involved until the unemployed were finally driven out on 19 October. The centre of the agitation then moved to Hyde Park. 'For days the conflict was carried on in & around the Park. On one occasion the gates were closed on the people & the mounted police charged the crowd thus hemmed in & helpless.' Many stragglers were arrested, beaten & sentenced to vicious sentences on often perjured evidence. 'But in spite of police court terrorism and sentences of hard labor by the dozen, the people defended themselves with sticks & stones & their fists & held their meetings just the same. & on Sunday, 23 October they returned to the Square in a solid mass, filling the huge Square to overflowing & afterwards marching to Westminster Abbey.'

    The escalating conflict had brought protests against police violence from the Liberal press and screeches from shopkeepers in the area of Trafalgar Square, who claimed their takings were being hit by the demonstrations. It was quite clear whose views Warren took to heart. The police continued to attack the daily meetings until, on 8 November, Warren banned all further meetings in the Square on the grounds that it was the private property of the Crown. This brought a storm of protest from the Radicals, who had taken no part in the unemployed agitation but were very strong on the right of free speech. As a reply to the ban the Radicals announced that they would hold a mass demonstration in the Square on 13 November

    ... Morris wrote : 'I was astounded at the rapidity of the thing & the ease with which military organization got its victory.' The police behaved with utter savagery. One witness said, 'As I was being led out of the crowd a poor woman asked a police inspector ( ... ) if he had seen a child she had lost. His answer was to tell her she was a damned whore & knock her down.' [17] The story was the same with the other contingents & only unorganized & confused stragglers reached the Square itself where they were quickly dispersed. Three people died as a result of injuries received from the police on 13 November & another man was killed the following week when police horses were again clearing the Square. Many arrests were made & jail sentences were liberally handed out. The day is properly remembered as Bloody Sunday.

    ...For the majority of the League activists, however, it seems to have been treated as a lesson in not fighting against impossible odds. Bloody Sunday did indeed mark a defeat but this did not in itself represent a defeat for a policy of riot. There was little doubt that they shared Freedom's opinion of events : '( ... ) the inclination of the people increases to rush on the smallest pretext to demonstrate in the streets. There have been more or less tumultuous street gatherings during the past year [i.e. 1887] in London, Glasgow, Norwich, Northampton, in Wales & in Ireland ( ... ) The increase in such stormy gatherings marks the arrival of the period of action. Before the next new year it may well happen that we shall find ourselves amid the first crisis of a Social Revolution.' [18]

    9003 -- "Every attempt the Spaniards had made in the three hundred years of 171 Spanish rule to dissolve their pueblo & break it up into fincas had failed — the pueblo was too strong. When small groups & single families could not hold out, they gave way; but if a lincjuero settled on the land of these deflated Indian families, he was murdered or driven out as soon as the soldiers left. The Spaniards despaired of getting the pueblo under their yoke."

    — Government, B. Traven

    9003 -- The "Revolution of 1968" started rather earlier in Italy than in France, where the "évenements" of May 1968 represented its most intensive but also shortest-lived manifestation. As other sections of society, other conflicts were drawn into the fray, the phenomenon was to persist until the mid-seventies & beyond.

    9004 -- TO DO: Fernando López ADD TO ENCYCLOPEDIA, SEE:

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