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-- This page is a hodge-podge of reference material for the Daily Bleed, references to explore, materials, events, names to search on & explore for possible includsion in the Bleed or its related projects. It is edited or referenced for the month of February each year.


Kenneth Rexroth & the San Francisco Libertarian Circle

The most lively literary salon in the Bay Area in those days was a circle that met on Friday nights in poet Kenneth Rexroth's apartment over Jack's Record Cellar, at Page & Divisadero.

Rexroth grew up in Chicago, where he owned a tearoom called the Green Mask, featuring jazz & poetry, with a whorehouse on the floor above. Moving to San Francisco in the '30s, the young Rexroth exhorted dockworkers to unionize in a mimeo sheet called The Waterfront Worker, & applied his efforts in the League of Struggle for Negro Rights & the Fellowship of Reconciliation, ladling out pea soup to young Catholics held in detention camps as Conscientious Objectors to the Second World War.

Rexroth loved jazz & knew the guys who played it, & translated poetry & drama from several languages, including classical Greek, Provençal French, & Japanese. He prided himself on reading the Encyclopedia Brittanica cover to cover each year, & published more than a dozen books in his lifetime, including an autobiographical novel, & books of criticism on subjects ranging from contemporary poetry, to Hasidism, to Anarchism, to Zen.

Rexroth's earliest poems sound remarkably like the work of the '80s "Language Poetry" school, abandoning photographic realism in an attempt to shed cliché & sentimentality. His mature poems, however, speak in language that is colloquial, sensual without being sentimental, calling forth the High Sierra granitescapes that Rexroth liked to make love in, with a crispness of image, a classical sense of balance, & elegiac gravity.

Rexroth's apartment on Page Street was a library, its shelves lined with the heartwood of the classical literatures of East & West; & Rexroth had a caustic wit, & an ego, to match his erudition.

One of the young poets who attended these salons was Philip Whalen, who would appear in Kerouac's novels as Warren Coughlin & Ben Fagin -- "a quiet, bespectacled booboo, smiling over books." Whalen had been invited down from his job as a firewatch on Sourdough Mountain in the North Cascades by Gary Snyder, with whom Whalen had shared rooms at Reed College.

For over a decade, Rexroth's weekly "at-homes" brought together geniuses in diverse forms -- from Helen Adam's contemporary ballads, to James Broughton's bawdy nursery rhymes & experimental films. Whalen (who now teaches Zen at the Hartford Street Zen Center in the Castro) recalled the atmosphere at these Friday night conclaves:

"It was always very interesting, because there were young poets there, & older ones, visiting luminaries from different professions & arts. People said it was boring because Kenneth talked all the time. But Kenneth was a marvelous talker, so I didn't mind if there was anybody else famous there or not."
It was at one of these salons that Ginsberg first heard Rexroth read his scathing blast, "Thou Shalt Not Kill":

You,
The hyena with polished face & bow tie,
In the office of a billion dollar
Corporation devoted to service;
The vulture dripping with carrion,
Carefully & carelessly robed in imported tweeds,
Lecturing on the Age of Abundance;
The jackal in the double-breasted gabardine,
Barking by remote control,
In the United Nations...
The Superego in a thousand uniforms,
You, the finger man of the behemoth,
The murderer of the young men...

Through Rexroth, Ginsberg met Robert Duncan, whose essay "The Homosexual in Society" brought dialogue about homosexuality in America into the open. Duncan was a master poet & teacher in his own right, & a generative influence on many contemporary Bay Area poets, like Thom Gunn & Aaron Shurin.

Though one prevalent myth is that the Beats were a lone wake-up call in '50s America, that summons did not come from nowhere. Laying the intellectual foundation for the Beat breakthrough, the Rexroth circle was a ground of opposition: well-read & international, homosexual & heterosexual, poets & artists from several generations of revolt.

This reference excerpted from How Beat Happened by Steve Silberman; in full see:
http://ezone.org/ez/e2/articles/digaman.html





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-- waving flag z



-- h Labor page archive http://h-net2.msu.edu/~labor/threads/thrworkerauto.html


-- UPDATEBrian Willson now has no legs; they were severed by the U.S. Navy train, & as his narrative makes clear, the maiming was & is attributable directly to actions of civilian & military agencies of the United States government. But the title is not at all a subtle plea for personal pity, because Willson equally tells us, reminds us, of just how many Vietnamese, Nicaraguan, Salvadorean, Panamanian, Iraqi, & other Third World peoples have also become legless-or otherwise maimed, or killed-by the same cause: actions attributable directly to civilian & military agencies of the United States government. Wilson did not come by this understanding & empathy abstractly. In Vietnam, 1969: . . .I looked at the face of a young mother on the ground whose eyes appeared to be open as she held two children in one arm, another child in the other. Upon closer examination I realized she & her children had been killed by bomb fragments. Napalm had apparently burned much of her face, including her eyelids. (p. 18) Seventeen years later, in Nicaragua: At least eleven campesinos were murdered... Some of the bodies were brought into Esteli for burial on horse-drawn wagons. Standing alongside the street watching the procession to the cemetery I could see the open caskets containing mothers & children. Five women! I had been there before. Two children! I had been there before. (p. 56) & he would "be there'' again on September 1st, 1987, outside the Concord Naval Weapons Station north of San Francisco. In many respects, the section of the book describing how Willson was run over by a U.S. Navy locomotive pulling two boxcars is even more chilling to read than the accounts of his experiences in Vietnam and Nicaragua. First, it appears that the Navy ordered the train to move, rather than wait until the sheriff's office could clear the tracks by arresting Willson & his two comrades for trespassing. Second, the engineer & two person train crew-civilian employees of the Navy, & veterans themselves-carried out the order, even after it became clear that they were going to run over a human being. (And in what must be the most extreme example of blaming the victim, the crew later sued Willson for causing them traumatic stress; the suit was eventually dismissed). Still a third horror described in this chapter was the immediate aftermath: miraculously still alive, Willson was refused transport to the hospital by the Navy ambulance crew that was there; fully twenty minutes elapsed before a county ambulance came to take him away. http://www.nothingness.org/sociala/sa19/19rosemont.html


-- archive The Spanish American War was an ushering in of what Henry Luce later referred to as the American Century, which really meant an American Century of American domination. The war itself in Cuba was such a precursor of so much that the United States later did in various parts of the world. It had so many of the same characteristics that later followed in other places. & by that I mean the pretense of liberating a part of the world from an oppressive nation & then replacing that oppressive nation with this oppressive nation--you know, getting the Spaniards out but at the same time making sure that no indigenous movement would then take control of Cuba. Howard Zinn


-- EVERGOOD, philip 1901–73, American painter & etcher, b. New York City. His original name was Philip Blashki. He was educated at Eton & Cambridge and studied art in New York City & Paris. Evergood was famed for his murals, including The Story of Richmond Hill (1936–37; Public Library branch, Queens, N.Y.) & Cotton from Field to Mill (1938; U.S. Post Office, Jackson, Ga.). His work combines realism with fantasy, as in Lily & the Sparrows (1939; Whitney Mus., New York City). In the 1950s Evergood concentrated on symbolism, both biblical & mythological. A characteristic work is The New Lazarus (1954; Whitney Mus.). 1 See his graphic work, selected by L. R. Lippard (1966); study by J. Baur (1960). Philip Evergood (1901-1973) - labor injustice National Mus. of American Art Palmer Mus. of Art L.James Grattan and Associates Born into a wealthy family, Evergood was educated at Eton & Cambridge. Organized labor was making gains, resulting in opposition from management & authorities. When ten marchers were killed in a South Chicago march on Memorial Day, 1937, Evergood recorded the event in the meticulously accurate American Tragedy. We want our workers (labor) to be ever good. http://www.homebase-bbs.com/public/ams/unit7/evergood.htm
http://www.homebase-bbs.com/public/ams/unit7/socreal.htm

-- "Yes, Milosevic should stand in the dock to answer for war crimes. Clinton, Albright, Cohen & Clark should stand with him." --- Howard Zinn, historian


-- Luigi Granotti

Above all it confirms that Bresci acted alone & that there was no plot, no anarchist plot & no Bourbon plot to execute the king of Italy.

But in his book Arrigo Petacco…

I am none too happy about Petacco’s reviving the conspiracy story. A thesis that, for all their good intentions & mischief-making intent, even the detectives could not get to stick at the time! Petacco makes a number of mistakes: starting with Bresci’s birth date & his contention that Bresci returned to Italy under an assumed name. There is no truth in this: I have seen the list of the 67 passengers who left New York on board Le Gascogne on 17 May 1900 & landed in Le Havre & Bresci is listed, name and surname, as No 36.

Then he talks about a certain Granotti who was supposedly to have opened fire if Bresci had missed. This too was a police invention & poor Granotti returned to America & avoided capture. He was tried in his absence, on the basis of accusations extorted under torture from a cousin of his from Biella, who promptly recanted the whole thing & fled to Argentina.

Furthermore, the Italian consulates in America offered a $100 reward for anyone who could supply information about Luigi Granotti & he was spotted simultaneously in Shanghai, New York, Buenos Aires & London & so on.

Some people even made a profession out of it: changing names occasionally they used to call to the consulates, give their information & cash in. Granotti was never caught as Luigi Galleani had predicted in a splendid article in 1902. I have discovered that he died in the United States in 1949 – where he had been living under an assumed name, unmolested by the police & unrecorded by the register of his home district. Unintentionally I turned into something of a ‘history detective’. I was able to consult his file & lots of other files of people who were implicated & managed to reconstruct a number of intriguing human & political stories. http://flag.blackened.net/ksl/bullet26.htm#Galzerano


-- CUBA CHRONOLOGY

Chronology 1959-1975 Jan. 1, 1959 Batista flees Cuba: Revolution begins. Jan. 4 Manuel Urrutia Lleo appointed President of Cuba. Armed Student Directorio seizes & refuses to evacuate the Presidential Palace, the seat of government & the University of Havana campus because Castro unilaterally appointed his "Provisional Government" without consulting allied anti-Batista fight 177 l l ,1 1 11., Illg gl'OII]~.~. .lan 1 () Jan. 28 FEBRUARY 16 April 5 May 8 May 17 ~i 1 1 ! , l ll 1 1 , , .lune 3 June 9 July 7 July 18 July 26 habeas corpus suspended. Capital punishment decreed. People's Socialist Party (PSP-Communists) pledges allegiance to Castro. Miro Cardona resigns & Castro appoints himself Premier. Censorship of press, radio, television etc. begins. Strikes prohibited. Castro government assumes unlimited power. Council of Ministers can decree laws & change constitution at will. Agrarian Reform Law (National Institute of Agrarian Reform“INRA) makes illegal ownership of more than 5 caballerias (I caballeria = 33 ~/2 acres) of land. INRA institutes state farms on Russian model. Law 43 giving INRA dictatorial powers reads: ". . . the INRA will appoint administrators & the workers will accept all orders & decrees dictated by INRA. . . "

Pedro Luis Diaz, Commander of the Air Force & close friend of Castro, protests growing influence of Communists & leaves Cuba. Resolution 6, gives Castro unlimited power to spend public funds without being accountable to anyone. Article 25 of Fundamental Law further extends death penalty for "acts hostile to the regime" Urrutia resigns. The Communist Dorticos appointed new Presiclent of Cuba The day after he resigns, Castro before a delirious mass demonstration of 500,000 people withdraws his resignation as self appointed Premier of Cuba. The carefully staged proceeding was a cheap publicity hoax. 178 Scl~t. 30 Oct. 13 Oct. 20 Oct. 27 Nov. 30 Nov. 26 DECEMBER 27 Jan. 1, 196() FEBRUARY 13 March 1 6 April 20 C'uba sells 3,300,000 tons of sugar to Rllssia Article 149, regulating private schools & education, prohibits teaching of subjects not taught in public schools, state dictates curriculum. Castro's close friend & second-in-command, Major Hubor Matos, Military Commander of Province of Catnaguey' resigns in protest of communist infiltration of Cuban government. Arrested by order of Castro & after fake "trial", sentenced DECEMBER 14 to 20 years imprisonment. Sentence stirred dormant resentment in armed forces & also civilians who revered Matos, as hero of the Revolution. Nationalization of oil property begins. I 0th Congress of Cuban Confederation of Labor (CTC). Communist candidates endorsed by Castro are defeated. A little later, officials freely elected by rank-and-file are dismissed by order of Castro & replaced by Castro's appointees. The democratically elected Secretary, David Salvador, is sentenced to 30 year prison term. Ernesto Che Guevara (who knows nothing about finance) appointed President of the Bank of Cuba. Law 680 tightens press, radio, television, etc., censorship. Vice-President of Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union, Anastas Mikoyan, inaugurates Soviet exhibition in Palace of Fine Arts Commercial treaty signed by Mikoyan & Castro grants credit of $100,000,000 & exchanges Cuban sugar for Soviet armaments. Establishment of Central Planning Body (JUCEPLAN) to manage economy. Blas Roca, veteran communist leader appointed Director of JUCEPLAN. Instituto Superior de Educacion established to indoctrinate tcachers with Marxist-Leninist principles. 179 Al:'il 22 Ma! 7 May 8 June 3 , . 1 July 15 Sept. 28 October Oct. 13 Nov. 7 (,ala ( clebration of Lenin's birthday. Formal diplomatic relations with Russia established. C ommandante Rolando Cubela (later mortal enemy of Castro) President of the Federation of University Students (FEW) orders expulsion of anti-communist students from the University of Havana. Death Penalty decreed for misappropriation of funds. Law 851 decrees nationalization of property. In successive months the property of the Cuban Telephone Co., Cuban Electric Co., three oil companies (Standard, Shell & Texaco) & 21 sugar refineries are nationalized. (By the end of 1960, the state expropriated 11,287 companies, equal to two-thirds of Cuban industry. By March 1961, nationalization totalled 88010 of industrial production & 55°70 of agricultural production. Most of the faculty of Havana University resigns in protest over communist party takeover. Organization of the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution (CDR) to spy on citizens even in their homes. " . . . a strike is a counter-revolutionary act in a socialist republic. . ." (Castro). ". . .The destiny of the unions is to disappear..." (Guevara). "...the Minister of Labor can take control of any union or federation of unions, dismiss officials & appoint others. . . " (law 647) With nationalization of 376 additional firms & Urban Reform Law (including housing) Castro proclaims the completion of the first phase of the Revolution. Gala parade in celebration of anniversary of Russian Revolution with participation of thousands of Russian, Chinese & "socialist" countries' technicians & "advisors. " 180 N:~~. 22 Nov. 30 Dec. 31 Jan. 1, 1961 Jan. 3 Jan. 4 Jan. 21 .1 an. 29 FEBRUARY 10 Feb. 23 April 17 (hlban Government predicts th.tt in 19(i1, production ol potatoes, beans, poultry, eggs, corn, & cotton "will have quintuplet)." Actually, "production between 1958-1963 decreased by 500/0 (Rene Dumont) Cuba & China sign trade agreement. China buys 1,000,000 tons of sugar & extends $50,000,000 credit to Cuba. Castro creates Higher Council of Universities headed by Minister of Education to rule universities. 2nd anniversary of the Cuban Revolution. U.S. severs relations with Cuba. " . . . any counter-revolutionary activity (as defined by the dictators) by any worker, either in the public or private sector, will be sufficient cause for immediate dismissal & additional punishment for criminal acts under the law. . . " (law 934) 6 complete factories arrive from Yugoslavia. 100 due to be delivered by Russia. Cuba sends 1000 children to Russia to learn how to become obedient communists. Educational collaboration with Soviet ambassador to Havana, Yuri Gavrilov, and Czechoslovak ViceMinister of Education, Vaslav Pelishek, to teach Cuban educators methods used in communist lands. Cuban Ministry of Education will train teachers in Minar del Fri'o, a communist school, how to become good Marxist-Leninists. Stepped up campaign to mobilize hundreds of thousands of "volunteers" to cut cane & do other important work. Guevara appointed Minister of Industry (which he knows nothing about) "Bay of Pigs" invasion by unofficial U.S.-sponsored forces. 181

May I Dec. 2 March 8, 1962 Castro proclaims that Cuba has hecome the first Socialist Republic in l.atin Anlerica. Th`~l~s`~'uls parade carrying Inlgc portraits ol Castro, Jose Marti, Khrusllchev, Mao, Lenin, Marx & Engels. On behlg awarded the Lenin peace prize, Castro exults: "GLORY TO THE GREAT JOSE MARTI!" "GLORY TO THE GREAT VLADIMIR II.S ICII LENIN! " Castro delivers his "I am a Marxist-Leninist Communist" speech. A forerunner of the Communist Party of Cuba, the Integrated Revolutionary Organizations (ORI) is organized.

March 12 Law 1015 decrees rationing of most foods & other necessities. July l anc~ther version l~l the luturc poll-Castro Communist P'arty of Cuba (C}'( ) Oct. 4 Nov. Second Ayratian Retorn, restricts ownership oi land to five caballerias. I ol the first time in Cuba compulsory military service is decreed in preference to volunteer service in militia. FEBRUARY 14, 1964 Castro takes personal charge of INRA.

Summer, 1965 To combat absenteeism & enforce work discipline the government announces plans to issue in August & September, identification cards which all workers must show as condition for employment. . . " . . . thereby guaranteeing full compliance with directives established by the Revolutionary Government as far as labor is concerned . . . " Ministry of Labor institutes forced labor in Province of Pinar del Rio' for "...employees who committed transgressions in lulfilllnellt of their functions.. Aug.-Sept. Drive against political & social dissenters stepped up. FI Libertario, organ of the Liberation Association of Cuba (anarcho-syndicalist) forced to suspend publication. Workers threatened with loss of jobs if they do not "volunteer" to work without pay. Students housewives & others told they will lose benefits it they do not "volunteer" their services. Agricultural cooperatives transformed into state farms.

Spring, 1963 Compulsory service for 15 to 17 year-old "delinquents" decreed to provide a labor force for a wide range of agricultural & civic projects. Formation of the United Party of the Socialist Revolution (PURS) 182 July 4 Oct. 3 The much vaunted militia, "The People in Arms" is practically liquidated as an independent force. Nationwide disarmament of the militia is decreed. Militia officers & civilians are commanded to turn their weapons in by Sept. Ist or face severe penalties. Members of the military reserve & communities for the Defense of the Revolution must also comply. Havana Longshoremen refuse to load meat for Italy because of meat shortage in Cuba. 200 arrested & later released with only stern warnings for fear of further complications. Militarily orgarlized labor camps established to rehabilitate "delinquents." Havana University is again purged. Writers & artists sent to penal camps, ostensibly to "purify the Revolution. " March, 1966 Rolando Cubela (former favorite of Castro) sentenced to 25 years at hard labor for conspiracy to assassinate Castro because he betrayed the Revolution. Aug. 22-26 12th Congress of the CTC adopts resolution stating that: " . . . the labor movement directed & guided by the Communist Party, must effectively contribute to the mobilization of the masses in fulfilling of the tasks assigned by the Revolution & strengthening MarxistLeninist theory . . . " 183

1967 Oct. 8 Jan. 28, 1968 March 13 Aug. 2 Aug. 17 Oct. 22 Organizatior1 ot the Vanguard Worliers Movement. Likc the Stal~hanovites in Russia, the Vanguard Workers are expected to set the pace & initiate speedup of their fellow workers. In c~change Vanguard Workers get special privileges. A program of Youth Reeducation Centers established for youngsters under 16 found guilty of minor offences. They are to perform "a full day's work" & get military training. Che Guevara killed in Bolivia guerrilla campaign. Castro asserts his domination over the Communist Party. Anibal Escalante, a prominent communist, is sentenced to 15 years at hard labor for plotting to subordinate Castro to the discipline of the Party. He was accused of the typical Stalinist crime of "microfactionalism. " Castro introduces the "Great Revolutionary Offensive" by nationalizing 58,000 trades, shops & services. Young people are mobilized, military fashion, for agriculture & sugar production. Castro defends the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia. The Minister of Labor, Jorge Risquet, announces introduction of 'ilabor card" recording acts of indiscipline, work record, etc. A "social-security law" providing incentives for workers who demonstrate "exemplary" behavior is decreed. Those who exhibit "communist work attitudes, " renounce overtime pay, are not absent without authorization, exceed work quotas & enthusiastically perform "voluntary" labor become eligible for special benefits.

Jan. 2, 1969 Castro introduces rationing of sugar! July 9

March 1971 Dissident poet Herberto Padilla arrested on trumped up charges of "counter-revolution" for writing critical poetry & articles about Cuban dictatorship. Later, in true Stalinist fashion Padilla "repents his sins" & is "rehabilitated." The case aroused world-wide protests.

Castro praises "revolutionary achievements" of the military totalitarian Junta that seized power in Peru. 184

Dec. 1972 Creation of the super-centralized Executive Committee of the Council of Ministers. Between 1972 & 1975 the institutionalization & 185 ! ~,. l ~' . .t 1 , : reorganization of the Revolution was being implcmented. I\lid-1971 Reform of the judicial system. Courts & all legal bodies dominat.] & completely responsible to the Executive Committee of the Council of Ministers. There is no independent judiciary. The Prime Minister, the Prcsident of the Republic, other ministers, & the members of the Political Bureau of the Communist Party of Cuba are exempt from the jurisdiction of the regular courts.

April May Aug. 2 November Militias ("People in Arms") abolished. Liability of 18 year olds for "crimes" against the economy, abnormal sexual behavior, etc., etc., applied to 16 year old "offenders." Creation of the Youth Army of Work (AYW), a paramilitary organization controlled by the Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR).

13th Congress of the CTC endorses & promises to carry out the dictatorial policies of the Regime. December Law 1257 decrees creation of regular, conventional army complete with ranking system and discipline of great military powers.

May 8, 1974 With the establishment of the People's Organization of Popular Control (PCP) an experiment in "decentralization" & "direct democracy" designed to promote mass participation in Local, Regional administration is initiated in Matanzas Province (to be extended to rest of Cuba in 1976). The system patterned after the fake Russian "soviets" actually reinforces the dictatorship.

July 2 Castro proclaims 3 days of mourning for the death of the fascist dictator of Argentina Juan Peron. With Congress of the Communist Party of Cuba (Dec. 1975) the institutionalization of the Revolution was substantially completed. The permanent, legally sanctioned, totalitarian apparatus intlicts itself on future generatiorls. 186 Lilossarv ALC MLCE CNT IWMA I.ibertarian Fedcration of Cuba L ibertarian Movcment of Cuba in Exile National Confederation of Labor (Spanish AnarchoSyndicalist) International Workingmen's Association (Abbreviations of Cuban organizations with date of founding) CDR CTC EJT FAR INRA JUCEPI AN OPP ORI PCC PSP PURS SMO SS UMAP UNEAC UJC

Bibliographical Notes Committees for the Defense of the Revolution, 1960 Confederation of Cuban Workers, 1939 Youth Army of Work, 1973 Revolutionary Armed Forces, 1961 National Institute of Agrarian Reform, 1959 Central Planning Board, 1960 Organs of Popular Power, 1974 Integrated Revolutionary Organizations, 1961-1963 Communist Party of Cuba, 1965 Socialist Popular Party, 1925-1961 United Party of the Socialist Revolution, 1963-1965 Compulsory Military Service, 1963 Compulsory Social Service, 1973 Military Units to Aid Production, 1964-1973 National Union of Writers & Artists of Cuba, 1961 Young Communist League, 1962

A full bibliography of writings on the background of the Cuban Revolution & the Revolution itself would easily fill several volumes. It is therefore necessary to list such works in English as seems best for the general reader. Interestingly enough, the sources are the speeches & writings of Castro & members of his inner circle (official government publications, periodicals, newspapers etc.) Another excellent source is the works of the pro-Castro friendly critics. Both the Cuban officials in the process ot justifying their dictatorial measures & the friendly critics in trying to account for the degeneration of the Revolution inadvertently supply valuable information about the nature of the Cuban Revolution. 187 ()lficial Sources t I C astro s speeches & writings are easily available“a convenient compilation is The Selected Works ~Jf Fidel Castro: flevo/utionar Struggle; Rolando Bonachea & Nelson P. Valdes (M. I.T. Press Cambridge, 1971“E7irst ot three volumes.) Johrl C,crassi, Venceremos! The Speeches & Writings of Che Guervara (New York, 1968.) Che' Guevara, kpisodes of the Revolutionary Slruggle (Book Institute, Havana, 1967.) An invaluable, intimate first-hand account ot the early struggles of Castro's guerrilla band in the Sierra Maestra. Cramna Weekly Review (Lnglish Language Edition)“of licial organ of the Communist Party of Cuba. Good for current events, official notices, proclamations, etc. Other Background and Source Materials Cuban Studies Newsletter; published twice yearly by the Center for Latin American Studies; University of Pittsburgh. Contains many informative articles, theses & other writings. The University of Miami's Center for Research on Caribbean Studies; also the Cuban Economic Research Project, an excellent research staff manned by Cuban specialists. Yale University's Anlilles Program. Center for Cuban Studies, New York. United Nations publications. Background to Revolution; a collection of essays on Cuban history leading to the Cuban Revolution. A good general survey by competent authorities (Edited by Robert F. Smith, New York, 1966). Jaime Suchlicki, From Columbus to Castro, New York, 1974, also his excellent collection of essays by ten specialists, (University of Miami, 1972). Suchlicki's works are particularly important because he participated in the Revolutionary Students' Movement in his native Cuba. Although Hugh Thomas' massive history The Pursuit of Freedom has been widely acclaimed, his atrocious work on the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) should be borne in mind when reading his Cuban volume.

Personal Accounts Jules Dubois' Fidel Castro; (Indianapolis, 1959). Dubois, late correspondent for the Chicago Tribune, interviewed & was on very cordial terms with Fidel Castro & associates. An excellent account of events from Castro's landing in Cuba, to the fall of Batista, plus interesting biographical data. 188 I Icrbert Matthews, New York Thnes correspondent who first i'~ncrvicwed C astro in the Sierra Maestre, was welcomed to Cuba sc~eral times since then. Matthews has written extensively on the Cuban Revolution. Among his writings are: f idel Castro; (New York, 1959) & Cuba in Revolution; (New York, 1975). Though strongly biased in favor of Castro, the latter work contains valuable information. Rufo Lopez Fresquet: My First Fourteen Months With Castro; (New York, 1966) & Andre's Suarez, Castroism & Communism: 1959-1966; (MIT Press, Cambridge, 1967).

Both Fresquet, former Minister of the Treasury in Castro's cabinet, & Sua'rez, the Assistant Minister of the Treasury, broke with Castro because they disagreed with his pro-communist policies. Their revelations contribute greatly to an understanding of the Cuban Revolution. Under the intriguing title, Does Your Father Eat More Than Castro? (New York, 1971), Barry Reckord, a Jamaica dramatist, describes the daily life of ordinary Cubans, & in so doing, tells more about the effects of the Cuban Revolution than any number of abstract statistical studies. The same is true of the journalist, Joe Nicholson Junior's Inside Cuba (New York, 1974.) Critical Studies Fidel Castro's Personal Revolution: 1959-1973 (New York, 1975); an anthology edited by James Nelson Goodsell, is a good general survey. Adolfo Cilly's Inside the Cuban Revolution (New York, 1964), although passionately pro-Castro, is nevertheless a penetrating critique. In his Castro's lRevolution: Myths & Realities (New York, 1962), Theodor Draper dispels the euphoria surrounding both the character & achievements of the Cuban Revolution. A realistic analysis. His Castroism: Theory & Practice (New York, 1965) develops his themes more fully. K.S. Karol's Cuerrillas in Power (New York, 1970)“Karol, a Marxist-Leninist writer who was welcomed to Cuba by Castro, was later excommunicated for his critical insights & revelations about the unfavorable features of the Cuban Revolution. His work constitutes an able political history of the Cuban Revolution, superior to Huberman & Sweezy's Socialism in Cuba (New York, 1969).

Maurice Halperin's The Rise & Decline of Fidel Castro (University of California Press, 1972) deals primarily with the complex relations between Castro & the Soviet Union & foreign affairs. His observations on the sitl~ation in Cuba itself enhance the work. Halperin taught at the University of Havana for six years & in Russia for three years. His is one of the better works.

The analytic books of Rene Dumont: Cuba: Socialism & 189 )tn'l'/~'pn]t'lll (Nc~` Noll`. 197()) anti /.\ Cubu St)`ic//i.sl'' (New York, 1')74), ;Il~Ll tl~c ll`IillStt\\iliglV li'NC.\rL'llCti work o' (.tlll~clo \1cNa-Lago, ( ~t/'U il' r/7e /97().`i (tJni~crsity oi Ne`~- I\lexico, It)74) 1~a~c alicaLiy been iiiNCU\NCLI tIIILi IlCCLt 110 fUrtllCr COllllllelll. 190 Ac~ Ac' Ace Aco Adv. Agra Agra, ana Agric~ Agric~ ana~ .llilit post ]5 pre- R See a, Ret Aguirre, Ahoru (r A lar~na Alba (jo~ ALC, see C ub:~ Alerta (ne Algcria, g Alonso, 11 Al\arcz C'c Alvarez y E Anarchists, I iberta (ALC) Anarcho-syn in Cuba, 4 main princ in Spain, s, del Trab; Andre, Arma~ Antorcha, La, Arbenz Guzmi Arcirivo Socia' Argentina anarcho-sync "Caudillismc Castro and, i See also Fede; tine; Peron, Armed forces under Batista, ...

The Castro government never seriously intended to allow meaningful participation of the workers in management (to say nothing about full self-management of industry). K.S. Karol reveals that in 1968: "... Castro himself confessed to me that he saw no chance of granting the workers the right to self-management in the near future -- let alone of introducing a truly socialist mode of production ..." (27)

http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/bright/dolgoff/cubanrevolution/chapter13.html http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/bright/dolgoff/cubanrevolution/toc.html
http://recollectionbooks.com/anow/world/la/argentina/


-- animation archive: under construction


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BLEED WORK TO DO: Kropotkin 1877 ENGLAND DON'T HAVE january Pietro Gori A Lugano 1895 CHECK MOVING DATES, DATES ETC BLEED WORK NEED EXACT DATE 1946 HAITI 2006: TO DO: ADD DATES FROM YTAK FOR JAN 23RD

Le 23 JANVIER / JANUARY 1972, mort de Miguel GARCIA VIVANCOS

Le 23 JANVIER / JANUARY 1999, mort de Suceso PORTALES CASAMAR

Le 23 JANVIER / JANUARY 1921, Italie, devant la multiplication des agressions fascistes, l'Unione Anarchica Italiana lance un manifeste "Contre la réaction et pour les victimes politiques" qui se conclut par l'appel "Travailleurs! Compagnons! Défendez les victimes politiques et défendez-vous, vous aussi!". Pour le seul mois de JANVIER / JANUARY 1921, ce sont les Bourses du travail de Modène, Bologne et Vicenza qui sont endommagées ou détruites ainsi que le siège du journal socialiste "La Difesa" à Florence.

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-- 7/28/1923 Portugal: NEED DAY & MONTH Federação Anarquista Ibérica The resulting conference of the two labor organisations was held in Elvora (Portugal) in março / MARCH ; MAY / maio, July. julho, JUNHO JUNE AGOSTO / AUGUST FEBRUARY http://72.14.203.104/search?q=cache:hnjOPGiY4l8J:www.sussex.ac.uk/history/documents/jg.pdf+CNT+%C3%89vora+1923&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=5

A União Anarquista Portuguesa não tem Conselho Federal como é uso em alguns países. Existe apenas um Comitê de cinco membros que relaciona, investiga e faz estatísticas, que edita em nome da UAP boletins, manifestos, folhetos, etc., para o que há uma editorial adjunta e que toma iniciativas de caráter geral sujeitando-se a referendo antes de as pôr em prática."

Resumidamente, realizaram-se conferências anarquistas em Coimbra e na Região Sul.

Posteriormente teve lugar a Conferência da Região Norte. Com a publicação de O Anarquista, cresce a campanha em favor de um Congresso Anarquista Nacional em 1926. A UAP sugere o dia 1º de julho, data do aniversário da morte de Miguel Bakunin, com um temário que o golpe militar de

28 de maio de 1926 não permitiu realizar.

Em 1923, registram-se dois acontecimentos históricos significativos no movimento anarquista português: discutiu-se pela primeira vez no Congresso de Alenquer a criação da União Anarquista Portuguesa e no de Évora a formação da FAI.

A FAI (Federação Anarquista Ibérica) nasceu de fato em 1923, na cidade de Évora. Foi na Conferência das Organizações Operárias dos dois países ibéricos (Portugal e Espanha), nesta cidade portuguesa. Estiveram presentes, representando a CNT, Manuel Perez, J. Ferrer Alvarado e Sebastião Clará; pela CGT, portuguesa, José da Silva Santos Arranha e Manuel Joaquim de Sousa.

Neste encontro, Manuel Joaquim de Sousa - com o apoio de Manuel Perez - propôs, pela prim http://recollectionbooks.com/bleed/ArchiveMirror/ArquivoDeHist%F3riaSocialEdgarRodrigues/Hist%F3riaAnarquistaPORTUGAL.htm

FEBRUARY Fevereiro 13 Sai o primeiro número da revista teórica anarquista Terra Livre. Entre os colaboradores, destaca-se Pinto Quartim NEED THE YEAR

Julho 22 Bombas abandonadas na via pública geram várias explosões, morrendo várias crianças. - Publicação da lei nº 83 sobre acidentes de trabalho. Estabelece a responsabilidade da entidade patronal sobre acidentes de trabalho nas indústrias fabris. - Proibida a revista anarquista Terra Livre. http://www.iscsp.utl.pt/cepp/indexfro1.php3?http://www.iscsp.utl.pt/cepp/anuario/secxx/ano1913.htm

MAY Em Maio de 1923, na Primeira Conferência Anarquista da Região Portuguesa, que teve lugar em Alenquer com a participação de 45 delegados das várias regiões do país, foi constituída a União Anarquista Portuguesa (UAP). Eram tarefas da UAP trabalhar pela reunião dos grupos anarquistas e dar impulso à actividade de organização, propaganda e acção libertária em Portugal, ficando firme a autonomia de cada grupo aderente. Um comité de 5 membros cuidava das relações, da informação, dos inquéritos e das publicações da UAP (boletins, manifestos, etc.). // In May of 1923, in the First Anarchic Conference of the Portuguese Region, that had place in Alenquer with the participation of 45 commission agents of the some regions of the country, União was constituted Portuguese Anarquista (UAP). They were tasks of the UAP to work for the meeting of the anarchic groups & to give impulse to the activity of organization, propaganda & libertarian share in Portugal, being firm the autonomy of each adherent group. One comité of 5 members took care of of the relations, the information, the inquiries & publications of the UAP (bulletins, manifestos, etc.). http://www.fdca.it/fdcapt/imprensa/cadernos/hist_port/3.htm

MARCH Em 18 de março de 1923, 45 anarquistas de diferentes regiões, a maior parte representando os seus grupos, reuniram-se na vila de Alenquer, sem que o segredo desta reunião, apesar de muito falada, fosse além do conhecimento particular dos aderentes. // In 18 of March of 1923, 45 anarchists of different regions, most representing its groups, had congregated themselves in the village of Alenquer, without the secret of this meeting, although much said, was beyond the particular knowledge of the adherent ones. Sacado del ARQUIVO DE HISTÓRIA SOCIAL de Edgar Rodrigues http://72.14.203.104/search?q=cache:_5DsRfS5KW0J:pt.indymedia.org/pdf/index.php%3Fnumero%3D75512%26cidade%3D1+CNT+%C3%89vora+1923&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=9

May 1926, having completed his project, Manuel Joaquim de Sousa represented the Portuguese CGT at the Marseilles Congress: Manuel Peres was representing the Portuguese Anarchist union (UAP). Thirty delegates from French & Spanish groups & from the IWMA attended. Armando Borghi attended as representative of the Italian Syndicalsit Union (USI). http://www.infoshop.org/wiki/index.php/Iberian_Anarchist_Federation

in 1923 when the Seville-based CNT national committee, of which I was a member, held a peninsular conference in the Portuguese city of Évora, I took part together with J. Ferrer Alvarado & Sebastián Clara, representing Spain, & Jose da Silva Santos Arranha & Manuel Joaquim de Sousa representing Portugal."

"At that conference, the appropriateness of unifying the Iberian peninsula's confederal & libertarian movement came under consideration & two bodies were founded to that end: the Iberian Confederation of labor & the Iberian Anarchist Federation." (5)

In spite of the indelible indications that the FAI was & is historically an all-Iberian organisation — its very name makes this plain — many Spaniards regard this anarchist body as essentially Spanish.


In the memoirs (unpublished & I have a copy of the letter in my possession) that he forwarded from Rio de Janeiro on 23 October 1948 "To the FAI National Liaison Committee", Manuel Perez puts paid to some of the confusion that existed (and still exists) in the minds of Spanish & other militants!

At one point, he states: "I ought to say that back in 1923 when the Seville-based CNT national committee, of which I was a member, held a peninsular conference in the Portuguese city of Évora, I took part together with J. Ferrer Alvarado & Sebastián Clara, representing Spain, & Jose da Silva Santos Arranha & Manuel Joaquim de Sousa representing Portugal." "At that conference, the appropriateness of unifying the Iberian peninsula's confederal & libertarian movement came under consideration & two bodies were founded to that end: the Iberian Confederation of labor & the Iberian Anarchist Federation." (5)

Elsewhere, he states: "This is why we cannot ignore the fact that the FAI is a peninsula-wide body which of course had its commitments & responsibilities at international level. So thinking of it as an essentially Spanish organism is lamentably wide of the mark."

Speaking of the historical course of the FAI, Tierra y Libertad (Mexico) in May 1974 published under the headline "Portugal, Portugal … Portugal) (page 2) this comment: "In 1927 at a plenum of Spanish anarchist groups in which Portuguese anarchists participated, it was (finally) agreed that an Iberian Anarchist Federation would be set up as an organisation embracing the entire organised anarchist movement of the Iberian peninsula, which is to say, of Spain & Portugal.

From that point on, anarchism right across the peninsula shared a common fortune, & from 1939 up until today, because of the kinship between the two fascist regimes endured by both victim-nations, Iberian anarchism found itself even more deeply committed, & during the 1936-1939 Spanish revolution the FAI's general secretary was a Portuguese — Germinal de Sousa." -->
Further details/ context, click here; anarquista anarchiste, Anarquismo, Anarquista, Anarchisten[Details / context]


The CNT national secretary, Evelio Boal, had been due to attend the September 1919 Coimbra National Workers’ Congress, originally scheduled to take place in July of that year, to discuss means of improving relations with other revolutionary syndicalist organisations in advance of the creation of an International, but was unable to do so due to events in Spain. 21 The CGTP’s national secretary, Manuel Joaquim de Sousa represented the CGTP at the CNT’s national congress in Madrid in December 1919 where he was pleasantly surprised by the warm welcome he received from his Spanish comrades. 22 In meetings between de Sousa & leading CNT members, the basis for a Latin Confederation was established. 23 The CNT & CGTP were to be the initial cells of the proposed organisation, which would include the CNT, the CGTP, the Italian USI & the French CGT. 24 After de Sousa had made a brief speech to the congress about the history & policies of the CGTP, Boal declared that ‘from today the fusion of the Iberian proletariat, the base of the Confederation of the Latin working-class, is a fact’. 25 The Latin Confederation never got beyond the planning stage due to the unenthusiastic reaction of the CGT in France, the combination of government repression & economic decline which affected the fortunes of the organisations that were to be its members, & the splits created within the revolutionary syndicalist movement by the machinations of the Communists who in 1921 set up the a revolutionary syndcialist international (the Red Trade Union International or Profintern) in Moscow in an attempt to try & unite the syndicalist movement under their control. 26 Despite the failure of the Latin Confederation, the plans to create an Iberian Confederation, discussed at the 1919 congress, continued. In 1922, both the CNT & the CGTP affiliated to the IWMA (albeit provisionally as the new syndicalist international did not officially come into existence until the Berlin Congress in December 1922), the CNT at the Zaragoza conference of June 1922; the CGTP at a national congress in Covilha in October 1922. 27 Both Confederations had expected that a new revolutionary syndicalist international would be created at the Berlin Conference of June 1922, but such a move was delayed until after the first congress of the Confédération Générale du Travail Unitaire (which had recently been formed in France by revolutionary syndicalists opposed to the reformist policies of the old CGT) at the end of June & the second congress of the RTUI in November. Fearing that the other revolutionary syndicalist organisations might procrastinate further or even decide to join the RTUI, & therefore worried about being isolated internationally, both the CNT & the CGTP decided to strengthen their bilateral relations. At Zaragoza, the CNT passed a motion on international relations which committed it to strengthening relations with the CGTU & the CGTP & to creating, if possible, a federal pact between the three organisations. 28 However, this tri-union pact was a dead letter as soon as the inaugural congress of the CGTU decided to join the RTUI. At Covilha, the CGTP also voted in favour of building closer ties with the CNT. Following the congress, the CGTP sent a questionnaire to the CNT, asking if they believed that ‘the unification of the revolutionary proletariat of the two countries in one sole organisation, an Iberian Confederation, would be convenient & useful.’ 29 The questionnaire was to be discussed at the CNT national congress which was scheduled to be held in June 1923, but was postponed due to the transport strike that paralysed Barcelona from 14 May to 12 July. 30 The CGTP once again took the initiative and, at the end of May or early June 1923, invited the CNT to a meeting to study the possibilities of creating a joint peninsular-wide committee for the two organisations. 31 The resulting conference of the two labor organisations was held in Elvora (Portugal) in July. The CGTP was represented by Manuel Joaquim de Sousa & Jose da Silva Santos Arranha, & the CNT by Sebastià Clará, Acrato Lluhi & Manuel Pérez. 32 No record exists of the discussions held at Evora, but an editorial published in A Batalha (the CGTP newspaper) in early July suggests that they concerned the logistics associated with the creation of the joint committee. The article argued that, as the two organisations were based on the principles of federalism, i.e. both had a horizontal organisational structure as opposed to the traditional vertical structure in which individual unions maintained independence of action & decision-taking on issues that directly affected them & as such the decision-making process moved upwards through the organisation & was not dictated from above, it was possible that the National Committee of the CNT resident in Barcelona could simply become the Committee of the Iberian labor Confederation. The Committee would be composed solely of militants from the region where it was based. The CGTP would constitute a region within the new organisation and, given the decentralised nature of syndicalism, would still enjoy autonomy in issues solely affecting Portugal. 33 Following the Evora conference, progress towards the formation of an Iberian confederation Page 6 University of Sussex Journal of Contemporary History, Issue Six, August 2003. 6 suffered a serious setback when, in September 1923, General Primo de Rivera’s seized power in Spain in a military coup. The new military regime did not immediately ban the CNT, but instead introduced legislation that made it all but impossible for the CNT to continue functioning. The next official contact between the CNT & the CGTP was a letter sent by the Spanish organisation in September, requesting moral support from their Portuguese colleagues in light of events in Spain. 34 Eventually the CNT asked for more than simply moral support & in December 1923 a meeting between the two organisations was organised in Seville, the seat of the National Committee of the CNT, to discuss the possible participation of the CGTP in a planned insurrection that the CNT had been discussing with Republican & Catalan political forces opposed to the dictatorship. However, the Spanish authorities were aware of the plans & shortly after arriving in Andalucia, the two CGT delegates, Manuel da Silva Campos & Manuel Joaquim de Sousa (the serving national secretary of the Confederação & his predecessor), were arrested along with the members of the CNT National Committee. The Spanish government claimed to have foiled a communist-inspired revolutionary uprising & used this as an excuse for a further crackdown on the CNT in the regio http://72.14.203.104/search?q=cache:hnjOPGiY4l8J:www.sussex.ac.uk/history/documents/jg.pdf+CNT+%C3%89vora+1923&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=5
Notes 1. Manuel Perez was born in Spain but moved to Rio de Janeiro as a boy. He studied at the Crafts & Trades School. In the first decade of the 20th century he served as general secretary of the cabinet-makers' union, directed its newspaper & embraced anarchism. He was deported to Spain by the Epitácio Pessoa government because of his outstanding activity in 1919. 2. In 1922-23, with his partner Mercedes & daughter Carmen, Perez fled to Lisbon to escape Primo de Rivera's police & wound up living on the premises of the cabinet-makers' union. His wife was pregnant & when she went into labor, Perez sent for his fellow-exile Dr Pedro Vallina & just as his daughter Aurora was being delivered the Portuguese democratic police burst on to the union premises (he had been reported through the connivance of the Spanish & Portuguese police) to arrest Perez, his family & the physician Vallina. But in view of the screams of the new-born & the sight of the physician with his blood-stained hands, the police withdrew, letting the Spaniards go. Pedro Vallina & his family were to quit Lisbon the following day & Perez stayed on for a few days to allow his partner to recover. (Unpublished memoirs of Manuel Perez). 3. Taken from O Anarquista of 16-5-1926. This was the organ of the Portuguese Anarchist Union (UAP). Francisco Quintal was general secretary & director of the paper. For further details see O Sindicalismo em Portugal by Manuel Joaquim de Sousa & Edgar Rodrigues Resistencia Anarco-sindicalista em Portugal 1922-1939. 4. FARP (Portuguese Regional Anarchist Federation), the Portuguese section of the FAI was responsible for publication of the newspaper Rebelião, published from Spain & then Argentina, France & Spain in 1936-1939. Its officers were Vivaldo Fagundes, Jose Rodrigues Reboredo, Manuel Firmo, Marques da Costa (for a time), Manuel Francisco, Reboredo's daughter, J. Bastos, the Angola-born but Lisbon-educated physician Câmara Pires & other Portuguese anarchists. 5. A copy of a two page type-written letter from Manuel Perez-Fernández in the author's collection. Perez was captured during the Spanish Revolution & sentenced to death. He was saved by the Brazilian commercial attache who was living in Spain & who had known Perez as a journalist back in Rio de Janeiro, the pair becoming friends. Lobbied by Perez's wife & daughters he interceded & vouched that Perez had lived in Brazil from boyhood: this rescued him & he secured passage for the Perez family back to Brazil. After the end of the Vargas dictatorship, Manuel Perez, José Oiticica, Roberto das Neves & others launched the newspaper Ação Direta. Perez died in Rio de Janeiro, an anarchist to the end!

--

The New Inquisition
A Grotesque Frameup Against Anarchists

08/06/2004

What follows is a series of events directly leading up to & during what has come to be known as the ‘Marini trial’. It in no way encompasses all the acts of rebellion or the response of the forces of repression involving anarchists & rebels in Italy during the period covered. Spikey fish

Some events which came to be attributed to anarchists took place in years far preceding 1994. They were then inserted into the ‘theorem’ & phantom organisation, the ‘O.R.A.I.’ so dear to public prosecutor Marini, who took many years & great pains to ensure that the comrades accused would spend centuries behind bars. As this website develops, the whole incredible picture should emerge for comrades to see & draw their own conclusions.

We know that no selection of data is objective, & some may not agree with what we have chosen to include in this list. However, it is not final & can be added to at any time. We do not consider ourselves ‘writers of history’ or holders of the truth. We do consider it important for anarchists & all those who still think for themselves to have access to this material in order to see the development of the repressive strategies of power, & as a basis for active solidarity with the comrades involved.

It should nevertheless be clear that judges cannot be divided into ‘good’ & ‘bad’, just as there are not ‘good’ laws & ‘bad’ laws. The whole legal system is one of the greatest swindles on earth. Millions of people’s lives are locked into the drudgery of work & obedience in the name of the law, which they are told respects their individuality & freedom.

The State will always find willing servants for whom it is all in a day’s work to eliminate the unruly, the untamed, those who refuse exploitation, take the wrong drugs, have the wrong nationality, etc etc. Some of these dutiful servants work by the book, others stretch the rules, but the end result is the same: to maintain the workings of capital & defend the real & only terrorist, the State.

 

Chronology

 

September 1994

19/09 - Anarchists Antonio Budini, Jean Weir, Carlo Tesseri, Christos Stratigopulous & Eva Tziutzia are arrested near Rovereto following an armed robbery in the Rural Savings Bank of Serravalle, in Trentino, Italy.
- Raid on Antonio Budini’s house in Milan.

20/09 - Press & local TV in the Rovereto/Trento area give vent to hysterical fantasies denouncing international criminal organisations, Red Brigades connections, terrorist gangs, etc, & accuse the comrades of being responsible for other robberies in the area.
- Individual anarchists from Rovereto immediately denounce the obvious intention of the police & the press to build a frame up, & leaflet & flypost the area.
- Comrades in many towns all over Italy also show their unconditional solidarity with the arrested anarchists in various kinds of initiative.
- Meanwhile the “Fronte della Gioventù” (young fascists) of Rovereto collect signatures to have the self-managed centre Clinamen closed by police, & that night set fire to the main door.

30/09 - Summary trial of the five anarchists takes place in Rovereto town court. The public gallery is full, dozens of comrades have come from all over the country to show their support. Press photographers & TV camermen are thrown out of court. The trial ends with three five year sentences (Antonio, Christos, Jean), one six years (Carlo, because he is not a first offender for robbery), & Eva is acquitted.
- The men are transferred to Trento prison as proceedings have begun against them concerning two unsolved robberies in Ravina, Trento.
- Declaration by arrested anarchists.
- Jean transferred to Vicenza prison in the Veneto region.
- A national poster is produced by 40 groups & flyposted in many towns, cities & villages.

October 1994

- ID parades in Trento for Antonio, Carlo Jean & Christos. The witnesses see them walk by in handcuffs, & in any case already know their faces from the many photographs published on the front pages of the local press, on TV, etc.

November 1994

- An anarchist in Naples is summoned to Carabinieri barracks & questioned concerning her presence at the trial in Rovereto. Held for a number of hours, she refuses to answer questions, stating that anarchists give solidarity to other anarchists without necessarily knowing them personally.
- Formal charges made against Antonio, Carlo, Christos & Jean concerning two robberies carried out contemporaneously in Ravina, Trento.
- Anarchists flyposting national poster Fuori legge, fuori del gregge are stopped & taken to Rovereto police station. The press seize the opportunity to talk about the robberies again, describing the anarchists held that night as “extremely dangerous”.
- Anarchists held by police in Cuneo, after being stopped flyposting national poster. Each fined 600.000 lire.

December 1994

4/12- Panzerknackerparty held in Munich in solidarity with imprisoned comrades.
14/12 - Raid on the house where anarchist weekly “Canenero” is edited & printed, with warrant looking for “documentation concerning the committing of armed robberies”.
19/12 - Four addresses in Milan raided, including the Anarchist Laboratory in via De Amicis. Another raid in Aosta.
24/12 - Turin - Robbery Rave all night fund raising party in support of the comrades.

January 1995

01/01- A busload of anarchists turn up outside Vicenza prison next to American military base to celebrate New Year with flares & fireworks. For half an hour the sky is alight & the deathly silence of the prison is broken by all the prisoners shouting, singing & banging tin plates on the bars for twenty minutes. The night visitors disappear into the darkness after decorating the walls with paint bombs & leaving a banner “Jean free, Fire to all prisons”.
- A dossier “Hands Up” is distributed at national level.

14/01- Verona tribunal orders that no. 9 of anarchist weekly “Canenero” be confiscated from Jean as this short article describing the New Year festivities could “represent a danger to the internal security of the prison”. A police helicopter is parked permanently just by the women’s exercise yard.
20/01- Jean transferred to Opera prison, near Milan.
30/01- The Public Prosecutor in Rovereto appeals against the September sentence which he considers too lenient, & asks for trial to be re-opened.

February 1995

FEBRUARY 28 28/02 - Four raids in Rome on the homes of anarchists & premises of “Anarchismo Editions”. One raid in Trento. Five raids in Rovereto, on the homes of anarchists & the Clinamen centre, “searching for Alfredo Bonanno”, who is working on “Canenero” at a house raided at the end of last year.

March 1995

06/03- Another police raid in Trento.

April 1995

19/04- Preliminary hearing in Trento court concerning the two robberies in July, which Carlo, Christos, Antonio & Jean are formally charged with. Trial set for October 13, 1995 in Trento.

May 1995

30/05 - about 30 anarchists set rockets & flares over the prison walls in Trento in solidarity with the comrades being held there. 28 are held, four are issued with explusion orders from the area.

June 1995

01/06 - Appeal trial against September sentences in Trento. All sentences reduced by 1 year 8 months. However, the judges square their accounts by also sentencing Eva to 3 years 8 months. Dozens of anarchists fill the court & an adjacent building. Clashes with police.

October 1995

13/10 - Trial against four anarchists opens in Trento court. Many comrades turn up inside & in front of the court. A new hearing is set for 14 November.

November 1995

14/11 - The accused & many anarchists from all over Italy turn up in court for the hearing in Trento. The hearing is postponed to December 12.
16/11 - A massive police operation takes place all over Italy including Sicily & Sardinia. Hundreds of masked Carabinieri special squads wielding machine guns raid about 60 anarchists at dawn, on the orders of substitute public prosecutor Antonio Marini. They are notified that investigations are in course related to charges such as “clandestine organisation”, “subversion against the State” “attacks on public structures” “concourse in robbery” “possession of arms & explosives”, & “concourse in murder”.
17/11 - Trento, Opera, etc - anarchists serving sentences are now subjected to ROS raids on the cells they are being held in.
- A poster denouncing Marini is printed & flyposted by anarchists all over Italy.


December 1995

12/12 - Trento. The four accused anarchists are transferred for the court hearing. Many comrades come from all over Italy in solidarity. The hearing is postponed again, this time to January 1996.1996

January 1996

03/ 01 JANUARY - A press communique issued by Marini appears in all the national dailies in which the anarchists under investigation are presented as kidnappers & terrorists, announcing the existence of a mysterious “pentita”(‘repentant terrorist’).
9/ 01 JANUARY - Trento – The hearing finally begins in Trento. A document is presented to the court. It is the declaration of Mojdeh Namsetchi, Carlo’s girlfriend who had not been in touch with him for a long time. Now he knows why: she has been collaborating with the Rome Attorney’s office for months. For security reasons she is to be questioned via cable video, in according with a law passed a few days before. So the hearing is postponed to January 16 in order to have time to set up the necessary equipment.
16/ 01 JANUARY - The public gallery in Trento court is full of anarchists. Many who did not get in demonstrate outside. To everyone’s surprise & amusement the “pentita” accuses herself of carrying out one of the robberies in question along with the anarchists in the dock. She also succeeds in accusing three other comrades. When questioned she states she has never had anything to do with anarchism, & that she carried out the robbery “for love”.
25/ 01 JANUARY - Offices of communist newspaper ‘Il Manifesto’ occupied by anarchists in protest against the latter’s acritical publishing of police reports.
31/01 - Trento - final hearing of the trial against the anarchists already imprisoned for robbery, now also accused of belonging to the ‘Organisation’. Cops with truncheons charge the anarchists who have come to show their solidarity inside the court building. At 10 p.m., after two hours deliberation, the riot cops burst into the court brandishing truncheons, The judges reappear & sentence Jean, Antonio & Christos to 6 years, Carlo to seven.

February 1996

23/02 - Rome: Bomb attack on Air Force headquarters causing millions of lire damage.

March 1996

07 /03 MARCH 7 - Florence: attack against Eurofor barracks. These two actions are dedicated to Marini & Ionta & signed ‘long live anarchy’.
21 /03 MARCH 21 - Cagliari: attack on town hall electoral offices. Many Sardinian anarchists’ & independentists’ homes raided.

September 1996

15/09 - Christos Stratigopulous starts a hunger strike in Novara prison.
17/09 - Rome, Catania, Florence, Rovereto, Turin, Milan, etc, etc. G.I.P. Claudio D’Angelo (Judge for preliminary investigations), on request of Public Prosecutors Antonio Marini & Franco Ionta, signs 29 arrest warrants against anarchists. Twelve are arrested, nine are already serving prison sentences, others escape arrest (some are captured later). They are charged, along with 39 other people, of belonging to an “armed clandestine organisation”, as well as conspiracy, murder, robbery, bombings, kidnapping, etc., etc. Marini holds a jubiliant press conference to inform the Italian public that a dangerous gang of anarchist criminals has been dismantled. He even gives it a name, the O.R.A.I., & a leader, Alfredo Maria Bonanno.
- Salvatore Gugliara, one of the arrested comrades, immediately begins a hunger strike in Rebibbia prison. He ends it on September 29.
- Anarchists print 25,000 copies of Dossier “With Every Means Necessary” & dstribute it throughout Italy.

24/09 - A national flyer is distributed against the repression.

October 1996

02/10 - Police raid four anarchists of Applequince Records in Viterbo, charged with “subversive association in compliance with unknown persons”. Records, leaflets, fanzines, spray cans & video tapes seized.
10/10 - Teramo 3 youths stopped by police while flyposting “Uncontrollable” poster. Held for questioning. Press headlines about dangerous anarchists.
14/10 - Salvatore Gugliera resumes hunger strike. He is later released under house arrest due to his state of health. Meanwhile Giuseppina Riccobono & Tiziano Andreotti have also begin hunger strikes.
- Rome: Christina Lo Forte, Salvatore Gugliara & Apollonia Cortimiglia are released under house arrest. (Marini trial). Francesco Berlemmi & Stefano Moreale are released.
23/10 - Giuseppina Riccobono begins hungerstrike in Rebibbia prison.
23/10 - A number of anarchists are held for questioning after 2 groups hand out leaflets in front of the carabinieri barracks. Another is held after showing a transparency “Marini Terrorist” in the city centre.
24/10 - Graffiti artist expressing himself about Marini is beaten up by off-duty finance cop.
24/10 - Verona - unknown hands paper all the panels & sculptures of an exhibition sponsored by the town council & various companies in the Gran Guardia palace. They also spray words of solidarity with the arrested anarchists on the walls. The exhibition is cancelled.
30/10 - Declaration signed by 9 anarchists in jail.

November 1996

02-03/11 - ‘Cash dispensers – a massacre’ was the title in a local newspaper reporting incidents during the night of Nov 2/3 in Trento & surrounding 150 km when over a hundred cash dispensers were put out of action. Observation of cameras was of no help in identifying the offenders as they were all masked. They are said to have used a simple system: the opening for the plastic cards was sealed using silicon & small pieces of iron.. The material damage has been estimated at one billion lire (over a million pounds). That is without taking into account the damage caused by the inactivity of the dispensers. The ‘massacre’ took place a few days before the trial of the anarchists charged with bank robbery.
05/11 - Verona - Two squats raided by carabinieri “searching for anarchists”.
06/11 - Carabinieri raid home of Italino Rossi, editor of the anarchist weekly Umanita Nova, of the Italian anarchist Federation, looking for weapons connected with attacks on electric pylons in Tuscany.
06/11 - Raids at La Spezia & Sarzana, looking for material “defamating the upholders of public order”. Papers (including Canenero), & punk fanzines, seized, as well as articles & letters from prison.
07/11 - Appeal trial in Trento of the four anarchists accused of the bank robberies in Ravina. About 100 comrades present. After 10 hours, court decides to ajourn proceedings to December 13 in order to interview the “pentita” Mojdeh Namsetchi, & Maresciallo Farini (the Carabinieri officer who “convinced” her to collaborate).
12/11 - Salvatore Gugliara is released under house arrest. Sentence for robbery postponed to 13 December.
14/11 - Rome: Giuseppina Riccobono, who commenced a hunger strike on October 23, is released under house arrest but is forbidden to communicate with anybody.
- Eduardo Massari is released after doing 1 year 8 months for possession of explosive substances.
22/11 - Turin – CDA (Anarchist Defence Committee) send an open letter to all imprisone comrades.
29/11 - An open letter from the Anarchist Defence Committee: Giuseppina Riccobono, Cristina Lo Forte, Salvatore Gugliara & Apollonia Cortimiglia are under house-arrest. Francesco Berlemmi & Stefano Moreale are free. Still in prison are: Antonio Budini, Carlo Tesseri, Christos Stratigopulos, Jean Weir, Garagin Gregorian, Emma Sassosi, Antonio Gizzo, Horst Fantazzini, Alfredo Bonanno, Orlando Campo, Francesco Porcu, Tiziano Andreozzi, Paolo Ruberto, Marco Camenisch.

December 1996

04/12 - Malaga, Spain - three armed, masked inviduals, break into the Italian vice consulate in Malaga, Spain. They force the consul to write a statement “against judges & the law, in favour of Italian prisoners”. The “Free Hearts” then search the archives of the consulate, cut the telephone wires, & spray the walls before leaving the building, not forgetting to take passports, stamps & money.
07/ DECEMBER - A handful of squatters dare to climb up on to the roof of Palazzo Reale (Royal Palace) in the centre of Turin. They hoist flags, place a puppet, hang a transparency & throw leaflets entitled ‘Anarchists have Wings’. In this way they draw attention to the preliminary hearing of the strange investigation by public prosecutors Marini & Ionta.
10/12 - Date fixed for the preliminary hearing in Rome for the G.I.P. (Judge for preliminary investigations) to decide whether to press charges against the 60 anarchists accused of belonging to a clandestine organisation. Postponed to January 16 & 24.
10/12 - Rome - Shock for commuters after about 100 doors of 27 underground stations had to be broken open after being sealed during the night with iron filings, silicon & liquid steel, to let them on their way to their daily grind on the day fixed for the preliminary hearing in that city.
10/12 - In Florence public prosecutors were paid a visit by about 30 influential residents : businessmen, local politicians, city councillors, journalists, university lecturers, etc, somewhat nervous after a sleepless night, having received summons, signed by public prosecutor Marini, inviting them to report to the public prosecutor’s office at short notice. The said office states “It was a well done fake, posted to hundreds of mailboxes”.
13/12 - Appeal proceedings against the four anarchists in Trento. A spokesman for Maresciallo Farini, the ROS official responsible for the collaborator’s “confession” after visiting her in the night club where she worked, & who had been called as a key witness in the trial, states that he will be unable to attend as he on six month’s “sickness leave” following a “bullet wound received in the course of his duty”. So nobody will ever be able to ask him any embarrassing questions about how he managed to meet this girl.
Mojdeh Namsetchi’s cross-examination is carried out in closed session. All the comrades are thrown out of the court & she is hidden behind a screened partition, guarded by four Carabinieri of the ROS special task force. Even after all this time in State-financed seclusion she has not rehearsed her role as chief witness. Once again her examination was a Punch-and-Judy comedy which even left the vice prosecutor slightly dazed. After a series of ‘I don’t know’ & ‘I can’t remember’ she got tangled up in even more inconsistencies than before. She left the courtroom weeping, alone & in dispair. A bank employee didn’t confirm the girl’s statements but described the female robber completely differently.
A sentence of two years for all is pronounced, the motivations will not be known for a month. Which version will they choose? The answer will be given in two months. The sentences are reduced to 2 years.
16/12 - Employees of the Court of Supervision in Bologna found themselves waiting in front of the building staring at the graffiti ‘Marini & Ionta – Terrorists’ & ‘Freedom for All’ & encircled A’s on the wall. Some individuals had locked the court doors using silicon & nails which required the intervention of the fire brigade. The preliminary trial in the Marini inquiry is postponed to January 16 1997.
18/12 - Bologna: Court of Cassation squashes the sentence of the Appeal court in the Silocchi kidnapping which Gregorian Garagin, Orlando Campo, Francesco Porcu, all involved in the Marini inquiry, have been accused of. The third degree court (Cassation) decides the trial must be repeated. Another trial will therefore be held in Bologna Appeal Court.
- Cordoba, Spain - Four comrades, two of which are Italian anarchists Michele Pontolillo & Giovanni Barcia, are arrested following a robbery that ends in a shoot-out where two policewomen are killed.
28/12 - Turin – CDA Bulletin.

January 1997

01/01 - Aosta - arson attacks against the court, some bank agencies & the Alpine club. Claimed in a letter signed with an encircled “A”: “Aosta, 2.1.97: In Spain as in Italy: freedom for the comrades”.
10/01 - Turin – CDA finds lawyers to contact those in Spain.
16/01 - Rome: in the bunker courtroom in Rebibbia prison the preliminary inquest of judge Marini is again put off. Marini is asking for the two anarchists arrested in Spain to be extradited.
20/01 - Preliminary trial for the Marini inquiry has been postponed to 19, 20, 22, 24 March 1997.

February 1997

12/02 FEBRUARY 12 - Marseilles, France - Salvatore Condrò arrested with an international arrest warrant. He is charged with participation in a car bomb attempt in Rome in 1989, & with being a member of the “armed organisation ORAI”.
21/02 FEBRUARY 21 - Rome – Request made to Tribunale Della Liberta (Court of Freedom (!)) for release of Paolo Ruberto & Appollonia Cortimiglia.
28/02 FEBRUARY 28 - Anarchist Defence Committee bulletin issued.

March 1997

- Document in Spanish concerning the four comrades arrested 18/12/96 in Spain.
14 /03 MARCH 14 - Anarchist Massimo Passamani, accused of being the ‘treasurer’ of the ‘Organisation’ after sending money orders to the imprisoned anarchists with contributions from various benefits in anarchist squats, is arrested in Paris. Marini made a request for him to be extradited but this was refused.
15 /03 MARCH 15 - Bologna - Demonstrators who turn a demo into an expropriation party are sentenced to house arrest. The police reports dutifully reproduced by the press talk of the “clandestine organisation”.
15 /03 MARCH 15 - Foggia, anarchist squatters “guilty” of sticking up posters about Marini are sentenced to house arrest.
19 /03 MARCH 19 - Preliminary hearing for the Marini inquiry is postponed again to 6, 8 & 10 May -

April 1997

16/04 - News of the two Italian anarchists arrested in France. French judges are probably not going to extradite them.
- Early in the month eight people are beaten & arrested in a selfmanaged squatted social centre in Florence during a benefit gig for the anarchists on trial. Result of the evening: eight arrests, several injured after an all night battle. All released two days later, but have to report to carabinieri station once a week.
25/04 - Milan – A bomb explodes outside the City Hall, Palazzo Marino, breaking a window & damaging the main hall. Responsibility is claimed by “Azione Rivoluzionaria Anarchica” (Anarchist Revolutionary Action). Delirium in the judiciary & the press: charges of “slaughter” are to be inferred on the culprits.
21/04 - The press circulate a blurred photograph from the CCTV camera outside the premises of Radio Popolare (communist radio station) in Milan after a “postwoman” hands in a letter claiming the attack. A reward of 10,000,000 lire is offered to anyone who recognizes the woman in the picture.

May 1997

13/05 - Rome – Preliminary hearing posponed once again, this time to 1, 2, 15 & 17 July in order for Marini to be able to collect more proof & documents, including material on websites used by the ‘terrorists’! Judge Marini seems very upset by this public diffusion of news & updates on the net.

June 1997

12/06 - Raids in Florence & Turin ordered by Public Prosecutor Alessandro Crini of Florence for conspiracy & instigation to commit a crime. Four investigated by Marini for subversive association in Pescara.
20/06 - Milan - Anarchist Patrizia Cadeddu is arrested & charged with being the person who delivered the letter claiming responsibility for the bomb against Palazzo Marino last month. She was ‘identified’ from a blurred CCTV image by two colleagues at work after a company in Rome, SOS Italia, offered a premium of 10 million lire to anyone who recognised the woman on video. Meantime, the Laboratorio Anarchico is raided, evicted & walled up.
- The same day, a dozen raids take place in Turin, Milan, Venice, Verona, Bordighera, San Remo & Cagliari.
25/06 - Paris: at the Chambre d’Accusation a hearing took place for the extradition of Massimo Passamani, accused in the Marini inquest.

July 1997

01/07 - Marini inquest re-opens.
02/07 - Preliminary hearings at Marini trial begin in Rome & will continue on July 12.
10/07 - Turin - An internal document is sent anonymously to Radio Blackout, a free radio in the city. It is a 14-page document drawn up by the R.O.S., special operations regroupment of the Carabinieri which runs through the last 20 years of investigations & plots against anarchists by the carabinieri & judiciary, & outlines the setting up of “key witness”, the “repentant” Modjeh Namstchi. At this time the general investigative methods used by the Carabinieri are being questioned by the press, following the discovery of illegal activities ordered & carried out by major police officers (including drug trafficking & false evidence given by police informers). The report on Italian anarchism anonymously sent to Radio Blackout, ‘for internal use only’, confirms that unlawful practices have also been used to collect evidence against the anarchists.
18/07 - Rome – Result of the preliminary hearing against the anarchists: they will be formally prosecuted for terrorism & subversion. The trial will begin on October 20, 1997, in Rome.
25/07 - Turin – Radio Blackout is raided by the Carabinieri. The search warrant is signed by judges Marini, Ionta & De Crescenzo. The aim of the raid is to collect information & evidence about the ‘Informative note for internal use only’ anonymously sent to Radio Blackout a few days previously. http://www.ecn.org/zero/cda/press/ros.htm

August 1997

04/08/1997- Turin - Radio Blackout intimidated again. The special squad come in with an order signed by Marini & Ionta to sieze the inkject printer, implicitly accusing Radio Blackout of having forged the “Information Note” received anonymously some weeks before. Leading the raids was one of the signatories of the document himself.
27/08/1997 - Turin - Anarchist Defence Committee bulletin comes out summarizing the current situation of imprisoned anarchists in Italy both for Marini’s & other enquiries.

October 1997

19/10 - Athens, Greece - A bomb explodes outside the Italian Embassy & leaflets are handed out in solidarity with the Italian anarchists due on trial next day.
20/10 - First hearing of the Marini enquiry, mainly dedicated to carrying out administrative preliminary operations. Next hearing scheduled for Monday, December 1st. The R.O.S. document which proves the existence of a plot against the anarchists is declared false & discarded.
21/10 - News about international events supporting the Italian anarchists. German translation.
25/10 - Rome - Emma Sassosi & Alfredo Bonanno are released from Rebibbia prison because of a “miscarriage of justice”, as they, along with all the other anarchists arrested by Marini & Ionta, had been held illegally, not having been questioned within five days of arrest by the G.I.P. D’Angelo.
OCTOBER 26/10 - Unexploded bomb found in a briefcase outside the building of the Ministero di Grazia e Giustizia (Ministry of Justice). No responsibility is claimed for it. Again the press talk of the “armed organisation” invented by Marini.

November 1997

02/11 - Letter written by Guido Mantelli & Roberta Nano, two wanted anarchists charged with subversive association by judge Marini.

December 1997

01/12 - Rome - Second hearing of trial in the special bunker courtroom in piazzale Clodio.
Antonio Gizzo, one of the arrested anarchists, is released under home arrest, due to a “miscarriage of justice”.
- R.O.S. document printed & widely distributed.
08/12 - Cordoba, Spain - First preliminary hearing of four anarchists arrested in Spain following failed robbery.
09/12 - Pescara - Anarchist arrested. He had been sentenced to six months for insulting a police officer.
10/12 - Paris - Demonstration in support of Massimo Passamani, arrested in Paris in May. Today judges are to decide whether to extradite him to Italy or not.
13/12 - Milan - Trial of Patrizia Cadeddu, arrested after the bomb in Milan, is set for February 16.
19/12 - Paris - The National Office for Italian Tourism in Paris occupied against the jailing of Massimo Passamani, accused of belonging to Marini’s phantom organisation.

January 1998

09/01 - Update on Silocchi retrial.
13/01 - Rome – Second hearing of trial. Freedom has been requested for the anarchists still in prison. A decision is expected in the next few days.
18/01 - Turin - Another raid on Radio Blackout. A computer, printer & dozens of discs are seized.
28/01 - Amsterdam - An Italian anarchist accused in Marini enquiry is arrested.

February 1998

03/02 FEBRUARY 3 - Turin - CDA, Anarchist Defence Committee is disbanded.
04/02 FEBRUARY 4 - Paris - Massimo Passamani is released from prison where he has been held for some months.
08/02 FEBRUARY 8 - Rome - reports about hearings of trial (on 26/1 & 2/2) by Tactical Media Crew.
09/02 - Rome - Marini trial hearing.
16/02 - Milan - Trial of Patrizia Cadeddu.
16/02 FEBRUARY 16 - Rome - Marini trial hearing.
23/02 FEBRUARY 23 - Rome - hearing at Marini trial.

March 1998

6-7/03 - Riots & street fighting in Turin after three squats are raided & two are evicted & trashed. Three people are jailed. Report by Radio Blackout.
09/03 - Turin - El Paso charged with illegal apology of crime after comrades distribute a flyer expressing their solidarity with the rioters.
14/03 MARCH 14 - Turin - Demonstration. Comments & fliers.
14/03 MARCH 14 - News about the anarchists in Spain & involved in the Marini inquiry.
16/03 MARCH 16 - Turin - more arrests & violence by police. Two more people are in jail.
17/03 MARCH 17 - Turin - blockades in the streets & more demos for the liberation of the people in jail.
20/03 MARCH 20 - Rome - report of Marini trial.
28/03 MARCH 28 - Edoardo Massari (Baleno), 34 years old, is found hanged in a cell in “Le Vallette” prison in Turin. He was accused of belonging to a “clandestine armed organisation”, & “possession of explosives” along with his comrades Maria Soledad Rosas & Silvano Pelissero, related to acts of sabotage in Val de Susa against the high speed railway project which most of the local population are against.
29/03 MARCH 29 - Maria Soledad & Silvano begin hunger strike.

April 1998

03/04 - Turin - Clashes between squatters & journalists at the funeral of Baleno.
04/04 - Turin - national demonstration following the death of Edoardo Massari in prison. 05/04/1998 - Turin – anarchists & journalists. A comment by El Paso.
08/04 - Turin - Further comment by El Paso about an article full of false statements that appeared in newspaper La Repubblica.
09/04 - Rome - Report about Marini trial.
13/04 - Turin - Radio Blackout & the Press: why we don’t speak to professional journalists.
14/04 - Turin - A short note by El Paso about the ‘cruel beating up’ that journalists constantly give to the anarchist movement & against individual freedom.
17/04 - Turin - an anarchist is arrested & two are wanted for the beating up of the journalists during the funeral of Edoardo Massari two weeks ago.
19/04 - Turin - The Pope is coming to Turin: the police forbid the counter-demo proposed by the squats.
22/04 - Turin - Silvano Pelissero transferred to maximum security prison in Novara, in order to take him away from solidarity demonstrations planned near prisons in Cuneo & Turin.
24/04 - Turin - Luca Bertola, the anarchist arrested for the beating of journalist Daniele Genco, is under house arrest.
26/04 - Ivrea - 13 convicted for demonstration in support of Edoardo Massari (Baleno) in 1993.
27/04 - Silvano ‘fascist’ like us: a comment by El Paso about the recent press attack on Silvano Pelissero.
28/04 - Turin - paint eggs against press headquarters.

June 1998

02/06 - Report of Marini trial in Rome.
15/06 - Cordoba Spain - further charges to the four anarchists arrested in Spain after a failed bank robbery.

July 1998

09/07 - Report about the hearing of the Marini trial in Rome.
11/07 - Maria Soledad Rosa is dead, she ‘committed suicide’ while under house arrest.
12/07 - Turin - Soledad is dead. No celebrations please.
14/07 - Turin - 1 + 1 = 2. TURIN HANGMAN. Flyer signed Asilo, Prinz, Barocchio, Alcova, La Casa, Punx a Pinerolo, Gabrio, Allblackoutribe.
14/07 - Turin - Three editors of Radio Blackout are to be put on trial. Trial fixed for April 1999.
18/07 - Novara - Freedom for Silvano, freedom for all, against the establishment & its structures. Flyer distributed by El Paso on demo outside special prison where Silvano is still imprisoned.
20/07 - Turin - Street blockades during the night in Turin. Dozens of masked people burn garbage cans in the city centre.
28/07 - Turin - Silvano’s trial is set for December 14 1998.

August 1998

31/07 - Turin - Solidarity to the project SOTTOIPONTI (the community that hosted Sole when she was under house arrest) by Asilo Occupato, Cascina, El Paso, Barocchio.

October 1998

13/10 - Report about the hearing of the Marini trial in Rome.

January 2000

21/01 - Hearing of the trial against Silvano Pelissero.
22/01 - Hearing of the Marini trial in Rome.
31/01 - Silvano convicted.

February 2000

17/02 - Report about hearing of Marini trial in Rome.
21/02 - Third day of final hearing in Marini trial.
22/02 - Another hearing of the Marini trial: Marini goes on & on.
23/02 - Trial day 5: Marini concludes.

May 2000

04/03 MARCH 4 - Report on Marini trial: prosecutor speaks.
07/03 MARCH 7 - Marini trial: first day for lawyers.
09/03 MARCH 9 - Marini trial: Lawyer Calia asks that all her clients be acquitted.
31/03 MARCH 31 - Rome - The trial against the 68 anarchists accused of being members of the ‘ORAI’ comes to an end. The main charge, that of belonging to the phantom organisation, is dropped.

February 2002

13/02 FEBRUARY 13 - Radio Blackout comrades acquitted in the trial concerning the ROS internal document which they had been accused of forging.

February 2003

01/02 FEBRUARY 1 - Sentences of second degree Marini trial are: Orlando campo- 10 years (1st degree 5 years); Angela Maria Lo Vecchio – 15 years (1st degree 12 years); Francesco Porcu – life plus day isolation for 18 months (same as before); Gregorian Garagin – 30 years plus 9 years (first degree 30 years plus 6 years); Rose Anne Scrocco – 30 years plus 15 (first degree 30 years plus 10; Alfredo Maria Bonanno 6 years plus 2,000 euros fine (first degree, 3 years & 6 months). All the other comrades were acquitted. Gregorian Garagin & Francesco Porcu are in prison.

April 2004

20/04 - Court of Cassation in Rome after three minutes confirms the conclusion of the appeal trial.
21/04 - Alfredo Bonanno, Maria Lo Vecchio, Orlando Campo, Carlo Tesseri are in prison.
Carlo Tesseri has now been released under house arrest.



Some ‘pre-chronology’ dates which Marini built into his theorem

1989

02/02 – Bergamo: holdup in a jeweller’s shop. Anarchists Alfredo Bonanno & Pippo Scarso arrested.

1991

07/05 – arms & explosives discovered in a cellar in Rome, along with some anarchist publications.
10/05 – press conference where judge Improta who presents the ‘theorem’ according to which those responsible for the kidnapping of a woman, M. Silocchi are a gang of Sardinians, & anarchists.
05/11 – Anarchist Marco Camenisch is arrested after a shootout in Carrara.

1993

First trial for Silocchi kidnapping: 6 life sentences (including 3 to anarchists) & another of 22 years to another anarchist.

1994

6-7/07 – Attacks on Berlusconi’s Standa stores in various cities.
20/07 – Trento – simultaneous robberies in two banks.

 

 

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MARINI TRIAL; Copy of the page archived


5 -- mcDaniels calendar http://www.nortexinfo.net/McDaniel/jancal.htm


6 -- The offbeat (a.k.a. weird) Tour of Seattle http://www.leconsulting.com/arthurhu/screen/screen4.htm


7 -- Reality's a Rorschach test, And all the world's a blot.




8 -- TODAY INDIAN HISTORY

buddha, lao, & confucious walk into a bar. buddha orders juice, lao orders water, and confucious orders a double shot of scotch.

buddha asks: what do you call a society of multiple paradoxes?

lao answers: a paradise!

confucious says: i'll buy it!

http://members.tripod.com/~PHILKON/January4.html


?
1869 -- 1929 The Spanish Arts Shop is established in Santa Fe, New Mexico, serving as an impetus to such santos (saint) carvers as José Dolores López.

http://www.collectorsguide.com/fa/fa077.shtml


1869 -- US: March 2003Transport Workers Union TWU This Month in Labor History SOME, MOST OR ALL OF THESE MAY HAVE ALREADY BEEN DONE IN THE BLEED; but the source link to our chronologies is new as of this month:

This Month in Labor History: April

  • — — —
  • June 30, 1944 -- Philadelphia Local 234 wins first contract.

This Month in Labor History: July

  • July 1, 1979 -- Local 2017, Lithecote Company employees in Altoona, PA win 32-day strike.
  • July 5, 1965 -- Equal Employment Opportunity Act (EEOC), federal agency which investigates discrimination charges, becomes operational.
    Pass on to Robert: August 3, 1945 -- San Francisco MUNI workers join Local 250. August 7, 1997 -- Local 574, American Eagle, Dallas, chartered.
  • August 16, 1937 -- TWU wins first contract at Fifth Avenue Coach in NYC.

    This Month in Labor History: August TO DO

  • August 23, 1927 -- Sacco & Vanzetti, two labor organizers, executed for alleged murder of two bank guards.
  • August 26, 1878 -- Third Avenue elevated line opened in NYC.
  • August 27, 1885 -- First electrically powered train tested on Ninth Avenue elevated line in NYC.
  • August 28, 1963 -- TWU participates in March on Washington for "equal rights for all now."
  • August 29, 1945 -- Successful 2-day strike at Columbia University by Local 241 after school had denied government directives for two years to recognize union.
  • August 29, 1989 -- Local 570, American Airlines, Nashville, chartered.
  • August 30, 1920 -- Attempt to organize BMT workers broken when court halts strike.
  • August 31, 1938 -- First TWU contract with Gray Line Bus.

This Month in Labor History: September

  • September 1, 1988 -- Local 569, American Airlines, Raleigh-Durham, chartered.
  • September 1, 1992 -- Local 567, American Airlines, Alliance-Ft. Worth, chartered.
  • SEPTEMBER 6, 1916 -- Strike on IRT in NYC begins. Walkout broken when company spends $3.5 million & hires 3,000 strikebreakers.
  • SEPTEMBER 8, 1993 -- Local 249, Cobb County, GA, chartered.
  • SEPTEMBER 9, 1919 -- Over 1,000 Boston police strike when union leaders fired for organizing. National Guard called up & all strikers fired.
  • SEPTEMBER 12, 1960 -- TWU wins 12-day strike against Pennsylvania Railroad guaranteeing job security.
  • SEPTEMBER 14, 1959 -- Landrum-Griffin Act passed severely limiting trade union activity.
  • SEPTEMBER 18, 1905 -- Birthdate of Mike Quill, founder & first president of TWU.
  • SEPTEMBER 18, 1968 -- 12,000 Penn Central carmen, helpers, apprentices & food workers join TWU.
  • SEPTEMBER 19, 1981 -- Solidarity Day called by AFL-CIO, Over 400,000 trade unionist march in Washington.
  • SEPTEMBER 22, 1919 -- 365,000 steel workers strike nationally for union recognition. Police & courts break strike.
  • SEPTEMBER 26, 1945 -- First TWU Pan American contract gains 40 hour work week, first in industry.
  • SEPTEMBER 30, 1946 -- TWU Local 514, American Airlines, Tulsa, OK, chartered.

This Month in Labor History: October

  • October 1, 1954 -- 40,000 CIO railway workers affiliate with TWU.
  • October 1, 1962 -- First New York City MABSTOA contract ratified.
  • October 1, 1985 -- Local 225 Branch 4 chartered.
  • October 4, 1937 -- First TWU Constitutional Convention.
  • October 5, 1976 -- Local 241 ratifies contract after nine-day strike at Columbia University, gaining wage increases, prescription plan, & increased health insurance coverage.
  • October 6, 1970 -- Local 291, representing Metro-Dade transit workers, chartered.
  • October 10, 1946 -- Local 241 strikes Columbia University for five days, gaining 40-hour work week.
  • October 12, 1937 -- First contract with BMT gains TWU recognition for 12,000 transit workers.
  • October 15, 1945 -- Air Transport Locals 504, New York, & 505, San Francisco, chartered.
  • October 22, 1945 -- First contract for Local 241, Columbia University, goes into effect.
  • October 24, 1978 -- Airline Deregulation Act passed. It leads to abandonment of routes, decreased service, bankruptcies of established carriers, & unfair competition, all fostered by new low-wage non-union airlines.
  • October 27, 1941 -- Employees of Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Railways vote TWU & form Local 223.
  • October 29, 1955 -- Local 276 in Waco wins 58 day strike.

This Month in Labor History: November

  • November 1, 1918 -- Malbone tunnel disaster in NYC. Scab motorman crashes subway during strike killing 97 & injuring 255.
  • November 1, 1996 -- Local 555, Southwest Airlines, Dallas, chartered.
  • November 3, 1949 -- 12-day walk-out by Local 260 in Houston leads to first contract.
  • November 5, 1974 -- Local 250-A helps defeat Proposition L which would have destroyed their collective bargaining rights in San Francisco.
  • November 9, 1935 -- Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) founded.
  • November 11, 1887 -- 4 labor organizers hanged for alleged conspiracy in rioting & bombing at Chicago's Haymarket.
  • November 12, 1941 -- Local 208 chosen by Columbus transit workers in NLRB election.
  • November 14, 1958 -- KLM station agents & cargo handlers represented by Local 504 win first contract.
  • November 18, 1953 -- Local 100 private bus drivers win 40 hour work week.
  • November 19, 1982 -- Bus deregulation becomes law threatening riding public & transit workers with abandonment of routes, decreased service, & growth of non-union bus lines.
  • November 23, 1954 -- Local 2017 Altoona, chartered.
  • November 24, 1939 -- Local 100 wins bargaining rights at Triboro Coach.
  • November 24, 1941 -- Local 225, Hackensack, NJ, chartered.
  • November 26, 1968 -- Local 289, Upper Darby, PA, chartered.
  • November 26, 1996 -- Local 542 organizes America West dispatchers.
  • November 28, 1945 -- TWU certified to represent stores personnel at American Airlines.
  • November 29, 1937 -- Mike Quill elected Council member for the Bronx.

This Month in Labor History: December

  • December 1, 1933 -- First issue of TWU newspaper, Transport Workers Bulletin, is published.
  • December 1, 1996 -- Local 225 organizes Gray Line ticket sellers.
  • December 2, 1994 -- Local 500 organizes Hudson-General.
  • December 4, 1952 -- Walter Reuther elected CIO president.
  • December 5, 1955 -- Merger of AFL & CIO. George Meany elected president.
  • December 8, 1970 -- Brick Township NJ Board of Education employees join TWU.
  • December 9, 1869 -- Knights of Labor founded.
  • December 16, 1946 -- Barnard College workers join TWU & form Local 264.
  • December 19, 1969 -- 6-time Socialist Party candidate, Norman Thomas, dies.
  • December 20, 1945 -- 10-day strike by Local 225, Hackensack, ends in victory.
  • December 22, 1935 -- First TWU radio broadcast airs on WEVD in NYC.
  • December 29, 1970 -- Congress passes Occupational Safety & Health Act.
  • December 30, 1941 -- Brooklyn Union Gas employees vote TWU & form Local 101.
  • January 1, 1968 -- Local 100 wins contract guaranteeing 20-year half pay pension.
  • January 2, 1920 -- Attorney General Palmer orders arrest & illegal deportation of 10,000 Americans, many of them trade union members & officers.
  • January 4, 1966 -- President Mike Quill & other TWU leaders jailed for violating anti-strike court injunction.
  • January 5, 1956 -- First TWU Railroad Division contract signed with Pennsylvania Railroad.
  • January 7, 1939 -- AFL organizer Tom Mooney freed after 22-year imprisonment on false charges. TWU grants him honorary membership.
  • January 9, 1980 -- Supervisors in San Francisco MUNI system form Local 200.
  • January 10, 1950 -- Amendment to Railway Labor Act gives employees right to negotiate for union shop & check-off. TWU's American Airlines members are first to win both.
  • January 11, 1912 -- 10,000 immigrant textile workers in Lawrence, MA begin historic "Breadand Roses" strike for better wages & dignity
  • January 12, 1962 -- President Kennedy signs Executive Order 10998 guaranteeing federal employees rights to collective bargaining.
  • January 13, 1966 -- $60 million settlement ends NYC transit strike.
  • January 16, 1961 -- Agreement after 26-hour strike by Local 234, Philadelphia, gains major contract.
  • January 20, 1979 -- Month long strike by Local 514 Zebco workers won.
  • January 26, 1937 -- Two-day sit down strike in Brooklyn power plant leads to major organizing in New York subways.
  • January 27, 1850 -- Birthdate of Samuel Gompers, president & founder of the American Federation of Labor.
  • January 28, 1966 -- Death of Michael J. Quill, founder & first president of TWU.
  • January 29, 1889 -- 6000 railway workers strike in sympathy with Brooklyn's Atlantic Ave. Railroad workers demanding union recognition & end to 18-hour day. Police & militia break up strike.
  • January 30, 1882 -- Birthdate of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

    This Month in Labor History: February

    • February 1, 1972 -- Local 540, flight dispatchers, chartered.
    • February 2, 1946 -- Winston-Salem Local 248 wins first contract.
    • February 4, 1869 -- Big Bill Haywood, miner, socialist, & founder of the Industrial Workers of the World, born.
    • February 5, 1975 -- Southwest flight attendants join TWU.
    • February 6, 1919 -- Seattle shipyard strike of 32,000 sparks a general strike as workers take control of city. Action brutally repressed.
    • February 10, 1946 -- After 2-day strike, Local 234 wins wage increases, company-paid pension & union shop.
    • February 11, 1997 -- Local 252 organizes Laidlaw Transit.
    • February 11, 1937 -- General Motors sitdown strike ends in Flint, Michigan, with recognition of UAW.
    • February 12, 1880 -- Birthdate of John L. Lewis, United Mine Workers president & first president of CIO.
    • February 17, 1936 -- TWU merges with the International Association of Machinists, AFL, but soon withdraws & joins the CIO.
    • February 20, 1952 -- First parking garage workers in Philadelphia join Local 700.
    • February 20, 1997 -- Local 500 organizes Gray Lines Ft. Lauderdale.
    • February 21, 1943 -- Local 234, Philadelphia, chartered.
    • February 27, 1969 -- 21-day strike against American Airlines gains big pay & pension improvements.
    • February 28, 1990 -- Local 590, Nashville, chartered.
    • February 28, 1995 -- Local 500 organizes Airbus Industries.

    This Month in Labor History: March

    • March 1, 1962 -- 28-day strike by Local 100 called when Fifth Ave. Coach fired 29 employees & threatened layoff of 1,500 others.
    • March 10, 1942 -- Local 101 wins recognition from Brooklyn Union Gas Co.
    • March 11, 1950 -- TWU workers at American Airlines win 11-day national strike gaining first severance pay clause in industry.
    • March 13, 1963 -- Local 260 Houston negotiates first contract with Pioneer Bus ending dual pay scales for black & white drivers.
    • March 14, 1944 -- TWU organizes Philadelphia transit workers into Local 234.
    • March 15, 1991 -- Local 234 begins successful 19-strike preventing introduction of part timers.
    • March 17, 1950 -- Half day work stoppage brings out 10,000 Local 100 members in support of 40 hour work week.
    • March 19, 1962 -- In effort to block massive layoffs & end strike NYC moves to seize privately-owned Fifth Avenue Coach, largest bus company in world.
    • March 20, 1997 -- Local 252 organizes Courtesy Bus.
    • March 21, 1965 -- TWU contingent marches in Selma, Alabama, to support voting rights drive.
    • March 22, 1995 -- Death of Matthew Guinan, second president of TWU.
    • March 23, 1932 -- Norris-LaGuardia Act restricts employer use of federal injunction against unions & bans "yellowdog" contracts.
    • March 24, 1974 -- Coalition of Labor Union Women (CLUW) founded.

      [Source, click here]




      1879 -- At the time of Malatesta's arrival in Geneva the movement abroad which he had last seen at the Berne congress (1876) had also undergone various changes. But I will only mention the decline of the Jura as an international center.

      Here James Guillaume had retired to Paris (spring of 1878), after the "Bulletin" also the "Avant-Guarde" had disappeared & Brousse was expelled from Switzerland (autumn 1878). The local active members were singled out by the employers & given no work, nor could their co-operative association stand against this pressure. In Geneva another group, mainly Russians & French worked during these years, publishing the Rabotnik & the Travailleur; Elisee Reclus was with them. Then there was the small advanced French group of Perrare, Dumartheray & others & some local Swiss comrades like G. Herzig.

      From all these materials, some fresh, some exhausted, Kropotkin indefatigably built up the "Revolte" & the publishing centre called Imprimerie jurassienne. The "Revolte" was first published on FEBRUARY 22, 1879, when Malatesta was in Geneva & the latter remembers having assisted at preparatory meetings.

      Kropotkin himself tells how he & the comrades of the Geneva section met in a small cafe when the first number of the 'Revolte' had come out [2,000 copies]. "Tcherkesov & Malatesta lent us a hand & Tcherkesov instructed us in the art of folding a paper" (Temps nouveaux, February, 1904).

      Errico Malatesta The Biography of an Anarchist A Condensed Sketch of Malatesta from the book written by Max Nettlau Published by the Jewish Anarchist Federation New York City. 1924


      1881 -- EXACT DATE?

      Malatesta then demanded of Jules Guesde the publication of the Spanish reply, of a reply by himself or a settlement by duel. Pedro Eriz & Jose Vallverda on his part Some time after the amnesty (June, 1880) Malatesta returned to Paris, was arrested for living there in spite of his expulsion, & was sentenced to six months in prison, reduced to four by his option to pass this time in solitary confinement.

      He was kept quite miserably in the Sante & Roquette prisons & the Socialist dailies, Pyat's "Commune" & Guesde's "Citoyen" protested against this treatment (s. "Revolte,") Oct. 2, 1880). He remembers of these days the amusing detail that on the door of this cell was written: "Errico Malatesta dit Fritz Robert de Santa Maria Capua Vetere," which was too much for the wardens who called him alternatively Santa Maria or anything else from this long string of names. The regrettable point is that Fritz Rober who had lent the passport died soon, an excellent comrade according to the "Revolte" (August 20, 1881).

      Malatesta after this would have been content to live in Switzerland where no expulsion had been notified to him & he went to Lugano openly, with regular papers. He was arrested on February 21, 1881, for entering Switzerland Errico Malatesta The Biography of an Anarchist A Condensed Sketch of Malatesta from the book written by by Max Nettlau Published by the Jewish Anarchist Federation New York City. 1924





      1881 -- THIS RECORD FOR CHOPPING OUT/CONVERTING NAMES, DATES, EVENTS
      A DUPE COPY IS IN DBASE FOR CONVERTING TO PAGES STUART CHRISTIE HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SPANISH ANARCHISM A Historical Encyclopaedia of Spanish Anarchism

      140. FRE.
      Initials of the Federación Regional (or, de la Región) Española (Spanish Regional Federation).
      The FRE was the product of a process begun with Fanelli's meeting (on 24 January 1869 in Madrid) with a band of working men with the Barcelona combinationist tradition (of the Centro Federal) & disenchantment with federal republicanism behind them: all these elements came together in the first Spanish labor congress (Barcelona 1870) which gave birth to the IWMA's Spanish section, to wit, the FRE, the first federal council of which comprised González Morago, Lorenzo, Borrel & the Mora brothers. Its task was undoubtedly a difficult one, as there were several factors working against them: a) government restrictions which ultimately led to the banning of fledgling internationalism, b) the fascination that federal republicanism exercised shifted across to internationalism, c) the ingrained traditions & compliant character of most workers. The FRE grappled with these difficulties with considerable success: it expanded & managed to recruit stalwart militants (some of whom would go on to belong to the FTRE, Solidaridad Obrera & the CNT), but, then again it failed to sell its approach to the whole labor movement & a split occurred (with the Madrid group breaking away). Initially this split was rather feeble but with the passage of time it spawned the PSOE & UGT. Militants of the FRE old guard included Farga, Tomás, García Viñas, Iglesias, Pagés, Mesa, Lorenzo, González Morago, the Moras, Pauly, Calleja, Soriano, Sentiñón, Albarracín, Pino, Montoro, Pamias, Albagés, Alonso Marselau, Nácher & Balasch.
      The initial thrust was considerable & the FRE even ventured to expand into Portugal, where the Portuguese section of the international was set up in 1871, thanks to the good offices of Lorenzo, Mora & González Morago. The FRE also boasted a number of gutsy labor mouthpieces (La Solidaridad, La Federación, El Obrero, La Revolución Social, La Voz del Trabajo, El Orden, El Condenado). Expansion into Andalusia (as the Córdoba congress confirmed) was a great stride forward: thereafter Andalusia would be a staunch anarchist stronghold, whereas the initial Madrid group was to wither & the core groups in Catalonia, Valencia & Aragon were intensely active.
      The fall-out with federal republicanism was confirmed at the Valencia Conference (September 1871), when the “federal democratic republic ” was categorised as having these three features: collective ownership, anarchy & economic federation, or, to use the classic formula “a free universal federation of free workers' agricultural & industrial associations”. In practice this theoretical divorce was not so comprehensive (on account of the radicalism of the republicans at the time) & there were internationalists aplenty who were involved in the republicans' insurrections, possibly with an eye to investing them with an internationalist slant. On the other hand, the Valencia Conference signalled the first signs of the coming split, which was not unconnected with the subsequent work of the federal council elected at it (Iglesias, Mesa, Lorenzo, the Moras, Pauly, Pagés, Calleja & Sáenz), most of whom were converted to marxism through the efforts of Lafargue.
      The ripple effect from the Paris Commune enthused active internationalists but it terrified the conservatives who used their government positions to ban the FRE (order of Sagasta, January 1872) which, as a result, went underground (as the Defensores de la Internacional): even so, the FRE defied the banning order by holding its congress in Zaragoza (April 1872), where its strength was reckoned at 25,000 members: at that congress the gloves came off in confrontation between Marxists (authoritarians) & Bakuninists (anti-authoritarians & anarchists) & although the members of the congress tried to defuse the quarrel, the differences between them persisted & affected even the members of the federal council (Montoro, Tomás, Rosell, Torres, Asensi, Martí, Franco, Mora & Lorenzo) were affected, with Lorenzo resigning in June & Mora refusing appointment (his place was taken by Albarracín): indeed, the Marxists from La Emancipación were expelled & the split became effective on 7 July 1872 when the tiny New Madrid Federation was established (Iglesias, Pauly, Pagés, the Moras, Sáenz, Mesa, Calleja & Castillón). This split mirrored the situation in labor circles internationally & also led to a parting of the ways between authoritarians & anarchists (with the congress in The Hague & the Saint-Imier Pact in September 1872). The FRE congress on Córdoba (1872-73) wholly endorsed the ascendancy of the anarchists & the expansion in membership (with a doubling in membership), on which basis it has been argued that that congress was the world's first anarchist congress & that Spanish labor preferred the Bakuninist line over the marxist. The federal council elected at the congress in Córdoba reflected this, being made up of Albarracín, Pino, Tomás & Fontbuena (complemented at comarcal level by Seguí, Abad, Deomarco, Villa & Castillo). With the espousal of anarchist principles, the government attack was escalated: early in 1874 a dissolution order was rigidly enforced, with two thousand workers deported & anything reminiscent of internationalist labor organising coming in for intense persecution. All in all, the FRE contented itself with surviving & keeping its structures - most likely aping the Bakuninist Alliance in this - so the 1874 congress in Madrid registered its shrinkage & emasculation: (This shrinkage accelerated over the years, hence the decline from 270 local federations in 1873, to 320 in 1874, 112 in 1976, 73 in 1877 & just 37 by 1880). This required the postponing of general congresses, which were then replaced by congresses & conferences at comarcal level until an extra-ordinary Conference met in Barcelona in FEBRUARY 1881 & wound up the FRE, launching the FTRE in its place. Clandestinity & persecution account for the emergence of radically defensive attitudes as well as avengers: Oliva attempted the king's life in October 1878, there was peasant agitation & strikes & Andalusia in 1879-80, the emergence of action groups & the revolutionary socialist Alliance, etc. During the tough underground years, the FRE was sustained by volunteer groups (let us single out Lorenzo, García Viñas, Tomás, Miranda & Farga) & it is down to this that the FTRE bounced back. The membership of the clandestine federal councils & commissions included Domínguez, Trucharte, Vera, Borrel, F. Ruiz, Moreda, Llúsar, Tomás, Soriano, Albarracín, Nácher, Balasch & others: Farga, García Viñas, Alerini, Brousse, Marquet, Soriano & Albarracín served as delegates to international congresses.
      COMARCAL CONFERENCES OF THE FRE.
      Forced underground, the FRE found itself prevented from operating in accordance with norms laid down by the 1874 congress: as a result, the federal commission, advised by the local federations, replaced congresses with comarcal conferences (which would be attended by a delegate from the federal commission who would bring along the agenda that had been drawn up at the prompting of the federations): it was up to the federal council to amalgamate all the resolutions into a common whole. In order to ensure the necessary coordination, there was the Bakuninist Alliance network to fall back on. Consequently there was no FRE congress in 1875. In a variety of ways, the conferences overhauled the FRE's statutes: 1. - Incorporating conferences into the federal structure for as long as the ban on the FRE remained. 2. - The federal council became a corresponding & statistical clearing-house, as well as an intermediary between the comarcal federations: it had a minimum of five permanent members based wheresoever seemed the safest place. This commission could take the initiative if it deemed this appropriate & this signified a strengthening of its powers (which, however, remained limited insofar as they were renewed on an annual basis & it had no funds). 3. - Establishment of comarcal federations organised into local federations. 4. - Revolutionary activity was afforded priority over scientific strikes.
      The first comarcal conference held was the Catalan one in Sans & the ones in 1876 & 1877 were especially outstanding in terms both of their determinations & of the number of those actually put into effect. The ones in 1875 (like all the others held over that summer) delivered to the FRE a federal council made up of Tomás, Farga, Soriano, García Viñas & Vidal. In 1876 there were conferences in Aragon, Valencia, Old Castile, Murcia, New Castile, Extremadura, Andalusia East & Andalusia West, with the ones in Catalonia & Andalusia especially well-attended: their decisions were: that the line of the 1875 conferences be endorsed, that executive commissions be appointed to every federal section to organise action groups, security & secret propaganda with an eye to revolutionary action, that the 1875 statutes be retained, with subscriptions raised to 15 céntimos per head, that the Spanish delegation to the international congress work towards unity of action & solidarity & sponsor the creation of an international bureau, that the federal council be empowered to appoint two delegates to the international congress, that (come the collapse of the State) any localities in which internationalists might succeed be declared independent, property abolished & that all the rebel comarcas federated, etc., at which point the liberated collectives would be represented by the local councils. The 1876 conferences (in July-August) drew attendances from Barcelona, Sans, San Martín, Gracia, Granollers, Sabadell, San Esteban, Reus, Las Corts, Zaragoza, Huesca, Cocentaina, Alocy, Valladolid, Murcia, Molina, Beniaján, Madrid, Chamartín, Málaga, Vélez Málaga, Córdoba, Quentar, Dila, Benaoján, Granada, Seville, Córdoba, Arcos, Lebrija, Marchena, Jérez, Puerto, Coronil, Badajoz, Plasencia & Trujillo.
      The 1877 comarcal conferences (in Catalonia, Valencia, Murcia, Andalusia East, Andalusia West, the North, Extremadura, Aragon, Old Castile & New Castile) were attended by 77 local federations: Barcelona, Sans, Gracia, Tarrasa, Manresa, San Martín, Granollers, Sabadell, Reus, Bañolas, Llansá, Lavid, Valencia, Alcoy, Grao, Murcia, Cartagena, Molina, Málaga, Benaoján, Jaén, Córdoba, Espiel, Granada, Motril, Alhaurín, Arahal, Paterna, Coronil, Puerto Real, Alcalá Gazules, Puerto, Sanlúcar, Rota, Trebujena, Jérez, Carmona, Lebrija, Marchena, Paradas, Seville, Cádiz, Ubrique, La Línea, Huelva, Arroyo, Arcos, Santander, Bilbao, Aceuchal, Badajoz, Puente Maestre, Nogales, Santa María Barros, Villalba, Plasencia, Trujillo, Almaraz, Brozas, Zaragoza, Huesca, Valladolid, León, Candelaria, Madrid, Alcalá & Chamartín. Its accords included: that a general strike be organised to press for the eight hour day, that the federal council liaise directly with the local federations, that each region have its propaganda fund, that Morago & Viñas be appointed delegates to the international congress, that a drive be launched to recruit women members & mutual aid funds set up, revolutionary courts, insurrection was defended as was distancing from the bourgeois & a new federal commission be appointed (Lorenzo, Tomás, Farga & Viñas).
      The conferences over the following years were indicative of an obvious decline. The ones in 1878 agreed not to reduce the powers of thew federal council, the appropriateness of internationalist schools, engagement in revolutionary action, support for prisoners, exiles & victims of reprisals, that delegates (Morago & Lorenzo) be appointed to the international congress & a new federal commission be elected which included Gasull & Julivert. The 1879 conferences decided to set up a war committee, declared their sympathy with those retaliating against oppression & to appoint a new federal council (Viñas, Farga, Soriano & Lorenzo). The 1880 conferences decided to give priority to collective over individual defence, to reject amalgamation with outside groups, to struggle actively & mount reprisals as well as to elect a new council (Lorenzo, Allier, Vidal, Gasul & Nácher).
      Finally, the FRE extra-ordinary conference in Barcelona (6-9 FEBRUARY 6 1881), drawing delegations from Andalusia East & West, Valencia, Catalonia, New Castile & Old Castile, resolved to expel Lorenzo (general secretary of the FRE) & to impose lighter penalties upon Gasull, Nácher, Allier & Vidal (also federal council members). There was evodence of internal squabbling & this set the seal upon the demise of the Federation. Seven months later, a reconstruction congress was held (in Barcelona in September).

      141. EXILIO.
      CNT newspaper published in France by Regional No 3 (Cantal department) from 19 July 1944 to November 1947. It was the first CNT publication in exile in France: initially roneoed, it was later printed: the first eight issues were clandestine. It appeared in Veray Mauriac under the direction of Manuel Rico, with Morey as administrator. Its standing increased after the Clermont-Ferrand plenum in September 1944 & it turned into a publication designed to offer guidance to the membership, defend the CNT & combat the PCE's attempts to gain hegemony through the UNE. It did sterling work, given the confusion prevailing at the time, but its line was controversial because of the heterodoxy of its leading contributors such as Doménech, Morey, Martínez Prieto, Fernández Escobés, Vivas, Albagés, Domingo Torres, Borrás, Juanel & Ramón álvarez.

      142. SABORIT CARRELERO, César. San Martín Sagrera 1915-Barcelona 1951.
      At a very early age he joined the Libertarian Youth in his barrio of San Andrés & Clot; also a militant of the Barcelona construction union. As early as 1932 he had connections with the busiest of the action groups as controller of a clandestine arms dump. In July 1936 he took part in the fighting against the fascists in Barcelona & then served with the Durruti column & in the hand-picked Batallón de la Muerte (Death Battalion). When the civil war ended he was jailed for several years & then joined the underground organisation, coming to prominence on account of his activism. In 1949 he was secretary of the CNT's Catalan regional committee & he backed the activities of Los Maños; in 1950 he turned up in Massana's guerrilla band & shortly afterwards left for France; he carried out organisational missions on both sides of the border & in mid-1951, after a lot of hesitation & opposition from the Organisation in exile, he decided to go with Facerías (having fought alongside him previously as a guerrilla) on an incursion into the comarca of Barcelona; he died at the hands of the police on 19 July 1951. A militant greatly loved in wide sectors of the CNT, his death caused tremendous uneasiness & grief.

      143. MASSANA BANCELLS, Marcelino. Berga 1918-
      Orphaned at the age of five, his early childhood was spent in Llínas and, from the age of seven, he attended a religious college in Solsona (spending the summers in Berga) under the supervision of his uncle, a priest. He left the college at 13, spent a year in Sallent & eventually started his working life at 14 as apprentice in a machine shop. by 1934 he was a textile machinist & he joined the CNT the following year. Come the fascist revolt, he joined the Berga militias' committee & in August, having enlisted with the Tierra y Libertad column, he fought for a short time on the Madrid front; he returned to Catalonia & joined the Hilario Zamora column and, after it was amalgamated, served with its successor, the 25th Division, with whose 118th Brigade he fought in Aragon from October 1936 up until the end of the civil war (as a lieutenant from April 1938 on).

      The end of the war caught him in Alicante, where began his odyssey through concentration camps & jails (Albatera, Bétera, Porta Coeli, Manresa, Barcelona, Madrid). Released on licence in 1942, he went underground after a few months after refusing to do his army service; he walked all the way from Barcelona to Berga, lived as a peasant farmer in Aviá & Organyà, contacted the smugglers in the area & became an expert in border crossings. In 1944 he was living in Tarascón & organised a guerrilla campaign that he was to keep up until 1950 with great shrewdness & consistency (he was living in Toulouse from 1947), until he found himself caught up in a clash with French customs officers & called it a day. Initially his problems with the French government earned him a month in prison, but, following pressures brought to bear by the Francoists (who pressed for his extradition) he was imprisoned again & then committed to Deux Sebres & Leucamp up until 1956. Released in 1956 he moved to Paris to work as a mechanic & gardener and, having fallen ill, he drifted away from activism & resisted pressure first from Sabaté & then (in the early 1960s) from Mera, Alberola & García Oliver to rejoin the armed struggle.

      Eventually he moved to his present home in Languedoc & after the CNT was relaunched he joined the Barcelona metalworkers' union.

      NOTE: I've add the following paragraph to FEB BLEEDREF: >>>

      His tremendous prestige derives from his intense struggle against Franco in 1944-50, years when he carried out countless operations in the Catalan Pyrenees (blowing up electricity pylons, carrying out expropriations, making border crossings with documents, weapons & other fighters, etc.) , frequently in the company of Vila Capdevila, Senzill, Antonio Sánchez, Puig Torres, Pons, Dot, Saborit, Saturnino Sanz, Pérez Pedrero, Adrover, Massip, Crespo, Benítez, F. Martínez, Arcos, M. Sabaté, Pepe Blanco, etc. especially in 1949 when he was frenetically active in the Manresa-San Vicente de Castellat-Rocafort comarca, enjoying considerable popular support. The work he did for the Libertarian Youth members involved in the publication of the clandestine Ruta likewise seems significant. Massana is one of the greatest of the anti-Franco guerrillas, on a par with Sabaté, Vila Capedevila & Facerías. Curiously enough, he did not die in combat, in spite of the length of the time he was active.

      144. MIL - Initials of the Movimiento Ibérico de Liberación (Iberian Liberation Movement).
      The roots of the MIL can be traced to one of the factions into which the Workers' Commissions (CC.OO) split in Catalonia in 1969, a faction described as “independent” & made up of one-time Catholic militants from the JOC & the HOAC & anarchists, contributors first to the review Metal & later to ¿Que Hacer?, the last issue of which announced that it was winding itself up in order to establish a Platform without any political alignment, one that would have its own review in the form of Nuestra Clase (1969) & for which the future members of the MIL were to write. Initially the MIL included three teams (the Worker, the Theoretical & the External teams), one of which operated as the armed wing; the latter had a base in Toulouse & sought to liberate the working class from the noxious influence of intellectuals. In 1971 all three teams amalgamated to form the GOA (Grupos obreros autónomos - Autonomous Workers' Groups) & published numerous clandestine pamphlets. In December that year the GOA disintegrated over differing interpretations of activism, leaving the members of the External & Theoretical teams which launched the MIL & decided to go on the offensive.

      The MIL grew up as a support group for radical struggles waged by Barcelona labor, offering tactical back-up (material help to strikers) as well as theoretical support ( publishing pamphlets & leaflets through its review CIA & its publishing imprint Ediciones May 37). Its main theme was anti-capitalism, with heavy councilist & anti-parliamentary undertones. In its capacity as a support group for the proletariat it tackled at the root the issue of expropriation of funds & it carried out lots & lots of operations in Barcelona (30 hold-ups between the end of 1972 & early 1973). A document dated 1972 drew a distinction between armed action (i.e. support groups) & armed struggle (i.e. the vanguard), & indicated that they were counting upon the armed agitational groups spreading throughout the entire country.

      Among the members of MIL were Oriol Solé Sugranyes, José Luis Pons Llobet, Emilio Pardiñas Viladrich, Santiago Soler Amigó, F. Javier Garriga Paituvi, Salvador Puig Antich (executed in March 1974), Canestro, Piguillén, & Jorge Solé.

      At its first & only congress (August 1973) MIL disbanded itself in response to the repression by which it was being decimated; that repression started in September 1972 (with the arrest in France of Oriol, Puig, Torres & Rouillan) & extended from June 1973 (with the uncovering of safe houses in Barcelona, the arrest of Oriol in Spain, & the arrest of Pons, Piguillén, Pardiñas, Camestro, Soler Amigo, Garriga & Puig between 17 & 25 SEPTEMBER 1973), From that September on, MIL, it can be assumed, was no more: its closely connected successors, or so it seems, were the GAI & the GARI.

      See also article at the Kate Sharpley Library, http://flag.blackened.net/ksl/bullet16.htm 145. VIDA OBRERA. Title of several newspapers.
      1. - Weekly of the Asturian CNT, Gijón 1921-22, run by González Mallada.
      2. - Organ of the CNT sindicato único in Canet (Barcelona). Appeared in February 1924 & disappeared the same year.
      3. - Weekly of the Gijón CNT, 21 issues. Virtually exclusively labor news, 1977-1978.
      4. - Organ of the CNT-AIT Asturian regional. 7 issues, 1981-82. Replaced Acción Libertaria. Aligned with the breakaways from the Fifth Congress. Almost all labor news only.

      146. SEGUí RUBINAT, Salvador. Lérida 1887-Barcelona 10 March 1923, murdered.
      In the year he was born he moved with his family to Barcelona which became the theatre of his activities from then on. He attended school up until the age of 12 & then became an apprentice painter; he flitted from workshop to workshop on account of his restless temperament & began to look into anarchist theory. In 1902 he was arrested briefly for his part in a metalworkers' strike & was early on active with the hardest of the anarchist groups (see the murky Rull episode). In 1904, for the first time, he used the alias that he was to make famous, El Noi del Sucre, i his speeches & articles (in El Pintor). In 1907 he was caught up in events at the Condal theatre in connection with the struggle against Lerrouxism & served nine months in prison. His role in the Tragic Week is none too clear, although we can be certain that he was forced to flee to Gualva or Palautorderá.
      He had a hand in the foundation of Solidaridad Obrera (as a delegate to the 1908 congress) & of the CNT (although it appears he did not attend the 1910 congress), as well as in the 1911 general strike & in the campaigns opposed to to the deportation of American anarchists (1910); in 1911 he was in Marseilles on CNT business, attending an international working class get-together. In the ensuing years, by then a CNT bigwig, he could be found involved in the 1914 hunger riots, in the Queraltó campaign, the Valencia Assembly, the Zaragoza Pact (1916), he was president of the Barcelona construction union (1915), a labor organiser in Lérida, a public speaker & lecturer tirelessly touring throughout Catalonia, secretary of the Catalan CNT (1916), served on the 1917 strike committee, was secretary of the Assembly in Valencia (1916), entered talks with the UGT with a view to tackling the rising cost of living. In 1918 he was the lynch-pin of the crucial Sans congress, lobbying on behalf of sindicatos únicos, served on the first Junta of the Barcelona construction union & was secretary of the Catalan CNT to boot. He also did important work in connection with the La Canadiense strike, not that emerged from this with any credit (he negotiated the return to work), being heavily criticised by purists who alleged that he had political ambitions, a suspicion strengthened by his serving on the Mixed labor Commission. At the 1919 congress he opposed a straightforward affiliation to the Russian International & in 1920, perhaps because of the strained atmosphere, left for Tarragona (he served on the clandestine Catalan regional committee that year), before carrying out a lengthy & busy speaking tour of Andalusia & Levante (speaking 110 times) which ended in his being arrested in November. He did not emerge from prison until April 1922, to embark upon intense propaganda work in Catalonia & the Balearics & attending the Zaragoza Conference (1922), where he endorsed the famous document that drew a distinction between a-politicism & anti-politicism. In the end he was murdered by a police-employer conspiracy.
      A much harassed (jailed in 1907, 1916, 1917, 1919 & targeted for assassination bids in 1919 & 1920) bohemian type, he towered over an entire chapter of CNT history, which is why Seguí's story is also the story of the early CNT. A great organiser, legendary public speaker & a contributor to the press (Solidaridad Obrera, La Terra, L'Opinió, Páginas Libres, Vida Nueva, Cultura y Acción, etc,) he was momentarily attracted to journalism & tried to re-launch La Tramontana (1913). His evolution has been a matter of some controversy & he has been credited with leaning towards politics, which appears not to have been the case. It was more a case of his being, as lynch-pin of the CNT & as a greatly harassed militant, having been compelled to grapple with particularly difficult times (the pistolerismo of the employers) & that he resorted to advocacy of a strategy of alliance with socialists & republicans (Macià, Casanova, Soriano, Layret, Companys..) as a means of surmounting problems: in any event, there is no conclusive evidence of his having been getting ready to go over to politics. It is quite another matter that the more orthodox anarchists (Urales for one) may have deplored the possibilist approach displayed by Seguí on occasions. Author of: El Sindicalismo Libertario en Cataluña (with Pestaña) & Escuela de Rebeldes (Madrid 1923).

      147. GARI. Initials of the Grupos de Acción Revolucionaria Internacionalista (Internationalist Revolutionary Action Groups).
      The organisation lurking behind the initials GARI is shrouded in some mystery. It appears to be the case that the Groups had some connection with the MIL & aspired somehow to be the continuation of the MIL. The link with the MIL was through Jean Marc Rouillan (who would turn up years later connected with the Action Directe organisation in France) who, it would appear, had some connection with the MIL. The centre of GARI activities shifted from Catalonia to France & Belgium & its theoretical outlook was more anarchist than the MIL.. but still very confused. The half-way house between the MIL & the GARI was the GAI or Grupos Autónomos de Intervención (Autonomous Intervention Groups) set up in France after the death of Puig Antich; these carried out a series of attacks in France in March 1974 The GARI were made up of some MIL members, Alberola's anarcho-syndicalists & others of no very definite affiliation, centred on Toulouse. Their characteristic features were: they were a solidarity group, rebels rather than revolutionaries, anti-capitalist, anti-religion & hostile to the society of the Spectacle. Their operations included the kidnapping of the director of a Spanish bank in Paris, attacks on the Tour de France's Pyreneean stage, a series of attacks on the Iberia airline in France & Belgium, bombings of Spanish consulates & banks, etc. Those connected with the GARI appear to have included Octavio Alberola, Lucio Urtubia, Ariane Gransac, Rivière, Plazen, Guibert, Camilleri, Rouillan, Mario Inés Torres, Víctor Manrique, R, Delgado, Floreal Cuadrado, Zapata, etc. By the end of 1974 the GARI had faded away. Be that as it may, anything having to do with the GARI is open to revision.

      148. GÚZMAN, Eduardo de. Madrid 1909-
      A journalist from a very early age, he was editor-in-chief of La Tierra (1930) for five years: in 1935 he moved on to the editorship of La Libertad, staying until the civil war broke out. Having joined the CNT - apparently under the influence of Orobón Fernández - he took up the direction of Castilla Libre (the organ of the CNT of the Centre region) in January 1937 & held this until the end of the war. Captured in Alicante on 1 April 1939, he passed through the concentration camps & (in January 1940) was sentenced to death in Madrid, a penalty then commuted (May 1941); released from prison & wholly at liberty from 1948, he was rearrested in 1951 (serving a year in prison in Oviedo), on charges of spying. After his release, he earned his living as a translator & writer of pot-boilers (no less than a hundred detective novels & 400 westerns published under the noms de plume of Eddy Thorny or Edward Goodman) & from 1969 he worked for a Mexican news agency. Like other militants so severely chastened by imprisonment & repression, in 1965, in a moment of thoughtlessness, he turned up aligned with Cincopuntismo. In later years he was editor of Historia Libertaria, & wrote for Indice, Triunfo, Tiempo de Historia, Castilla Libre. etc. In addition to the novels mentioned earlier (so far as we have been able to establish, it looks as if the bulk of this very popular genre was written by victimised CNT personnel) he wrote: Madrid, Rojo y Negro (Barcelona 1938), El Año de la Victoria (Madrid 1974), Nosotros, Los Asesinos (Madrid 1976), La Muerte de la Esperanza (Madrid 1973), Aurora de Sangre (Madrid 1978), 1930: Historia Política de un Año Decisivo (Madrid 19730, Historias de la Prensa (Madrid 1982), Vida y Lección de Anselmo Lorenzo (Madrid 1938), La España Trágica (Madrid 1932), Sevilla la Trágica (Madrid, undated), Teodoro Mora (Madrid 1938?), Un Momento Decisivo en la Vida de España (Madrid 1938), 24 Horas (Madrid 1936), España entre la Dictadura y la Democracia, plus an investigation of Hildegart made into a movie.

      149. PIñóN, Camilo. Barcelona 1889-1979.
      Highly prestigious pre-civil war CNT militant. Showed an early interest in revolutionary syndicalism & attended the CNT's foundation congress (1910) & had been jailed in May 1909. In the years following the foundation of the CNT he held positions of responsibility: secretary of the Barcelona local federation & secretary of the Catalan regional committee in 1912, then president of the lamp-lighters, treasury of the Catalan metalworkers' union (19170, treasurer of the regional committee formed at the Sans congress, member of the transport strike committee in 1920. During the years of the employers' hired gunmen he moved to Mahón & on his return headed the Barcelona transport union (1923). Advocating a moderate line akin to Peiró, he signed the Vida Sindical manifesto (January 1926) & the Manifesto of the Thirty & was involved in the contest with the faístas. During the republic he was president of the international relations committee, prersident of the fishing industry & by 1936 secretary of the National Fishing Industry Federation. When the civil war was over he passed through several French concentration camps & returned to Spain (1943) to participate in the underground struggle, but was quickly arrested (he was a member of the CNT's Catalan regional committee) & jailed for 27 months. Later he stck by his convictions & appears to have served as secretary of the ANFD in 1945. With the passing of the years he eased up on his activity. A typical syndicalist, he believed in natiinal industrial federations & in revolutionary syndicalism, as opposed to spontaneist, violent revolutionism, not that he used this as a petext for dropping out of the struggle at times when it looked as if his beliefs had been bested; he attended all the CNt congresses, was frequently jailed for his beliefs, serving a total of 15 years behind bars.,

      150. ALAS. A syndicalist & anarchist review, sub-titled “Sociological & Literary Review”. It appeared in Castro del Río, published by the anarchist group of the same name. Monthly, it published 6 issues from 1 February 1915 on. Its director was S. Cordón.

      151. ADELANTE. Title of several newspapers.
      1. - Reus, 1936.
      2. - Gijón, 1901.
      3. - Santander, 1901-1903, 42 issues. Articles by V. Blanco, Mella & Martínez Barrio.
      4. - Eibar, 1908.
      5. - Murcia 1920. Organ of the CNT of Murcia, Cieza & Cartagena. Syndicalist weekly.

      152. GóMEZ CASAS, Juan. Bordeaux 1921-
      Born to emigrants who returned to Spain in 1931. A CNT member (like his father) and, from 1936, of the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL) in Madrid. At the beginning of the civil war he was working as a re-moulder & he joined the army in 1938 (39th Mixed Brigade). When the war ended he ecaped jail because he was a minor & he threw himself into the clandestine struggle through the Libertarian Youth. In September 1946 he was secretary of the Libertarian Youth Centre region (anti-collaborationist) & shortly after that represented the Libertarian Youth at the Toulouse congress (October 1947); on returning from France he was arrested in Madrid (January 1948), & in his home were found the presses to print Tierra y Libertad & Juventud Rebelde (he was then, it seems, secretary of the FAI's Peninsular Secretariat); in July 1948 he was sentenced to a thirty year jail term of which he served almost half in San Miguel de los Reyes, Ocaña & Burgos (failing in an escape attempt in 1956). Released from prison in 1962, he returned to his old trade as a painter, worked as bookkeeper in a Madrid hotel & turned to writing, creative writing (his first book, Cuentos Carcelarios, was started while he was in prison) as well as publicist writing & translation (he translated upwards of a hundred titles & writes like a demon-hack, alone & in partnership) using the nom de plume of Jacques de Gaulle for some books like Las Horas Decisivas de la Guerra Civil, El Frente de Aragón & a life of Pablo Iglesias). In the 1970s he became the best-known representative of the renascent CNT, serving as its first secretary (august 1976 to April 1978) once it had finally resurfaced: at the same time he was beginning to make his name as a ppoulariser of CNt & anarchist topics & also came to be regarded as a credible spokesman for the CNT. Following the 1979 congress, he condemned the policy of the breakaways. Has written for El País, Cambio 16, Historia Libertaria, Sindicalismo, etc. Author of: Los Anarquistas en el Gobierno (Barcelona 1977), Historia de la FAI (Madrid 1977), Historia del Anarcosindicalismo Español (Madrid 1969), La Primera Internacional (Madrid 1974), Situación Limitada (Madrid 1975), Sociología e Historia (Madrid 19730, La Política Española y la Guerra Civil (1974), Cuentos Carcelarios, Autogestión en España (Madrid 1976), etc. Also author of several forewords & introductions to books on anarchist themes. Director of CNT (1980-81) & of Adarga.

      153. CERRADA SANTOS, Laureano. Miedes 1902-Paris 1976, murdered.
      A student of José Alberola, he was a member of the CNT (railroad union) & anarchist organisations. Active under the republic, in 1936 he helped in the taking of the Atarazanas barracks & Captaincy-General building in Barcelona and, as the man in charge of the Central Railway Administration Fund, was a great help to the Aragon front. He really became popular, though, in exile in France after the civil war: very active in the struggle against the Nazis, he organised extensive propaganda networks, clandestine arms dumps & safe houses & was also in contact with many underground guerrillas & dabbled in arms-trafficking. After the end of the Second World War, he enjoyed enormous prestige in CNT circles: he was secretary of the Paris regional committee (1945), but appears to have refused the position of CNT general secretary (declining to have his name included in the list of candidates) & some take the view that his refusal led to the success of Esgleas's candidacy in 1945. He funded CNT propaganda & direct action activity against Franco & furnished forged papers to many victims of persecution: the high point in his war on Franco came in 1948 (when, together with Ortiz, he prepared an airborne attempt on Franco's life). He also tried to flood the country with counterfeit currency. His star began to wane in 1951: an informer brought him to the attention of the police who accused him of being a counterfeiter (of currency & official papers): many CNT personnel distanced themselves from him (and he was even expelled from the CNT for resorting to “unacceptable methods”) & his life was lived on the blurred margins shared by criminality & anarchist idealism, torn between one & the other. Jailed again from 1970 to 1974, he was murdered in his old age. A very energetic man of tremendous daring, a born activist none too scrupulous in fighting the enemy, his style did not go down well with some people.

      154. ALBEROLA SURINACH, Octavio. Mexico 1928-
      Son of Spanish parents with a libertarian tradition (his father was councillor for Education on the Council of Aragon), he moved with his family to Mexico after the civil war (1940), studying engineering in Mexico City & became an organiser for the Libertarian Youth (being arrested in 1946). In 1962 he moved back to Europe & joined García Oliver, Mera & others on Interior Defence: from then on his name was associated with numerous operations designed to strike at the Franco regime. In 1966 he was one of the most strenuopus opponnents of Cincopuntismo (see the New York conference that year) & at all times he was closely associated with the Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL) & with the review Presencia: from 1966 at least he has been regarded as a leading member of the Primero de Mayo anarcho-syndicalist group & responsible for violent attacks against Spanish fascism (the attempt in February 1968 to kidnap the minister Ullastres in Belgium, for one) which led to his serving time in prison in Belgium. His activity continued into the 1970s fom French soil, from where he was expelled in April 1974 & within a month he had been arrested in connection with the abduction of a Spanish banker: around that time he seemed to be connected with the GARI; in the mid-1970s he settled in Liège. When the renconstruction of the CNT began in Spain, he tried to bring influence to bear through the review El Topo Avizor (without much success) & when the obscure episode of the “Paralelos” came to light, leading members charged Alberola of having been behind it. Similarly, he was accused of having bolstered the the marinalist faction of the CNT (through Edo). All of this would be hard to prove, because, following the split in the CNT, Alberola (presumably on the basis of his well-known opposition to Esgleism) went with the breakaways (writing in their press). Author of: El Anarquismo Español y la Acción Revolucionaria 1961-1974 (Paris 1975, with Ariane Gransac) & Determinismo y Libertad (1949). Has written articles for El Topo Avizor, Historia Libertaria, Frente Libertario, Solidaridad Obrera (Valencia Congress), An enthusiastic advocate of violent tactics (see his controversy with Gaston Leval in 1965) & direct action & vehement in his hostility to Esgleism, these days, he represents for some in CNT circles a minor but magnetic school of thought.

      155. ALONSO MARSELAU, Nicolás.
      A picturesque, unstable personality whose life was governed by great spiritual upheavals. Born in Granada on a date uknown, he was a seminaian in his native city until, around 1858, he parted company with the Church to throw in his lot with the federal republicans, as a result of which he was obliged to flee to Gibraltar, France & England. Shortly before the 1868 revolution, he popped up again in Seville & years later was the director of the famous newspaper La Razón (1871-72) with its markedly anti-clerical tone. Whilst not departing from this line it turned to championing the arguments of the internationalist proletariat. In the early days of the FRE he became a popular activist who attended the Valencia Conference (1871) on behalf of Seville labor groups & was a delegate to the congresses in The Hague (having been elected by referendum which says a lot about how popular he was) & Brussels. A fine controversialist (see his quarrel with Mateos-Gago) & a writer of passion & brilliance, he switched tack again in 1874. He forswore his beliefs, eturned to the Catholic Church & entered a Trappist monastery, after which he dropped out of sight. He was a tortured personality who, in spite of his final change of direction, deserves to be remembered because it was largely due to him that the FRE was such a success in Seville. He defended anarchism staunchly in Saint-Imier & helped draft the famous memorandum that Lorenzo brought with him to London & wrote a couple of highly successful pamphlets. He wrote articles for La Razón & La Solidaridad & was the author of: Pensamientos Sociales Arreglados (Seville 1872, written from a prison cell) & El Evangelio Obrero (1872).

      156. CARRASQUER LAUNED, Francisco. Albalate de Cinca (Huesca) 1915-
      Member of a celebrated family of libertarians. After trying his hand at a number of trades he finished up in Barcelona in 1936 as a teacher in an ateneo. He served in the civil war (119th Brigade), ending it as a staff major. After the defeat, he went into exile in France, served time in the Vernet concentration camp & found work in Nantes, Pau, Toulouse & the Foix district. He returned to Spain in 1943, apparently wanted by the Nazis & was arrested & jailed for half a year, before being sent to Africa (to do his military service). Involved in the undereground struggle (as a member of the CNT's Catalan regional committee, together with his brother Félix), he was arrested in December 1946 and, in July 1947, released on licence after a half a year in jail. In 1949 he returned to France by clandestine means: settling in France, he studied at the Sorbonne in Paris, eking out a living by giving Spanish & literature lessons & graduating in these subjects. From 1953 on he lived in Holland, where he worked fore a radiuo statiuon, publishing his poetry & teaching at the University of Leyden (from 1964 on). Author of some superb translations (a prize-winner in 1960), anthologies of Dutch poetry, an anthology of the writings of Alaiz (Madrid-Gijón 1981), a thesis on R. Sender & some creative writing like Manda el Corazón (1948?) & Cantos Rodados (1956). Contributed articles to Frente Libertario.

      157. CATALUNYA. Title of several CNT publications.
      1. - Evening daily newspaper of the CNT of Catalonia, written in the Catalan language. Published in Barcelona from 22 February 1937 until, having met with little success, it was replaced in 1938 by the evening edition of CNT in Castilian. Sub-titled “Regional Organ of the CNT”, it was directed initially by Ricardo Mestres, then (from August 1937) by Peiró & then by Ferrer & Vives. It had a print-run of some 5,000 copies & carried contributions from Urales, Viadiu, Bajatierra, Santillán, Doménech, Marianet, Usón and, chiefly, J. Ferrer & J. Anselmo, as well as from several journalists from L'Instant (such as Puig, Sivera, Vila). Mirrored the contents of Solidaridad Obrera.
      2. - “Revista d'opinió confederal CNT-AIT”, Barcelona, 1976-78, 4 issues, in the Catalan language.
      3. - Trial daily newspaper of the CNT-AIT in Barcelona, a would-be continuation of the 1937 daily newspaper. It failed, with just one issue published in 1978.

      158. ANARQUíA. Title of several newspapers & reviews, some of which (see the entries from 6. onwards below) bore the title of LA ANARQUíA.
      1. - Seville 1910. Directed by Sánchez Rosa.
      2. - Seville 1920. Replaced El Productor & became (at the request of the Catalans) the organ of the anarchist groups. Its print-run rose to seven thousand copies & it was the platform from which Sánchez Rosa pushed his strictly libertarian pro-congress views in opposition to the reformism then prevalent among the CNT committees in Andalusia. Its first issue was dated 14 November. It was directed by Sánchez Rosa & claimed to the the “Organ of the Spanish anarchist congress”.
      3. - Bulletin of the Libertarian Youth of Granada. Two issues appeared (clandestinely). Directed by Mateo Rodríguez, 1933.
      4. - Barcelona, FAI., 1937.
      5. - Seville, Libertarian Youth, 1980? (Full title” La Anarquía. o los Amigos el Orden”). One issue.
      6. - Madrid 1869. Popular individualist weekly. Texts from Huelbes & Tejada.
      7. - Madrid weekly. from 16 August 1890 to 15 June 1893, 144 issues. Under the direction of Ernest Alvarez: texts from Mella, Urales, Büchner, López Montenegro, Salvochea, Gustavo, Prat, Setabas, López Maldonado, Lorenzo, Renan, Bo, Bigeon..
      8. - Madrid 1882-85. Duirected by Ernesto Alvarez.
      9. - Barcelona, fortnightly, 1906, 10 issues. texts by Prat, Médico, Martorell, Mella..

      159. QUINTANILLA PRIETO, Eleuterio. Gijón 1886-Bordeaux 1966.
      3/2006 added to ENCYCLOPEDIA INDEX, page in Gallery for editng & publishing PAGE

      index TEMPLATE:

      Juan Zafón

    • ZAFÓN BAYO, Juan.
      (1911-1977) Spanish CNT member, fought with the Ortiz Column. Fought in the French resistance in the Ponzán group; in touch with the anti-Franco action groups. Moved to Mexico until his belated return to Spain. Author of 3 books. (Christie Books)August 2007

      http://www.christiebooks.com/html/history/archives3.html


      1884 -- In the interval before the trial the "Questione Sociale" began to be published (end of December). It was interrupted after the seventh issue, when the printer, a republican, refused to continue ("Revolte," March 16); later on the responsible editor, P. Cecchi, was sentenced to 21 months of prison & a fine of 2,000 lire, which led to another interruption (June 8, 22, 1884). In the summer Malatesta had a sharp debate with the Italian freemasons (August 31).

      Meanwhile the police court trial took place in Rome (February, 1884); no witnesses for the defense were admitted, only police information, & the sentences were: Merlino, 4 years prison; Malatesta & Pavani, 3 years; Biancani (absent), 2 1/2 years; Pornier (absent) & Rombaldoni, 15 months; Trabalza & Venanzi, 6 months. Malatesta told them that the Russian police deports to Siberia without a trial; the Italian police is more hypocrite, taking shelter behind the complicity of magistrates ("Revolte," March 16).

      In the autumn of 1884, Malatesta & other comrades went to Naples, where the cholera had taken alarming proportions, & worked in the hospitals. Costa & other Socialists did the same. Two Anarchists, Rocco Lombardo, the former editor of the Turin "Proximus Tuns," & Antonio Valdre succumbed to the epidemy. Those who returned stated in a manifesto that the real cause of cholera was misery & the real remedy the social revolution (c. "Revolte," September 28, Dec. 7, 1884; Nov. 8, 1885).

      That other disease, the Roman court of appeals, on November 14 adjourned their decision & in January, 1885, took a year of prison off from Merlino (3 years instead of 4), acquitted Trabalza & added for all six months of special police supervision. But the accused had all left by this time; so Malatesta's & Merlino's exile may have begun at the end of 1884. There was another appeal definitely rejected on April 15, 1885, & the sentences were to be executed immediately but the accused were not available (s. "Revolte," Dec. 7; FEBRUARY 1; May 10, 1885).

      Errico Malatesta The Biography of an Anarchist A Condensed Sketch of Malatesta from the book written by by Max Nettlau Published by the Jewish Anarchist Federation New York City. 1924


      http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/malatesta/nettlau/nettlauonmalatesta.html

      1886 -- Peukert

      Henry Seymoura dispute raging among the German exile Anarchists in London - the Bruderkreig or Brothers' War. His mistake was the more serious because in the process he both became associated with a proven police spy & caused a deep split between himself & the Socialist League. The circumstances of the Bruderkreig are more fully explained elsewhere. [19] SAVED IN ENCY MISC AS VictorDave

      Putting it simply, however, it was a dispute involving both personalities & politics & boiled down to a conflict between Victor Dave - a trusted member of the Socialist League - & Peukert. The conflict was longstanding, having its origins in Most's rather high-handed treatment of Peukert, the opposition of Peukert to the American-based Freiheit ( distributed in Europe by Dave ) & the starting of a rival journal Der Rebell.

      This split the limited financial resources of the German Anarchist movement and caused friction. Peukert was an Anarchist-Communist & opposed Most's more Bakuninist collectivism. Such opposition, both literary & political, incensed Most & Dave who both seem to have considered Peukert a young upstart. There were further disagreements over the smuggling of Anarchist literature into Germany with Peukert accusing Dave of trying to take control of the whole Anarchist movement. Quantities of ink were spilt in mutual backstabbings in the German Anarchist press. Dave & his followers finally succeeded in expelling Peukert & his followers from their Whitfield Street club.

      Those expelled founded the Gruppe Autonomie with a club house at 32 Charlotte Street, in February 1886. The group grew rapidly & eventually moved its premises to 6 Windmill Street, Tottenham Court Road. The whole affair was conducted with astonishing bitterness on both sides with every accusation from misappropriation of funds to police spy activity being thrown back & forth. Frankly, it was rather silly of Seymour to get mixed up in the business at all.

      On 17 May a council meeting of the Socialist League expelled Charles Theodore Reuss as a police spy in the pay of the German police. Reuss had been quite deeply involved in the Socialist League as librarian & labor secretary in 1885. He was connected with Peukert and would thus have come under Victor Dave's suspicion but in fact the information upon which the accusation was made came from the Belgian Social Democrats & was brought independently to the council by H. Charles. [20] Events were to prove the accusations correct. In the mean time Peukert & his followers rallied to defend Reuss. A more than somewhat biased commission cleared Reuss of the charges against him & denounced Dave as a police spy. Seymour reprinted its findings in September 1886. Almost all of the front page of the October issue of the Anarchist was devoted to an attack on the Socialist League for its expulsion of Reuss. This came in response to a special supplement to the Commonweal of 18 SEPTEMBER marked 'Printed for Foreign Transmission Only' which emanated from Dave's club at Whitfield Street & which denounced both the biased commission of inquiry & the Anarchist for reprinting it. Seymour began to back-pedal a little on his denunciations as time passed, but his support for Reuss continued. It was not clever of him, for it more or less http://www.geocities.com/~johngray/fuse05.htm





      1887 -- BOOK REVIEW NAMES TO INDEX: ­ Storie di Anarchici e Anarchia L¹Archivio Famiglia Berneri ­ Aurelio Chessa Comune di Reggio Emilia Bibliotecu Panizzi April 2000

      Some books you read, others hold, feel, look at. The story of Anarchist & Anarchy published by the Archives of Famigilia Berneri ­ Aurelio Chessa in Reggio Emilia, Italy is one of these books you don¹t have to read to savour its content.

      The magnificent black & white photographs of individual anarchists & events they¹re involved in is accompanied by short notes written in Italian.

      The photographs bring to life forgotten characters in the anarchist struggle. Don¹t worry if you can¹t read a word of Italian, the photographs by themselves would make a priceless addition to anyone¹s library. Storie di Anarchici e Anarchia is an artistic statement woven round the lives of anarchists who are virtually unknown outside of Italian speaking circles.

      Camillo Berneri Lodi 20th May 1897 died Barcelona 5th May 1937.
      Adalgisa Fuchi Parma 31st July 1865 died Reggio Emilia 16th August 1957,
      Giovanna Caletti Gualteri 4th May 1897 died Genova 14 March 1962,
      Cesare Zaccaria Genova 19th August 1897 died Napoli October 1961,
      Maria Louise BerneriAresso 1st march 1918 died Lond 13th April 1949,
      Giliana Berneri Firezze 5th October 1919 died Parigi 19th July 1998,
      Vernon Richards born London July 1915,
      Emidio Recchioni Russi 1864 died Pariji 1934,
      Serge e Franck Senninger, Leda Rafanelli Pistoia 4th July 1880 died Genova 13th SEPTEMBER 1971,
      Giusseppe Monanni Aresso 27th February 1887 died Milano 8th December 1952,
      Pier Carlo Masini Cerbaia 26th March 1923 died Firense 19th October 1998,
      Ugo Fedeli Milano 8th May 1898 died Ivrea 10th March 1964,
      Pio Turroni Cesena 30th May 1906 died Cesana 7th April 1982,
      Virgilio Gozzoli Pistoia 10th November 1880 died Pistoia 24th August 1964,
      Giuseppe Faravelli Broni 1896 died Milano 16th June 1974,
      Aure lia Chessa Putifigari 30th October 1913 died Rapallo 26th October 1996.

      Don¹t worry if you can¹t read a word of Italian, this book is a visual work of art that transcends language. It¹s available from Archives F. Berneri ­ A.Chessa, Fiamma Chessa, Via S.Anna 2714/9, 16035 Rapallo (Ge), ITALY.


      1890 -- Giovanni Rossi

      http://recollectionbooks.com/bleed/Encyclopedia/RossiGiovanni.htm (1856-1943) Italian anarchist, idealizer of the libertarian community Cecília Colony established in Brazil in 1890. Still student participated of the libertarian core of the AIT in Italy. After if graduating medicine veterinary medicine, in the year of 1875, he was to work in the region of Pisa. Since young he fed the design to create an anarchic community, having published, in 1878, Un Socialist Comune, that would successively come to be reedited. In the socialist & anarchic press he publishes articles regularly, many of signed which with the Cardias pseudonym, where he displays its design of an experimental community. After if transferring to Gavardo, in 1882, he participated of an agricultural association that congregates 70 partners, anarchic & free thinkers socialist. But it continued the its prohibited systematics of the necessity to create a community in another continent that served to demonstrate to the viability & superiority, in the practical one, of the socialist theories. This defense of the creation of communities generated controversy in the anarchic and socialist movement, being criticized for some thinkers, as Malatesta, who saw in this withdrawal or emigration of social activists an abandonment of the social fight. Em1886 deep Rossi, in Bréscia, the periodical Lo Sperimental, dedicated to the defense of the foundation of socialist experimental colonies and where it divulges the thought of the utopian ones & of the anarchists. E soon in the following year initiates a new experience of agricultural community, in Cittadella, with more thirty cooperantes. In 1889 the design was born to create an experimental community in the South America, destination of many Italian emigrants. Initially the chosen destination was Uruguay, but using to advantage the incentives to the emigration for Brazil, Rossi & its friends they had opted to this country.

      The first core of libertarians that came to establish the Cecília Colony, arrived at Brazil in 18 of FEBRUARY 18 of 1890, installing itself in the state of the Paraná in April. In the end of this exactly year Rossi came back Italy to divulge the Colony & to obtain to congregate a new group of libertarians interested in if fixing in the community. When the new group arrived, in January of 1891, much of the initial work of red tape of the agricultural area of the Colony already had been carried through. But the increasing number of members, that would reach two hundred more than, was not supported for the precarious structure of the community, in a phase where the colonists still were in the difficult phase of adaptation to the way & the tropical agricultural conditions.

      The experience of the Cecília Colony was seen for Rossi, not only as a chance to apply the socialist principles to the production, but also to the organization of the collective one, the personal relations and until the loving relations, that would have to seat in the free love. In its Un book Episode d ' Amore nella Colonia Cecilia, who systemize its personal experience, points the difficulties of if modifying the behavior and the conventional moral. In 1893, Rossi left of the Colony, that if kept, however, for plus one year, going working as agronomist & veterinarian in the Great River of the South Later, in 1897, moved to Santa Catarina, where he would collaborate in the creation of the first agricultural cooperatives & if he would become one technician of recognized merit, what he did not hinder that the Italian government kept it under monitoring. In 1906 Italy returned definitively, where it died in 1943. ROSSI, Giovanni (1856-1943) Anarquista italiano, idealizador da comunidade libertária Colônia Cecília fundada no Brasil em 1890. Ainda estudante participou do núcleo libertário da AIT na Itália. Depois de se graduar em medicina veterinária, no ano de 1875, foi trabalhar na região de Pisa. Desde jovem alimentou o projeto de criar uma comunidade anarquista, tendo publicado, em 1878, Un Comune Socialista, que viria a ser sucessivamente reeditado. Na imprensa socialista e anarquista publica regularmente artigos, muitos dos quais assinados com o pseudônimo Cardias, onde expõe seu projeto de um comunidade experimental. Depois de se transferir para Gavardo, em 1882, participou de uma associação agrícola que reúne 70 sócios, socialistas, anarquistas e livres pensadores. Mas continuou a sua sistemática defesa da necessidade de criar uma comunidade em outro continente que servisse para demonstrar a viabilidade e superioridade, na prática, das teorias socialistas. Esta defesa da criação de comunidades gerou polêmica no movimento anarquista e socialista, sendo criticada por alguns pensadores, como Malatesta, que viam nesse retirada ou emigração de ativistas sociais um abandono da luta social. Em1886 Rossi funda, em Bréscia, o jornal Lo Sperimental, dedicado à defesa da fundação de colônias experimentais e onde divulga o pensamento dos socialistas utópicos e dos anarquistas. E logo no ano seguinte inicia uma nova experiência de comunidade agrícola, em Cittadella, com mais trinta cooperantes. Em 1889 nasceu o projeto de criar uma comunidade experimental na América do Sul, destino de muitos emigrantes italianos. Inicialmente o destino escolhido era o Uruguai, mas aproveitando os incentivos à emigração para o Brasil, Rossi e seus companheiros optaram por este país. O primeiro núcleo de libertários que vinha fundar a Colônia Cecília, chegou ao Brasil em 18 de fevereiro de 1890, instalando-se no estado do Paraná em abril. No final desse mesmo ano Rossi voltou a Itália para divulgar a Colônia e conseguir reunir um novo grupo de libertários interessados em se fixar na comunidade. Quando o novo grupo chegou, em janeiro de 1891, muito do trabalho inicial de preparação da área agrícola da Colônia já havia sido realizado. Mas o número crescente de membros, que atingiria mais de duzentos, não era suportado pela estrutura precária da comunidade, numa fase em que os colonos ainda estavam na difícil fase de adaptação ao meio e às condições agrícolas tropicais. A experiência da Colônia Cecília era vista por Rossi, não só como uma oportunidade de aplicar os princípios socialistas à produção, mas também à organização do coletivo, às relações pessoais e até às relações amorosas, que deveriam assentar no amor livre. No seu livro Un Episodio d' Amore nella Colonia Cecilia, que sistematiza a sua experiência pessoal, aponta as dificuldades de se alterar o comportamento e a moral convencional. Em 1893, Rossi retirou-se da Colônia, que se manteve, no entanto, por mais um ano, indo trabalhar como agrônomo e veterinário no Rio Grande do Sul. Mais tarde, em 1897, transferiu-se para Santa Catarina, onde colaboraria na criação das primeiras cooperativas agrícolas e se tornaria um técnico de mérito reconhecido, o que não impediu que o governo italiano o mantivesse sob vigilância. Em 1906 regressou definitivamente a Itália, onde morreu em 1943. http://www.otite.hpg.ig.com.br/cultura/filosofos/rossi.html
      http://www.otite.hpg.ig.com.br/cultura/filosofos/

      1893 -- Italy:

      Basta ! Bisogna Abolire lo STAto ! MOVING DATES

      Crimini e Misfatti dello stato italiano dalle origini ai giorni nostri

      1887-1900 Autoritarismo statale e avventurismo coloniale : trasformisti e reazionari al potere

      1887

      26 GENNAIO / JANUARY . A Dogali (Eritrea) l'avventura imperialistica ha una pesante battuta d'arresto con l'annientamento di una colonna di circa 500 soldati da parte degli uomini del ras Alula. FEBRUARY 2 Febbraio. Partenza per Massaua di un contingente di 800 uomini. L'avventurismo coloniale statale persevera.

      1888

      FEBRUARY 10 Febbraio. Il dazio statale sui cereali viene inasprito da 3 a 5 lire. Continua l'avanzata, idiota e dannosa, del protezionismo statale. FEBRUARY 18 Febbraio. Il governo decide di applicare alle merci francesi nuove e più alte traiffe. Il governo francese impone a sua volta dazi più alti ai prodotti italiani. Inizia la cosiddetta 'guerra commerciale' che sarà la rovina dei produttori (soprattutto meridionali) di vino, olio, agrumi e dei solfatari siciliani. Ottobre. Viene occupata quasi tutta la zona interna dell'Eritrea. Dicembre. Rafforzamento del potere di ingerenza dello stato centrale nelle realtà locali attraverso i prefetti.

      1889 8 Febbraio. Protettorato dello stato italiano sul sultanato somalo di Obbia. MARZO / MARCH 17. Protettorato dello stato italiano sul sultanato di Migiurtinia. 5 Aprile. Il Tribunale di Roma condanna il socialista Andrea Costa a 3 anni di carcere per ribellione alla polizia di stato. 22 Maggio. Vengono arrestati i componenti della redazione del 'Fascio operaio' per aver appoggiato le agitazioni dei contadini in Lombardia.

      1890

      5 GENNAIO / JANUARY . Con decreto regio lo stato italiano dà il nome di Eritrea ai territori occupati sul Mar Rosso.

      1891

      26 GENNAIO / JANUARY . Il ministro delle finanze Bernardino Grimaldi avanza delle proposte di inasprimenti del carico fiscale per far fronte al forte disavanzo statale. Nulla di nuovo all'orizzonte.

      1892

      Dicembre. Scandalo della Banca Romana. Il deputato radicale Napoleone Colajanni rende di pubblico dominio le gravi irregolarità commesse alla Banca di Roma, già messe in luce nel rapporto Alvisi-Biagini che sia Crispi (presidente del consiglio) sia Giolitti (ministro del tesoro) avevano tenuto segreto.

      1893

      19 GENNAIO / JANUARY . L'inchiesta amministrativa sulle irregolarità alla Banca di Roma rivela la stampa abusiva di 65 milioni in eccesso del limite di legge, un ammanco di cassa di 20 milioni, la messa in circolazione di 40 milioni come duplicato di serie di biglietti già emessi. Il denaro veniva utilizzato per la speculazione edilizia nella capitale e per finanziare deputati e ministri tra cui Crispi e Giolitti. Vengono arrestati il governatore della banca Bernardo Tanlongo e il cassiere Cesare Lazzaroni. La vicenda si concluderà nel luglio 1894 con l'incredibile assoluzione degli imputati e verrà archiviata dai giudici che, per non coinvolgere politici altolocati, dichiareranno che nel corso dell'inchiesta sono stati sottratti importanti documenti. 22 GENNAIO / JANUARY . Altre pesanti irregolarità emergono nei due istituti di emissione, il Banco di Napoli e il Banco di Sicilia. FEBRUARY 1 Febbraio. Viene assassinato Emanuele Notarbartolo, ex direttore del Banco di Sicilia, che aveva reso noti gli abusi del direttore generale Giulio Benso Sanmartino. FEBRUARY 25 Febbraio. Muore misteriosamente Rocco De Zerbi, membro della commissione della Camera sul riordinamento bancario, accusato di aver ricevuto mezzo milione dalla Banca di Roma per coprire le irregolarità. Alcuni giorni prima era stato arrestato Antonio Monzilli, funzionario a cui era stato affidato l'incarico di controllo delle banche di emissione.

      1894

      1-3 GENNAIO / JANUARY . Proclamazione dello stato d'assedio in Sicilia. Il governo dà i pieni poteri al generale Morra di Lavriano per reprimere i moti in Sicilia. I Fasci dei Lavoratori sono sciolti e vengono operati oltre 2000 arresti. Si mettono al lavoro i tribunali militari per la consueta repressione di stato. 31 GENNAIO / JANUARY : Il tribunale di guerra di Massa condanna l'avvocato Luigi Molinari a 23 anni di carcere per una serie di conferenze tenute nel carrarese, come promotore dei moti della Lunigiana. FEBRUARY 21 Febbraio. Viene reintrodotto il corso forzoso della moneta che era stato abolito nel 1883. Si aumenta di 200 milioni la circolazione di biglietti di banca per cui se ne diminuisce praticamente il valore. Per ridurre il disavanzo statale (155 milioni) il ministro Sonnino propone l'aumento del carico fiscale, l'aumento del prezzo del sale, del dazio sul grano, l'aumento della ritenuta sui titoli di stato dal 13,20% al 20%, l'aumento delle imposte di successione, e l'introduzione di una imposta complementare progressiva sul reddito globale. Il torchio dello stato continua la spremitura. 3 MARZO / MARCH 3. La Camera approva a grande maggioranza (342 favorevoli, 45 contrari e 22 astenuti) la repressione contro i Fasci dei Lavoratori in Sicilia. Dicembre. Un regio decreto (non votato dal Parlamento) impone degli inasprimenti fiscali : sono aumentati il dazio sul grano, sullo zucchero e la tassa sull'alcol; sono introdotti il dazio sul cotone greggio, la tassa sulla fabbricazione dei fiammiferi, la tassa sul consumo del gas e dell'elettricità per usi domestici. 3 Dicembre. Crispi accusa Giolitti di essere il maggior responsabile dello scandalo della Banca di Roma. 11 Dicembre. Giolitti risponde presentando alla Camera dei documenti che mostrano i debiti contratti da Crispi con la Banca di Roma. Squallide beghe di uno squallido stato.

      1895

      Marzo. Continua l'aggressione in Africa e si prepara l'occupazione del Tigrè. Luglio. Aumento di 3 milioni delle spese per l'aggressione coloniale in Africa. 3 Dicembre. Gli abissini sconfiggono sull'Amba Alagi gli aggressori italiani. 12 Dicembre. La Camera archivia definitivamente lo scandalo della Banca di Roma con una mozione approvata all'unanimità. Destra (Crispi) e sinistra (Giolitti) superano le loro divergenze pur di salvarsi. 19 Dicembre. La Camera stanzia altri 20 milioni per sostenere l'aggressione statale in Africa.

      1896

      GENNAIO / JANUARY . In Etiopia il ras Menelik riesce a liberare il forte di Macallè scacciando gli invasori italiani. FEBRUARY 25 Febbraio. Crispi riafferma le sue mire espansionistiche in Africa per salvare "l'onore dell'esercito" e il "prestigio della monarchia". Le solite proclamazioni insensate di un buffone autoritario. 1 Marzo. Disfatta di Adua. Il criminale disegno aggressivo dello stato italiano e in particolare del capo del governo Francesco Crispi riceve un colpo mortale ad opera delle truppe etiopi. I caduti dalle due parti sono oltre 15mila. 1 Giugno. In un articolo sul "Giornale degli economisti", Vilfredo Pareto si sofferma su "i furti e le concussioni compiute dalla banda crispina". 2 Giugno. Guglielmo Marconi deposita in Inghilterra all'Ufficio brevetti la descrizione del sistema di telegrafia senza fili. Aveva in precedenza tentato di offrire l'invenzione al ministero delle poste italiane ma era stato respinto.

      1897 Giugno. A causa dei pestaggi e delle sevizie subite ad opera della polizia di stato muore il muratore Romeo Frezzi, uno dei tanti arrestati dopo il fallito attentato a Umberto I.

      1898 16 Febbraio. Vilfredo Pareto pubblica sul periodico socialista "Critica sociale" un articolo contro il protezionismo agrario e il dazio sulle farine che fanno lievitare i prezzi del grano.

      1899

      FEBRUARY 4 Febbraio. Il nuovo governo, con a capo il generale Luigi Pelloux, presenta un disegno di legge sulla pubblica sicurezza e sulla stampa riprendendo le linee fondamentali delle precedenti proposte repressive del governo Di Rudinì

      1900

      FEBRUARY 20 Febbraio. La prima sezione penale della Cassazione di Roma dichiara la nullità e conseguente decadenza del decreto Pelloux del 22 Giugno 1899 in quanto non discusso alle Camere. 26 GENNAIO / JANUARY . Il deputato siciliano Giuseppe De Felice-Giuffrida, in una interpellanza contro la mafia, accusa il governo di servirsene in occasione delle elezioni. Marzo. Luigi Pelloux ripresenta alla Camera il decreto del 22 Giugno 1899. Si può davvero parlare, nel suo caso, della costanza della sragione. 18 Dicembre. Il prefetto di Genova scioglie la locale Camera del lavoro. I portuali entrano in sciopero seguiti dagli operai delle industrie e dai tranvieri. 19 Dicembre. Lo sciopero si estende a tutta la Liguria. 21 Dicembre. Il prefetto è costretto a revocare il provvedimento di scioglimento della Camera del lavoro di Genova.

      1901-1913 Il ministro della malavita e gli scandali finanziari : gli affaristi al potere

      [^] [Polyarchy] [Basta!] [Indice : crimini e misfatti]
      [Source: Crimini e Misfatti]



      1895 -- BLEEDWORK TO DO 1895 (GENNAIO / JANUARY ) Pietro Gori A Lugano è arrestato e dopo 15 giorni di galera viene accompagnato alla frontiera con la Germania.

      Nell’occasione scriverà la famosa canzone “Addio Lugano Bella”. Arrested with 17 other Itialians, Gori is expelled from Switzerland after a short imprisonment( during which he composes two poetries, di.le a which tito it song of the expelled anarchists that then it would be Goodbye to Lugano)

      Addio a Lugano

      Farewell to Lugano

      Farewell to thee, lovely Lugano, thou sweet & fair land.
      Banned without a fault, anarchists must go away,
      And they leave singing, with hope in their hearts.
      And they leave singing, with hope in their hearts.

      And it is for you exploited, & for you workers,
      That we are now in chains like criminals.
      But our belief is the idea of love.
      But our belief is the idea of love.

      You nameless comrades, you friends who stay,
      The social truth you shall strongly spread.
      This is the vengeance that we ask you.
      This is the vengeance that we ask you.

      Bourgeois republic, thou forcest us out with forgery,
      But this will one day bring shame on thee.
      Today we accuse thee in face of the future.
      Today we accuse thee in face of the future.

      Endlessly expelled, we will hike from land to land,
      Urging peace & declaring war:
      Peace among the oppressed, war to the oppressors.
      Peace among the oppressed, war to the oppressors.

      Switzerland, thy government makes thee the slave of others,
      Offending the tradition of a proud people,
      And insulting the legend of thy William Tell.
      And insulting the legend of thy William Tell.

      Farewell, dear comrades, dear friends in Lugano.
      Farewell, snow-white mountains of Ticino.
      We knights-errant are forced northwards.
      We knights-errant are forced northwards.


      Origine: Avanti popolo, Cantare Anarchia Lottare, Canzoni italiane di protesta
      Titolo originale: Addio a Lugano
      Note: Words by Pietro Gori on the tune of the song "Addio San Remo bella", 1895.
      Lingua traduzione: en 


       

      Addio a Lugano, sung by tenor Joe Fallisi (chitarra Piero Del Prete Giammaria Simoncini Carrara July 29, 2003; form "L'uovo di Durruti", di Joe Fallisi,). [Real audio]listen Or download:  download

      Source: nel vento archivio 68/77: poesie e canzoni
      Addio a Lugano / Goodbye to Lugano

      Capoverso: Addio, Lugano bella
      Origine: Avanti popolo, Cantare Anarchia Lottare, Canzoni italiane di protesta
      Lingua: it 
      Traduzione: en 
      Allegati: Midi file Formato: midi 
      Source: The Rebels' Songs Archives / Canzoniere dei Ribelli


       

      Dalla Germania, passando per il Belgio approda ai più sicuri lidi inglesi dove incontra i principali esponenti dell’anarchismo internazionale da Kropotkin, a Louise Michel, da Carlo Malato a Sebastian Faure oltre naturalmente al solito Errico Malatesta.

      1895 Emigra per un viaggio di propaganda negli Stati Uniti d’America, dove in un anno circa, viaggiando dalla sponda dell’est a quella dell’ovest tiene oltre 400 conferenze. Collabora al periodico di Patterson (New Jersey) “La Questione Sociale”.

      / 1895 (January) during this month [I don't have exact date —ed.] Pietro Gori To Lugano is arrested & after 15 days of jail it comes accompanied to the frontier with the Germany. Nell?occasione will write the famous song?Addio Beautiful Lugano. From the Germany, passing for Belgium it lands the surest English Lydians where he meets the main exponents international dell?anarchismo from Kropotkin, to Louise Michel, from Sick Carl to Sebastian Faure beyond naturally to the usual Errico Malatesta. 1895 Emigra for a travel of propaganda in the United States d?America, where in a year approximately, travelling from the side dell?est to that one dell?ovest it holds beyond 400 conferences. Social Issue collaborates to the periodical of Patterson (New Jersey)?La. it prints bourgeois it are of l?ispiratore, in order to escape to a sentence to five years, is forced to leave the country clandestinely. Binaghi, Maurizio. Addio, Lugano bella. Gli esuli politici nella Svizzera italiana di fine Ottocento. [L'Officina. Nuove Ricerce sulla Svizzera Italiana, tomo 15.] Armando Dadò, Locarno 2002. 679 pp. Ill. SFR 49.00. This study of Italian exiles in the Swiss town of Lugano at the end of the nineteenth century is based on archival materials, memoirs, & correspondence, & covers well-known individuals, such as Mazzini, Bakunin, Malatesta, & Andrea Costa. The various stages in Italian exile are reviewed here, starting with the republican one, followed by that of the socialists until their integration in the Italian political system after 1882, & concluding with that of the anarchists from 1884 to 1894. The appendix for the years 1880-1895 offers a statistical breakdown of the social & geographic origins of the exiles & includes a list of exiles. http://www.iisg.nl/irsh/49-2-bib.html
      http://www.nelvento.net/addio-lugano.html

      [Source: Chronology by Franco Bertolucci]



      1898 -- 1881 Boilermakers & carpenters organize national unions. Aug. 2-3: A national labor convention is held in Terre Haute, Ind. Sept. 15: Call for an International Trade Union Congress at Pittsburgh is issued. Oct. 31 - Nov. 14: Gompers publishes a series of articles on tenement-house workers in the New Yorker Volkszeitung. Nov. 15-18: Founding convention of the Federation of Trades & Labor Unions (FOTLU) is held in Pittsburgh. It favors the enactment of employer liability, compulsory education, uniform apprenticeship, & child & convict labor laws.

      1882 Wire weavers organize. Chinese Exclusion Act makes the immigration of Chinese laborers into the U.S. unlawful for a period of ten years. Johann Most, a Bavarian-born anarchist, arrives in the United States where he publishes Die Freiheit. In 1883 he organizes the American Federation of the International Working People's Association, also known as the Black International. Aug. 1882: The Women's National Labor League organizes in Washington, D. C., in response to the exclusion of women appointees to the departments of Interior & War.

      1883 Custom tailors, railroad trainmen, & wood carvers organize national unions. Canadian Labor Congress is organized in Toronto. FEBRUARY: The U.S. Senate Committee on Education & Labor, chaired by Sen. Henry Blair, begins hearings on the relations between labor & capital. Trade unionists, KOL representatives, employers & social reformers all offer testimony. Aug. 15, 18, 27: Gompers testifies before the Education & Labor Committee of the U.S. Senate.

      1884 Laurence Gronlund publishes The Cooperative Commonwealth. The Bureau of Labor Statistics is established as part of the U.S. Department of the Interior. Oct: FOTLU passes a resolution fixing May 1, 1886, for the general adoption of the 8-hour day.

      1885 Miners & mine laborers organize. The Foran Act, prohibiting the importation of contract labor, is passed. Martin Foran, past president of the Coopers Union, & a member of Congress from Ohio, sponsors it. Jan.: Eugene Debs serves one term in the Indiana General Assembly as a Democrat. Mar. 9- 16: Railroad shopmen organized in the KOL successfully strike the Southwestern railroad system to protest wage reductions.

      1886 Bakers, brewery workers, lithographers, & railway telegraphers organize national unions; KOL miners organize National Trade Assembly 135. Jan. : Gompers begins one-year term as president of the New York State Workingmen's Assembly. May 1: Workers throughout the country demonstrate for the 8-hour day May 4: Bombing in Chicago's Haymarket Square kills one policeman & six bystanders. Sept. 23: a coalition of Knights of Labor & trade unionists in Chicago launch the United Labor party, calling for an 8-hour day, government ownership of telegraph & telephone companies, & monetary & land reform. The party elects seven state assembly men & one senator. Oct.: Gompers supports Henry George's campaign for mayor of New York City. DECEMBER 8-11: The American Federation of Labor (AFL) organizes at Columbus, Ohio. The preamble reads "A struggle is going on in all of the civilized world between oppressors & oppressed of all countries, between capitalist & laborer . . . ." Gompers is elected president.

      1887 Barbers, building laborers, mule spinners, painters, pattern makers, ship pilots, & stonecutters organize national unions. George McNeill, a printer & advocate of the 8-hour day, publishes The Labor Movement: The Problem of To-Day. Oregon is the first state to pass legislation recognizing the first Monday in Sept. as Labor Day. June-Dec.: Gompers edits the Union Advocate, the AFL's first monthly journal. Aug.: United Labor party convention meets in Syracuse. DECEMBER 17: Gompers begins his first major organizing trip for the AFL, visiting cities in New York, Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky, Illinois, Kansas, Colorado, Minnesota, & Michigan. He returns to New York City in March 1888.

      1888 Machinists & sheet metal workers organize national unions. Oct. 9: United Hebrew Trades is organized in New York City. Morris Hillquit, a shirtmaker who would later become a lawyer & leader of the Socialist party, serves as corresponding secretary. DECEMBER 11-15: Third annual AFL convention meets in St. Louis & launches the 8-hour campaign, targeting May 1, 1890, for the inauguration of the shorter workday.

      1889 Boot & shoeworkers, letter carriers, plumbers, & printing pressmen organize national unions. Terence Powderly publishes Thirty Years of Labor, 1859-1889. The Second International organizes in Paris & sets May 1, 1890, as a day of international labor solidarity. Aug. 14 : Some 100,000 workers on London's docks strike for increased wages & improved conditions. The strike is successfully settled on Nov. 4. Oct. 25: Democrats & Republicans nominate Gompers to run for the state senate in New York's seventh district, but he declines. DECEMBER 14, 1889: The AFL convention, meeting in Boston, votes to assess members to support 8-hour strikes.

      1890 Coopers, pottery workers, & retail clerks organize national unions; KOL & trade union miners & laborers amalgamate to form the United Mine Workers of America. In Germany, the General Commission of German Trade Unions is established. Mar. 17: The AFL Executive Council selects the United Brotherhood of Carpenters & Joiners to lead the 8 hour movement. In April, carpenters throughout the country strike. By May 1, some 46,000 carpenters in 137 cities achieve shorter hours. DECEMBER 8-13, AFL convention, meeting in Detroit, refuses to seat Lucien Sanial, a prominent member of the SLP, as a delegate from New York's Central Labor Federation. DECEMBER 8, Ida Van Etten addresses the AFL convention on "The Condition of Women Workers Under the Present Industrial System."

      1891 Carriage workers, electrical workers, waiters, textile workers, & garment workers organize national unions. May 11-12: The People's party, better known as the Populists, organizes in Cincinnati.

      1892 Bookbinders, lace workers, metal polishers, seamen, stove mounters, street railway workers, & upholsterers organize national unions. Debs resigns as secretary-treasurer of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen, but continues to edit its journal. Mary Kenney, a bindery worker in Chicago, is appointed AFL organizer for women workers. She serves about five months. Oct. 31: Gompers invites Debs to speak at the AFL convention & suggests the topic, "Federated Unions; the Hope of Its Advocates, & Its Possibilities." Debs declines, citing illness. Nov. 8-11: Workers in New Orleans paralyze the city in a 3-day general strike that crosses race & skill lines. Between 20,000 & 40,000 workers in 42 unions demand shorter hours, wage increases, & the preferential union shop. After strike leaders meet with the governor, a settlement is reached that improves conditions but concedes the employers' right to deal with workers as individuals.

      1893 Longshoremen & stage employees organize national unions. May: Western Federation of Miners organizes in Butte, Montana. May 5: Stock market collapses & precipitates major financial depression that lasts though 1897. June 20: American Railway Union organizes in Chicago with Debs as president. Sept. 27: The International Typographical Union renews a strike against the Los Angeles Times & begins a boycott that runs intermittently from 1896 to 1908. A local anti-Times committee encourages out-of-town firms to stop advertising in the paper, & in 1903, persuades William Randolph Hearst to start a rival paper, the Los Angeles Examiner. Although the ITU keeps up the fight into the 1920s, the Times remains nonunion. 1894 Switchmen organize a national union. A federal law recognizes Labor Day as an official holiday for federal workers, establishing it as a national holiday. William Hope "Coin" Harvey publishes Coin's Financial School, a treatise supporting the free coinage of silver. Mar.: American Federationist, the AFL's monthly journal, begins publication. Mar. 25-May 1: In Massillon, Ohio, Coxey's Army begins its march to Washington, D.C. , to persuade Congress to fund a public works program for the unemployed. Marchers arrive on Apr. 29, but on May 1 police prevent Coxey from speaking at the Capitol & attack crowds that gather to hear him. May 11: Pullman strike erupts. On June 26, the American Railway Union boycotts Pullman cars & on July 2, an injunction is issued against ARU leaders including Eugene Debs. On July 4 federal troops arrive in Chicago. Persuaded that the strike is already lost, the AFL votes not to endorse a general strike on July 12. June 11-12: Representatives from the AFL, Knights of Labor, populists, railroad brotherhoods & various trade unions hold a unity conference in St. Louis but fail to overcome their differences. DECEMBER : The AFL convention elects Andrew Furuseth, of the Seamen, & Adoph Strasser, of the Cigar Makers, to serve as a legislative committee in Washington, D.C., to secure seamen's legislation. DECEMBER 14-15: The AFL convention debates whether or not to endorse a political program that favors independent political action & the collective ownership of the means of production. Although a number of planks are accepted, the program as a whole is defeated. DECEMBER 17: John McBride, president of the United Mine Workers, unseats Gompers as AFL president.

      1895 Actors, leather workers, & tobacco workers organize national unions. National Association of Manufacturers is organized. June-Nov.: Eugene Debs is jailed in Illinois' Woodstock Prison for violating the 1894 Pullman strike injunction. Sept.: The Congress of the General Confederation of Labor is organized in France. Sept 2-7: Gompers & P.J. McGuire, of the Carpenters Union, are delegates to the British Trade Union Congress in Cardiff. DECEMBER 13: With Daniel DeLeon as leader, the Socialist Trade & Labor Alliance is established in New York City to organize trade unions committed to the SLP. Because these unions competed with established AFL unions, they alienate both socialists & trade unionists. DECEMBER 14: Gompers is elected president of the AFL, a position he retains for the rest of his life.

      1896 Bridge & structural iron workers & steam engineers organize national unions. June 19: Western Federation of Miners strike begins in Leadville, Col., after mine managers refuse to raise wages. By Sept., violence erupts & dynamite explosions lead to riots, assaults & death, & the arrival of the militia. In the course of the strike, which ended in defeat the following spring, WFM leader Ed Boyce breaks with Gompers over the question of strike benefits & AFL policy.

      1897 Meatcutters organize a national union. June 17-21: Social Democracy of America organizes in Chicago under the leadership of Eugene Debs. It plans to establish the national Co-operative Commonwealth in Washington state. July 4-Sept. 11: United Mine Workers of America strike in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, West Virginia, Kentucky, & Tennessee. Sept. 10: Striking miners in Luzerne County, Pa., are shot & killed by the sheriff & deputies in the "Lattimer massacre." Gompers covers the trial for the New York World in February 1898. DECEMBER 20-22: The National Building Trades Council is organized in St. Louis.

      1898 Piano & organ workers, stationary firemen, team drivers, & tin plate workers organize national unions; Western Federation of Miners withdraws from AFL. Jan 17-May 20: New England textile workers strike. FEBRUARY 28: The U.S. Supreme Court upholds constitutionality of Utah 8-hour law (Holden v. Hardy). May 10: The Western Labor Union organizes in Salt Lake City. It favors industrial organization and independent labor party politics. June 1: The Erdman Act is passed, providing for voluntary mediation or arbitration of railroad disputes and prohibiting contracts that discriminate against union labor or release employers from legal liability for injuries. June 11: The Social Democratic Party is organized as a "class conscious, revolutionary, socialist organization." Eugene Debs & Victor Berger are members of the Executive Board. June 18: Act establishing the U.S. Industrial Commission is signed into law. Springs, NY. As part of a committee of conference participants, he presents a series of resolutions to President William McKinley. DECEMBER : AFL convention formally endorses equal pay for equal work for women workers & authorizes Executive Council to support the campaign for voting rights for citizens of the District of Columbia.

      1899 Wood, wire, & metal lathers organize a national union. AFL Executive Council establishes a legislative committee to press the AFL's goals in Congress. Santiago Iglesias helps organize the Federacion Libre de los Trabajadores de Puerto Rico (Free Federation of the Workers of Puerto Rico). The Liga General de Trabajadores (General League of Cuban Workers) is organized. Jan. 24-26: General Federation of Trade Unions of Great Britain & Ireland organizes in Manchester. Apr. 22: Gompers begins an organizing trip to the west, visiting cities in Indiana, Illinois, & Iowa. On May 2, while he is speaking in Des Moines, he learns via telegram that his daughter, Rose, has died. After he returns to New York City, he travels to Washington, D.C., & then resumes his trip, stopping in Salt Lake City, Leadville, Denver, Wichita, Kansas City, St. Louis, & Chicago, among other western cities. He returns to Washington at the end of June. Apr. 23: Miners in Coeur D'Alene, Idaho, strike. On Apr. 29, strikers commandeer a train, attack the Bunker Hill & Sullivan mine in Wardner, & destroy machinery. Federal troops are sent on Apr. 30 & martial law is declared on May 3. Some 700 men are arrested, & troops remain in the district until Apr. 1901. DECEMBER 20: AFL convention endorses a constitutional amendment to give women the right to vote. http://www.history.umd.edu/Gompers/newtime2.html




      1901 -- ANARCHIST ARCHIVERicardo Flores Magón

      — Cuando muera, mis amigos quizás escriban en mi tumba: «Aquí yace un soñador», y mis enemigos «Aquí yace un loco». Pero no habrá nadie que se atreva a estampar esta inscripción: «Aquí yace un cobarde y traidor a sus ideas».

      En su celda, lejos de su tierra, lo extrangulan. Paro cardíaco, dice el parte médico.

      Shortly after the founding of Regeneracion, on August 30, 1900, Camilo Arriaga published the Invitacion al Partido Liberal manifesto in San Luis Potosi. This document started a movement that eventually formed the Partido Liberal Mexicano (PLM) five years later -- Ricardo's main vehicle for organizing the anti-Diaz struggle & later on, for spreading the ideals of Anarchism throughout Mexico. Ricardo formally joined the emerging Liberal movement at the Congreso Liberal on February 5, 1901. >>

      "The most dramatic" instances of increasing opposition to the Diaz regime were the strikes of 1906 -- one at the Cananea Copper Company in Sonora & the other at Rio Blanco.6

      The Cananea strike began suddenly on June 1. The workers demanded "an eight-hour work day & a higher minimum wage" and were "protesting racial discrimination against Mexicans."7 The workers rioted for two days & put up fierce resistance for another two days with firearms in hand. Interestingly, the first forces on the side of the Cooper Company to arrive were Arizona Rangers, because the nearest Mexican army troops were a day's journey away. But by the 6th of June the strike ended when the Governor of Sonora, backed by 2,000 Federal troops threatened the strikers with conscription into the Yaqui Indian war in the southern part of the state.

      In the end, between 30 & 100 Mexicans were killed. The results were severe & immediate. On the one hand, "the government suffered a severe setback in national popularity"; plus, with an obvious contingent of PLM supporters who helped to agitate the striking workers, the governments of Mexico & United States "began a concerted drive to break the PLM."8

      The second major strike occurred at the Rio Blanco factory in Orizaba in central Mexico. In April of that year, a number of Rio Blanco workers formed the Gran Circulo de Obreros Libres (GCOL) which immediately affiliated with the PLM. The GCOL helped to stir up unrest there, & on December 7, a large meeting was held by the GCOL which numbered about 3,000 workers. They drew up a series of demands that included the prohibition of company stores, shorter working hours & overtime pay among others. A strike ensued & within a few days, the number of strikers number nearly 7,000.

      The factory owners retaliated by locking out workers on December 22, affecting 57,000 people in Puebla, Orizaba, Mexico City, Veracruz, Queretaro & Guadalajara. The one-sided agreement caused an immediate reaction against the government in Rio Blanco. Protesters shouted slogans like "Death to Diaz!" & "Down with the dictatorship!"10 Then, on January 7, (1907? CK DATE) a group of dissidents met workers arriving for work outside the factory. As the crowd enlarged, they then attacked & burned the company store. From there, they moved into the city, attacked the jail & released all the prisoners -- all the while chanting: "Death to Porfirio Diaz!".

      News of these events spread quickly & later in the day, they linked up with workers in the nearby towns of Santa Rosa & Nogales. These combined forces then participated in armed skirmishes with the army for the next two days. Katz reports that the German minister in Mexico stated that when asked by the factory owners to crush the strike by force, Diaz replied, "Thank God, I can still kill."11 & kill he did. It all ended on the JANUARY 9th, leaving nearly 200 workers & 25 soldiers dead, 400 workers sat in jail-cells & some 1,500 lost their jobs. "After the stormy summer of 1906, the Mexican government feared a projected general uprising on SEPTEMBER 16, Mexican Independence Day. The revolt started on SEPTEMBER 26, at the town of Jimenez. "With a force about sixty men, [Juan Jose] Arredondo seized the customs house & looted it & the town treasury of about $100, giving a receipt in the name of the junta [of the PLM]... The attackers withdrew the next morning & were then attacked themselves by federal troops while attempting to get supplies at the Hacienda Victoria nearby. After further fighting, additional troops were able to kill, capture or disperse the remaining rebels. Most fled across the border & into the United States."15

      While the U.S. government essentially paralyzes the PLM leadership for most of the period of the revolution, there was one, albeit small, glimmer of hope for the Magonistas -- Baja, California. Their first major success was the capturing of the town of Mexicali, on January 29, 1911. With a small force of only 18, led by Jose Maria Leyva & Simon Berthold, they easily took the town. It was a victory, albeit small, to be sure; "it proved that the Liberals were able to take a strategic objective without assistance from another revolutionary group."34

      Within two days the force swelled to 60, the day following, it reached 120. This number included approximately 40 Wobblies of the American Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), who were recruited on February 5, at the Labor Temple in Los Angeles. There a manifesto was read, written by Jack London, in support of the Magonistas. He stated humorously that "we socialists, anarchists, hobos, chicken thieves, outlaws & undesirable citizens of the U.S. are with you heart & soul."35

      In total, the Magonista forces numbered about 500 in Baja, which included approximately 100 Anglo-American Wobblies36. Among these Wobblies were the famed martyrs of the IWW cause, Frank Little & Joe Hill.37 To put a stop to this movement before it could grow any larger, Colonel Vega, the governor of the region, sent a force of 100 to dislodge the Magonistas from Mexicali. But he was entirely unsuccessful -- it took him more than a week to get there, he experienced large numbers of desertions & his forces were finally routed on FEBRUARY 15. the Casa, "the omnipotent labor organization in Mexico" by 1913.43 In fact the Casa was the only labor group during this early period to claim national representation & the "Casa dominated the labor movement in Mexico from 1912 to 1918."44

      The Casa was opened in July 1912 & was founded on the ideals of Anarcho-syndicalism. On May Day, 1913, the Casa organized a march of 20,000 through downtown Mexico City for the labor holiday. http://recollectionbooks.com/bleed/Encyclopedia/Decleyre/poetrydecleyre.htm


      http://struggle.ws/mexico/history/anarchism_1910.html

      ?
      1901 -- ANARCHIST ARCHIVERicardo Flores Magón

      — Cuando muera, mis amigos quizás escriban en mi tumba: «Aquí yace un soñador», y mis enemigos «Aquí yace un loco». Pero no habrá nadie que se atreva a estampar esta inscripción: «Aquí yace un cobarde y traidor a sus ideas».

      En su celda, lejos de su tierra, lo extrangulan. Paro cardíaco, dice el parte médico.

      Ricardo Flores Magón whose remains rest at the Rotunda of Illustrious Men in Mexico City, << ADDED TO BLEED, WITH REFERENCE PAGE ENTRY: August 7, 1900, Jesus & Ricardo, along with Licenciado Antonio Horcasitas, founded Regeneracion Because of this repression Regeneracion temporarily ceased publication & Ricardo, with his other brother, Enrique, left Mexico for the United States on January 3, 1904. >>

      While Ricardo never returned to Mexico alive his career significantly influenced the Mexican Revolution, even in exile.

      In Spanish, http://spin.com.mx/~hvelarde/Mexico/ricardo.flores.magon/home.html
      Ricardo remained in the United States, the American government, at the behest of the Mexican dictatorship along with privately hired detective agencies, harassed Ricardo & the PLM -- arresting him on numerous occasions throughout his revolutionary career, ending only with his death in 1922. Because of this, Ricardo spent most of his time that the Revolution unfolded sitting in American jail cells & expended much of his energy trying to regain his freedom. << ADDED TO BLEED, WITH REFERENCE PAGE ENTRY:

      Regeneracion resumed publication from San Antonio, Texas, on November 5, 1904. It was smuggled into Mexico clandestinely & continued to remain an annoying thorn in Diaz's side. Regeneracion was influential enough that Diaz worked repeatedly to have it shut down, even though it was what turned out to be a deceptively false, freedom of speech in the United States. Regeneracion's circulation grew to 30,000 in this year. In fact, even moderates like the Governor of Yucatan & Madero were receiving Regeneracion1 & later, when Ricardo's Anarchism was more apparent, prominent Anarchists, such as Voltairine de Cleyre became involved in the Mexican paper.

      Shortly after the founding of Regeneracion, on August 30, 1900, Camilo Arriaga published the Invitacion al Partido Liberal manifesto in San Luis Potosi. This document started a movement that eventually formed the Partido Liberal Mexicano (PLM) five years later -- Ricardo's main vehicle for organizing the anti-Diaz struggle & later on, for spreading the ideals of Anarchism throughout Mexico. Ricardo formally joined the emerging Liberal movement at the Congreso Liberal on February 5, 1901. >>

      "The most dramatic" instances of increasing opposition to the Diaz regime were the strikes of 1906 -- one at the Cananea Copper Company in Sonora & the other at Rio Blanco.6

      The Cananea strike began suddenly on June 1. The workers demanded "an eight-hour work day & a higher minimum wage" and were "protesting racial discrimination against Mexicans."7 The workers rioted for two days & put up fierce resistance for another two days with firearms in hand. Interestingly, the first forces on the side of the Cooper Company to arrive were Arizona Rangers, because the nearest Mexican army troops were a day's journey away. But by the 6th of June the strike ended when the Governor of Sonora, backed by 2,000 Federal troops threatened the strikers with conscription into the Yaqui Indian war in the southern part of the state.

      In the end, between 30 & 100 Mexicans were killed. The results were severe & immediate. On the one hand, "the government suffered a severe setback in national popularity"; plus, with an obvious contingent of PLM supporters who helped to agitate the striking workers, the governments of Mexico & United States "began a concerted drive to break the PLM."8

      The second major strike occurred at the Rio Blanco factory in Orizaba in central Mexico. In April of that year, a number of Rio Blanco workers formed the Gran Circulo de Obreros Libres (GCOL) which immediately affiliated with the PLM. The GCOL helped to stir up unrest there, & on December 7, a large meeting was held by the GCOL which numbered about 3,000 workers. They drew up a series of demands that included the prohibition of company stores, shorter working hours & overtime pay among others. A strike ensued & within a few days, the number of strikers number nearly 7,000.

      The factory owners retaliated by locking out workers on December 22, affecting 57,000 people in Puebla, Orizaba, Mexico City, Veracruz, Queretaro & Guadalajara. The one-sided agreement caused an immediate reaction against the government in Rio Blanco. Protesters shouted slogans like "Death to Diaz!" & "Down with the dictatorship!"10 Then, on January 7, a group of dissidents met workers arriving for work outside the factory. As the crowd enlarged, they then attacked & burned the company store. From there, they moved into the city, attacked the jail & released all the prisoners -- all the while chanting: "Death to Porfirio Diaz!".

      News of these events spread quickly & later in the day, they linked up with workers in the nearby towns of Santa Rosa & Nogales. These combined forces then participated in armed skirmishes with the army for the next two days. Katz reports that the German minister in Mexico stated that when asked by the factory owners to crush the strike by force, Diaz replied, "Thank God, I can still kill."11 & kill he did. It all ended on the 9th, leaving nearly 200 workers & 25 soldiers dead, 400 workers sat in jail-cells & some 1,500 lost their jobs. "After the stormy summer of 1906, the Mexican government feared a projected general uprising on SEPTEMBER 16, Mexican Independence Day. The revolt started on SEPTEMBER 26, at the town of Jimenez. "With a force about sixty men, [Juan Jose] Arredondo seized the customs house & looted it & the town treasury of about $100, giving a receipt in the name of the junta [of the PLM]... The attackers withdrew the next morning & were then attacked themselves by federal troops while attempting to get supplies at the Hacienda Victoria nearby. After further fighting, additional troops were able to kill, capture or disperse the remaining rebels. Most fled across the border & into the United States."15 << ADDED TO BLEED, WITH REFERENCE PAGE ENTRY:

      1900, Ricardo had been familiar with the works of Kropotkin, Bakunin, Jean Grave, Enricco Malatesta & Maxim Gorki. >> Ironically, it was Camilo Arriaga who was responsible for exposing many of the leaders of the PLM to the political ideology of Anarchism. It is ironic because Arriaga never could embrace the full extent of Ricardo's radicalism -- he always remained more conservative. According to Cockcroft, even Madero was familiar with the Russian Anarchist Kropotkin.20 Familiarity is one thing, while advocation is quite another. According to Albro, the exact time of Ricardo's conversion to Anarchism is controversial, but it is clear that << ADDED TO BLEED, WITH REFERENCE PAGE ENTRY: Ricardo didn't publicly admit his true beliefs until 1907. >>

      While the U.S. government essentially paralyzes the PLM leadership for most of the period of the revolution, there was one, albeit small, glimmer of hope for the Magonistas -- Baja, California. Their first major success was the capturing of the town of Mexicali, on January 29, 1911. With a small force of only 18, led by Jose Maria Leyva & Simon Berthold, they easily took the town. It was a victory, albeit small, to be sure; "it proved that the Liberals were able to take a strategic objective without assistance from another revolutionary group."34

      Within two days the force swelled to 60, the day following, it reached 120. This number included approximately 40 Wobblies of the American Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), who were recruited on February 5, at the Labor Temple in Los Angeles. There a manifesto was read, written by Jack London, in support of the Magonistas. He stated humorously that "we socialists, anarchists, hobos, chicken thieves, outlaws & undesirable citizens of the U.S. are with you heart & soul."35

      In total, the Magonista forces numbered about 500 in Baja, which included approximately 100 Anglo-American Wobblies36. Among these Wobblies were the famed martyrs of the IWW cause, Frank Little & Joe Hill.37 To put a stop to this movement before it could grow any larger, Colonel Vega, the governor of the region, sent a force of 100 to dislodge the Magonistas from Mexicali. But he was entirely unsuccessful -- it took him more than a week to get there, he experienced large numbers of desertions & his forces were finally routed on February 15. the Casa, "the omnipotent labor organization in Mexico" by 1913.43 In fact the Casa was the only labor group during this early period to claim national representation & the "Casa dominated the labor movement in Mexico from 1912 to 1918."44

      The Casa was opened in July 1912 & was founded on the ideals of Anarcho-syndicalism. On May Day, 1913, the Casa organized a march of 20,000 through downtown Mexico City for the labor holiday. http://recollectionbooks.com/bleed/Encyclopedia/Decleyre/poetrydecleyre.htm


      http://struggle.ws/mexico/history/anarchism_1910.html

      1908 -- THIS IS NOT AN EXACT DUPLICATE OF THE OTHER DATABASE DATES;

      8/2003: ALSO SOME OR ALL OF THESE MAY ALREADY HAVE BEEN DONE...

      US:

      FEBRUARY 8, 1885 The City of Tokio arrived in Honolulu carrying the first 944 official migrants from Japan to Hawaii.

      May 1892 Led by the Morning Call, the San Francisco Examiner, & the San Francisco Bulletin, the first anti-Japanese movement began. It culminated in the San Francisco Board of Education resolution of June 10, 1893 relegating Japanese students to the segregated Chinese school. After intervention by the Japanese consul, the resolution was soon rescinded, ending this early chapter of anti-Japanese agitation.

      FEBRUARY 18, 1907 Congress approved amending existing immigration legislation which allowed President Roosevelt to issue an executive order stopping the migration of Japanese laborers from Hawaii & Mexico on Mar. 14, 1907. In concert with the Gentlemen's Agreement, this action ended labor immigration to the U.S. & put labor contractors out of business.

      FEBRUARY 4, 1908 At the behest of new San Francisco consul general Chozo Koike, the Japanese Association of America was organized as the new central body of local groups. It replaced the disbanded United Japanese Deliberative Council of America, which had been plagued by financial & other problems.

      Jan. 19, 1920 3,000 members of the Filipino Labor Union walked off their jobs; Japanese workers soon joined them. By early February, 8,300 laborers were on strike, representing 77% of the work force.

      FEBRUARY 21, 1927 The U.S. Supreme Court unanimously ruled that the laws passed by the Hawaii Legislature to control the Japanese Language Schools--Act 152 (Apr. 1925), Act 171 (Apr. 27, 1923), & Act 30 (Nov. 24, 1920)--were all unconstitutional. In addition to removing the laws from the books, the Territorial government had to refund $20,000 in fees collected from the schools. Japanese school enrollment & popularity reached new highs in the early 1930s.

      Jan. 1, 1928 James Yoshinori Sakamoto published the first issue of the Japanese American Courier. The weekly was the first mainland paper to be exclusively geared to the Nisei.

      DECEMBER 7, 1941 Local authorities & the F.B.I. began to round up the Issei leadership of the Japanese American communities in Hawaii & on the mainland. By 6:30 a.m. the following morning 736 Issei were in custody; within 48 hours, the number was 1,291. Caught by surprise for the most part, these men were held under no formal charges & family members were forbidden from seeing them. Most spent the war years in enemy alien internment camps run by the Justice Department.

      FEBRUARY 19, 1942 President Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066 which allowed military authorities to exclude any group of people from any region without trial or hearings for reasons of "military necessity." E.O. 9066 provided the legal authority behind the mass removal of Japanese Americans from the West Coast.

      FEBRUARY 23, 1942 The military governor of Hawaii, Lt. Gen. Delos C. Emmons, activated the Corps of Engineers Auxilary--i.e. the Varsity Victory Volunteers (VVV)--as part of the 34th Combat Engineers Regiment. Made up of 150 Nisei, many of whom had been dismissed from the territorial guard, the VVV did non-combat labor such as digging ditches or breaking rocks. The VVV lasted eleven months & many of its members subsequently joined the 100th Battalion.

      FEBRUARY 1, 1943 The 442nd Regimental Combat Team, a segregated all-Nisei unit, was activated. A call for volunteers yielded vastly different results in Hawaii than on the mainland: some ten thousand Hawaii Nisei volunteered within days, while only 1,256 mainland Nisei came forward from the camps.

      — Jan. 26, 1944 The Heart Mountain Fair Play Committee (FPC), destined to become the only organized resistance to the military draft, was formed at a rally. Made up of "loyal" Nisei, the FPC members refused to report for draft physicals unless they & their families were granted their civil rights. Aug. 14, 1945 The surrender of Japan ends World War II.

      Mar. 20, 1946 Tule Lake closed. In the month prior to the closing, some five thousand inmates had to be moved, many of whom were elderly, impoverished, or mentally ill & who had no place to go. Of the 554 persons left here at the beginning of the day, 450 were moved to Crystal City, 60 were released, & the rest were "relocated."

      Jan. 19, 1948 The United States Supreme Court reverses the ruling of the California Supreme Court in the Oyama v. California case, ruling a key provision of the Alien Land Law unconstitutional. Nisei Fred Oyama had lost land he had purchased with funds provided by his father in an escheat action in 1944 which was upheld on appeal in 1946. Oyama had then filed suit claiming that as the son of an "alien ineligible to citizenship," he faced a greater burden of proof than other citizens in accepting a gift of money to buy land from his father. With this decision, the practice of Nisei buying land for their Issei parents is essentially ruled beyond the scope of the Alien Land Law.

      DECEMBER 27, 1969 The first annual Manzanar Pilgrimage take place. These trips back to Manzanar would inspire pilgrimages to other concentration camps in the years to come.

      [Sources]


      1908 -- THIS IS NOT AN EXACT DUPLICATE OF THE OTHER DATABASE DATES;

      8/2003: ALSO SOME OR ALL OF THESE MAY ALREADY HAVE BEEN DONE...

      US:

      FEBRUARY 8, 1885 The City of Tokio arrived in Honolulu carrying the first 944 official migrants from Japan to Hawaii.

      May 1892 Led by the Morning Call, the San Francisco Examiner, & the San Francisco Bulletin, the first anti-Japanese movement began. It culminated in the San Francisco Board of Education resolution of June 10, 1893 relegating Japanese students to the segregated Chinese school. After intervention by the Japanese consul, the resolution was soon rescinded, ending this early chapter of anti-Japanese agitation.

      FEBRUARY 18, 1907 Congress approved amending existing immigration legislation which allowed President Roosevelt to issue an executive order stopping the migration of Japanese laborers from Hawaii & Mexico on Mar. 14, 1907. In concert with the Gentlemen's Agreement, this action ended labor immigration to the U.S. & put labor contractors out of business.

      FEBRUARY 4, 1908 At the behest of new San Francisco consul general Chozo Koike, the Japanese Association of America was organized as the new central body of local groups. It replaced the disbanded United Japanese Deliberative Council of America, which had been plagued by financial & other problems.

      Jan. 19, 1920 3,000 members of the Filipino Labor Union walked off their jobs; Japanese workers soon joined them. By early February, 8,300 laborers were on strike, representing 77% of the work force.

      FEBRUARY 21, 1927 The U.S. Supreme Court unanimously ruled that the laws passed by the Hawaii Legislature to control the Japanese Language Schools--Act 152 (Apr. 1925), Act 171 (Apr. 27, 1923), & Act 30 (Nov. 24, 1920)--were all unconstitutional. In addition to removing the laws from the books, the Territorial government had to refund $20,000 in fees collected from the schools. Japanese school enrollment & popularity reached new highs in the early 1930s.

      Jan. 1, 1928 James Yoshinori Sakamoto published the first issue of the Japanese American Courier. The weekly was the first mainland paper to be exclusively geared to the Nisei.

      DECEMBER 7, 1941 Local authorities & the F.B.I. began to round up the Issei leadership of the Japanese American communities in Hawaii & on the mainland. By 6:30 a.m. the following morning 736 Issei were in custody; within 48 hours, the number was 1,291. Caught by surprise for the most part, these men were held under no formal charges & family members were forbidden from seeing them. Most spent the war years in enemy alien internment camps run by the Justice Department.

      FEBRUARY 19, 1942 President Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066 which allowed military authorities to exclude any group of people from any region without trial or hearings for reasons of "military necessity." E.O. 9066 provided the legal authority behind the mass removal of Japanese Americans from the West Coast.

      FEBRUARY 23, 1942 The military governor of Hawaii, Lt. Gen. Delos C. Emmons, activated the Corps of Engineers Auxilary--i.e. the Varsity Victory Volunteers (VVV)--as part of the 34th Combat Engineers Regiment. Made up of 150 Nisei, many of whom had been dismissed from the territorial guard, the VVV did non-combat labor such as digging ditches or breaking rocks. The VVV lasted eleven months & many of its members subsequently joined the 100th Battalion.

      FEBRUARY 1, 1943 The 442nd Regimental Combat Team, a segregated all-Nisei unit, was activated. A call for volunteers yielded vastly different results in Hawaii than on the mainland: some ten thousand Hawaii Nisei volunteered within days, while only 1,256 mainland Nisei came forward from the camps.

      — Jan. 26, 1944 The Heart Mountain Fair Play Committee (FPC), destined to become the only organized resistance to the military draft, was formed at a rally. Made up of "loyal" Nisei, the FPC members refused to report for draft physicals unless they & their families were granted their civil rights. Aug. 14, 1945 The surrender of Japan ends World War II.

      Mar. 20, 1946 Tule Lake closed. In the month prior to the closing, some five thousand inmates had to be moved, many of whom were elderly, impoverished, or mentally ill & who had no place to go. Of the 554 persons left here at the beginning of the day, 450 were moved to Crystal City, 60 were released, & the rest were "relocated."

      Jan. 19, 1948 The United States Supreme Court reverses the ruling of the California Supreme Court in the Oyama v. California case, ruling a key provision of the Alien Land Law unconstitutional. Nisei Fred Oyama had lost land he had purchased with funds provided by his father in an escheat action in 1944 which was upheld on appeal in 1946. Oyama had then filed suit claiming that as the son of an "alien ineligible to citizenship," he faced a greater burden of proof than other citizens in accepting a gift of money to buy land from his father. With this decision, the practice of Nisei buying land for their Issei parents is essentially ruled beyond the scope of the Alien Land Law.

      DECEMBER 27, 1969 The first annual Manzanar Pilgrimage take place. These trips back to Manzanar would inspire pilgrimages to other concentration camps in the years to come.

      [Sources]


      1911 --

      While the U.S. government essentially paralyzes the PLM leadership for most of the period of the revolution, there was one, albeit small, glimmer of hope for the Magonistas -- Baja, California. Their first major success was the capturing of the town of Mexicali, on January 29, 1911. With a small force of only 18, led by Jose Maria Leyva & Simon Berthold, they easily took the town. It was a victory, albeit small, to be sure; "it proved that the Liberals were able to take a strategic objective without assistance from another revolutionary group."34

      Within two days the force swelled to 60, the day following, it reached 120. This number included approximately 40 Wobblies of the American Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), who were recruited on February 5, at the Labor Temple in Los Angeles. There a manifesto was read, written by Jack London, in support of the Magonistas. He stated humorously that "we socialists, anarchists, hobos, chicken thieves, outlaws & undesirable citizens of the U.S. are with you heart & soul."35

      In total, the Magonista forces numbered about 500 in Baja, which included approximately 100 Anglo-American Wobblies36. Among these Wobblies were the famed martyrs of the IWW cause, Frank Little & Joe Hill.37 To put a stop to this movement before it could grow any larger, Colonel Vega, the governor of the region, sent a force of 100 to dislodge the Magonistas from Mexicali. But he was entirely unsuccessful -- it took him more than a week to get there, he experienced large numbers of desertions & his forces were finally routed on February 15.


      1912 -- Italy:

      Basta ! Bisogna Abolire lo STAto ! Crimini e Misfatti dello stato italiano dalle origini ai giorni nostri MOVING DATES 1901 - 1913 Il ministro della malavita e gli scandali finanziari : gli affaristi al potere

      Dicembre. Riferendosi alla politica estera del governo italiano, alleato della Germania (Triplice Alleanza) ma in fase di avvicinamento alla Francia per spartirsi le zone di occupazione in Africa, il cancelliere tedesco Bernhard von Bulow parla ironicamente di 'giri di valzer' di una moglie di cui il marito non può essere geloso. Durante tutto il secolo, lo stato ballerino compirà parecchi giri di valzer, in altre parole voltafaccia e tradimenti.

      1910 Dicembre. Il militarismo statale è terreno fertile per la fondazione a Firenze della "Associazione nazionalista italiana" che rivendica per l'Italia un ruolo di potenza.

      23 Ottobre. A Sciara Sciat l'esercito turco risponde all'aggressore italiano facendo quasi 400 morti fra i bersaglieri. La rappresaglia dell'esercito italiano sarà feroce colpendo anche la popolazione civile dell'oasi e suscitando lo sdegno della stampa internazionale.

      1912 FEBRUARY 23 Febbraio. L'acceso nazionalismo dei deputati (alcuni socialisti inclusi) si rivela nel dibattito sulla conversione in legge del decreto di annessione della Libia. 4 Maggio. Sbarco e occupazione di Rodi. Nei giorni successivi verranno occupate altre isole del mar Egeo per un totale di dodici (da qui il nome di Dodecaneso). 18 Ottobre. Con il trattato di Losanna si conclude la guerra tra lo stato italiano e quello turco. Da parte italiana vi sono stati 3431 morti (1483 in combattimento e 1948 per malattie), poveri individui mandati allo sbaraglio dalla follia imperialista dello stato.

      1913 GENNAIO / JANUARY . Proseguono gli "eccidi proletari" commessi dalla polizia, in particolare a Baganzola (Parma), Comiso (Ragusa) e Rocca Gorga (Roma). Dalle colonne dell'Avanti, Mussolini li qualifica come "Assassinio di Stato".

      1914-1918 La prima fase della guerra civile in Europa : i macellai al potere. [^] [Polyarchy] [Basta!] [Indice : crimini e misfatti]
      [Source: Crimini e Misfatti]


      1912 --

      Zapata takes Cuautla in fierce fighting - ~he orders all villages in the district to reclaim land seized by the haciendas Far Left.Labor. ==May.mid > ~Under the influence of Catalan anarchist Amadeo Ferrés, typographers in Mexico City form the country’s first anarcho-syndicalist trade union - it grows rapidly May 18-21 > Supported by the landowners, the Figueroa brothers occupy western Morelos, including Jojutla & Cuernavaca, preventing the more radical Zapata from fully controlling the state Far Left.(northwest). ==May.20 > In control of Lower California, the anarchist PLM publishes a proclamation for peasants to take collective possession of the land May 29 > In Morelos, Zapata reaches an accord with the rival Figueroa brothers - on Jun.02, the Figueroas install a conservative provisional government JunE 8 > Zapata confers with Madero & demands land reform ==Jun.12-15 > Madero visits Morelos; the local landowners convince him that Zapata is a threat to civic order ==Jun.13 > Under pressure from Madero & the landowners, Zapata’s forces begin rapidly demobilizing ==Jun.18-20 > Conservatives launch a propaganda campaign against Zapata, falsely claiming that Morelos is in a state of anarchy ==Jun.20, Zapata again confers with Madero, & agrees to step down - the landowners briefly seem to have regained full control of Morelos Jun.22 > The anarchist PLM are routed from Tijuana by Madero’s forces Aug.09 > Interim President de la Barra sends General Huerta to Morelos to disarm Zapata’s troops, with the authority to use force if necessary - Zapata learns the news during his wedding ceremony ==Aug.11 > The first armed clash occurs between the Federals & Zapata’s forces ==Aug.12 > de la Barra suspends the state sovereignty of Morelos ==Aug.13-24 > Madero desperately attempts to reach a settlement in Morelos: Zapata twice agrees to demobilize, but is forced to rescind when Huerta advances against him... in the end, Madero leaves Morelos in distress, his peace mission a failure The Zapatista revolt revives: ==Oct.06-07 > As Huerta advances deep into Puebla, Zapata doubles back into Morelos ==Oct.08 > Zapatistas blow up the ‘El Muerto’ bridge in Jococatepec ==Oct.24 > Zapata takes Milpa Alta, only fifteen miles from the heart of Mexico City ==Oct.27-28 > A cabinet crisis is brought on by the Zapatista victories; at Madero’s urging, Huerta is sacked as Federal commander in Morelos Far Left.Labor. ==Oct.08 > First issue of the anarcho-syndicalist newspaper El Tipógrafo Mexicano Zapatista Revolt. ==Nov.08-12 > Government talks with the Zapatistas fizzle - the last hopeful attempt to resolve the Morelos revolt fails Zapatista Revolt. ==Nov.28 > Zapata’s Plan of Ayala is issued, calling for rural reform & the fulfillment of the revolution: the Zapatista revolt is formalized - on DECEMBER15, the Plan is published in Mexico City Labor. ==late.DECEMBER > A serious textile strike occurs at Orizaba _______________ January 1912 Zapatista Revolt. Intense guerilla warfare in Morelos: ==Jan.04 > The Zapatistas attack Yautepec ==Jan.09 > Zapatistas blow the Cuernavaca-Tetecala Railroad ==Jan.17 > The oppressive Figueroa resigns as Governor of Morelos; reformers attempt to gain control of the state government ==Jan.19 > Martial law is declared in Morelos, Guerrero, Tlaxcala, & parts of Puebla & Mexico state as the revolt spreads ==JANUARY 26 > The Zapatistas launch a powerful offensive against Cuernavaca Labor.Madero Regime. ==JANUARY 20 > In response to the Orizaba strike, the government sponsors a conference of textile owners - ~an agreement is reached on weak labor reforms Zapatista Revolt. Tough government crackdown in Morelos: ==early.Feb > The brutal Juvencio Robles arrives to command military operations ==FEBRUARY 6 > The Zapatistas announce that they’ll blow up every train that enters Morelos & launch a renewed drive on Cuernavaca ==FEBRUARY 9 > Federal troops burn down Santa Maria, the home village of rebel leader de la O; ~the hopes of Morelos moderates for the restoration of peace are shattered ==FEBRUARY 10 > Robles arrests Zapata’s relatives; ~widespread ejections of officials and executions in Morelos ==FEBRUARY 15 > Robles begins the systematic burning of villages & the forced ‘resettlement’ of rural populations throughout Morelos Orozquista Revolt.Villa. Orozco’s revolt explodes in Chihuahua: ==MARCH 2 > Maderista Governor Abraham González is compelled to flee rebellious Ciudad Chihuahua ==MARCH 3 > The revolutionary hero Orozco launches a dangerous revolt in Chihuahua, repelling an attempt by Pancho Villa to restore government control in the state capital - the revolt has strong regional support, & most of the local irregular forces join in - President Madero is stunned ==MARCH 7 > Signs of panic in Mexico City - US Ambassador Henry Lane Wilson is frantically requesting arms from the US State Department & urging American citizens to flee ==MARCH 8 > Secretary of War José González Salas leaves Mexico City to command the Federal forces against Orozco ==MARCH 13 > The revolutionary PLM endorses the revolt Zapatista Revolt. ==late.MARCH -spring > Zapatista activity is accelerating, with nearly full control of countryside; the Zapatistas take Puebla, but are defeated in attacks on Tres Marias and Parque del Conde Zapatista Revolt. ==early.AprIL >Zapata briefly takes several key towns in Morelos, but is unable to hold them for long - mass executions by Federal forces in Jojutla Zapatista Revolt. ==early May > The Zapatista offensive in Morelos is fading Zapatista Revolt. ==JUNE 15 > The brutal General Robles is transferred from Morelos Zapatista Revolt. ==JULY 17 > The progressive Morelos legislature meets, passing a wave of reforms through Aug. that undermines popular support for the Zapatistas ==JULY 20 > Zapatistas massacre a train at Parres in the Federal District ==AUGUST 12 > Zapatistas massacre a train at Ticuman in central Morelos Zapatista Revolt. Zapata’s revolt revives: ==Sep.16 > A moderate-conservative legislature convenes in Morelos, which soon aborts reforms & renews a hard-line policy against the Zapatistas ==mid.Oct > The Zapatista revolt is showing renewed signs of life ==Nov.01 > The Zapatistas decide to burn the cane fields of haciendas that refuse to pay ‘taxes’- by late.Jan, half of the state’s sugar crop has been burned ==Jan.1913 > The COM undermines the government’s Gran Liga union, & dominates organized labor in Mexico City apatista Revolt. The Zapatistas defy Huerta: ==MARCH 2 > Zapata notifies Huerta that the Morelos revolt will continue & occupies many towns in the region ==MARCH 14 > Huerta tells an American reporter that he’s considering sending 20,000 Morelans into labor camps ==Mar-Apr. > Zapata subjects Huerta’s peace envoys (including Orozco’s father) to show trials Zapatista Revolt. The war in Morelos intensifies: ==Apr.14 > The brutal Robles returns as the Federal military commander in Morelos ==Apr.15-16 > The Morelos legislature resists Robles’ demands that he be named governor of the state ==Apr.16-17 > Robles arrests local political leaders & installs himself as governor [night]; harsh military rule in Morelos - the end of the regional moderate reform movement ==Apr.17-18 > Zapata storms Jonacatepec in tough fighting; Federal General Aguilar defects to the Zapatistas ==Apr.19 > A Zapatista raid reaches Mexico City ==Apr.21 > Huerta announces to a banquet of Morelos landowners that “...the government is going... to depopulate the state...” - ~frightened peasants swell Zapata’s army ==Apr.23 > Zapata besieges Cuautla; rebel attacks are accelerating into May Labor.Far Left. ==May.01 > Syndicalists of the COM hold Mexico City’s first large May Day march in years Zapatista Revolt. ==May.03 > Zapatistas destroy a train on the Cuautla-Ozumba line ==May.04 > Zapatistas attack Yautepec Zapatista Revolt. ==May.09 > Robles orders all rural residents of Morelos to ‘reconcentrate’ in urban centers, where the men will be conscripted wholesale into the Federal army; anyone found in the countryside will be shot - ~ferocious repression in Morelos through the summer; the extreme disintegration of local life horrifies even the landowners Labor.Huerta Regime. ==May.25 > Huerta arrests syndicalist labor leaders after they hold an anti-government rally, although the COM continues to function ==late.May > Huerta establishes state labor arbitration offices Zapatista Revolt. ==late.May > Zapatistas are operating freely in Guerrero & are beginning to penetrate Puebla ==May.30 > Zapata releases a revised Plan of Ayala, directed against Huerta and Orozco - the Zapatistas’ command structure is reorganized ==end.May > A band of rebel women under ‘La China’ subjects western Morelos to fierce raids Zapatista Revolt. ==Aug.19 > after a highly publicized phony campaign, Robles occupies Huautla in southeast Morelos after it is abandoned by the Zapatistas: he finds only the corpses of Huerta’s peace commissioners, but proclaims “Zapata’s hordes have today been completely destroyed.” SEPTEMBER 1913 Zapatista Revolt. ==Sep.04 > General Robles leaves Morelos ‘for rest’; on Sep.13, he is formally relieved of command - ~Federal pressure is slackening in the area; Zapata controls all but the main towns ==Oct.04 > Zapata tightens up military organization & discipline among his bands Villa.Zapata. ==fall > Villa contacts Zapata, pledging land reform in the north - Zapata responds warmly, warning Villa against Carranza & urging the mass executions of class enemies - a Zapatista emissary reaches Villa in Nov. 1914 Zapatista Revolt. ==Jan.29 > The Zapatistas attack Tlahuac ==MARCH 12 > Federal troops mutiny at Jojutla in Morelos, disrupting the southern command ==MARCH 14 > Zapata opens the siege of Chilpancingo, the capital of Guerrero (see Mar.23-24) Zapatista Revolt. ==MARCH 23-24 > Zapata storms Chilpancingo ==MARCH 28 > The Zapatistas formally take over the Guerrero state government Zapatista Revolt. ==Apr.06 > Zapatistas execute the hated Federal General Cartón ==Apr.08 > The Zapatistas take Iguala in Guerrero Federal power collapses in Morelos: ==mid.Apr. > Zapata controls virtually all of Morelos except the district capitals - all but two haciendas have been taken ==late.Apr. > Federal forces abandon all but Cuernavaca & Jojutla in Morelos (see early May) ==early.May. > The Zapatistas take Jojutla in Morelos (see Jun.02) Zapata mops up Morelos: ==Jun.02-10 > Zapata cuts off Cuernavaca, the last Federal outpost in Morelos ==Jun.10 > Zapata orders an advance on Mexico City Huerta betrayed & murdered Madero, double-crossed his fellow conservatives, & seized power, which immediately provoked the great Constitutionalist revolt. He responded with ruthless determination, but the rebel commanders Zapata, Villa, & Obregón were leaders of genius, & with his situation deteriorating, Huerta suppressed Congress in Oct.1913, tried to impose a proto-fascist militarism on Mexican society, & alienated international opinion. Plan of Ayala - Zapata’s political manifesto. First issued Nov.28, 1911, it called for revolutionary land reform & uncompromising resistance to landowners & their minions. The Plan of Ayala was zealously adhered to by the Zapatistas & inspired other agrarian rebels throughout Mexico. PLM (Partido Liberal Mexicano) - Formed by the Flores Magón brothers & other exiles in St. Louis in Sep.1905. Despite its name, the PLM was not liberal but was a radical leftist group dedicated to overthrowing the Díaz regime by force. It succeeded in organizing a widespread underground network & in launching some small revolts, but repression in Mexico & harassment of its exiled leadership in the US undercut the group’s effectiveness. By the time the revolution erupted in 1910, the PLM was too weak to play a major role. Villa became the most powerful revolutionary in the north. In 1914-1915, he allied with Zapata but they were repeatedly defeated by Carranza & Obregón. Ricardo & Enrique Flores Magón - Early radical opponents to Díaz. Sons of a liberal Oaxacan landowner; active in the opposition from the 1890’s; increasingly drawn to the extreme left; fled to the US in 1904. They helped found the far-left PLM in 1905, but harassment & frequent arrests by US authorities made it difficult for them to effectively lead the group. Although they had become marginalized by the time the revolution erupted in 1910, they remained active in leftist politics for many years. Praxedis Guerrero - Dynamic PLM leader, killed Dec.1910 in the early stages of the Revolution. http://cnparm.home.texas.net/Nat/Mx/Mx02.htm
      Emiliano Zapata - Remarkable guerilla leader in south central Mexico. Small, quiet, intense, determined; fiercely independent; a superb horseman. A village chief before the revolution; became the leading Maderista rebel in Morelos from early spring 1911, but was anathema to local landowners; after failing to reach agreement with Madero over land reform, he was provoked into revolt Sep.01, 1911; issued the agrarian revolutionary Plan of Ayala in Nov.1911. For three years he bested every Federal general that was sent against him, despite often brutal government repression. After the fall of Huerta, Zapata occupied Mexico City in Nov.1914, allied with Villa against Carranza, & enforced land reform. But by 1917, he had become isolated by Carranza, & on Apr.10, 1919, he was betrayed & killed in an ambush. Zapatista - Adherent of Zapata & the Plan of Ayala; agrarian revolutionaries.


      1916 -- "Anarchists Have Forgotten Their Principles" is the title of an article in "Freedom," November, 1914 beginning:

      "At the risk of passing as a simpleton, I confess that I would never have believed it possible that Socialists -- even Social Democrats -- would applaud & voluntarily take part, either on the side of the Germans or on that of the Allies, in a war like the one that is at present devastating Europe. But what is there to say when the same is done by Anarchists -- not numerous, it is true, but having among them comrades whom we love & respect most?"

      This article may be identical with an article published by the "Avanti" (Milan) which was followed by a letter ( December, 1914), which Malatesta reprinted in "Umanita Nova" Sept. 8, 1920; here he explains why, while desiring the defeat of Germany, it is not the affair of revolutionists to help the capitalist governments to bring it about.

      Malatesta had also signed the International Anarchist Manifesto on the War (1915), reproduced in "Freedom," March 1915, & signed by Leonard D. Abbott, Alexander Berkman, L. Bertoni, L. Bersani, G. Bernard, G. Barrett, A. Bernardo, E. Boudot, A. Calzitta, Joseph J. Cohen, Henry Combes, Nestor Ciele von Diepen, F. W. Dunn, Ch. Frigerio, Emma Goldman, V. Garcia, Hippolyte Havel, M H. Keell, Harry Kelly, J. Lemaire, E. Malatesta, H. Marques. F. Domela Nieuwenhuis, Noel Panovich. E. Recchioni, G. Rinjders, 1. Rochtchine, A. Savioli, A. Schapiro, William Shatoff, V. J. C. Schermerhorn, C. Trombetti, P. Vallina, G. Vignati, Lillian G. Woolf & S. Yanowsky.

      When the "Manifeste des Seize," the so-called "Manifesto of the Sixteen," had been published (FEBRUARY 28, 1916; a reprint, Lausanne, "Libre Federation," May 1916, 8 pp., in 16° gives additional adhesions), Malatesta wrote the article "Pro-Government Anarchists" ("Freedom." April 1916), of which a French edition was secretly issued, bearing the title: Reponse de Malatesta au Manifeste de Seize. Anarchistes de Gouvernement (7 pp. in 16°); it is also referred to in "Umanito Nova," Aug. 26, Sept. 8, 1920. It begins by the words:

      "A manifesto has just appeared, signed by Kropotkin, Grave, Malato & a dozen other old comrades, in which, echoing the supporters of the Entente Governments who are demanding a fight to a finish & the crushing of Germany, they take their stand against any idea of "premature peace." . . .

      "Anarchists" --Malatesta says -- "owe it to themselves to protest against this attempt to implicate Anarchism in the continuance of a ferocious slaughter that has never held promise of any benefit to the cause of justice & liberty, & which now shows itself to be absolutely barren & resultless even from the standpoint of the rulers on either side." . . .

      http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/malatesta/nettlau/nettlauonmalatesta.html



      1917 --

      Ben Shahn


      Four Daily Bleed References to Tom Mooney

      • July 22, 1916 -- Bomb explodes during a "Preparedness Day" parade in San Francisco, killing 10 & injuring 40. Thomas J. Mooney, a labor organizer & Warren K. Billings, a shoe worker, were convicted, but were both pardoned in 1939.
      • February 9, 1917 -- American labor agitator Tom Mooney falsely convicted of fatal bombing. He will be pardoned & released 22 ½ years from now. See: Frame-up by Curt Gentry; Life of an Anarchist: The Alexander Berkman Reader, ed. Gene Fellner, Four Walls Eight Windows, New York, 1992.
      • January 7, 1939 -- Tom Mooney, labor activist, freed after 22 ½ years in jail on false charges. Convicted of murder in connection with a 1916 San Francisco bomb explosion.
        http://www.dartmouth.edu/~library/Library_Bulletin/Nov1989/LB-N89-Vclose2.html
      • August 28, 1968 -- Chicago FBI agents report "GINSBERG chanted unintelligible poems . . .

        AMERICA
        America free Tom Mooney
        America save the Spanish Loyalists
        America Sacco & Vanzetti must not die
        http://www.english.upenn.edu/~afilreis/50s/ginsberg-fbi.html



        Hunger by
        Ben Shahn http://www.auburn.edu/~folkegw/univ/arboadva.htm


        1919 --

        No. 1 - January 1975

         

        Anarchists & the May 4
        Movement in China

        By Nohara Shirõ

        (translated by Philip Billingsley)


        THE RISE & FALL OF PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES

        How did the anarchist students initially seek to realize their plans for social reconstruction? The activities of the 'Work-and-Learning Mutual Aid Corps' (Gongdu huzhutuan) movement, which spanned a period of some six months following the Corps' founding at the end of 1919, were one example.(58) Centred on Beijing University students & supported by Hangzhou students from the Zhejiang New Tide group, members included the founder Wang Guangqi, Luo Jialun from Beijing, & Shi Cuntong & Fu Linran from Zhejiang. Financial support was provided by several well-known intellectuals including Cai Yuanpei, Chen Duxiu, Hu Shi, Li Dazhao & Zhou Zuoren.(59) The movement also seems to have sprung up among students in Shanghai & Tianjin.

        What the Corps students did, basically, was to promote in one small corner of Beijing a self-sufficient group lifestyle in which members, in addition to their studies, would work at least four hours a day, contributing their income to a pool which paid for living expenses & other outlays. Some opened printing shops, restaurants & laundries for students & teachers; others even tried selling handicrafts & so on. While there was little to distinguish this superficially from the life of the average student, their programme was in fact a sincere effort to tackle the problem of what was to become of China in the post-May 4 era. Believing that the class contradictions in society stemmed from the separation of mental & physical labor, they sought to create, by their own efforts in one isolated enclave, the prototype of a new society in which the two would be reunited, & from where they could begin to spread their influence to society at large. Wang Guangqi summed up their aspirations in issue No. 7 (January 1920) of their magazine Work-and-Learning Mutual Aid Corps:

        The Work-and-Learning Mutual Aid groups are the embryo of the new society, & the first step in the realization of our ideals .... On paper we advocate a social revolution every day, but we have yet to begin to put it into practice. Our mutual aid organization is just the starting point for our real movement.... If it is successful, we can gradually expand it & simultaneously begin to realize the ideal of 'from each according to their ability; to each according to their needs'. This movement should indeed be called 'a peaceful economic revolution'. (60)

        Similar ideals were invoked in an article in issue No. 2 (August 1919) of Young China (Shaonian Zhongguo).(61) Entitled 'My Plan for Creating a Young China', it too advocated the establishment of 'Small groups':

        We must escape from the confines of the old society & head wll~ for the wilderness & forests, where we can create a truly free, truly egalitarian association. Then, by promoting economic & cultural autonomy through cooperative labor, we can cut ourselves off completely from the corrupting influence of the old society. After that we will set about the rebuilding of the latter on the pattern of our own society. Unlike the socialist parties of Europe, we do not declare war on the old society by the method of armed insurrection.

        Strongly reflecting the influence of the currently-popular 'New Village' movement of the Japanese utopian Mushanok6ji, the group's proposals ultimately amounted to a mere caricature of the concept of 'uniting with the toiling masses'. Yet these students threw themselves dedicatedly into the work they chose, and, when Hu Shi dismissed their typical 'poor student', haphazard ways of making ends meet as no different from those of American students, they must surely have been deeply resentful.(62)

        The previously-mentioned Work-Study Society of Beijing Higher Normal School, on the other hand, openly advocated anarchy, & made a fundamental distinction between their own doctrine of work-study & the position of the Mutual Aid Corps. Still, there was nothing to choose between them as far as practical activities were concerned, & both experiments ultimately ended in disappointment. Shi Cuntong, in a self-critical piece, described the failure of the Mutual Aid Corps as follows:

        Present-day society is organized on a capitalist basis, & the capitalists keep a firm grip on all capital resources. There is absolutely nothing we can do about that, & to imagine regaining control of those resources is a mere pipedream! Pitting our feeble strength against such a treacherous, vicious society as this-how could we but be defeated? We tried to rebuild society, but found we could not even penetrate it, even after creating the Work-and-Learning Mutual Aid Corps. Rebuilding society? It was never even on the cards! From now on, if we want to rebuild society we must plan to do it wholesale & from the very roots!

        Piecemeal reforms will get us nowhere. As long as society is not reformed at the roots, no experiments in new lifestyles are possible. So long as such experiments fail to distance themselves from everyday society, it follows that they will always be under its sway, & consequently come up against countless obstacles. The only way around this is a joint uprising of the peoples of the whole world, which will uproot those obstacles once & for all... 'To rebuild society, we must gain entry into the capitalist controlled means of production. ' This is our conclusion.(63)

        Dai Jitao too, then a supporter of Marxism, looked back on the failure of the Mutual Aid Corps & counseled the students to go into the capitalist-controlled factories where, toiling side by side with the workers, they could then try to seize their leadership.(64)

        Accordingly, a number of the more serious anarchists, among them one Huang Ai, began to throw themselves into syndicalist activities. In May 4 days Huang had been a Tianjin Students' Union delegate. Subsequently, at a joint preparatory meeting for the 'May 30 Petition Movement" Huang clashed bitterly with the General Secretary of the Beijing Students' Union Zhang Guotao over the advisability of such a movement.(65) He & his supporters' position - that even though it would not achieve much in itself such a movement would effectively expose Premier Duan Qirui's collusion with the Japanese, prevent direct Sino-Japanese negotiations on the Shandong question, & awaken the entire people to the situation -eventually triumphed. Huang was arrested twice during the May 4 agitation, & early in 1920 returned to his native Hunan province in central China. There, in November he & another comrade named Pang Renquan organized the syndicalist Hunan Workers' Association (Hunan laogonghui) in the provincial capital of Changsha.(66)

        The Japanese historian Suzue Gen'ichi writes of another incidence of syndicalist organizing activities:

        In Shanghai there was an organization known as the Chinese Wartime laborers' Corps (Canzhan Huagongtuan), a section of which showed syndicalist tendencies. In practice, though, the part it played was minimal, & it amounted to little more than a loose group of Chinese workers of various kinds linked solely by the fact that they had all worked along the French border during the war in Europe. There was very little of the labor union about it, whether of the industrial or the craft variety.

        On the other hand, there was also a second group of French returnees, the Diligent Work & Frugal Study Association (Qingong jianxuesheng tuan) students. Sent to France after the war ended through a scheme arranged by Wu Zhihui to help poor students, on arrival they had found their lives to be all work & no study, & had promptly returned to China. Among them were not a few who had been deported for their attempts to form a communist party while in France, but many others had returned as syndicalists, & were becoming involved in practical activities.(67)

        This latter group evidently owed something to the influence of the New Century Society formed in Paris at the end of the Qing dynasty by Wu Zhihui & Li Shizeng, but little is known about the actual activities of either of these two factions.(68)

        Meanwhile, following the foundation under Comintern auspices of a Chinese Communist Party (CCP) core group in Shanghai in May 1920, similar communist groups were established in Beijing, Wuhan, Changsha, Jinan & Hangzhou, as well as in Paris & Tokyo (the names varied from place to place: some were simply called Societies for the Study of Marxism),(69) & members began to apply themselves to the task of organizing labor unions. The following 2ol or three examples were typical. In mid-1920 the Shanghai group established in Xiaoshadu a Workers' Spare-Time School, where they began political education classes in Marxist theory; in November & December of that year China's first communist-led labor unions, the Shanghai Machine-workers' Union & the Shanghai Printers' Union were formed; & in January 1921 the Beijing group followed with another Workers' Spare-Time School in Zhangxindian leading to the establishment of the Zhangxindian labor Union that May.(70) With the membership of these groups as its nucleus, in July 1921 the CCP was finally inaugurated, followed by the Chinese labor Union Secretariat, whose avowed role was to promote the development of the labor movement by setting up workers' organizations & directing strikes.

        During this period, arguments between anarchists & communists continued unabated even within the communist groups. The Beijing group, for example, originally numbered Huang Lingshuang, Ou Shengbai, Yuan Mingxiong & other anarchists among its members. During discussions on the provisional draft for a general party programme which the group had independently drawn up, however, Huang & the others fiercely opposed a clause advocating the dictatorship of the proletariat, & in the end withdrew from the group. As anarchists they were all in favour of revolutionary activities, meaning direct political action that negated the present system; they rejected totally, as strategies for the pre- and post-revolutionary periods respectively, both parliamentary politicking & the seizure of political power leading to a dictatorship of the proletariat under a revolutionary government.

        In line with this kind of reasoning, the anarchists, unlike the communists, sought to promote the labor movement independently of everyday political activities. This debate was the keystone of the anarchist-communist struggle in all countries; in China, like elsewhere, it never managed to get beyond the realms of abstract polemic. To go into the details of the argument would be extremely tedious, & I propose to ignore it.(71) Even in Guangdong, where Shifu's influence persisted, the same conflict took place, & eventually the anarchists either withdrew from the communist group or were converted to Marxism.

        Let us now pick up the string of Huang Ai's story once again. After returning to Hunan in June 1920, as I have said, Huang & Pang Renquan set up the Hunan Workers' Association (HWA) in Changsha in November. Its aims were to raise both the living standards & the educational level of local workers. The original membership consisted of students, mostly from Huang's & Pang's alma mater, Hunan Jiazhong Technical School. Gradually, technicians & workers of the No. I Textile Mill & the local mint joined, followed by construction workers, machinists & barbers. By the time of the December 1921 strike at the No. 1 Textile Mill, some 4000-5000 workers were said to be under the HWA's influence. This was perhaps the largest of all the workers' organizations established by the anarchists.(72) The mill, founded in 1912 under joint management of officials and merchants, had been brought to a standstill by successive years of warlord conflicts, though its doors remained open. In the meantime the Hua Shi company, a Hunan capitalist concern, had colluded with the local warlord to acquire the management rights to the mill. Since the company's policy of importing capital & technology from other provinces had aroused the common resentment of Hunan's industrial, commercial & educational circles, the HWA achieved great popularity when, in April 1921, it began an all-out struggle to restore the mill to the Hunanese.

        Just about this time Mao Zedong was also setting about organizing Hunan's workers, though his efforts to alter the direction of the HWA did not readily bear fruit. To the Marxists' contention that government was necessary provided it was established by the workers themselves, the HWA retorted scornfully that whatever the government it would be no different from warlord rule. Mao, unabashed, continued patiently trying to convince selected workers. At the same time as supporting Huang's & Pang's fight against the warlords & capitalists, Mao candidly criticized their anarchist activities & finally, after mutual discussions, managed to call a halt to some of their more radical activities. His proposal that the HWA be reorganized to admit the collection of membership fees and other formal procedures was also accepted, & soon it began to look like a regular organization.

        The Hunan branch of the CCP was probably founded in the first half of 1921, & by the end of that year Huang & Pang are said to have joined the Socialist Youth Corps (Shehui zhuyi qingniantuan) set up at the same time.(73) Shi Yang, another one-time believer in anarchism, had already changed his mind. After conducting on-the-spot investigations of working people's conditions & examining the problems of improving their livelihood, he had concluded that anarchy was but the product of a utopian dream, incapable in practice of liberating the working class; the idea of free organizations and federations in which people would work only according to their abilities & take whatever they desired, while a noble ideal, gave no suggestions for its practical realization. The only concrete & reliable programme, he had apparently come to feel, was that offered by communism.(74) The change of heart experienced by Huang & Pang was perhaps similar: even the most minor economic struggles should be taken immediately into the political arena; without such a combined struggle not even the basic goal of improving the workers' living standards can be achieved. For them, that is, as people who had done actual battle with conditions in China, the anarcho-syndicalist rejection of political activity had ceased to have any meaning.(75)

        Not long after these events, spurred by the Nine-Power Treaty passed at the Washington Conference,(76) the HWA organized an opposition rally followed by an anti-imperialism demonstration in which several dozen organizations & some ten thousand people, workers & others, took part. Mao Zedong, following the inauguration 'of the CCP, thus increased his efforts at cooperation with the HWA. In January 1922 the workers at the No I Textile Mill struck in support of their claim for a year-end bonus. Huang & the other anarchists began agitating to ensure the strike's success, but fell into the hands of Zhao Hengti, the local warlord who had been bought off by the Hua Shi company, & met an untimely end at his hands.(77)

        Following these executions & the forced closure of the union which ensued, the leadership of the HWA fled to Shanghai, Tianjin, Hankou & other cities where they began the task of reconstruction. From that point on, however, their activities were solely concerned with resisting the CCP-controlled labor organizations. In Changsha, following the successful strike by construction workers & others in 1922, many former HWA workers began to join the CCP. Some, however, were bought off by local warlords, & others were later used in an attempt to destroy the great Shanghai strike which followed the May 30 Incident of 1925.(78)

        On April 10 1924 the labor Union Secretariat initiated an all-faction congress of labor unions in Shanghai, but the meeting was marked by constant & violent conflicts between Marxists & syndicalists. The Hunan anarchist delegate, Chen Xiaocen, was probably one of those who had fled the province following the execution of Huang & Pang. As usual, the syndicalists proposed a motion that unions should not engage in political activities, & fought bitterly against unification of the unions in the hands of the Marxists. Finally, they walked out of the congress altogether."(79)

        Thus it was that anarcho-syndicalist strength within the Chinese labor movement all but disappeared.(80) Huang Lingshuang, one of its principal proponents in the post-May 4 era, left soon after to study in the USA and, after receiving a Ph.D., became professor of sociology at Zhongyang University. Subsequently, it is said, he became a lesser light in the right-wing 'CC Clique' of the Nationalist Party.(81) With other anarchists simply melting away & what have you, it was a dismal outcome to the movement. The ideological role played by anarchism, however, is a topic altogether separate from the fate of individual anarchists, & deserves further examination. 

         

        A MAN NAMED Ll DAZHAO

        The anarchist-bolshevik controversy in China reached a crescendo between the establishment of the first communist groups in May 1920 & the inauguration of the CCP in July 1921. The principal arguments unfolded in the pages of the magazines New Youth (Xin qingnian) & The Communist (Gongchandang), the latter a monthly put out by the Shanghai communist group.(82) The self-styled bolsheviks, however, at the beginning at least, cannot be said to have consciously differentiated themselves from the anarchists; on the contrary, some of them even interpreted bolshevism in terms of anarchist premises. A good example, as we shall presently see, was Li Dazhao, a typical Chinese intellectual who worked ceaselessly and dedicatedly for the cause of the Chinese revolution from the end of the Qing dynasty, through the 1911 revolution & the May 4 Movement, right down to the amalgamation of the Nationalist Party & the CCP in 1924.(83)

        During the stage of the anarchist-bolshevik debate, as was the case in every other country, the anarchists' criticism of the bolsheviks, centring on their demands for absolute liberty, rejection of political methods, opposition to proletarian dictatorship & centralized authority, & advocacy of an ideal society based on mutual aid, liberty & labor, raised from the latter no more than equally abstract, Marxist formulations. For the people of China, who since the revolution of 1911 had learned to mistrust all politics, they carried but little weight. Only after the sacrifice of Huang Ai & Pang Renquan & the struggle at the 1st Chinese labor Union Congress, followed by the laying down of a tentative plan for the reconstruction of China at the 2nd Congress of the CCP in July 1922, did the bolsheviks begin to extract themselves from this quagmire:

        The proletariat's support of the democratic revolution is not equivalent to its surrender to the bourgeoisie. It is a necessary stage in putting an end to the feudal system & in nurturing the actual power of the proletariat. We the proletariat have our own class interest. Even if successful, the democratic revolution would bring only some minor liberties & rights; it would be no total liberation. Indeed, the success of the democratic revolution will merely allow the bourgeoisie, at present in its infancy, to develop more speedily, & put it in an antagonistic position regarding the proletariat. When that stage is reached, the proletariat must launch the second stage of the struggle, allying with the poor peasants against the bourgeoisie to establish a dictatorship of the proletariat. If the organization & fighting power of the proletariat have been sufficiently strengthened, our efforts in this second-stage struggle, following on from the victory of the democratic revolution, will surely bear fruit.

        The CCP is the party of the Chinese proletariat. Its aims are to organize the proletariat and, by means of class struggle, to establish a dictatorship of workers and peasants & abolish private property, so as to arrive at a communist society. The CCP, in the immediate interests of the workers & poor peasants, should lead the workers to support the democratic revolutionary movement & promote a democratic united front of workers, peasants & petty bourgeoisie. (84)

        With this manifesto, not only was the popular post-1911 political apathy overcome at last; it also marked the bolsheviks' first successful dissociation of themselves from the anarchists.

        Let us now return to the beginnings of this process. As I have said many times already, the thinking of the earliest communists was heavily laced with anarchism. This tendency can be discerned, for instance, in Li Dazhao's October 1918 essay 'The Victory of Bolshevism' -regarded as one of the earliest Chinese Marxist texts. According to the 'bolshevik' proposals presented there, everyone regardless of their sex will be required to take part in labor, & all working men & women must organize a single federation in which membership will be compulsory. Each federation must have a supreme central council, & those councils must organize governments for the whole world. Instead of secret committees, parliaments, presidents, premiers, cabinets, legislatures & rulers, there will be only the councils of the workers' federations, with whom all decisions will rest. All industrial concerns will become the property of those who work in them, beyond which there will be no property rights at all. The bolsheviks, uniting the propertyless poor of the whole world, will utilize the latter's powerful resilience to build a free homeland for everyone. The first stage will be a Federation of European Democracies, a base upon which to build the World Federation. This is the meaning of bolshevism.(85)

        There is a common thread linking this proposal with the Beijing University Students' Weekly statement already mentioned, which foresaw how "workers of the whole world, irrespective of national boundaries, would organize labor boards at strategic points which would take over the duties historically assumed by so-called governments. " As a matter of fact, just before the previously-quoted passage in 'The Victory of Bolshevism', there is a paragraph in which Li states that "the revolutionary socialist party of the bolsheviks, with Marxism as their standard, will strive to smash the national boundaries which today stand in the way of the growth of socialism". In similar vein, part of Li's January 1919 piece 'New Era' went:

        In the future, a drastic change will affect the system of production. The working class, united across the world, will set up a single rational association of producers, break down national boundaries, & overthrow the capitalist class everywhere. Their weapon will be the general strike.

        To put it bluntly, Li's interpretation of bolshevism was essentially no different from the programme envisaged by the anarchist Huang Lingshuang when he wrote in the second issue of Progress (Jinhua, FEBRUARY 20, 1919) that "the new tide in today's world is the great anarchist revolution". For that matter, certain contemporary opinions even attempted to explain the May 4 Movement entirely in terms of the effect of anarchism & other theories upon the students.

        This apparently cosmopolitan trend in Li Dazhao's thinking recurs throughout his writings, & the following passage is a good example of what was to be for him a constant preoccupation:

        Our demand right now is for a free, liberated self, & for a world in which people can love & be loved without obstacle. The motherlands, social classes, & racial distinctions which now stand between the self & the world are obstacles to evolution and interference in our daily lives, & must be done away with one by one. ('The Self & the World', in Weekly Critic (Meizhou pinglun) No. 29, July 6 1919).(86)

        Accordingly:

        The May 4 Movement is directed against the aggressive policy known as 'Pan-Asianism', & does not harbour any deep animosity toward the Japanese people themselves. We reject all those, Japanese or otherwise, who use force to stifle people's rights. I believe it inappropriate to view this movement as no more than a patriotic one. Rather, it is but one part of a movement to liberate all of humankind. Friends, if we proceed with such a vision in our hearts, we will be helping to bring about the happiness of future generations! ('Talk at the Anniversary Celebration of the Citizens' Magazine, in Citizens' Magazine (Guomin zazhi) vol. 2 no. 1, Nov. 1919)

        This theme, that a movement for the liberation of humanity implied a movement for liberation from world imperialism, is made explicit in the following passage from Li's article titled 'Secret Diplomacy & the World of Robbers' (Weekly Critic No. 22, May 18 1919): "The reason why Japan can flaunt her aggressive policies around the world is simply that the world today is a world of robbers!"

        However, was Li Dazhao's cosmopolitanism the same as that of anarchists like Wu Zhihui? Far from it, for beneath Li's approach, which otherwise resembles that of the anarchists so closely, lies a theory of national liberation. It can also be perceived in his piece titled, Pan-Asianism & New Asianism', published in the Citizens' Magazine vol. 1 no. 2, Jan. 1 1919:

        From the general drift of world affairs, there is little doubt that in the future the United States will construct an American Federation, & Europe a European Federation. We in Asia too must create a similar organization. Together these will provide the basis for a World Federation. Asians must join together in espousing a 'New Asianism' in place of the 'Pan-Asianism' advocated by some Japanese which, based on Ukita Kazutami's idea of a Sino-Japanese alliance, is intended to bolster the status quo. Our proposal is based on national liberation, & assumes fundamental social change. The peoples of Asia, now in the thrall of foreign annexation, will be liberated & become capable of self-determination. From there they must build one big federation, providing the third corner of the triangle alongside Europe & America. Then all three will cooperate in forming the World Federation, & so advance the well-being of all humankind.(87)

        At the time of the '21 Demands' controversy in 1915 (see Part One), Li Dazhao was a student in Japan. Towards the end of that year, on behalf of the Association of Chinese Students in Japan, he wrote 'A Letter of Admonition to the Elders of the Nation' in which he began by describing in detail the foreign powers' invasion of China. After that he explained the disastrous crisis now confronting the country, exposed the real nature of the '21 Demands', & urged his elders, brothers & sisters to lose no time in joining hands to defend the beautiful mountains & rivers & the glorious historical tradition of their motherland. Later on, in a passage which unashamedly revealed his nationalistic yearnings, he recalled his departure for Japan:

        Not long ago I left my homeland & sailed east across the sea. The sun set into the wind-lashed waves, all was a Jadecoloured moment. Once past the Yellow Sea the land of Korea came into view. I looked to glimpse some trace of our 1894 debacle [i.e. in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-51, but all was swallowed in mist. I could only listen, the angry waves a doleful roll of drums as the waters flowed eastwards. It was as if the lonely ghosts of those who had died for China had buried their hatred there.

        Xu Deheng recalls in his 'Recollections of May 4' how impressed he had been by Li Dazhao, who during 1918-19 had backed the Shanghaibased National Salvation Corps of Chinese Students in Japan, wrote constantly for the Citizens' Magazine, & was the only intellectual to consistently support the student movement from the students' own standpoint. At the time of May 4 itself, because Li had grasped the relationship between the Chinese people & the rest of the world in terms of anti-imperialism, he never became a mere chauvinist or cosmopolitan.(88) Accordingly, while the May 4 New Culture Movement is generally said to have been destructive of China's native cultural traditions, Li displayed a somewhat different attitude. With regard to the criticism of Confucius, for example, Li advocated the overthrow not of Confucius himself but of the power bestowed on him by the idolatry of generations of rulers. ('Natural Ethics and Confucius')

        These points presented problems for the anarchists. They too had voiced their opposition to the foreign powers' invasion of China, but in their case, since it stemmed from their abstract position of resistance to all arbitrary power, it never developed into straightforward national sentiment. From their standpoint, naturally, such things as race & tradition did not even merit consideration. The Reality Society's Notes on Liberty, for example, declared its rejection of such concepts as 'patriotism' & 'national essence' (Issue no. 2, 'Revolution & Conservatism') . In the Liu Sifu Commemoration Issue of Progress, too, we read:

        Happily, not only did Liu Sifu not manifest the typical characteristics of Chinese civilization; on the contrary, he fervently hated them, & by overcoming them managed to preserve the spirit & the dignity of anarchism. ('The Reason for Publishing a Liu Sifu Commemoration Issue')

        Although many other factors entered into it, this was surely a major reason why anarchism as an ideology, unable to adapt to the revolutionary ferment enveloping all China, went into a sudden decline.(89)

        Nevertheless, as even a Chinese scholar has confirmed, anarchism left behind it one remarkable contribution to Chinese thought.(90) During the early years of World War I, as Germany's armies went from victory to victory, ideas like the following enjoyed a vogue in China:

        At the root of the world lies the will to live, & the struggle for existence forms the true core of evolution. States grow out of the will to live, while militarism is the extreme manifestation of the struggle for existence. In the past the great powers were constrained by mountains & seas, & contacts between them were rare. Each possessed its own territory & people, and, since their boundaries did not touch, conflicts between them were not violent. However, the modern age brought considerable easing of communication & increasingly frequent contact between the powers. As their economic systems also expanded, the struggle for existence grew accordingly more fierce. The end result was militarism, which sprang up to meet the demands of the time. The only way for nations of this age to protect their boundaries & their peoples is militarism. The only way to avoid- becoming the slaves of others is to take the road of militarism. The world today is a militaristic world. (New Youth, vol. 2 no. 3, Nov. 1916)

        The theory of natural evolution imported into China since the late Qing period, as well as inspiring Liang Qichao's 'Theory of National Imperialism', had been highly stimulating for the nationalists of that period.(91) Under the conditions of May 4, however, by which time the Chinese people were suffering under the crushing burden of warlord rule, it naturally had the adverse effect of promoting feelings of inferiority and defeatism, & of encouraging a trend toward militarism which supported the warlords' attempts to impede the democratic movement. Ultimately, the variety of Social Darwinism that grew up in China, since it contained elements of both determinism & fatalism, in fact became an obstacle to the development of revolutionary theory. Li Dazhao's essay 'New Era' provided a critique of these problems:

        Up to now all the natural evolutionists have been telling us about the 'survival of the fittest': that the strong must prey on the weak; that the weak must sacrifice their right to life & happiness to preserve the position of the strong; that the strong must eat their fellows & the weak be eaten by them, etc. But today the fallacies of this argument have become abundantly clear. Biological evolution depends not on struggle but on mutual aid. If humanity desires life & happiness, we must love one another, not use force to exterminate one another.

        Furthermore, as Germany's initial run of victories turned to defeats, & as revolution spread from Russia to Germany & then to Austria, Li saw the cast-iron proof of his case in the ongoing disintegration of the 'survival of the fittest' society which had been the original cause of the war.

        The starting point for this new interpretation of evolution had been Kropotkin's 'theory of mutual aid'.(92) This is clear from Li's article 'Class Struggle & Mutual Aid' (Weekly Critic No. 29, July 6 1919), which also raised a new & quite separate problem. Li, as a Marxist, felt compelled to unify the principles of mutual aid with those of class struggle. In no way a pure Kropotkinist, he began with Marx's dictum that "all history to date is the reflection of class struggles", acknowledged the role played by class struggle in the pre-history of humanity, and proclaimed that the one racking the world at present was the last they would be required to undergo. Unless this last struggle was definitively carried through, however, the world of mutual aid of the proletariat, in which that principle would reach its highest expression, would not be reached. Moreover, Li asserted, even in the pre-historical period the evolution of the social fabric had been brought about by the moral dictates of mutual aid in conjunction with class struggle. The ideal society would therefore be attained by means of one final class struggle in tandem with an upsurge in the spirit of mutual aid - in other words, through a combination of material & spiritual remoulding.

        Present-day Chinese scholars have attributed this standpoint to Li's so-called "dualism", on the grounds that his thinking had yet to be fully permeated with Marxism. However, in another article titled 'From Vertical Organization to Horizontal Organization' (Emancipation & Reconstruction- Jiefang yu gaizao, vol. 2 no. 2, Jan. 15 1920), we read that "vertical organization" -i.e. all organization based on exploiters & exploited, rulers & ruled-is created through force; while "horizontal organization", such as in China's case the various federations formed by students, teachers, merchants, workers, peasants, women & so on as a result of May 4, is created through love. Horizontal organization, the article continues, uses the spirit of mutual aid to resist vertical organization. To overthrow vertical organization is emancipation; to establish horizontal organization is reconstruction.

        In saying that the individuality of every oppressed person would also be restored through the liberation struggle of horizontal versus vertical organization, as we noted earlier, Li Dazhao was displaying his reluctance to treat the problem of the individual separately from that of the organization, from that of the whole. That is, individuality too was to undergo ideological reconstruction so as to bring about the spirit of mutual love based on class affinity: in other words, "all for one & one for all". Therefore, when he explained the meaning of reconstruction as the establishment of horizontal organization, he implied also ideological reconstruction. And so Li Dazhao's theory of 11 material change combined with ethical change", however rudimentarily developed, was an early hint of the thought reform movement later to become one of the most remarkable features of the Chinese revolution. With such a conception of individuality, needless to say, ideological reconstruction could not stop at mere closet enlightenment.

        As a thinker, Li Dazhao was quite out of the ordinary. Spencer, Tolstoy, Kropotkin, perhaps even Dewey, all found a temporary lodging side by side with Marx within his mind. There was even a time when none of them could be easily singled out. This was what made Li stand out even among May 4 intellectuals. Neither-and this too was remarkable -could Li be labeled a mere haphazard, opportunist syncretist. By way of the May 4 Movement, Li Dazhao became aware that the task confronting the Chinese people ever more clearly with each passing day, that of striving for both national independence & democracy for the laboring poor, was closely connected with the fate of humankind & of the world at large.

        At the risk of repetition we can put this another way: after absorbing the impact of the October Revolution in Russia, Li Dazhao then turned out, not a paean to Pure Marxism, but the idea of a "toilers' democracy" (see his article 'Victory of the Poor'). One might even say that this formed the very core of his thinking; any consideration of Li's post May 4 Political development must therefore take this idea into consideration. Li Dazhao, that is, from this new standpoint, became convinced that the age-old problem facing the Chinese people - national independence & prosperity - could be solved only in conjunction with a movement to liberate all of humankind.

        On the basis of this conviction, Li Dazhao freely adapted & put to use any & all theories. For instance, in appraising the failure of the Work-and-Learning Mutual Aid Corps, he did not advise total rejection of their programme, but merely pointed out the number of obstacles posed for such an experiment by the urban environment, & advised instead that it be tried out in the countryside. ('The Weakness of the Work-and-Learning Mutual Aid Corps in the Cities', in New Youth, vol. 7 No. 5, April 1 1920)(93) Unlike Hu Shi, Li took the Corps' experiment as a serious attempt to build the new society. Though one of the very first to initiate the study of Marxism, therefore, Li Dazhao did not assume its correctness from the start. Rather, while taking part-sometimes directly, sometimes indirectly-in practical activities addressed to national problems, & while simultaneously investigating other political doctrines, he began only gradually to lean towards Marxism.(94)

         


        COMMENTARY

        58) Hu Shi (see Part One) later claimed that Mao Zedong had also shown great interest in the Corps at this time (Nohara's note). Recent research has shown that Mao actually considered himself an anarchist until at least the end of 1920.

        59) Shi Cuntong (1890-1970) had become notorious in November 1919 for writing an article in Chejiang New Tide attacking not only filial piety (the basis of the traditional Chinese family) but also Confucian society as a whole. The government accused him of treason, the magazine was suppressed, & Shi moved to Beijing to join the Corps. The following June he went to Tokyo, where he became a founding member of the Communist Party group there; at the same time, however, his contacts with the Japanese anarcho-syndicalist Osugi Sakae convinced him of his anarchist beliefs, & he subsequently became one of the most energetic exponents of the "essential unity of Marxism & anarchism". See Dirlik 1989a: 203-16.

        Zhou Zuoren (1885-1968); younger brother of the writer Lu Xun (see Part One), a liberal professor at Beijing University, was also a strong advocate of the New Village Movement mentioned below & in the first part of this translation. For background on the other figures, see Part One.

        60) Wang Guangqi (1892-1936), at the same time as being a prime mover of the Corps, was also a founder & leading member of the Young China Association (see next note). Though basically a liberal, he was then in a strongly anarchist phase and advocated social revolution. He had previously participated in the work-study programme in France.

        61) This was the organ of the Young China Association (Shaonian Zhongguo xuehui), founded in June 1918. Mao Zedong, Li Dazhao, Zhang Guotao (see below) & others of varying political persuasions joined, making it one of the strongest of the May 4 organizations (Nohara's note). After 1920 it split into Marxist & liberal factions. The article cited in the text was by one Zong Zhikui.

        62) See, for example, Fu Linran, 'Before & After May 4' (in Recollections of May 4 - Wusi yundong huiyilu, 1959, p. 170).

        63) Cited from 'Experiences & Lessons of the Work-and-Learning Mutual Aid Corps', in Weekly Critic (Xingqi pinglun) No. 48, May 1 1920, a special May Day issue.

        These experiments perhaps offered more to the young people who took part in them, in the form of an escape from their oppressive families, than to the future of China itself. As an exercise in creating new kinds of social relations, they were a high point in anarchist idealism; their failure consequently had dire results for the future of Chinese radicalism, allowing Marxist notions of conflict to win out over anarchist values of mutual aid & cooperation. For a fuller discussion, see Dirlik 1989a: 91ff.

        Shi's self-criticism is assessed sympathetically in Dirlik 1989a: 189.

        64) From his 'The Work-and-Learning Mutual Aid Corps and Capitalist Production', in New Youth, Vol. 7 No. 5, April 1920.

        Dai Jitao (1891-1949) was a co-founder of the CCP who later defected to become an important theorist on the right of the GMD.

        65) Zhang Guotao (1897-1979) had been a student founder of the Commoners' Education Lecture Corps discussed in the first part of this essay. Later he was to be a co-founder of the CCP, a labor organizer & a Red Army commissar, & would eventually become Mao Zedong's most dangerous rival for the Party leadership. During the 1934-35 Long March when the Communist armies moved their base from southeast China to the north, Zhang lost out in a fierce power struggle with Mao, & finally led a dissident contingent of the force to Tibet. In 1938 he defected to the GMD side, & after 1949 moved to the United States where he spent the rest of his life. Zhang has published an important though self-seeking volume of memoirs titled The Rise of the Chinese Communist Party: the Autobiography of Chang Kuo-t'ao (University of Kansas, 1971-72).

        66) Huang Ai's presence at the debate is recalled by a communist veteran of the May 4 Movement, Zhang Jinglu, according to whom Huang (then using the name of Huang Zhengpin) was "the most vociferous detractor" of Zhang Guotao's proposals, & "resolutely insisted" that the petition march go ahead "regardless of the consequences". Since Huang was then acting as a student radical rather than as an anarchist, Zhang Jinglu's assessment of him is as positive as his attitude toward the party renegade Zhang Guotao is negative. Regarding Huang's later activities (see below), he reluctantly admits that Huang had "considerable success" in organizing Hunan workers, but explains that he was subsequently "reformed by Chairman Mao" & "took refuge in Marxism". The fact that Huang's successes were achieved through syndicalist. methods is completely ignored.

        67) In contrast to this Shanghai group, returnees in Guangzhou (Canton) used their experiences to organize 26 new unions, later considered among the first modern unions in China.

        Almost 200,000 Chinese workers were sent to France after 1917 to help the Allied war effort, building roads, railways, factories, barracks & arms depots, & sometimes handling the dead (they were not considered sufficiently trustworthy to be put in uniform). For details, see Michael Summerskill, China on the Western Front (self-published, 1982).

        Not all the 'coolies' who came back from Europe got involved with workplace organizing, by the way; most of them had no place to work except for those who found jobs as rickshaw-pullers. Many of them seem to have turned to what was then more or less a staple sideline in China: banditry. In May 1923, for example, the luxury 'Blue Express' from Shanghai to Beijing was derailed & several foreign captives taken for ransom along with scores of Chinese. The negotiations over the former's release lasted several months, and the 'Lincheng Affair' as it became known developed into an international cause celebre (it later inspired the 1932 Greta Garbo film Shanghai Express, directed by Josef von Sternberg -screenplay published in 1973 by Simon & Schuster). Most of the media, both in China & elsewhere, treated the affair as no more than yet another of the 'bandit outrages' for which China was then so notorious, but certain sources have pointed to a minority political faction within the gang, some of whose members spoke French, a fact which seems to link it almost unquestionably to the returned wartime laborers. The group (which according to reports may also have had connections to Sun Yatsen's radical movement) held out for a political solution to the incident, demanding the resignations of rapacious warlords & rejecting the time-honoured pattern of merely demanding a cash ransom for the prisoners.

        How far the attack on that specific train had been planned is not clear. One of the passengers, named Lucy Aldrich, was actually the niece of the American millionaire John D. Rockefeller, but if the bandits were aware of this they certainly did not exploit it, for the women & children among the captives were released almost immediately. Eventually most of the gang were enrolled in the local military, in accordance with their leaders' demands. A few months later those leaders themselves were quietly bumped off & their followers chased back into the mountains -presumably in retaliation for the 'loss of face' the local army commanders had suffered over the affair. What became of the political faction, meanwhile, has never been investigated. For more details, see my book, Bandits in Republican China (Stanford University Press, 1988: page 73).

        Suzue Gen'ichi (1894-1945) was a Japanese writer & activist very close to the Chinese labor & revolutionary movements. He wrote several books based on his intimate knowledge of Chinese affairs, including a biography of Sun Yatsen & a history of the proletarian movement. The citation here is from his History of China's Liberation Struggle (Chugoku kaihõ tõsõ shi).

        68) The link between the New Century Society & the post-war work-study scheme was the Society for Frugal Study in France (Liu-Fa jianxuehui), founded by Wu, Li, & others in 1912 (for information on these figures, see Part One). Its principles were very close to those of the Society for Promoting Virtue & the Conscience Society (see Part One).

        The Society for Frugal Study in France also helped conclude contracts for the Chinese recruits sent to serve in France, who as a result came to enjoy all the liberties of French citizens, including (perhaps thanks to pressure from the then-syndicalist French CGT-General Confederation of Workers) that of forming trade unions (this would probably also account for the syndicalism of the Shanghai organization). Although the first recruits consisted entirely of illiterate workers, little by little teachers & students came to be included, principally as interpreters, & by 1918 their numbers had reached almost 30,000. (One of them was the anarchist author Ba Jin; for details, see Olga Lang, Pa Chin & his Writings: Ch. 6). The consequences for the Chinese mass movement were huge, for this was the first time that intellectuals had had the chance to live side by side with workers & to establish relationships of trust with them. Several industrial & social organizations were formed in France as a result, & between 1916 & 1918 there were at least 25 strikes by Chinese workers protesting against industrial conditions there.

        Incidentally, the communist organization formed in France was not a party as such but a preparatory cell known as the New People's Study Society. Many of its members, however, were ,people who would take place in the founding of the CCP in July 1921.

        The work-study programme reached a peak in 1921 when 1,000 or more students were sent to France, & anarchist activities continued among students & workers in Paris until well into the 1920s. In January 1922 the Chinese monthly After Work (Gongyu) was established, & put out 23 issues before October 1925 when it was merged with the Shanghai magazine Free Person (Ziyouren) following its editors' return to China. After Work (edited initially by the two sons of CCP leader Chen Duxiu, who until 1923 were among the most active anti-bolshevik polemicists) attacked the communists in France (represented by Zhou Enlai) on the grounds that the workers & peasants in the Soviet Union had actually lost their freedom since 1917, & that the Chinese communists were misleading the labor movement. These were perhaps the same students whom the Japanese anarchist Osugi Sakae tried to organize during his visit to Paris in 1923. For details on 6sugi's trip, see the small magazine Libero International No. 5 (Sept. 1978), available from the present translator. For details on the work-study scheme, see Paul Bailey, 'The Chinese Work-Study Movement in France', China Quarterly No. 115 (Sept. 1988), 441-61, & Scalapino & Yu 1961: pages 44-54.

        69) The original Shanghai group, for example, took this name, though it seems to have included more anarchists than communists at the beginning. In those early days of Marxist activity, the meaning of 'Marxism' was extremely broad. As late as 1921 Marxian socialism was being acknowledged by Chinese communist leaders as including orthodox Marxism (represented by Kautsky), revisionist Marxism (Bernstein), syndicalism, guild socialism, & bolshevism (Lenin & Trotsky). There were even some who considered bolshevism to be a faction of anarchism rather than of Marxism because of its militant tactics; others saw socialism as comprising two branches: collectivism (Marxism) & communism (Kropotkinism). It's not so surprising therefore that we find so many anarchists in at the founding of the CCP & working on the local communist groups, magazines & so on. The differences were sorted out within a year or two, under the influence of the returned students & of Comintern emissaries, but for a short period there was a genuine mood of revolutionary solidarity in China. Following the ascension of the communists it was never to return. For a discussion, see Dirlik 1989a: Ch. 8 & 10.

        Some examples of this collaboration can be traced. The original Beijing nucleus of the


        1919 -- MOVING DATES

        Labor Timeline for Butte

        June 13, 1878 -- Butte Workingmen's Union forms during a strike over wage cut from $3.50 to $3 a day at Alice & Lexington silver mines.

        February, 1882 -- First Miner's Union Hall collapses.

        March, 1885 -- Butte Miner's Union forms & limits membership to miners only. The second Miner's Union Hall is completed.

        January 2, 1886 -- Knights of Labor joins with Butte Miners, Tailors, & Typographical unions to form the Silver Bow Trades & Labor Assembly.

        May 5th to 9th, 1886 - Strike by Utah & Northern railroad brakemen shuts down the Anaconda mine & smelter.

        May 6, 1890 -- strike against wage reduction to $2.50 a day by surface workers prompts strikers to form Butte Laborer's Union. The new union changes its name to Butte Workingmen's Union in honor of Butte's first union.

        May 15, 1893 -- Western Federation of Miners founded in Butte. Butte Miner's Union designated as Local Number One.

        July 7th to 23rd, 1894 -- Railroad strike of BA&P & Pullman workers closes Anaconda, Syndicate, and Parrot mines.

        January 6th, 1896 -- school strike by Butte Teacher's Union.

        January 13, 1897 -- Silver Bow Labor Trades & labor Assembly announces boycott against Chinese & Japanese businesses, blaming them for bad economic conditions.

        April 15, 1897 -- Several Chinese businessmen sue to recover $500,000 in damages caused by union boycott. They receive an injunction & win the suit in 1898, & collect court costs, $1,705.05, but no damages.

        October 22, 1903 -- The Great Shutdown. The Company closes down all operations putting 20,000 out of work until a special session of the legislature is called to ensure a change of venue if a plaintiff believes a trial judge is prejudiced.

        SEPTEMBER 12th, 1907 to February 29th, 1908 -- Citing a slump in the copper market, The Company reduces its work force by half on September 12th, & then shuts down almost all of the mines on the Hill on December 7th. Full production doesn't resume until the next year.

        SEPTEMBER 9, 1914 -- The Company declares an open shop, renouncing the Western Federation of Miners.

        June 5 to December 28, 1917 -- The Metal Mine Workers Union initially formed to protest the draft for World War I & the rustling card system on June 5th. [this part done/posted: After the Granite Mountain disaster, the new union forms in earnest & a strike is called on the 11th. ] Smelter workers return to work & mining resumes on SEPTEMBER 16th. By December 28th, the MMWU quits the strike.
        [Granite Mountain Fire, click here] SEPTEMBER 12, 1918 — A crackdown by local authorities & federal troops prevents a general strike to protest the conviction of I.W.W. leaders. Omar Bradley leads federal troops to shut down The Daily Bulletin & I.W.W. members in Butte & Anaconda are arrested, including William F. Dunne, editor of The Daily Bulletin.

        February 6 to 17, 1919 — Strike is called over wage cuts of $1 a day in copper slump after World War I. Governor breaks strike by calling in three companies of the 44th U.S. Infantry. The soldiers bayonet nine strikers on February 10th.

        April 19 to May 12, 1920 — I.W.W. calls a strike that leads to "Bloody Wednesday" massacre on Anaconda Road on April 21st. Federal troops arrive on the 22nd, & 500 miners return to work on the 23rd. May 12th, 1920 - The Company bans I.W.W. members from mines. Posted signs read "No member of I.W.W. will be employed at this property."

        April 1921 to January 1922 -- Citing depressed copper prices, The Company shuts down their mines.

        May 8 to September 20, 1934 -- Fourth longest strike results in closed shop again for the first time since 1914.

        April 9 to 19, 1946 - Short, bitter strike turns ugly when Company has salaried employees cross picket lines to keep mines operating during strike. Mobs roam Butte neighborhoods destroying homes & property of Company "scabs." Carpenter's Union refuses to allow members to repair damages.

        August 27 to September 6, 1951 -- A national strike is curtailed when a Denver court grants injunction sought by President Harry Truman to force miners & smeltermen to return to work.

        July 15, 1967 to March 30, 1968 -- Longest strike in Butte's history lasts eight & a half months.

        November 5, 1974 -- Anaconda Company announces the closure of the few remaining underground mines in Butte.

        July 1 to August 1, 1977 - Month-long strike national strike of non-ferrous metal workers.

        June 17 to November 21, 1980 -- Third longest strike lasts four & a half months.

        September 29, 1980 -- Anaconda Smelter closes.

        April 23, 1982 -- Berkeley Pit shuts down.

        June 30, 1983 -- Anaconda suspends all operations in Butte.

        July 16, 1986 -- Open pit mining resumes with 188 non-union workers.
        NEED TO FIND OUT MORE ABOUT SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS OR RELATION TO EARLIER DATES

        http://www.scripophily.net/parsilandcop.html
        http://www.butteamerica.com/labor.htm




        1919 -- THE bleed TRAVEN FILE ¿Quién es B. Traven? for 1919 http://recollectionbooks.com/bleed/Encyclopedia/TravenB/QuienTraven/traven.html NEEDS TO BE FIXEDup so images work, etc; this was previously archived & is no longer online; should add to Iverson Library

        this note is also in the Bleed & should be removed when done.


        1920 -- and though after an amnesty in Italy he was perfectly free to return, three governments put their heads together to make impossible his journey from London to Milan. Only when in the autumn of 1919, at the time of the elections, many meetings called for his return, the passport was graciously granted by the Italian functionaries in London, but now France put in her veto and refused to let him pass. He wrote to the "Avanti" (see "Vie Ouvriere," DECEMBER 12): "The French authorities refuse to let me pass by France, because I have been expelled from that country --- only 40 years ago [1879] because I had unmasked, at a public meeting held in Paris. a spy of the Italian consulate an a provocator who had excited young people to throw bombs." After this (see "Cronaca Sovversiva"), Turin, as resumed in "Vie Ouvriere" of FEBRUARY 13. 1920), the British Government did not permit any captain to take him on board. Thus he was refused admission to a Greek ship on which he was to embark on DECEMBER 11. Then Captain Alfredo Giulietti, the secretary of the Federazione Italiana dei Lavoratori del Mare (Italian Seamen's Federation) of Genoa came to London & placed Malatesta with false seaman's papers at Cardiff, Wales, on board of a coaling vessel of the Italian railways. Seven hours after leaving this ship was told by a wireless message that Malatesta was on board. But he was safe now, & in this way proceeded to the port of Genoa. The Seamen's Federation is a very moderate organization, & the secretary is a republican in whom the memory of Garibaldi, a seaman also, is alive & who felt sympathy with a courageous man like Malatesta whom all governments combined to keep away from his country. See---Urn. Nova" of Oct. 29 (the statement of this organization on Malatesta's present arrest), also Sept. 16 & Oct. 22. Errico Malatesta The Biography of an Anarchist A Condensed Sketch of Malatesta from the book written by by Max Nettlau Published by the Jewish Anarchist Federation New York City. 1924
        http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/anarchist_archives/malatesta/nettlau/nettlauonmalatesta.html

        1920 -- noviembre /NOVEMBER

        Barcelona 1917- 1923 -Crònica- Manel Aisa

        1920 "La ley de fugas"

        El 4 de ENERO / JANUARY 4 JANUARY de 1920 Medí Martí y sus compañeros(15) discretamente permanecieron en la calle de Pedro IV en espera que apareciera el coche del pistolero del Libre Joan Serra, atentando contra él, aunque en un primer momento no murió, le quedaron graves secuelas que le provocaron la muerte poco después. Joan Serra había participado y prestado su coche en el atentado del "Tero" que era íntimo amigo de Martí. Ese mismo día se atento contra Salvador Seguí en la Calle San Pablo pero el propio Salvador pudo repeler a sus agresores que huyeron por las callejuelas del Raval y Seguí pudo continuar su camino hasta el Paral.lel, donde le esperaban animadas tertulias en el Café Español. La respuesta al atentado de Seguí se produce al día siguiente 5 de ENERO / JANUARY 5, contra el presidente de la patrona Feliu Graupera, en la Vía Layetana esquina Baixa de Sant Pere nº35 donde vivía, quedando heridos Graupera, el chófer y uno de los policías que le escoltaba, el otro de sus escoltas Ricardo San Germán murió a las pocas horas. Al día siguiente Barcelona estaba de nuevo sitiada por orden de Milans del Bosch. El atentado sobre Graupera significaba la excusa necesaria para actuar legalmente una vez más contra la CNT, además, desde Gobernación hacía días que se pretendía que CNT cediera la lista de sus comités, aunque evidentemente CNT siempre se negó. Aquel día se detuvo a los abogados laboristas Jesús Ulled y Guerra del Río con el objetivo de intimidarlos. Ya habían transcurrido más de cinco semanas de lock-out y también la burguesía empezaba a temer por sus privilegios, pero quién padecía más la situación, naturalmente eran los obreros, que ya estaban al borde del abismo, empeñados por el fiamiento de algunos comerciantes de barrio. Sin embargo los jóvenes anarquistas creyeron que era el camino para descapitalizar al capital, por lo que presionaron dentro de los sindicatos de la CNT para que de nuevo se convocara una huelga general.

        El 26 de ENERO / JANUARY 26 de 1920 y a petición estratégica de la patronal, el Conde de Salvatierra ordena levantar el lock-out. Había durado 7 semanas, sin que ningún obrero de la CNT entregara el carnet del sindicato a su patrón que era uno de los puntos requeridos por la patronal. Aún así , La CNT a ojos de la burguesía parecía moribunda, puesto que esta vez los obreros no habían secundado su consigna de Huelga General, por lo que en principio parecía una victoria de la burguesía que de todos modos era consciente de la existencia de los grupos de afinidad que en estos momentos eran muy activos, por ello Arleguí y el Somatén estaban dispuestos a acabar con todos ellos. Por entonces una buena parte de los empresarios se dirigían pagando al representante de la construcción Miró i Trepat, para que éste averiguará quiénes eran los activistas de cada una de sus fábricas y Miró que se veía frecuentemente con el varón de Köenning en una casa del Paseo de Gracía nº80 le encargaba el trabajo de delación, el varón no dudó en aprovecharse de la ocasión y al amparo de la protección que le daba Arleguí pudo tener a toda las autoridades engañadas incluida la del gobernador militar que tuvo que cesar de su cargo por los tejemanejes del varón, siendo nombrado capitán general de Cataluña Valeriano Weyler, recibiendo la orden de no intervenir en la política social de Barcelona. La CNT, que todavía no conocía de la existencia del varón, se daba cuenta de la fuerte represión a la que estaba sometida e incluso lo difícil que resultaba recaudar la cotización mensual de sus afiliados, única fuente de ingresos de la central obrera, por lo que a los encargados de dicha tarea, además de portar una pistola se les autorizó a cobra una parte de la cuota sindical para ellos. En este ambiente, "Los sin trabajo", aquellos que estaban en las listas negras de las empresas, fueron los que más insistieron para que de nuevo los grupos de afinidad de la CNT replicarán a la represión sistemática de la burguesía. El 6 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 6 es detenido David Rey que permanecerá incomunicado varios días en el cuartel de la calle Numancia, después será trasladado hasta el barco "Giralda". El 22 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 22 se produce un atentado en Sabadell en la figura del empresario Theodore Genny (francés), mientras éste cenaba en su casa, fue apuñalado. La policía detuvo Victorià Sabater "Bitxo" ,Martí Martí y Josep Peris que según parece habían cobrado 500 pesetas por cometer el crimen. Juzgados fueron condenados a muerte y ejecutados a garrote vil. Como buen policía Arleguí necesitaba de más confidencialidad y constantemente le pedía más información al varón, por lo que pone a su servicio a dos inspectores más, se trata de García Porrero y Salvador Más. Los sucios negocios del varón prosperaron tanto que montó una nueva oficina en las Ramblas de las Flores, a la vez que ampliaba la banda hasta unos 70 miembros, casi todos extraídos de los bajos fondos, timadores y delincuentes habituales. Otro de los servicios que prestaba el varón de Köenning era el de guardaespaldas de los empresarios, después de presentarles un falso informe, en el que se decía que los obreros de su fábrica estaban tramando un atentado contra su persona. Pese a la represión, los grupos de afinidad en el mes de MARZO / MARCH de 1920 hicieron explotar 14 bombas y realizaron ocho sabotajes a fábricas. Pero como el varón De Köenning no tenía ni idea de quiénes pudiesen ser los activistas y Arleguí continuamente le pedía información, De Koenning se la inventó, poniendo como cebo un bar de la Ronda San Antonio llamado "El Rápido". Así el 27 de MARZO / MARCH 27 el inspector León y varios agentes y pistoleros de la banda del varón interrumpen en el bar, éstos últimos se encargarán de encontrar las armas dentro del local y detener al anarquista Acrata Vidal que en ese momento se encontraba por casualidad en el bar. El 1 de ABRIL / APRIL 1 miembros de la banda del varón, que era poco más que una policía paralela interrumpe en un piso de la calle Parlamento nº 5, donde se encontraban Juan Rovira, Antonio Aragay y Miguel San Juan siendo acusados de formar parte del comité clandestino del sindicato de Artes Gráficas de la CNT, éstos fueron llevados primero al local de las Ramblas y después de recibir diversos puñetazos y palizas fueron trasladados a comisaría y por último a la cárcel Modelo, cuando en realidad los tres esperaba a un industrial que los había citado en el piso de uno de ellos para darles trabajo. El 2 de ABRIL / APRIL 2 se atento contra el presidente del Libre en Sant Andrés, antiguo cenetista Tomás Vives que trabajaba en la empresa Fabra & Coats. Las atribuciones que el varón se daba o bien las que se tomaban sus hombres, dio pie a que se empezara a conocer su figura dentro de los medios cenetistas e incluso en los medios periodísticos. El grupo de Progreso Rodenas descubrió que Miró i Trepat era el que canalizaba la información y suponían que dirigía a los mercenarios, además de contar con Bernat Armengol antiguo cenetista, ahora confidente, por ello trazaron un plan para atentar contra ambos. El 20 de ABRIL / APRIL 20 atentan contra Miró i Trepat en el Paseo de Gracia frente al edificio donde iba a reunirse con el varón del cual salió ileso. El varón De Köenning molesto porque los grupos de afinidad habían osado agredir a su protector y por medio de otro confidente llamado Manuel Más se entero de la existencia del grupo de los hermanos Rodenas por lo que les preparó una trampa con el cebo de Bernat Armengol, confidente que ya no le servía. Así el entramado, se llevo a cabo el 23 de ABRIL / APRIL 23 en el bar "Café Gran Imperio", situado en la esquina de Ronda San Pablo, Aldana. Los policías se parapetaron estratégicamente mientras esperaban que acudieran los cenetistas, éstos cayeron en una emboscaba y fueron cercados, a la señal del varón se iniciaron las hostilidades, pudiendo escapar la mayoría de cenetistas, aunque no lo pudo hacer uno de los Rodenas, que herido fue desarmado por el policía Tadeo Mateo. Rodenas ingreso en el Hospital mientras que los demás detenidos fueron encarcelados en la Modelo junto a Bernat Armengol. La prensa en aquel momento atribuyo los hechos a un intento de atentado contra el inspector leonés que también intervino en la refriega. Entonces el varón quiso adelantarse a la policía deteniendo a los que se habían fugado Armando, Francisco y Volney Rodenas que se escondían en casa de su hermana Libertad Rodenas. Cuatro días más tarde, el 27 de ABRIL / APRIL 27 De Köenning acude el mismo a detenerlos, sin lograrlo, pero se produce un hecho importante, ya que su acento alemán le delata ante Libertad Rodenas. Otro grupo de afinidad anarquista compuesto por Joaquin Buigas "Pescater", Alberto Manzano, Francisco Berro y Restituto Gómez, descubren que los de la banda del varón se reúnen en un bar de la plaza del Peso de la Paja, allí acuden el 28 de ABRIL / APRIL 28 y abren fuego contra ellos por lo que quedan heridos Marià Sans, Pere Torrens i Capdevila, los demás huyen a toda prisa del lugar, los cenetistas perdieron a Restituto que cayó muerto en la refriega, pero ya nunca más volvieron a frecuentar aquel Bar los miembros de la banda del varón, antes al contrario, a partir de aquel momento era frecuentado por cenetistas.

        1920 El 29 de ABRIL / APRIL 29 atentan contra el inspector de policía Pascual Mola, los hechos se producen en la calle Tamarit. En Terrasa ese mismo día el atentado es contra el juez de primera instancia Francisco Ximénez, que andaba empeñado en sentenciar a varios cenetistas, aquella misma noche la policía detenía a los supuestos agresores de Terrassa. El 1 de mayo en el Pabellón de Bellas Artes se celebra los Juegos Florales que la burguesía catalana impulsaba como un acto del nacionalismo catalán, la ceremonia inaugural estaba presidida por Josep Joffre Mariscal de la Catalunya Norte. En aquella jornada, se produjeron diversos incidentes después de que los asistentes cantaran Els Segadors y exclamaran vivas a ¡Catalunya Lliure! . Entonces la policía carga contra los asistentes repeliendo la agresión La Guardía Municipal. Por este motivo la burguesía catalana creyendo que la orden de carga venía del gobernador Conde de Salvatierra decidió hacerle la vida imposible.

        1920 El 2 de mayo los miembros de la banda De Köenning siguen a Francisco Berro (uno de los que actúo en el atentado del Peso Paja) que trabajaba en la calle Mitjana de Sant Pere de vigilante y atentan contra él, aunque éste logró salir ileso y escapar. Por otro lado este mismo dos de mayo los cenetistas averiguan que Manuel Grau (Mas) (delatado por Armengol) era un confidente del varón de Köenning por lo que atentan contra él . Armengol dentro de la cárcel y temiendo que los cenetistas lo mataran contó todo lo que sabía sobre la banda de Koenning (como agradecimiento los cenetista le respetaron la vida durante tres años más). La noticia llegó al comité local de la CNT y éste encargó una octavilla para que fuera pública la situación del varón, así Antonio Amador redactor de "Solidaridad Obrera", se encargó de redactar y transcribir al papel impreso desde un lugar oculto de Tarragona, para después repartirla por Barcelona. La burguesía aprovecha este revuelo para culpar al gobernador Conde de Salvatierra de permisible con la figura del varón y de la situación que se había generado en Barcelona, mientras que Miguel Arleguí quedaba exculpado, en este nuevo contexto, los pistoleros de la banda de Köenning fueron implicándose unos a otros, Conrado Giménez, Emili Vidal Ribas, André Penon, etc. Mientras tanto en Madrid Eduardo Dato presidía un nuevo gobierno y no estaba dispuesto a ceder a las presiones de la burguesía catalana ya que Salvatierra pertenecía a su propio partido. Por otro lado los grupos de afinidad se habían organizado mucho mejor y ahora su punto de mira estaba en los miembros de la banda del varón De Köenning, así el primero en caer fue Pere Torrens i Capdevila que había ya caído herido en la refriega del Peso de la Paja. Los hechos ocurrieron el día 12 de mayo, dos días después de salir del hospital lo siguieron hasta cerca de su casa en la Sagrera, de este atentado la policía acusa al cenetista Alfonso Miguel, pero detuvo al activista Martorell. El 17 de mayo los de la banda de Köenning capitaneados por Soler "El Mallorquín" intentan de nuevo recuperar su prestigio y sacar a los cenetistas del bar de la plaza del Peso de la Paja, interviniendo la policía en el suceso lo que propicio que la noticia corriera como la pólvora, la prensa hablara en esta ocasión abiertamente de los pistoleros de la patronal. Este hecho motivó que Eduardo Dato interviniera, expulsando al varón de Köenning de España, pensando que esto calmaría la situación social de Barcelona, siendo deportado el varón a finales de mayo de 1920, pese a sus intentos de evitarlo a través de las influencias ejercidas por Miró i Trepat. (Durante la segunda guerra mundial el varón De Köenning perteneció a los servicios secretos del almirante Canaris y del General De Gaulle, siempre anduvo en el turbio doble juego, murió ya anciano en un accidente de coche en Alemania). Los hombres del varón sin su jefe quedaron diezmados con Epifani Casas y Angel Fernández detenidos Soler "el Mallorquín" emigró a América, el resto quedó a su suerte. Así un tal San Vicente fue ajusticiado en la Calle Santa Madrona, del asesinato ¡cómo no! Se acusa Ramón Casanellas y Pere Matheu. El nuevo Ministro de Gobernación con el ánimo de pacificar Barcelona, ordenó al Conde de Salvatierra gobernador de la ciudad Condal que pusiera en libertad a los presos cenetistas, que en aquellos momentos se elevaba al número de 920 reos, pero Salvatierra se negó, puesto que ello significaba reconocer lo errónea que era su política por lo que tuvo que dimitir.

        1920 El 19 de junio aparecía la noticia del cese de Salvatierra en el Boletín Oficial. Aquel mismo día ocurría un hecho luctuoso, al ser asesinado en Barcelona Joaquin Arnal por trabajar sin haberse sindicado. El nuevo gobernador civil de Barcelona a partir del 22 de junio será Francisco de Carlos y Bas. El 27 de junio el Rey Alfonso XIII viaja a Barcelona y entre otros actos coloca la Primera Piedra de la "Quinta de la Salud La Alianza" su estancia se prolongó durante 2 días. Los empresarios catalanes aprovecharon la estancia del Monarca en Barcelona para pedirle que recrudeciesen las medidas de represión contra la CNT, aunque el Rey en esta ocasión no escucha los requerimientos de la burguesía catalana. El 1 de julio empezaron a salir los presos de la Modelo y los locales sindicales se empezaron a abrir de nuevo. El nuevo gobernador tenía como objetivo prioritario impulsar otra vez la creación de Comisiones Mixtas que debían intervenir en los diferentes convenios, esta política tenía el apoyo de un buen sector de la patronal como también de los obreros capitaneados por Seguí, Piera y Pestaña, pero no así, el de los grupos de afinidad anarquistas, ni el apoyo de las grandes familias extremistas de la patronal capitaneadas por Graupera que pretendían boicotear las Comisiones Mixtas. El 6 de julio se produce el primer incidente realmente serio entre los grupos de afinidad de la CNT con los pistoleros del Libre, donde murió Juan Purcet dirigente del Libre en la calle del Carmen esquina Picalqués, dos días después los del Libre asesinaron a Vicens Roig del ramo del agua de la CNT en la Plaza Urquinaona en esta ocasión, dos policías que estaban cerca del lugar corrieron tras los agresores, deteniendo a Carles Baldrich alías "el Oncle " que era del Libre y carlista. A partir de aquel momento las hostilidades entre CNT y el Libre irían en aumento. El 21 de julio hubo un enfrentamiento en la fábrica Soler y Doménech, que tenía miembros de ambas sindicales, al no ponerse de acuerdo en el horario de trabajo lo arreglaron con pistola en mano, con el balance de 4 herido. También ese mismo día se produjo la muerte del industrial Antoni Pons por negarse a que en su fábrica entrasen los recaudadores de la cuota sindical cenetista.

        El 24 de julio los cenetistas atentaron contra Juan Casanovas que estaba organizando el ramo de la Goma del Libre, este atentado fue perpetrado en la calle Milá i Fontanals de Gracia. Mientras en Valencia a causa de los anónimos recibidos, el Conde Salvatierra vivía semi clandestino, cuando le llegó una carta de Eduardo Dato pidiéndole que se trasladara a San Sebastián, así como otra del Marqués de Mascarell que le pedía que estrechara aún más las precauciones. Sin embargo, los acontecimientos no tardarían en llegar, así es como el 4 de agosto después de presenciar un desfile de carrozas Salvatierra se dirigió en su carruaje "milord" hacia su casa cuando tuvo que detenerse en el paso a nivel que cortaba la carretera, allí aparecieron varios hombres con pistola en mano que abrieron fuego en el interior del "milord", resultando muerta la Marquesa de Tejares y el Conde Salvatierra y esposa gravemente heridos. El Conde de Salvatierra moriría en el hospital al día siguiente. La policía acuso de este crimen como en anteriores ocasiones a Ramón Casanelles y Pere Matheu. Este atentado significó un cambio cualitativo para la burguesía del país, ya que Salvatierra era miembro de la aristocracia y del partido gobernante, por lo que ya no sólo se mataba a empresarios catalanes, en consecuencia la burguesía del resto de España se sintió mucho más herida en su orgullo, entonces pidió a Eduardo Dato más represión para los cenetistas, advirtiendo también que las huelgas se estaban extendiendo por el resto de España. Sin embargo, Eduardo Dato en un principio siguió con la misma política. Por aquellos días el capataz de construcción Juan Coll que era muy rudo con sus obreros temió por su vida por lo que pidió escolta al Somatén, en el transcurso del camino entre su casa y el trabajo, el 11 de agosto los cenetistas esperaron a Coll a la altura de la Barriada de Sans, donde hubo un enfrentamiento entre ambas facciones muriendo uno por bando, Manuel Figueras de la CNT y Pere Porta del Somatén, carlistas y del Libre, mientras Juan Coll salió ileso del evento. A todo esto los cenetistas se enteran que dos ex-miembros de la Banda De Köenning (Julio Laporta y Marià Sans) tratan de conseguir el pasaporte para salir del país, por lo que montan guardia en la calle Dos de Mayo esquina Carretera de Ribas hasta el día (19-8-20) que localizan el tranvía en que viajan, allí abren fuego los cenetistas Joaquín López y Joaquin Roura hiriendo de nuevo a Marià Sans, en la refriega murió el pasajero del tranvía Agustí Gay que nada tenía que ver con los hechos. Mientras tanto la patronal de toda España jugaba sus bazas y continuaba presionando a Dato, para que éste reprimiera a la CNT de Catalunya. Por otro lado la patronal catalana se organizaba y montaba sus cajas de resistencia para que los empresarios menos pudientes pudieran resistir las huelgas que provocaban los cenetistas, o los lock-outs que ellos pudieran organizar, así como continuaron contratando personal del Libre que estaba abiertamente enfrentado con la CNT. La Patronal del resto de España por fin encontró la excusa ante Dato en Zaragoza, cuando el 23 de agosto en plena huelga de electricistas, murió en atentado el arquitecto municipal José Yarza, la patronal aprovecho esta muerte para de nuevo presionar a Dato con el argumento, de que el sindicalismo revolucionario de la CNT de Catalunya se estaba desplazando al resto de España. Tras los acontecimientos de la capital aragonesa, el gobierno de Eduardo Dato fue tomando medidas más represivas contra la CNT. Entre tanto la CNT acordó pactar con los socialistas, así Evelio Boal recientemente nombrado Secretario del C.N. de la CNT y Salvador Seguí partieron hacia Madrid para entrevistarse con Largo Caballero de la UGT. Mientras tanto por las mismas fechas en Madrid del gabinete de Dato dimitió el Ministro de Gobernación Bergamín y en su lugar le sustituyo el Conde de Bugallal. En estos primeros días de Septiembre el Tribunal Supremo resuelve una nueva medida de represión contra la CNT dictando que la CNT no existía legalmente por lo tanto no tenía derecho a cobrar cuotas sindicales, de nuevo la policía y el Somatén intensificaron la persecución a los recaudadores de cuotas sindicales.

        1920

        El pacto entre UGT /CNT se firmo el 3 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER de 1920 en la Casa del Pueblo de Madrid y el 5 apareció el manifiesto. Sin embargo la CNT debía revertir los acuerdos firmados con la UGT al mandato de las asambleas de sindicatos o pleno locales. Por este motivo Seguí y Boal, viajaron por varias Regionales para convencer a los compañeros de la necesidad y conveniencia del pacto, aunque en un primer momento no lo lograron. Sin embargo, en Barcelona la situación era completamente diferente y los grupos más activos iban a su aire, sin importarles demasiado los acuerdos de la Confederación, ya fueran estos acuerdos tanto de asamblea de sindicatos como de sus comités locales, regionales o nacionales. .// The pact between the UGT /CNT I sign the 3 of septiembre/SEPTEMBER of 1920 in the House of the Town of Madrid & the 5 appeared the manifesto. Nevertheless the CNT had to revert the agreements signed with the UGT to the mandate of the assemblies of local unions or plenary session. By this reason Seguí & Boal, traveled by several Regional ones to convince to the companions of the necessity & convenience of the pact, although in a first moment they did not obtain it. Nevertheless, in Barcelona the situation was completely different & the most active groups went to his air, without too much concerning the agreements to them of the Confederation, already was these agreements as much of assembly of unions as of his local, regional or national committees.
        TO DO: SEPTEMBER 2006 I CAN'T MAKE ENOUGH SENSE OF WHO IS WHO & WHAT IS WHAT HERE TO POST TO BLEED AT THIS TIME This might help, but I don't have time today to do this: En 1916 UGT y CNT firman, el día 9 de diciembre / DECEMBER en Zaragoza una alianza ... los cajistas del periódico La Publicidad José Román y José Villalta a la salida ... www.manelaisa.com/texto/Articulos/PagArticulos9.htm - 323k -
        El 8 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER fueron asesinados los cajistas del periódico La Publicidad José Román y José Villalta a la salida del trabajo en la calle Provenza entre Aribau y Muntaner, muriendo el primero y quedando gravemente herido el segundo, según la policía el autor fue José Saleta "El nano", una bala perdida dejó también herido al administrador de la Cárcel Modelo, Emilio Azorín que por casualidad pasaba por allí. El motivo de este atentado hay que buscarlo de nuevo en la rivalidad de los sindicatos y a que la práctica totalidad de los trabajadores del periódico La Publicidad pertenecía en aquellos momentos al sindicato del Libre // the typesetters of the newspaper were assassinated the Publicity Jose Roman & Jose Villalta when coming out of the work in the street Provenza between Aribau & Muntaner, dying first & being hurt the second seriously, according to the police the author was Jose Saleta “the nano”, a stray bullet also left to the administrator of the Jail Model wounded, Emilio Azorín who by chance happened that way. The reason for this attack is necessary to again look for it in the rivalry of the unions & to that the practical totality of the workers of the newspaper La Publicidad (the Publicity) belonged at those moments to the union of the Free one.

        1920

        Dos días más tarde, el 10 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER caería en atentado Bruno Llorens jefe de Máquinas de La Publicidad, también del sindicato Libre. // Two days later, on the 10th would fall in attack Bruno Llorens engine room chief of the Publicity, also of the Free union. Entonces los del Libre deciden provocar una matanza, para que la represión recaiga una vez más sobre los cenetistas, así es como acuden a Inocencio Feced, para que éste coloque una Bomba el 12 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER en el Music Hall Pompeya situado en la avenida del Paral.lel. Hubo en total 6 muertos y 18 heridos. Inocencio Feced sería detenido días más tarde por el inspector Ronceño en el bar la Tranquilidad (muy frecuentado por los anarquistas), sin embargo ni con su detención se logró averiguar que había pasado realmente en el Music Hall Pompeya. Inocencio Feced será otro de éstos personajes turbios de los años veinte, conocedor de todos los ambientes barceloneses desde el jefe de policía Arleguí, al presidente del Libre Ramón Sales, e incluso del Movimiento Libertario y por supuesto de los submundos de la ciudad.

        En septiembre de 1920 El General Milans Astray creó el Tercio en Marruecos, o sea La Legión y los primeros 500 legionarios fueron catalanes que huían de la policía, según el propio general en su inmensa mayoría anarquistas. Ya en Barcelona Evelio Boal y Salvador Seguí para justificar ante sus compañeros cenetistas el pacto con la UGT, los comités de la CNT a los cuales representaban iniciaron una serie de mítines por toda Catalunya.

        1920


        1920

        octubre / OCTOBER / OCTOBRE / OKTOBER / OTTOBRE / OUTUBRO
        El 19 de octubre hay un enfrentamiento entre cenetistas y pistoleros del Libre en la calle Riera Alta, alertada la policía detendrá al cenetista Jaime Martínez Palau y en una posterior redada en la calle Hospital, a los también cenetistas Juan López y Bartolomé LLabrés, a éstos últimos se les implicará en varios atentados por lo que pasarán seis años en la cárcel.

        A finales del mes de octubre la CNT celebra un Pleno Regional en Tarragona donde ratifica el pacto con la UGT además de proponer a Salvador Seguí para que éste se desplace a Río Tinto, para ver in situ la huelga de mineros que dura ya siete meses, también acordó que Andreu Nin, y Joaquin Maurín gestionaran con el gobernador Bas, para que de nuevo pudiera salir el periódico Solidaridad Obrera en Barcelona. A Andreu Nin y Joaquin Maurin, Bas les negó la apertura de Solidaridad Obrera y les advirtió que de continuar la situación como estaba lo sustituirían para poner en su cargo, a un general mucho más duro. Mientras tanto a Barcelona llegaron el ministro de trabajo Carlos Cañal y el subsecretario Vizconde de Altea con la intensión de establecer convenios sociales respaldados por el Gobierno.

        El 29 de OCTOBER octubre, se reunió el Gremio de Metalúrgicos con su presidente Jaime Pujol y el Sr.Cañal con la idea de potenciar las Comisiones Mixtas.

        Por otro lado Pere Foix del Sindicato Mercantil de la CNT había hecho gestiones para que los metalúrgicos negociaran su convenio, así el día 30 de octubre se reunieron en el local que tenían en la calle Vistalegre, allí Foix y Seguí lograron convencer a los reunidos para que de nuevo se formarán las Comisiones Mixtas.

        Aquel día Jaime Pujol de la patronal salía de su casa en el Paral.lel lo siguieron hasta la plaza Sepúlveda (hoy Goya) y allí lo asesinaron, en aquel momento los activistas no se dieron cuenta de su error, ya que en realidad buscaban a su hermano que era el intransigente con las posturas cenetistas. ///The 29 of OCTOBER October, met the Union of Metallurgical with its president Jaime Pujol & the Sr.Cañal with the idea to harness the Mixed Commissions. On the other hand Pere Foix of the Mercantile Union of the CNT had made managements so that the metallurgical ones negotiated their agreement, therefore day 30 of October they met in the premises that they had in the Vistalegre street, there Foix & Seguí managed to convince to the reunited ones so that of new the Mixed Commissions will form. That day Jaime Pujol of the employer's association Goya left its house in the Paral.lel (today) followed it until the Sepúlveda seat & there they assassinated, at that time the activists did not realize his error, since in fact they looked for his brother who was the intransigente with the cenetistas positions. El 31 de octubre el Noi del Sucre es víctima de un atentado (disparos) en la calle Carretas en los que muere casualmente el empresario Francisco Casals que pasaba por el lugar, mientras que Seguí sale ileso.

        De cualquier forma y gracias a las gestiones de Seguí, el 1 de noviembre se logra que la CNT en pleno acepte de nuevo las Comisiones Mixtas, los propios cenetistas se lo comunicaran al gobernador civil Bas, aunque éste los delega al vizconde de Altea que es el representante gubernativo, que a partir de ahora tiene que presidir las Comisiones. COPIED 5TH & 11TH TO BLEED, REMOVE IF DONE/USED: El 5 de noviembre NOVEMBER se celebra una reunión en el ayuntamiento de Barcelona entre políticos y patronos, con el propósito de tomar una actitud conjunta ante la CNT y las huelgas, sobretodo la de los metalúrgicos de aquel momento y la poca mano dura de Bas y del gobierno central. A los pocos días Bas será cesado, lo que propició que el Vizconde de Altea pudiera negociar con mayor comodidad con los metalúrgicos. A raíz de la dimisión de Bas, el Marqués de Foronda director de la compañía de tranvías de Barcelona exigió a Eduardo Dato que nombrará gobernador civil a Severiano Martínez Anido. Eduardo Dato decidió complacerle por la amistad de Foronda con el Rey y llamó a Anido, era el 8 de noviembre, para que aceptará el cargo, aunque éste en principio lo rechazó cosa que extraño a Dato. Éste después de una breve conversación con el Rey volvió a llamar a Martínez Anido aunque esta vez con la orden de desempeñar el cargo de Gobernador Civil de Barcelona, por lo que Anido se vio obligado a aceptar. Aquel mismo día Severiano Martínez Anido acompañado de su ayudante el teniente coronel Oller y Pinyol y ante los periodistas hizo su primer discurso, al día siguiente se desplazo a Madrid para entrevistarse con el Rey, Dato y Bugallal Ministro de Gobernación, pidiéndoles poderes extraordinarios, cosa que le concedieron además del mando oficioso allí donde la CNT tenía fuerte presencia sindical, como era el caso de Valencia y Zaragoza.

        El 11 de noviembre NOVEMBER por la noche Anido regresaba a Barcelona, a la llegada a Zaragoza se reunió en el mismo tren con el gobernador de Zaragoza, Conde Cuello de Portugal, permaneciendo el tren detenido más de lo habitual, sin dar ninguna explicación alguna al resto de pasajeros. El nuevo gabinete con Severiano Martínez Anido al frente, estaba formado poco más o menos con los consejero Sr. Espino secretario, Martínez del Villar militar expulsado del ejército, Miguel Arleguí Jefe policía, el inspector Antonio Espejo Aguilar y los carlistas Bertrán i Musitu y Salvador Anglada. Todos ellos se pusieron a diseñar la trama de sus maléficos planes, con la ayuda del fichero Lasarte hicieron una primera lista de destacados cenetistas. El 16 de noviembre era asesinado el chófer del periódico La Publicidad, Valentín Otero del Libre en la calle Blasco de Garay de la barriada del Poble Sec. [Valentín Otero rightwing??; unable to locate any other reference to him / this event, googled Nov 2006] El 19 de noviembre Anido ya tenía la lista para empezar su plan de descabezar a la CNT deteniendo a sus principales sindicalistas, entregando estos menesteres a Miguel Arleguí, que aquella noche detuvo a todos los cenetistas durmiendo en sus casas. Sólo algunos como Simó Piera que no estaba en casa se salvaron de la detención. Al día siguiente 20 de noviembre los del Libre asesinaron a Alfonso Cortina delegado de la CNT, cuando éste estaba trabajando en la calle Granados de Sarriá en una casa en construcción para el banquero Roses. En la huida de los autores del atentado los compañeros de trabajo de Alfonso contaron con la ayuda de un cabo del ejército que pasaba por allí, deteniendo a Juan Teisla de 21 años que mostró su carnet del Somatén. En Terrassa los cenetistas atentaron contra el empresario Juan Puigbó que regresaba con su hijo de un paseo en tartana. El día 22 será detenido Seguí que volvía de Río Tinto y el 23 Francisco Arín, que era miembro del comité Pro-Presos. Pese a la gran redada sobre la CNT, la estructura cenetista permanecía intacta, recayendo la responsabilidad en Ramón Archs y Pedro Vandellós, en diversas asambleas y plenarias clandestinas celebradas en la calle Vistalegre (16), acordaron la prioridad de mantener la afiliación y la conexión entre los sindicatos, para ello, prepararon una nueva huelga para el 7 de diciembre, esta vez en toda España. La CNT ante las numerosas detenciones, pidió a Francesc Layret que como abogado les ayudará, y éste aceptó como de costumbre. También el comité Pro-Presos, ante la avalancha de detenciones y con la dificultad de recaudar las cuotas, tuvo que recurrir a algunos grupos de afinidad anarquistas para que éstos hicieran "golpes económicos". Pese a estar las cárceles repletas los atentados de uno y otro bando continuaron, así el 23 de noviembre atentaron contra el propietario de una vaquería, Vicente Guitari en la calle Cortinas. Al día siguiente en el tinglado número 6 del puerto de Barcelona, hay un robo de seis cajas de munición para pistola, ese mismo día en Reus es asesinado el presidente del Libre en la ciudad Antonio Capdevila.

        El 26 de noviembre un grupo formado por Francisco García "El patillas", Manuel Soler y Vicente Cervera atentan contra el propietario del Hotel Continental de las Ramblas que era del Libre, los hechos ocurrieron cuando Albareda salía de su hotel con un pinche en dirección a la Boqueria, a la altura de la calle Petxina le hirieron con una navaja, él sacando su pistola quiso hacer frente pero se le encasquillo el arma, los cenetistas fueron detenidos por la policía. Ese mismo día por la noche, los del Libre hirieron a Ramón Batalla del Sindicato de la Construcción de CNT que moriría poco después. Aquel mismo día José Canela ex-secretario de hostelería de la CNT y entonces del metal (con frecuencia los cargo sindicales eran ocupados por compañeros ajenos al oficio) correría la misma suerte. Canela se encontraba en el bar Ciclista de la Plaza Buensuceso esquina Sitjà, según Inocencio Feced los autores del asesinato fueron los pistoleros del Libre, Ramón Sales, José Cinca y los hermanos Alvarado. Entre las múltiples detenciones indiscriminadas que práctico el tandem Anido /Arleguí, estaba el joven abogado y concejal del ayuntamiento Lluis Companys. Entonces Layret acompañado de la mujer de Companys piden al alcalde de Barcelona Antonio Martínez Domingo que les acompañe a visitar al gobernador civil Martínez Anido, éste les dará cita para las 7 de la tarde del día siguiente.

        El 29 de noviembre los del Libre se dirigieron al bar Vicens de la calle Salmerón de la barriada de Gracia, en busca del cenetista Carles Bort y en el mismo bar, le asesinaron sin que ninguno de sus compañeros pudiera evitarlo. Al día siguiente 30 de noviembre de la Modelo son trasladados más de 30 hombres, la mayor parte cenetistas, serán conducidos al barco "la Guiralda" que estaba fondeado en las afueras del puerto, entre los deportados estaban: Salvador Seguí, Camilo Piñon, David Rebull, Lluis Companys, Antonio Amador, Francesc. Viadiu (17), más tarde serán conducidos al Castillo de La Mola en Mahón. Enterada la mujer de Companys del traslado de su marido al "Guiralda", en taxi se dirige a la calle Balmes 26 donde vivía Francesc Layret, entonces a la salida de ambos, los del Libre que están estratégicamente esperando a Layret, le disparan mientras que con sorna repetían las frases de la señora Company ¡Pobre senyor Layret!. Los autores del atentado fueron Fulgencio Vera "Mirete", Angel Coll, Fulgencio Grisca y Carles Baldrich. Layret fue trasladado al dispensario de la Plaza Goya y luego a la clínica Corachán donde murió a las pocas horas, los asesinos de Layret cobraron 3000pts por cabeza. Ante los nuevos acontecimientos Evelio Boal Secretario del C.N. de la CNT convocó una reunión clandestina donde se decidió adelantar la huelga general que se preparaba para el 7 de diciembre, así que mandaron un enlace a Madrid para que éste informará de lo que estaba ocurriendo en Barcelona. Al día siguiente iniciada la huelga general enterraron a Francesc Layret a las tres de la tarde, los obreros pretendieron que el séquito pasará por las Ramblas, pero la Guardia Civil tenía orden de impedirlo por lo que cargó contra los manifestantes o mejor dicho contra la comitiva del entierro, después de que mediara el concejal del ayuntamiento de Barcelona Luis Nicolau d'Olwer, la Guardia Civil se retiro y la manifestación de duelo pudo continuar por la Gran Vía hasta el cementerio siendo enterrado Layret en el nicho número 247. Aquel mismo día tiene lugar un tiroteo en el Paral.lel que termina con la detención del cenetista Francesc Botella, que más tarde será confinado en Mahón. Durante los días siguientes los del Libre quisieron romper la huelga general y volver al trabajo, pero los cenetista muy activos lo impidieron, no en vano era frecuente que hubieran escaramuzas y enfrentamientos entre los dos sindicatos, ya sea en Fabra i Puig o bien en Sta.Eulalia. La noche del 5 de diciembre, varios cenetistas apostados en un lugar estratégico del Camp del Arpa abrieron fuego contra la guardia civil que patrullaba por la zona, pudiendo detener ésta a Gregorio Daura, al cual llevaban fuertemente esposado cuando a la altura de la Plaza de Toros Monumental le aplicaron la ley de fugas. Martínez Anido sin duda empezaba a estar confuso, máximo cuando esperaba controlar la situación después de las deportaciones y sin embargo la ciudad seguía bajo control de la CNT y los grupos de afinidad. El día 7 de diciembre la junta directiva del Libre lanza un manifiesto pidiendo colaborar con la CNT, sin duda se trataba de una estrategia política con vistas a los obreros, ese mismo día 7, Martínez Anido pidió al ejército que sacará las tropas a la calle, por lo que de nuevo Barcelona estaba ocupada, salieron los tranvías a la calle siendo conducido el primero de ellos por Paulino Pallás (18) hijo que se había convertido en confidente y protegidos de Anido, al igual que su madre que hacía de cocinera y su hermana de secretaria del Gobernador. El 9 de diciembre la huelga general estaba ya casi terminada. La policía por supuesto hizo numerosas detenciones de cenetistas que fueron brutalmente apalizados, con el propósito de conseguir nuevas confidencias. Gracias a estos brutales métodos la policía disponía de nuevos confidentes, con el inspector Espejo a la cabeza consiguieron detener a los participantes de una asamblea que presidía Juan Peiró en Castelldefels el 12 de diciembre, tan sólo Jaime Manyac logro escapar al cerco policial, aunque pocos días después era detenido en un bar de la calle Morales de Castelldefels. A partir de este momento muchos activistas cenetista se vieron forzados a cambiar de nombre y a trabajar en muy malas condiciones, cuando esto era posible, y dormir en pequeños tugurios, o sea en continúa movilidad. Ese mismo día Martínez Anido y Ramón Sales (Presidente del Libre) se reúnen en Gobernación, de allí saldrá una alianza para terminar con el sindicalismo de la CNT, el enfrentamiento debía ser descaradamente frontal. Según Inocencio Feced los contactos que se establecieron en aquel momento entre Gobernación y el Libre pasaban por los agentes de policía Agapito Martín y Alejo Pita.

        El 16 de diciembre la CNT rompe su pacto con la UGT ya que esta última en ningún momento pretendió ni apoyo la Huelga General que se había declarado en Barcelona, ni secundó la huelga en el resto del país tal como habían acordado en un principio. En esta misma reunión y en otro orden de discusión Ramón Archs propone eliminar la cabeza de la represión, que no es más que Espejo, Arleguí, Anido y Dato, el objetivo a conseguir, era que una vez desaparecidos éstos, un nuevo gobierno desarrollaría una nueva política, que difícilmente podía ser peor para los obreros. El comité aprobó la propuesta pero no sabía quién debía ser el ejecutor, Archs se comprometió a conectar con los grupos de afinidad y buscar la gente adecuada, aunque evidentemente estos grupos en ningún momento se sometían a la disciplina de ningún comité.

        El 17 de diciembre era detenido Angel Pestaña después de su viaje a Rusia, los hechos ocurrieron en la ciudad Italiana de Genova, el cónsul español en Milán lo repatrió a España en el vapor "Barcelo". A la llegada a Barcelona, antes de que los inspectores se hicieran cargo de él, logro Pestaña abrazar a su compañera e hija y a la vez pasarles el informe que portaba de su estancia en Rusia y que su compañera más tarde entregó a Evelio Boal.

        El 22 de diciembre los del Libre se presentan en el bar Petit Colom de la calle Pedro IV, donde se reunían simulando jugar al dominó unos recaudadores de cuotas de la CNT, allí darán muerte a Juan LLovet y dejan gravemente heridos a Ramón Roca, Antonio Mallol y Jaime Parra, éste último mientras lo conducían al dispensario fue detenido por la policía.

        Al día siguiente los cenetistas frente al mercado de la Boquería fueron a por Juan Soler antiguo cenetista que se había pasado al Libre dejándolo acribillado en el suelo.

        Aquel mismo día 23 de diciembre ya en vísperas de Navidad el Banco de Barcelona, aquella vieja y sólida entidad creada por Manuel Girona hizo suspensión de pagos, dejando a muchos burgueses en la ruina.

        Hacía finales de este mes de diciembre Ramón Archs pudo convocar una reunión con compañeros de los grupos de afinidad de su Sindicato Metalúrgico, entre ellos estaba Ramón Casanellas, Pedro Matheu, Luis Nicolau, etc.

        La noche de Navidad hubo un motín en la pequeña cárcel situada cerca de la plaza Sant Jaume, donde habían numerosos cenetistas.

        El 27 de diciembre hubo otra de las represalias por los acontecimientos del Petit Colomb de Pueblo Nuevo, en esta ocasión los cenetistas se presentaron en la Ferretería de Fernández y Malagreda y mataron a Enric Aymerich carlista que de la CNT se había pasado al Libre.

        La noche de fin de año será detenido el cenetista Antonio Rueda y acusado de tenencia de explosivos.

        [Source] http://www.manelaisa.com/texto/Articulos/PagArticulos9.htm


        1921 -- October, 1920, & yet he remained in prison for ten months. This shows that his liberation in January was really due to the pressure brought against the State by the threat of the general strike. As far as I can make it out, he spent more than 5 years in Italian prisons & on penal islands & seven months of this only by virtue of a sentence, the rest -- much over 4 years -- in preliminary prison or under arrest without being tried at all. The number of years he passed in exile, by the way, is 36, & another year of prison among them; thus the Italian State deprived him for over forty years of the right to live in his native country. By the way, these 41 years range between Bakunin's 32 & Kropotkin's 45 years of prison & exile. free Italy holding well her own against tsarist Russia.

        In February "Umanita Nova" began to be published; the fact that communist and individualist Anarchists take part in it is another welcome example of mutual toleration; Anarchism is so broad & large an idea that it covers more possibilities as to its economic basis than one alone; besides anarchist individualism, as expressed today by C. Molaschi & others in Italy, is in greater harmony & contact with the general movement than earlier doctrinary & other varieties of individualism used to be. When an immense open air meeting, held at Milan, June 22, had expressed sympathy with the local railwayman on strike (Malatesta offering the solidarity of the general strike, if the railwaymen wished it), the people returning home were assaulted & fired at by gendarmes, aided by nationalists, five young workers were shot & many wounded. Malatesta (as he wrote himself, "U. N." June 25) "returning to the center of the city was suddenly confronted by a dispersing crowd, heard the hissing sound of bullets

        At the funeral of the victims he said: "Our high ideal is not violence but peace, a society of people who are free & equal, in which conflicts & massacres will be impossible. Violence is not ours, but theirs, of the governing class which oppresses, tramples on the ground and murders the weaker. There is nothing left to the proletariate but to, react violently against their violence & to put lead against lead to crush violence.--- ("U. N.," June 26) Errico Malatesta The Biography of an Anarchist A Condensed Sketch of Malatesta from the book written by by Max Nettlau Published by the Jewish Anarchist Federation New York City. 1924
        http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/anarchist_archives/malatesta/nettlau/nettlauonmalatesta.html

        ?
        1927 -- Italy: Basta ! Bisogna Abolire lo STAto !

        Crimini e Misfatti dello stato italiano dalle origini ai giorni nostri MOVING DATES

        1923-1928 Il re e i notabili per il fascismo : i manganellatori al potere

        1923 23 GENNAIO / JANUARY . Una spedizione punitiva per la morte di due fascisti è organizzata a La Spezia : sei morti. FEBRUARY

        1 Marzo. Arresto del socialista Giacinto Menotti Serrati. 31 MARZO / MARCH 31. Arresto del comunista Ruggero Grieco. 26 Novembre. Il comitato direttivo della CGdL decide di tenere un atteggiamento di apertura nei confronti di Mussolini. 29 Novembre. Dimostranti fascisti invadono e devastano l'abitazione di Francesco Saverio Nitti senza che la polizia intervenga. 5 Dicembre. Il deputato comunista Nicola Bombacci pronuncia alla Camera un discorso in cui sostiene l'affinità tra la rivoluzione russa e quella fascista. Sarà sconfessato dal partito comunista e invitato a dare le dimissioni da deputato. Entrerà in seguito nel partito fascista, indice evidente dell'esistenza di punti di contatto tra le due esperienze . 12 Dicembre. Con pretestuosi motivi di ordine pubblico sono sospese numerosi pubblicazioni socialiste, comuniste e sindacali. 26 Dicembre. L'onorevole Giovanni Amendola, direttore del giornale "Il Mondo" viene assalito e bastonato a Roma da un gruppo di fascisti.

        1924

        FEBRUARY 28 Febbraio. I fascisti uccidono a Reggio Emilia il deputato socialista Antonio Piccinini. 19 MARZO / MARCH 19. In un discorso a Milano, Antonio Salandra riconosce in Mussolini il continuatore della migliore tradizione liberale e risorgimentale. Questo mostra l'insipienza totale del liberalesimo in Italia. 6 Aprile. Elezioni politiche. Si svolgono in un clima di violenza e di intimidazioni sulla base della nuova legge maggioritaria (legge Acerbo). Il listone fascista riceve 4.305.906 voti che sommati ai voti di altre liste fasciste (fascisti di disturbo, fascisti dissidenti) arriva a quasi 5 milioni di voti. Le altre 11 liste ottengono in complesso solo 2 milioni e mezzo di voti. Il fascismo ha in sostanza l'appoggio delle masse e può, a ragione, sostenere di aver raggiunto il potere in maniera democratica (attribuendo alla parola 'democratico' connotazioni nè positive nè negative). Con il premio di maggioranza i fascisti si assicurano 356 seggi + 19 delle liste fiancheggiatrici. Le altre liste fanno eleggere 161 deputati.

        25 Ottobre. Dietro pressioni esercitate da Mussolini, don Sturzo, ex segretario del Partito Popolare, è costretto a lasciare l'Italia. Rimarrà in esilio per 22 anni. 27 Dicembre. In un memoriale pubblicato sulla rivista di Giovanni Amendola 'Il Mondo', l'ex capo dell'ufficio stampa della presidenza del consiglio, Cesare Rossi, ribadisce la responsabilitá diretta di Mussolini nel delitto Matteotti. 31 Dicembre. Vari giornali d'opposizione sono sequestrati in ogni parte d'Italia. I fascisti compiono aggressioni contro professionisti antifascisti. I gruppi fascisti nelle province chiedono a Mussolini di sopprimere qualsiasi opposizione.

        1925

        3 GENNAIO / JANUARY . Parlando alla Camera, Mussolini si assume la responsabilitá 'politica, morale e storica' di tutto quanto è avvenuto durante il suo governo e quindi anche del delitto Matteotti. Assicura un chiarimento della situazione nelle quarantotto ore successive al suo discorso. É l'inizio del regime fascista. 4 GENNAIO / JANUARY . I prefetti ricevono l'ordine di proibire qualsiasi manifestazione pubblica, di esercitare un controllo su circoli, ritrovi, organizzazioni, gruppi in qualche modo sospetti, di sciogliere le formazioni considerate sovversive, di reprimere ogni tentativo di resistenza. 6 GENNAIO / JANUARY . Il ministro dell'interno Luigi Federzoni presenta un primo bilancio delle disposizioni date ai prefetti : sono stati chiusi o sciolti 95 circoli e ritrovi, 150 esercizi pubblici, 25 organizzazioni ritenute sovversive, 120 gruppi dell'associazione antifascista Italia libera; sono stati arrestati 111 persone diciarate sovversive; sono state effettuate 655 perquisizioni domiciliari. 8 GENNAIO / JANUARY . I deputati aventiniani pubblicano un manifesto di condanna morale del fascismo. E' l'unica presa di posizione e testimonia la debolezza e l'insignificanza delle opposizioni. 12 GENNAIO / JANUARY . Disegno di legge per il controllo statale di tutte le associazioni e organizzazioni. 18 febbraio / FEBRUARY 18 . Viene promossa la pubblicazione dell'Enciclopedia Italiana, esempio classico della gestione statale della cultura e quindi dell'asservimento statale delle idee. 2 MARZO / MARCH 2. Il governo sospende il presidente Ettore Viola e l'intero gruppo dirigente dell'ANC (associazione nazionale combattenti) dimostratosi troppo indipendente nei confronti del fascismo. 20 Luglio. Giovanni Amendola subisce una nuova aggressione in conseguenza della quale morirà alcuni mesi dopo. 3 Novenbre. Il Popolo, giornale del partito popolare, è costretto a cessare la pubblicazione dopo che da mesi veniva quotidianamente sequestrato. 4 Novembre. La presunta organizzazione di un attentato contro Mussolini costituisce il pretesto per nuove repressioni nei confronti della massoneria e del partito socialista unitario. 5 Novembre. Lo stato riconosce ufficialmente per decreto legge l'istituto LUCE (L'unione per la cinematografia educativa) e lo pone al suo servizio come macchina di propaganda. 8 Novembre. Il prefetto di Milano sospende le pubblicazioni dei quotidiani l'Avanti e l'Unità. 10 Novembre. Il prefetto di Torino sospende la pubblicazione del periodico 'La rivoluzione liberale' diretto da Piero Gobetti. 12 Novembre. La Confindustria si integra nel regime e ottiene che un suo rappresentante sieda nel Gran Consiglio del fascismo. 14 Novembre. Ulteriore estensione del potere dei prefetti 27 Novembre. Il governo introduce il saluto romano fascista in tutte le amministrazioni dello stato. 10 Dicembre. Lo stato costituisce l'ONMI (Opera Nazionale Maternità e Infanzia). La piovra statale si estende su tutte le espressioni della vita sociale. 24 Dicembre. Vengono allargati i poteri del capo del governo che può emanare norme giuridiche senza l'approvazione delle Camere. 31 Dicembre. Nuovi provvedimenti di controllo statale della stampa impongono ai giornali un direttore responsabile riconosciuto dallo stato. Dopo l'uscita del provvedimento molti giornali sospendono le pubblicazioni.

        1926

        16 GENNAIO / JANUARY . I deputati fascisti cacciano dall'aula gli aventiniani che avevano deciso di riprendere il loro posto. 31 GENNAIO / JANUARY . Accrescimento dei poteri dell'esecutivo e riduzione dei poteri di delibera e di controllo del Parlamento. FEBRUARY 16 Febbraio. A soli 25 anni muore in esilio, a Parigi, Piero Gobetti, fiaccato nel corpo dalle aggressioni della violenza fascista. 16 MARZO / MARCH 16. Inizia il processo per il delitto Matteotti. La giustizia di stato condannerà gli esecutori del delitto a cinque anni, undici mesi e venti giorni di cui quattro anni condonati per amnistia. Una beffa, tipica della 'giustizia di stato'. 1 Novembre. Sono sospesi o soppressi i seguenti giornali e riviste : Il Mondo, Il Risorgimento, La Voce repubblicana, l'Avanti , l'Unità, Battaglie sindacali, Critica Sociale. 5 Novembre. Provvedimenti per la sicurezza del fascismo e per la difesa dello stato. Soppressione di tutti i partiti, associazioni e organizzazioni di opposizione al fascismo; controllo di tutti i passaporti per l'estero e annullamento di quelli rilasciati di recente; confisca dei beni degli emigrati politici; revoca della licenza di pubblicazione alla stampa di opposizione; istituzione del confino di polizia; ripristino della pena di morte per crimini contro lo stato; istituzione del 'tribunale speciale per la difesa dello stato'; costituzione dell'OVRA (Organizzazione per la vigilanza e la repressione dell'antifascismo). E' l'attuazione della concezione statista propria del secolo XX. 8 Novembre. Il deputato Antonio Gramsci e altri deputati comunisti sono arrestati in flagrante violazione dell'immunità parlamentare e rinchiusi a Regina Coeli. 9 Novembre. Tutti i deputati antifascisti sono dichiarati decaduti. 12 Dicembre. Filippo Turati abbandona clandestinamente l'Italia. 30 Dicembre. Il fascio littorio diventa emblema dello stato italiano. 31 Dicembre. Su tutti gli atti ufficiali delle amministrazioni statali è fatto obbligo di aggiungere alla data del calendario gregoriano la data del calendario fascista (anno di inizio 1922). Scimmiottando la rivoluzione francese (calendario repubblicano) il fascismo mette in rilievo le notevoli affinità tra le due esperienze entrambe caratterizzate dal segno dello statismo.

        1927

        GENNAIO / JANUARY . La polizia, sotto la guida di Arturo Bocchini, rafforza la sua opera di repressione. Viene istituito il casellario politico centrale che, alla fine del 1927, ha più di 100mila fascicoli su persone cosiddette sospette o sovversive. FEBRUARY 1 Febbraio. Due operai sono condannati dal tribunale speciale per la difesa dello stato con l'accusa di avere offeso Mussolini. Si autoscioglie la confederazione generale del lavoro. 5 GENNAIO / JANUARY . Il Procuratore generale Giovanni Appiani, inaugurando l'anno giudiziario, traccia il nuovo corso della magistratura a servizio dello stato fascista definendo la giustizia come un concetto relativo in rapporto e in subordine alla politica. 9 GENNAIO / JANUARY . Sono sciolte le organizzazioni giovanili non fasciste. L'associazione degli esploratori cattolici, l'unica a sopravvivere, deve inserire nelle sue insegne il simbolo del littorio e le iniziali ONB (Opera Nazionale Balilla). 12 GENNAIO / JANUARY . Vengono chiuse le iscrizioni al Partito Nazionale Fascista. L'unica spiegazione possibile è che la massa di arrivisti e carrieristi pronti a iscriversi era divenuta eccessiva anche per un partito rozzo come quello fascista. 18 GENNAIO / JANUARY . L'ex deputato massimalista Romeo Campanini scrive una lettera a Mussolini piena di elogi e di ammirazione per la politica sociale del fascismo, dimostrando per l'ennesima volta l'affinità tra le varie ideologie del XX secolo, tutte caratterizzate dal culto dello stato. FEBRUARY 2 Febbraio. Esponenti di primo piano della disciolta Confederazione Generale del Lavoro (Rinaldo Rigola, Ludovico d'Aragona, ed altri) si pongono in posizione favorevole alla nuova legislazione sul lavoro (che prevedeva tra l'altro l'abolizione del diritto di sciopero). FEBRUARY 13 Febbraio. Il regime istituisce una imposta sui celibi dai 25 ai 65 anni di età. L'ammontare dell'imposta sarà raddoppiato nel giro di due anni. Lo stato sa che ha sempre bisogno di carne da cannone per cui, nelle parole stesse di Mussolini, intende dare "una frustata demografica alla nazione". 2 MARZO / MARCH 2. Le società sportive sono organizzate sotto l'autorità centrale del CONI (Comitato Olimpico Nazionale Italiano) posto alle dirette dipendenze del partito fascista. 19 MARZO / MARCH 19. Alcide De Gasperi è arrestato a Firenze sotto l'accusa di tentato espatrio. Sarà condannato a 4 anni di reclusione. Per intervento del Vaticano sarà liberato dopo 16 mesi di carcere. 25 MARZO / MARCH 25. Il ministro della istruzione statale Pietro Fedele dichiara che è suo compito "fascistizzare la scuola". 18 Dicembre. Maffio Maffii diventa il nuovo direttore del Corriere della sera e procede ad una più radicale fascistizzazione del giornale. 24 Dicembre. Viene costituito il patronato nazionale per l'assistenza sociale. Dalla culla alla bara, tutto sotto il marchio dello stato.

        1928

        15 GENNAIO / JANUARY . Arnaldo Mussolini (fratello di Benito) assume la vice-presidenza dell'EIAR (Ente Italiano Audizioni Radiofoniche) a sancire l'importanza attribuita dalla stato al controllo dei mezzi di comunicazione. 29 MARZO / MARCH 25. Gli uffici di collocamento vengono posti alle dirette dipendenze del ministero delle corporazioni. 17 MARZO / MARCH 17. Viene costituita l'ANAS (Azienda Nazionale Autonoma della Strada). Il fascismo pensa proprio a tutto! 1 Dicembre. Per mantenere i contadini legati alle campagne il governo introduce limitazioni alla libertà di domicilio e di circolazione. 1929-1934 Lo stato fascista : dittatura e consenso ovvero la democrazia totalitaria [^] [Polyarchy] [Basta!] [Indice : crimini e misfatti]


        [Source: Crimini e Misfatti]


        1932 --

        "I'm Slappin' Seventh Avenue" Duke Ellington & His Famous Orchestra, 4/11/38 New York's famous frenetic energy was unstilled by the Depression. Seventh Avenue was one of the city's major thoroughfares, & Ellington one of its brightest stars. For Depression-era listeners seeking escape to more exotic climes, the flip of the original 78 offered Ivie Anderson singing "Swinging in Honolulu." "Creole Love Call" Duke Ellington & His Famous Orchestra, 2/11/32 The third & final piece of Ellingtonia in this collection reprises a piece Duke first recorded in 1927. This later "Creole Love Call" was released on a 12" 78, allowing more leisurely development of solos. (The flip side offered Crosby singing "St. Louis Blues" with Ellington's Orchestra.) It was recorded in 1932, a year aptly summarized by French socialist Leon Blum: "Looking at the world, one has the impression of an audience. . .waiting restlessly for the end of one act & at the same time listening to the stage hands behind the scenes arranging the scenery for the act that is to follow."

        — Mark Humphrey, "The Great Depression: American Music in the '30s" TEMPLATE:

        "I Surrender, Dear" Red Norvo & His Swing Septet, 9/26/34     

        This is the sole performance in this collection from 1934, a year bitterly remembered by Malcolm X, who wrote in his Autobiography:

        " . . . by 1934, we really began to suffer. This was about the worst depression year, & no one we knew had enough to eat or live on."

        The 1934 dollar was still only worth about 60 percent of its 1929 value. But five million previously unemployed Americans were back at work.

        The tumult of the times is countered by the elegance of xylophonist Norvo's performance with a stellar group including Artie Shaw on clarinet & Teddy Wilson at the piano. The song helped bring stardom to Bing Crosby back in 1931, & would become the vehicle for a 1948 film, I Surrender, Dear.

        — Mark Humphrey, "The Great Depression: American Music in the '30s"

        http://www2.blackside.com/blackside/PublishingNewMedia/Depressionmusic2.html

        See also

        http://www.authentichistory.com/1930s/music/1930s_music_01.html



        1937 -- Another feature of the APCF's response to the events in Spain was its completely uncritical support for the Spanish anarcho-syndicalists of the CNT-FAI. From October 1936 to February 1937 the APCF co-operated with the anarchists of the Freedom group in London to publish four issues of the Fighting Call, the contents of which were compiled almost entirely from issues of the CNT-FAI's Boletin de Informacion, with no critical comment or analysis added. Along the same lines, in February 1937 the APCF published the text of a speech made by the anarchist Minister of Public Health, Frederica Montseny, as a pamphlet titled Militant Anarchism & the Reality in Spain, in which statements such as the following were allowed to pass without comment or criticism: "in these tragic times, we must put aside our point of view, our ideological conditions, in order to realise the unity of all anti-fascists from the Republicans to the Anarchists

        When an analysis which was opposed to capitalism in all its forms, fascist or democratic, did appear in the APCF's press, it came not from any member of the APCF but from Ethel MacDonald of the USM, who wrote that "Fascism is not something new, some new force of evil opposed to society, but is only the old enemy, Capitalism, under a new & fearful sounding name...

        Anti-Fascism is the new slogan by which the working class is being betrayed" (Workers Free Press Oct 1937).

        Interestingly, Ethel MacDonald had actually gone to Spain in October 1936 to work for the propaganda section of the CNT-FAI. She was accompanied by Jane Patrick, whose involvement in the revolutionary movement dated back to the time of the original Glasgow Anarchist Group. When Patrick went to Spain she was disowned by the APCF & she joined the USM soon after returning to Britain. The reports which Patrick & MacDonald sent back from Spain were published in the single-issue papers News From Spain (a USM publication) & Barcelona Bulletin (a joint APCF-USM effort), both of which came out in May 1937.

        Patrick fiercely attacked the counter-revolutionary actions of the Stalinist PSUC, but also criticised the reformist orientation of the CNT-FAI leadership & its naive attachment to anti-fascist unity, stressed the importance of working class self-activity, & rejected the idea that democratic capitalism was preferable to fascist capitalism. Patrick's ideas, like Ethel Macdonald's, but unlike the APCF's, thus expressed revolutionary opposition to a capitalist war.

        Very few other groups took up a similar stance at the time, notable exceptions being the International Council Correspondence group in the United States & the Bilan group in France.

        http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/8195/Part2.html


        1937 -- THE ART OF WAR & PEACE Updated: 8 August, 1999 Picasso, "War" (1952)

        A. INTRODUCTION This Guide lists some recommended reading & works of art, many of which I have shown in the lectures. The artists & their work are listed in chronological order by specific war or conflict. Additional reading on individual artists or the art of particular wars can be found in the relevant Bibliography of Specific Wars. Personal favourites of mine are:

        Albrecht Dürer's "The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse" Jacques Callot's "The Large Miseries of War" (1632) - Plundering a large farmhouse Francisco Goya's The Second of May & from "The Disasters of War" - 39 Honoré Daumier's "The Army Hierarchy" Manet's The Execution of Emperor Maximillien (1867) Winslow Homer's The Veteran in a New Field Lady Elizabeth Butler's Scotland for Ever! Lumley, "Daddy, what did you do do in the war?" (1915) Otto Dix'sMachine Gun Column Advancing (1924) Pablo Picasso "Guernica" (1937), The Charnel House 1944-45 , & Massacre in Korea 1951

        TABLE OF CONTENTS A. INTRODUCTION B. RECOMMENDED READING General Works War Photography Specific Wars & Artists C. WORKS OF ART TO CONSIDER Miscellaneous Works Cartoons Machines of War Miscellaneous Works Miscellaneous Battle Pictures Images of Peace War Photos Warriors & Heroes

        Pre-17thC Artists/Wars The Bayeux Tapestry (1070s) Christian Saints & War Albrecht Dürer's illustrations for The Book of Revelations Albrecht Altdorfer's monumental "The Victory of Alexander" Uccello Leonardo da Vinci Titian

        17thC Artists/Wars Rubens' allegories Jacques Callot's etchings of Lorraine in the Thrity Years War Velasquez 19thC Artists/Wars Francisco Goya Gericault's drawings Franco-Prussian War The French cartoonist Honoré Daumier's satires of French & German militarism leading up to the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. Delacroix's battle pictures Manet Winslow Homer's art of the American Civil War Lady Elizabeth Butler Frederic Remington 19thC Depictions of Chivalry Aubrey Beardsley

        20thC Artists/Wars - WW1 WW1 Propaganda posters. The German artist George Grosz on WW1 Otto Dix's depiction of WW1 Hospodar's Illustrations of Wagner's Music Käthe Kollwitz's call for no more war (WW1) Sidney Nolan's "Gallipoli"

        20thC Artists/Wars - Spanish Civil War Pablo Picasso

        20thC Artists/Wars - WW2 WW2 Propaganda Posters Art of the Holocaust Art of the Hiroshima Bomb survivors Wars of the Future The Art of Star Wars

        B. RECOMMENDED READING

        General Works Peter Paret, Imagined Battles: Reflections of War in European Art (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997). Paul Hogarth, The Artist as Reporter (London: Gordon Fraser, 1986). Art Against War: 400 Years of Protest in Art, ed. D.J.R. Bruckner, Seymour Chwast, & Steven Heller (New York: Abbeville Press, 1984). Frank E. Hugget, Cartoons at War (London: Book Club Associates, 1981). Gavin Fry & Anne Gray, Masterpieces of the Australian War Memorial (Sydney: Rigby, 1982). Man Through His Art. Volume 1. War & Peace, eds. Anil de Silva & Otto von Simson (London: Educational Productions Ltd, 1963). Wilhelm Treue, Art Plunder: The Fate of Works of Art in War & Unrest, trans. Basil Creighton (New York: John Day, 1961). Fritz Redlich, "De Praeda Militari: Looting & Booty, 1500-1815," Vierteljahrschrift für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte, 1956, vol. 39, pp. 1-79.

        War Photography Jorge Lewinski, The Camera at War: A History of ar Photography from 1848 to the Present Day, (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1978).

        Specific Wars & Artists Richard Cork, A Bitter Truth: Avant-Garde Art & the Great War (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994). Picasso's Guernica, ed. Ellen C. Oppler (New York: W.W. Norton, Norton Critical Studies in Art History, 1988). Ludwig Ullman, Picasso und der Krieg (Bielefeld: Karl Kerber Verlag, 1993).

        C. WORKS OF ART TO CONSIDER To view selected images inspired by war and/or peace click on the highlighted text. The file size is given in brackets & files over 100K in size might take a while to download.

        Miscellaneous Works Cartoons British anti-Napoleon cartoons First Cartoon (120K) Second Cartoon (132K)

        Other: John Bull as Atlas (100K) Canon Fodder (Sydney Morning Herald 1997) (111K) French Propaganda Cartoons of the Franco-Prussian War Defending Mother France (96K) The Genius of Death (96K) Lazy? (52K) The Uhlan & the Peasant Girl (92K) Vive la France! (108K)

        Miscellaneous Works General "Candide Fleeing the War" (112K) Spielgelman's "Mauschwitz" (100K) The Dance of Death & the Soldier (76K) Rodin's "Burghers of Calais" (116K) Leonardo da Vinci's "Last Supper" (212K) Machines of War Malevich's "Peasant's Head & Aeroplane" (96K) Tom Robert's "Artillery" (100K)

        Images of Peace Günter Grass's drawings from his novel on the Thirty Years War: Is the pen mightier than the sword? 116K) The Word "Peace" (52K) Picasso's "Dove of Peace" (24K) Miscellaneous Battle Pictures The Battle of Culloden (68K) Custer's Last Stand (136K) Neuville's "Rorke's Drift" (88K)

        War Photos

        Photographs by Brady & others of the American Civil War Antietem Dead (104K) Confederate Dead (144K) Harvest of Death (213K) Victim of amputation (100K) Soldier with facial wound (76K) WW2 Planting the US Flag on Iwo Jima (72K) First published photo of US dead (80K)

        Warriors & Heroes Mars - God of War Aldegrever 1529 (40K) Tempesta 17thC (52K) Rowlandson 1811 (32K) Daumier "Mars & Venus" 1842 (28K) Daumier "Mars" 1856 (28K) Noe Mormon 19thC (36K)

        Joan of Arc Delpechi 1430 (20K) Salazar 1851 (28K) Coffin WW1 poster (20K) Gill 1922 (16K) Lawrence of Arabia Lawrence the British Soldier (68K) Hybrid soldier (100K) "Lawrence of Arabia" (84K) Others: Achilles (108K) Capt. W.E. Johns (56K) & Biggles (60K) Furphy the WW1 Water Carrier (72K) Simpson & his Donkey Murphy's Photo (1915) Simpson & his Donkey (128K) Sidney Nolan's painting of Simpson Statue erected 1988 Return to the top of the page

        Pre-17thC Artists/Wars The Bayeux Tapestry (1070s) Depicting The Battle Of Hastings 1066 01 - Harold Godwinson confers with King Edward the Confessor & sets out on his journey. 02 - Harold & his men prepare for a sea voyage with a final prayer & meal. Then they board their ships, taking dogs & falcons with them. 03 - Their landing on the coast of France is met by the hostile Guy of Ponthieu. 04 - Harold is taken prisoner. 05 - While Harold talks with Guy, William of Normandy prepares a rescue mission. 06 - William's men hurry to Beaurain. 07 - Guy surrenders his prisoner to William. 08 - Harold & William return to Normandy, where William's daughter Aelfgifu is betrothed to Harold. 09 - Harold & William celebrate their new relationship by fighting together against Conan of Brittany, but disaster nearly strikes at Mont. St. Michel. 10 - The battles continue at Dol and Rennes. 11 - At Dinan, the Duke of Brittany surrenders to William. 12 - During the victory celebration William knights Harold, and Harold takes a solemn oath to become the man of William. 13 - Harold returns to England. 14 - Edward the Confessor dies. 15 - Harold is crowned King of England. Look for Haley's Comet. 16 - Word of Harold's coronation travels to William. 17 - William orders the Normans to begin building a fleet. 18 - The ships take on their supplies. 19 - The horses board, & the ships set sail. 20 - The fleet sails under the protection of the pope (look for his banner) & lands at Pevensey. 21 - The Normans disembark & ride to Hastings. 22 - The cooks prepare food. 23 - William & his lords celebrate at a banquet. 24 - The Normans build their camp & prepare for battle. 25 - The Norman army assembles. 26 - The Normans ride out to meet the Anglo-Saxons. 27 - Harold is warned of the advance, & William gives a pep talk to his men. 28 - The Normans attack on horseback. 29 - The Anglo-Saxons meet their attack on foot. 30 - Harold's brothers are killed in the battle. 31 - The battle rages. 32 - The Anglo-Saxons defend the top of a hill, & William must prove to his men that he is still in charge. 33 - Newly encouraged, the Normans attack viciously. 34 - Harold is struck in the eye by an arrow & dies. 35 - The Normans are victorious.

        Christian Saints & War Martin of Tours renouncng war and sharing his cloak with a beggar (144K) St Genevieve defending Paris from attack (120K) St George slaying the dragon (136K) St Sebastian the victim of army intolerance (112K)

        Albrecht Dürer's Illustrations For The Book of Revelations "The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse" (136K) "The 6th Trumpet" (232K) "Falling Stars" (220K) "Michael fighting the Dragons" (140K) "The Knight" (116K) Albrecht Altdorfer's Monumental "The Victory Of Alexander" The Victory of Alexander (124K) Detail 1 (128K) Detail 2 (128K) Uccello Battle of St. Romano Leonardo Da Vinci Battle of Anghiari The Last Supper (1495) Titian St Sebastian (1570)

        17thC Artists/Wars Rubens' Allegories "Allegory of Peace" (172K) "Amazons" (120K) "Henry IV's Triumphal Entry" (104K) Battle of the Amazons (1618) Death of Achilles Julius Caesar (1625) Massacre of the Innocents (1621) Peace & War St George

        Jacques Callot's Etchings Of Lorraine In The Thrity Years War

        The Small Miseries of War (1632-33) Fronticepiece (85K) Camp scene (77K) Attack on the highway (77K) Devastation of a monastery (85K) Pillaging & burning a village (85K) Revenge of the peasants (85K) the Hospital (77K) The Siege of Breda (1627-9) in 6 sections - Part 1 (102K) Part 2 (85K) Part 3 (94K) Part 4 (85K) Part 5 (102K) Part 6 (94K)

        Other Works An Angry Warrior 1619 (28K) The Tortures & Temptation of Anthony (128K) The Large Miseries of War Title page (85K) the Recruitment of Troops (77K) the Battle (77K) Scene of pillage (77K) Plundering a large farmhouse (85K) Destruction of a convent (85K) Plundering & burning a village (85K) Attack on a coach (85K) Discovery of the criminal soldiers (85K) The Strappado (85K) The Hanging (85K) the Firing squad (77K) the Stake (85K) the Wheel (85K) the Hospital (85K) Dying soldiers by the roadside (77K) the peasants avenge themselves (85K) Distribution of Rewards (85K)

        Velasquez "The Siege of Breda" (168K) Mars (1636) Olivares (1634) The Surrender of Breda (1635) Return to the top of the page

        19thC Artists/Wars

        Francisco Goya The Disasters of War (1863) 1 - (119K) 2 - (111K) 3 - (102K) 4 - (111K) 5 - "They have become like Wild Beasts" (124K) 6 - (85K) 8 - (102K) 9 - (102K) 10 - (94K) 11 - (102K) 12 - (85K) 13 - (119K) 14 - (128K) 15 - (102K) 16 - (85K) 18 - (85K) 19 - (85K) 20 - (102K) 21 - (102K) 22 - (85K) 23 - (85K) 24 - (85K) 26 - (85K) 28 - (102K) 29 - (102K) 30 - "Ravages" (119K) 31 - (111K) 32 - (145K) 33 - (111K) 34 - (85K) 35 - (102K) 36 - (102K) 37 - (102K) 38 - (102K) 39 - (111K) 40 - (102K) 41 - (94K) 42 - (102K) 43 - (102K) 44 - (85K) 45 - (94K) 46 - (102K) 47 - (102K) 48 - (102K) 49 - (102K) 55 - (102K) 56 - (102K) 61 - (102K) 62 - (102K) 63 - (102K) 64 - (102K) 80 - (119K)

        Francisco Goya's depiction of the Spanish guerrilla war (1808-) against the French. The Second of May (128K) "The Third of May" (128K) "The Colossus" (153K)

        Gericault's Drawings "Caisson" (132K) "Chariots" (140K) "Mameluke" (108K) "Retour" (104K)

        Franco-Prussian War Manet's "Civil War" 1871 (32K) Street Barricade 1871 (32K)]

        Honoré Daumier The French cartoonist Honoré Daumier's satires of French & German militarism leading up to the Franco-Prussian War of 1870: Rue Transnonian (111K) So this is why we got ourselves killed for (102K) The Guard at Thermopylae (119K) Gingerbread bas-relief - A General's triumphant entrance (162K) The Empire is Peace (102K) Tsar Nicholas I - "Confound it! I was wrong to take on all of Europe" (128K) The Danaides up to date (111K) The European Balance of Power (94K) "Balance of Power" Poor Old Fellow (94K) Christmas Presents for 1868 (136K) Just like Pantin (128K) Quick, let's get away from here - armed troops (119K) "Just take a new rifle into your hand, pull the trigger, & you'll kill ten times as many men as before." "Ah yes Papa - that's what we call progress" (128K) "We managed to get rid of Louis Philippe - why not this claptrap as well?" (102K) "The Army Hierarchy" (104K) The Battle Commanders (119K) The Conqueror (128K) Disarmament - apres vous (136K) The Coronation of Peace (111K) A New Idea for a Peace Monument (111K) The World's Fair - All men are brothers (119K) The Hall of Fame (119K) The inventor of the machine gun enjoys All Soul's Day (136K) Troop Departure (136K) Those who are about to die salute you (119K) The Fatherland calls (136K) Bismarck's Nightmare (128K) Appalled at the Heritage (94K) France as Prometheus & the eagle as vulture (111K) Peace, an Idyll (77K) Postwar Landscape (102K) Whose turn is it now? (128K) Page of History (128K) Peace 1868 (24K)

        Delacroix's Battle Pictures "Arab Skirmish" (124K) "Crusaders attacking Constantinople" (176K) "Giaour & Hassan" (152K) The King's Guard (16K) "Massacre at Chios" (132K)

        Manet The Execution of Emperor Maximillien (1867) Study on the Execution

        Winslow Homer's Art Of The AmeriCan Civil War Bayonet Charge (28K) Cavalry Charge (24K) Home Sweet Home (1863) Prisoners Prisoners at the Front (1866) The Veteran in a New Field (102K) Lady Elizabeth Butler Rorke's Drift (1880) (88K) Scotland for Ever! (96K) Floreat Etona (1882) (K) Roll Call (1874) (K)

        Frederic Remington Night Leader (1907)

        19ThC Depictions Of Chivalry Gertrude Williams, "The Spirit of the Crusades" (1921), (48K) - model for a war memorial, Paisely Adrian Jones, Great war Memorial to "The Cavalry of the Empire" (124K) Hyde Park, London Stained glsass window "War" (1920) (180K) by Morris & Co. for St. Bartholomew's Church, Wilmslow, Cheshire The cover of Baden-Powell's book "Young Knights of the Empire" (172K) painting of Dante Gabriel Rossetti's "Before the Battle" (1858) (136K) Frontispiece to Sir Henry Nicolas' "The Orders of Knighthood" (1842) (160K) Postcards from WW1 depicting chivalric ideals (144K)

        Aubrey Beardsley Aubrey Beardsley's erotic etchings to illustrate a new, unbowdlerised translation of Aristophanes' famous anti-war play Lysistrata.

        20thC Artists/Wars - WW1

        WW1 Propaganda Posters.

        Australia Play up & play the game (1917) The Anzac Book of ABC Birton, "Get into Khaki" Norman Lindsay The Last Call (1918) Monster (?) (1918) Quick! (1918) The Trumpet Calls (1918) Will You Fight Now or Wait for this? (1918)

        May Gibbs The Gumnut Corps The Gumnut Blossoms going to war

        Memoirs of WW1 (1936) Watkins' "The Mother's Cry" Souter's "Nice to be Surfing" A Red Cross Card "Anti-war writers stab in the back" (1993) Will Dyson's "The Voices of the Anzacs"

        England Are you in this? Save bread to fight the U-Boats (1917) Thomas, "Feed the Guns" (1918) "Greatest Mother in the World" (128K) Lumley, "Daddy, what did you do do in the war?" (1915) St George (1915) Franks, "England Expects" (1918)

        France Goursat, "Arc de Triumphe" Tourqueray, "Cardinal Mercier" "Gala de marins" Hansi, "War Loan" (1916) Hansi, "War Loan" (1917) Goursat, "Liberty" (1917)

        Germany The Mailed Fist Oppenheime "Gen. Hindenburg" (1917) Bernhardi, "War Loan" (1917) Fractal Images (you need a fractal reader to see these images) Anzac "Cooee" Bohle "By God's Grace" Dix, "Flanders" Dix "Self Portrait" (1915) Faivre "Liberty Loan" Flagg, "I Want You" Flagg navy Nevinson "Mitrailleause" Rodgers "The Royal Medical Corps" Wyndam Lewis "Battery Shelled"

        The German Artist George Grosz On WW1 "Fit for Duty" (120K) Angel of Peace (36K)

        Otto Dix's Depiction Of WW1 "Krieg" (War) (1924) Machine Gun Column Advancing Langemarck (February 1918) The Bombing of Lens A Dead Horse A Dead Sapper Meal Time in the Trenches Soldier & Nun (Rape) Retreating from the Battle of the Somme A Shell Hole with Flowers (Rheims 1916) A Skull Stormtroopers during a Gas Attack Transplantation

        Trench Warfare The Trenches (124K) Trenches (1917) Trench warfare Tryptich (112K) Detail Self Portraits wearing an artillery helmet (1914) as Mars (1915) As a Target (1915) as a soldier (1924) as a POW (1947)

        Other Works Dance of Death (1917) Direct Hit (1916) Falling Ranks (1916) Flanders (1934-36) Hand-to-hand Fighting (1917) Lovers on a Grave (1917) A Shell Hole with Flowers (1915) A Trench with Flowers (1917)

        Hospodar's Illustrations Of Wagner's Music Siegfried & the Dragon (24K) Wotan & Fire (28K)

        Käthe Kollwitz's Call For No More War (WW1) "Nie wieder Krieg!" (No More War!) (92K)

        Sidney Nolan's "Gallipoli" Identification Disc (1957) Barbed Wire Entanglement (1960) Gallipoli Figures in Combat I (1962) Gallipoli Figures in Combat II (1962) Diptych 1963 First panel Second panel Return to the top of the page

        20thC Artists/Wars - Spanish Civil War

        Pablo Picasso His reaction to the Nazi bombing of the Basque city of Guernica: the mural "Guernica" (1937): "Guernica" mural (72K) Details of the mural Far left - bull, woman & dead child the central pyramid the fallen warrior (left) the fallen warrior (right) the fleeing woman the horse's head the woman with the lamp the falling woman

        Dora Maar's photographs of the mural in progress state I - 11 May 1937 state II state III state IV state V state VI state VII Sketches for the mural "7 May 1937" (124K) head of a horse - 2 May 1937 mother with dead child - 10 May 1937 bull with a human head - 11 May 1937 a weeping woman - 3 June 1937 another weeping woman hand of a warrior - 4 June 1937

        Other Works done during or about the Spanish Civil War: Cartoon strip - The Dream & Lie of Franco (8 February 1937) Part 1 - original & reversed Part 2 - original & reversed

        Works done during or about WW2 The Charnel House 1944-45 Still Life of a Skull & a Jug 1945

        Works about the Korean War Massacre in Korea 1951 War & Peace 1951 War & Peace 1952 Detail of War 1952 - left & right

        Other works: Mlles d'Avignon (1907) Illustrations for 1934 edition of Lysistrata Lysistrata (32K) Lysistrata with Warrior & Child (16K) Minotauromachy 1935 Peace Poster 1949 (12K) Rape of the Sabine Women - 1962 & 1963 Anti-Vietnam War Poster 1968

        Peace Posters The Dove of Peace The Face of Peace Peace Poster 1949 War & Peace

        20thC Artists/Wars - WW2

        WW2 Propaganda Posters British "We Value Liberty above Life" (24K) Art Of The HoLocaust Art Of The Hiroshima Bomb Survivors

        Wars of the Future

        The Art Of Star Wars Comic Book cover art (124K) Imperial Storm Troopers' Helmets (40K) Storm Trooper (48K) Uniforms (24K)

        http://arts.adelaide.edu.au/person/DHart/ResponsesToWar/Art/index.html


        ?
        1937 --

        FOR NAMES & DATES,

        Anarchists were among the forerunners of the Esperantist workingmen movement. In Stockholm, in 1905, & Paris in 1906, the first Esperantist groupes were formed. The Paco-Libereco Group realized a great work of publishing. In Shanghai, Pa Chin studied Esperanto. In a dictionary of Chinese & foreign writers, published in 1934, he was classified as an Esperantist intellectual. Ba Jin

        Slowly but surely, Esperanto was introduced in revolutionary & workingmen circles. Anarchists & Anarcho-Syndicalists (who were the most numerous members of the Esperantist proletarian movement before World War I) gathered in the international association "Paco Libereco" which edited the parper Internacia Socio Revuo (Social and International Review - 1906). In 1914, in Paris, the Tenth Universal Congress appeared as an opportunity for revolutionary Esperantists who wished to create an organization in the fringe of the peace movement. But as war broke out, the Congress was cancelled.

        It was only in 1921 in Prague that the first Congress of Esperantist Workingmen took place & witnessed the creation of SAT (Sennacieca Asocio Tutmonda A-nationalist and Worldwide Association). SAT was not a political party but a cultural & educational organization. Its gaol was to facilitate the creation of rational minds able to compare, understand & judge different ideas, themes & tendencies. Members were to obtain the most information possible in order to choose the most honest & realiable ways of emancipating their own class.

        The principle of blind neutrality was given up & the idea of Esperanto as an aid in fighting for the emancipation of the working class emerged. Three objectives were mentioned:

        1.The practice of Esperanto to help the international world working-class 2.The facilitation of relations between SAT members & the development of human solidarity 3.Information & education of the members with the aim of transforming them into the most able & accomplished fellows among the Internaitonalists.

        SAT was created at a time when many workingmen from all tendencies were still looking towards the Russian revolution as a first step in the triumph of the socialist idea. But as the myth of Revolution was vanishing, the revolutionary Esperantists that had been influenced by the Russian events began to feel disappointed. Moreover, Communists were more & more demanding & tried to convert SAT in an organization dedicated exclusively to Moscow. For ten years, there was a fight between communists & their opponents, who wanted SAT to remain a cultural & educational organization, in favour of the working-class, politically independent, as had been decided in Prague. Finally, at the 11th Congress, held in Amsterdam in 1931, the majority refused the communist domination, & the followers of Moscow left the association to create a separate, communist organization.

        Two Russians & a Frenchman created the nucleus of TLES (Tutmonda Ligo de Esperantisja Seustatano - Worldwide League of Esperantist Anarchists) which in a few months had members from fifteen different countries. But the context in Russia was one of Bolshevik repression of anarchist voices. After the disappearance of his two Russian friends, the Frenchman, Julien Migny, with the help of his friend Juliette, took the responsibility of the TLS administration. Belgium, China & Japan also joined this new esperantist organization.

        In 1923, the Russian anarchists A. Levandowsky & J. Zilberfarb founded ISAB (Internacilingua Scienca Anarkiusm Biblioteka - The Anarchist Scientific Libraryin International Language). They called the other anarchist Esperantists all around the world, hoping to create a worldwide organisation.

        In August 1925, TLES began to publish in Berlin its monthly review Libero Laboristo (The Free Workingman) & in 1933 edited a newsletter for use by the anarcho-syndicalist international movement in collaboration with the U.S.A. But they would soon face repression, both in Germany & the United States.

        FEBRUARY 1937 During the war years in Spain, there was a systematic persecution of Esperantist activities in the zone occupied by General Franco. In Malaga, on February 1937, the Esperantist group was shot "for the unique reason they were Esperantists". Ironically, the man responsible for such a crime became honorary president of an Esperantist Congresss 31 years later.

        Germany, the Soviet Union & Spain thus repressed the libertarian Esperantist movement and, finally, the TLES ceased to exist.

        After World War II, the Esperantist Anarchists came into contact again with the TLES. In 1946, in Paris, "Senstatano" appeared first as a section from the Committee of the International Young Anarchists. They also spoke in the name of the Anarchist Esperantist Movement, continuing the work begun by the TLES. in the meantime, the libertarian Esperantist Esperantist group in Paris workind in close collaboration with the Commission of International Anarchist Relations, translating newsletters. They also delt with relations in Esperanto with comrades of other countries.

        Finally, in 1969, the Anarchist section of SAT took a new start in publishing the monthly paper "Libericana ligilo" with the gaol of spreading the anarchist ideal in the Esperantist circles as well as spreading Esperanto in anarchist sections, one of the best places for Esperanto to develop.

        Bibl.

        Libera Laboristo. Oficiala organo de Tutmonda Ligo de Esperantistaj Senstatanoj (TLES). Organismes: Tutmondo Ligo du Esperantistaj Senstatenoj - TLES (fédération mondiale des espérantistes anarchistes); FAUD(AS), Berlin (Allemagne).

        Editorial board: Arthur Bolle, w de Berlin 57ème Hochkirchstr.8; Josef enrichit; K. Admin. Editors: Faure, Sébastien; Rocker, Rudolf; Souchy, Augustin

        Language: Esperanto

        Dates of publication: Jg.1 (1925/26) - Jg.6 (1932)

        Twice a month (1925); monthly (as from 1927)

        Typographie: Lettre d'appareil hektogr. (en 1926, Nr.2)

        Was succeeded by : L'esperanto revuo de la Internacia Laborista Asocia (I.L.A./A.I.T.)

        Comments: The world federation of esperantist anarchists, which was composed of anarchists, syndicalists & antiautoritarians, called itself TLES as from 1924. Members of the AAU-TLES were equally represented. Groups of TLES could be found, among other places, in Kassel, Krefeld, Duesseldorf, Mannheim, Riesa, Gera, Erfurt & Berlin. The anarchist esperantist information center was in Leipzig. The headquarters of the world organization was transferred in SEPTEMBER 1929 from Leipzig to Berlin. The paper ceased publication in 1932 (See the notice in Syndikalist, du14.Jg.1932, Nr.18.)

        Ruebner: Pain et Liberté, P. 199, Anm. 133, P. 291; Seywald, No 1183

        Faure, Sébastien · La krimoj de Dio / El la franca trad. Luis Carlos kaj F. Buokin. - Paris : Librejo "Paco-libereco", 1911. - 32 p. Grav, Johano · En anarkista socio, kiel kondutos la individuo?. - Laroque Timbaut : La Juna Penso, 1972. - 8 p. - ( Brosura Serio de LJP ; 82B ) Kropotkin, Petr · Etiko / El la rusa trad. I.S.A.B. - Leipzig : SAT, 1924. Kropotkin, Petr · La salajro / Trad. D.J. - Amsterdam : Nutters, 1914. - 22 p. - ( Internaca Socia Revuo ; 8 ) Kropotkin, Petr · Al la junuloj : Biografio (pri Kropotkin) / (de M.Orseti, el la pola trad. Duo). - Paris : SAT, 1938. - 44 p. Lanty, E. La langue internationale. Ce que tout militant ouvrier doit connaître de la question. 1925. Lanti, E. · El verkoj de E. Lanti. - Laroque Timbaut : Bros^urservo de SAT, 1982. - 140 p. Lanti, E. · Arbeiter-Esperantismus. - Frankfurt : Socialista E-Asocio, 1928. - 335.7 Lanti, E. · For la neu^tralismon! : 2a eld. - Leipzig : SAT, 1924. - 23 p. 335.7 Lanti, E. · For la neu^tralismon! : 3a eld. - Leipzig : SAT, 1928. - 32 p. 335.7 Lanti, E. · La laborista esperantismo : Antau^rimarkigo /por la stencilita reeldono/ N. Bartelmes. - Laroque Timbaut : La Juna Penso, 1971. - 16 p. 335.7 Lanti, E. · La laborista esperantismo. - Leipzig : SAT, 1928. - 38 p. 335.7 Lanti, E. · Manifesto de la sennaciistoj kaj dokumentoj pri Sennaciismo : 2a eldono reviziita kaj kompletigita. - Paris : SAT, 1951. - 83 p. 335.7 Lanti, E. · Manifesto de la Sennaciistoj kaj Dokumentoj pri Sennaciismo : 3a eldono. (fotoreproduktis Zavod...Beograd). - Paris : SAT, 1970. - 83 p. 335.7 Lanti, E. · Sennaciulo: For la neu^tralismon! : (unua eldono). - Paris : Sennacieca Asocio Tutmonda, 1922. - 14 p. - ( (Sennaciulo. Volumo 2) ) 335.7 Manifesto de la sennaciistoj. - Nov-Jorko : Sennaciista frakcio el membroj de SAT, 1931. - 32 p. Domela Nieuwenhuis, F. · La piramido de l'tirano / El la nederlanda trad. D.J. - Amsterdam : W. Nutters, 1913. - 31 p. - ( Serio de "Internacia Socia Revuo", No. 4 ) Most, Johann · La Dia pesto / El la germana trad. Seman Tarano. - Detroit : Tobias Sigel, 1932. - 23 p. Nieuwenhuis, F. Domela · La piramido de l'tiranismo / Tradukis D.J. . - Laroque Timbaut : La Juna Penso, 1974. - 30 p. - ( (La Juna Penso - suplemento de Jun. 1974 - n-ro 98B) ) Sennacieca Asocio Tutmonda · Jarlibro 1924 de SAT : 3a jaro. - Paris-Leipzig : SAT, 1924 Vivancos, Eduardo "Une langue pour tous: l'Esperanto," in Volonté anarchiste Archives : IISG, Amsterdam: Jg.1 (1925/26) http://melior.univ-montp3.fr/ra_forum/en/history/eo.history.html
        http://freeweb.supereva.com/lisetta02/appendix1.htm?p

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        Biografie degli antifascisti in Spagna
        Da "LA SPAGNA NEL NOSTRO CUORE" - Le quattromila biografie dei volontari italiani che combattreono per difendere la repubblica dall'attacco franchista preparando così il ritorno della libertà e della democrazia nel nostro paese. SIAMO ALLA LETTERA "A"
        aicvas  -  LA SPAGNA NEL NOSTRO CUORE  -  03/12/2002







        BIOGRAFIE DEGLI ANTIFASCISTI ITALIANI IN SPAGNA*

        Abbreviazioni

        AICVAS Associazione Italiana Combattenti Volontari Antifascisti di Spagna
        ANPI Associazione Nazionale Partigiani d’Italia
        ANPPIA Associazione Nazionale Perseguitati Politici Italiani Antifascisti
        CGT Confederation Genérale du Travail
        CLN Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale
        CLNAI Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale Alta Italia
        CNT Confederaciòn Nacional del Trabajo
        CPC Casellario Politico Centrale dell’archivio Centrale di Stato
        CTV Corpo Truppe Volontarie
        CUMER Comitato Unico Militare Emilia-Romagna
        FAI Federaciòn Anarquista Iberica
        FFI Forces Françaises de l’Interieur
        FTP Francs Tireurs Partisans
        LIDU Lega Italiana dei Diritti dell’Uomo
        OVRA Opera Vigilanza Repressione Antifascismo
        PCE Partido Comunista de Espana
        POUM Partido Obrero de Unificaciòn Marxista
        PSOE Partido Socialista Obrero Espanol
        SIM Servizio Informazioni Militari
        UGT Uniòn General de Trabajadores
        UPI Unione Popolare Italiana
        USI Unione Sindacale Italiana

        (*) Nell’elenco sono inseriti anche i nomi dei combattenti del Canton Ticino (Svizzera), della Croazia e della Slovenia per motividi identità culturale, linguistica e di comunanza ideale con l’antifascismo italiano.

        A

        Abate Antonino di Antonino e Bertino Concetta, 29/12/1907, Paternò (Ct), decoratore di carri. Espatriato clandestinamente in Svizzera nell’aprile del 1937, va in seguito in Spagna, dove combatte in una formazione imprecisata dell’esercito repubblicano. Esce dalla Spagna nel 1938 e viene ammonito per “mene comuniste” dalla Prefettura del Drome, in Francia. Nel MARZO / MARCH 1943 è sempre in Francia.

        Abate Erasmo di Alfonso e Scarpato Annita, 15/2/1895, Formia (Lt). Pittore e pubblicista, anarchico. Attivo in Italia nel primo dopoguerra, ricercato, espatria nel 1923 recandosi in Francia ed in Usa. La sola notizia circa la sua presenza in Spagna durante la guerra proviene dall’Ufficio Cifra.

        Abbinante Francesco di Vito e Montenegro Rosa, 18/10/1913, Gioia del Colle (Ba). Sottufficiale aviere motorista. Proveniente dall’Italia, arriva in Spagna il 5 febbraio / FEBRUARY 5 1937 e si arruola nel battaglione Garibaldi. Passa poi alla brigata omonima, impegnato nel servizio trasporti. Combatte a Madrid e Teruel.

        Abbruzzetti Oreste di Angelo e Gascont Maria, 4/1/1902, Roma. Carrettiere. Giustizia e Libertà. Condannato nel 1928 al confino per tentato espatrio, nel 1935 riesce a portarsi clandestinamente in Francia. Il 31 luglio 1936 parte per la Spagna e si arruola nella Colonna Italiana, con la quale combatte sul fronte di Huesca. Rientrato in Francia, attivo con Giustizia e Libertà a Parigi dalla metà del 1937, viene arrestato e tradotto in Italia nel 1942.

        Abello Giuseppe di Andrea, 10/12/1906, Stroppo (Cn). Gestore di bar, comunista. Espatriato nel 1930 in Francia, risulta arruolato il 30 settembre 1936 nel battaglione Garibaldi. Passa poi alla brigata omonima, 2° battaglione, e viene promosso sergente sul fronte dell’Ebro. Tornato in Francia, è arrestato e internato nel campo di concentramento di Gurs.

        Abruzzese Valentino di Domenico e Albanese Carmela, FEBRUARY 14 14/2/1908, Rizziconi (Rc). Il 24 aprile 1937 si arruola nella brigata Garibaldi venendo assegnato alla 4^ compagnia del 1° battaglione. Ferito il 16 giugno 1937 sul fronte di Huesca, cade l’11 ottobre 1937 a Fuentes de Ebro.

        Abruzzo Alfonso di Vito e Cuccia Santa, 18/3/1885, Bidona (Ag). Anarchico. Residente negli Usa dal 1904, parte da New York nel novembre 1937 per arruolarsi nelle milizie repubblicane. Rientra in seguito negli Usa.

        Aceti Alessandro, Giustizia e Libertà. Arruolatosi nell’agosto 1936 nella Colonna Italiana, risulta ferito probabilmente durante i combattimenti sul fronte di Aragona. In seguito è nel 1° battaglione della brigata Garibaldi. Ferito anche sul fronte dell’Ebro, nell’ottobre 1938 è ricoverato in ospedale a Barcellona.

        Acquaviva Vincenzo di Francesco e Farina Grazia, 5/5/1914, Canosa di Puglia (Ba). Si reca in Spagna nell’ottobre 1936 e si arruola nella formazione Picelli. Successivamente è destinato alla 3^ compagnia del battaglione Garibaldi, combatte a Cerro de los Angeles, Casa de Campo, Pozuelo, Boadilla, Mirabueno e Majadahonda. Caduto il 1° febbraio / FEBRUARY 1 1937 a Vallecas.

        Addario Antonio di Leonardo. Ricercato dall’OVRA, si arruola in data imprecisata nella brigata Garibaldi. Il 5 febbraio 1938 è degente in ospedale ed il 10 ottobre è al campo di smobilitazione di Torellò.

        Agazzi Mario di Michele, 11/3/1909, Crespi d’Adda (Bg). Muratore, comunista. Emigrato in Francia nel 1929. Nel 1937 risulta alla base di Albacete come sergente maggiore del servizio intendenza. Uscito dalla Spagna, viene internato ad Argelès e Gurs.

        Agnoletto Adamo, JULY 17 17/7/1901. Padova. Tipografo, anarchico. Espatriato clandestinamente nel 1934, alla fine del luglio 1936 si reca a combattere in Spagna arruolandosi nella Colonna Italiana. Passato in seguito in Francia, nel 1941 risulta confinato a Ventotene.

        Agosti Artemio, di Angelo e Cardinali Matilde, 18/4/1902, Alseno (Pc). Operaio, socialista. Espatriato agli inizi degli anni Venti, arriva in Spagna fra i primi volontari il 13 agosto 1936. Combatte ad Irùn, Durango e Santander. Ferito ad una gamba. Passato ai carristi, partecipa alle operazioni nelle Asturie venendo ferito all’occhio sinistro. Rimane completamente cieco per aver perso l’occhio destro da bambino in un incidente. Uscito dalla Spagna, è trasferito in Urss.

        Agosti Pietro di Carlo e Arnoldi Santina, 10/12/1905, Tromello (Pv). Arrivato in Spagna proveniente dalla Francia, si arruola nella compagnia italiana del Battaglione Dimitrov. E’ poi sergente maggiore della compagnia stato maggiore della brigata Garibaldi.

        Agostini Attilio di Fedele e Nanni Anacleta, 31/5/1900, Granaglione (Bo). Muratore. Espatriato nel 1922. Nel novembre 1936 si arruola nella compagnia italiana del battaglione misto della XIV Brigata Internazionale. Ferito sul fronte di Còrdoba il 7/1/1937. Passa poi alla brigata Garibaldi. In seguito, rientrato in Francia, è internato ad Argelès e Gurs. Durante il secondo conflitto mondiale è partigiano nei FTP francesi.

        Agostini Ettore di Nazareno, 10/7/1893, Spoleto (Pg). Operaio, socialista. Espatriato in Francia nel 1925, nel 1938 è segnalato dalla polizia italiana quale combattente nella Spagna repubblicana.

        Agrave Pietro di Vittorio, 1/8/1915, Castagnole L. (At). Comunista. Segnalato dalla polizia italiana nella rubrica di Frontiera quale combattente antifranchista in Spagna.

        Aguzzi Aldo di Luigi, 20/8/1902, Voghera (Pv). Redattore, anarchico. Espatriato nel 1923 a Buenos Aires, è politicamente molto attivo in Argentina. Giunto in Spagna allo scoppio della guerra civile, a Barcellona parla ai microfoni della radio e succede a Berneri nella direzione del periodico “Guerra di classe”. Nel 1939 ritorna in Argentina.

        Aiacci Aurelio di Angiolo e Pierazzi Faustina, 25/11/1903, Cavriglia (Ar). Distillatore, anarchico comunista. Espatriato nel 1923, durante la guerra civile fa parte della Colonna Italiana. Caduto il 7 aprile 1937 sul fronte di Huesca.

        Aiacci Terzilio di Angiolo e Pierazzi Faustina, 16/1/1896, Cavriglia (Ar). Operaio, comunista. Attivo politicamente in Italia e condannato a dieci anni di carcere per fatti di lotta antifascista, espatria nel 1927. Allo scoppio della guerra è con suo fratello Aurelio in Spagna, e si arruola nella Colonna Italiana.

        Alberti Enrico di Giuseppe, 18/9/1887, Borgosesia (Vc). Orefice, anarchico. Espatriato prima della “grande guerra” in Nord America, è segnalato nel febbraio / FEBRUARY 1937 quale combattente nelle Brigate Internazionali. In seguito rientra a New York.

        Aloisio Cosimo di Leonardo, 10/5/1901, Mottola (Ta). Impresario edile. Da molti anni residente all’estero, nel 1940 è arrestato in Germania perché sospettato di aver preso parte alla guerra di Spagna con le formazioni antifranchiste.

        Aluffi Nino arruolato nella brigata Garibaldi, 3° battaglione, sezione antiaerea, forse dopo aver combattuto nel battaglione Garibaldi o nella Colonna Italiana. Per un breve periodo è anche alla scuola ufficiali di Albacete.

        Alunni Vittorio di Evaristo e Mencarelli Annunziata, 17/3/1902, Corciano (Pg). Calzolaio. Residente in Francia, a Cannes, dal 1923. In Spagna fa parte della 2^ sezione della 2^ compagnia del 1° battaglione della brigata Garibaldi.

        Alzini Edoardo di Settimo e Bicelli Carolina, 23/7/1911, Brescia. Ferroviere. Emigrato in Francia, a Marsiglia, in data imprecisata, è volontario antifascista in Spagna. Si ignora però in quale unità abbia combattuto.

        Amadei Fulgenzio di Andrea e Albini Agata, 14/10/1905, Sant’Agata Feltria (Ps). Ferraiolo. In Spagna è soldato del battaglione mitraglieri della 26^ Brigata mista. Avrebbe fatto parte anche del battaglione Matteotti. Notizie non confermate lo danno caduto nel corso della guerra.

        Amarilli Mario di Flocello e Mazzucchi Angela, 27/11/1903, Zocca (Mo). Muratore. Emigrato in Francia nel 1927, all’inizio della guerra in Spagna combatte sul fronte Andaluso in una formazione imprecisata. Rientra in Francia nel 1938.

        Amati Aldino di Nicola e Berlini Giovanna, 3/8/1907, Rimini. Imbianchino, anarchico. Emigrato nel 1932 in Francia, durante la guerra di Spagna fa parte della Colonna Italiana. In seguito rientra in Francia.

        Ambrosi Emilio di Giovannini e Bonomini Elsa, 12/8/1896, Verona. Ferroviere aiuto fuochista. Licenziato nel 1922 dalle ferrovie per motivi politici, nel 1931 emigra in Svizzera. Nel 1936 si porta in Spagna e si arruola nella batteria Antonio Gramsci dell’artiglieria internazionale. Uscito dalla Spagna, è internato ad Argelès.

        Ambrosi Paolo Giovanni di Bortolo e Girondini Caterina, 1/9/1915, Bagolino (Bs). Partito da Grenoble per la Spagna repubblicana, si arruola nella compagnia mitraglieri del 2° battaglione della brigata Garibaldi. Caduto il 12 settembre 1938 sul fronte dell’Ebro.

        Ambrosia Onorino di Giovanni e Ravetta Anna, 13/1/1908, San Didero (To). Operaio. Emigrato nel 1930 e presente in Francia ed in Olanda, in Spagna risulta con i combattenti diretti da Carlo Penchienati.

        Ambrosini Giovanni Battista di Giacomo e Cerutti Giovanna, 15/6/1900, Borgomanero (No). Muratore. Emigrato in Svizzera parte da quella nazione per la Spagna arruolandosi nella centuria Gastone Sozzi. Ferito a Chapineria. Nel 1937 rientra in Francia poi rimpatria nell’agosto 1943, dopo la caduta del fascismo.

        Ambrosini Giuseppe di Antonio e Frigo Maddalena, 23/11/1901, Roana (Vi). Bracciante. Espatriato nel 1923, è volontario antifascista in Spagna ma si ignora in quale unità abbia combattuto.

        Ambrosini Vittorio di Antonio e Frigo Maddalena, 28/7/1904, Roana (Vi). Minatore, comunista. Minatore in Belgio dal 1930, in Spagna si arruola nel battaglione Garibaldi passando poi alla 1^ compagnia del 2° battaglione della brigata Garibaldi. Caduto il 15 luglio 1937 a Villanueva del Pardillo.

        Amerio Felice di Luigi, 17/3/1901, Asti. Imbianchino, anarchico. Attivo nel primo dopoguerra nel movimento anarchico, nel 1921 è condannato a due anni e sei mesi di carcere. Espatriato nel 1931, sei anni dopo è segnalato in Spagna, sempre attivo nel movimento libertario.

        Amilcarelli Vincenzo, insegnante. Residente negli Usa, parte per la Spagna ed entra a far parte della brigata Garibaldi. Nel giugno 1938 è presente sul fronte dell’Ebro. Si ritiene sia caduto su questo fronte.

        Amistadi Luigi di Luigi e Tamburini Domenica, 28/3/1903, Arco (Tn). Residente a Flemalle (Liegi), è combattente con la 1^ compagnia del 3° battaglione della brigata Garibaldi. Caduto il 18 settembre 1938 sul fronte dell’Ebro.

        Amorini Roberto, 11/6/1900, Mestre (Ve). Bracciante, socialista. Passato in Spagna dalla Francia, dove era emigrato nel 1923, fa parte della Colonna Italiana, con la quale combatte a Huesca. Uscito in seguito dalla Spagna, è internato ad Argelès e Gurs. Tradotto in Italia nel 1941, non è confinato ma solo sottoposto a diffida per le gravi condizioni di salute.

        Amosso Francesco di Giuseppe, 27/7/1902, Feletto (To). Minatore, socialista. Arruolato nel MARZO / MARCH 1938 nella 2^ compagnia del 1° battaglione della Brigata Garibaldi, combatte sull’Ebro. Uscito dalla Spagna, è internato ad Argelès e Gurs. In seguito è partigiano con i FTP in Francia.

        Anastasi Attilio di Vincenzo, 19/8/1901, Rizziconi (Rc). Calzolaio. Residente in Francia da periodo imprecisato, nel 1937 è segnalato quale combattente antifranchista in Spagna.

        Ancinelli Giuseppe, 1899, comunista. Da Marsiglia, dove era residente da data imprecisata, si porta in Spagna arruolandosi il 22 novembre 1936 nel battaglione Garibaldi. Ferito a Majadahonda, è poi delegato politico della brigata Garibaldi.

        Andreini Alberto, 1907, Imola (Bo). Comunista. Arruolato nella batteria Antonio Gramsci, dell’artiglieria internazionale. Uscito dalla Spagna, risulta internato ad Argelès e Gurs.

        Andreoli Edoardo, 13/1/1904, Lucerna (Svizzera). Gessatore, socialista. Partito da Massagna, in Svizzera, si arruola nel 2° battaglione della brigata Garibaldi. In seguito rientra in Svizzera.

        Andreoli Erminio di Pietro e Venturi Annunziata, 19/12/1912, Piteglio (Pt). Bracciante, comunista. Espatriato in Corsica nel 1930, è sergente della 35^ Divisione subendo l’amputazione della gamba per ferite riportate in combattimento.

        Andreoli Riccardo, 1882, Trieste. Risulta emigrato negli Usa, da dove parte diretto verso la Spagna repubblicana. Assegnato alla brigata Garibaldi, sarebbe caduto il 16 giugno 1937 a Huesca.

        Andreotti Luigi Mario di Gisberto e Scanavini Riccarda, 21/5/1907, Pontelagoscuro (Fr). Tipografo, comunista. Arrivato in Spagna dall’Urss, dove era emigrato in data imprecisata, è arruolato nella batteria Rosa Luxemburg e poi nella batteria anticarro aggregata alla XV Brigata. Combatte sull’Ebro ed a Barcellona. Uscito dalla Spagna, è internato ad Argelès, Gurs e Mont Louis. Rimpatriato nel 1941, è condannato dal Tribunale Speciale a dieci anni di carcere.

        Anfosso Domenico di Nicola e Lorenzi Vittorina, 4/3/1892, Ventimiglia (Ge). Residente in Francia si arruola nel settembre 1936 nella 3^ brigata mista; commissario politico. Risulta ferito a Morata de Taluna. Uscito dalla Spagna è internato ad Argelès e Gurs. In seguito risulta partigiano con la Divisione Coscione.

        Angeleri Secondo di Carlo e Meardi Felicita, 13/8/1984, Mezzana Bigli (Pv). Residente in Argentina, raggiunge la Spagna repubblicana dopo la sollevazione franchista ed entra a far parte della brigata Garibaldi.

        Angeli Edoardo di Francesco e Mazzotti Giacoma, 28/9/1903, M. Saraceno (Fo). Emigrato con la famiglia nel 1925 in Francia, è poi in Algeria. Nell’ottobre 1936 passa in Spagna ed è arruolato nella Colonna Italiana. Combatte a Huesca. Nel 1941-42 è nuovamente segnalato in Algeria.

        Angeli Luigi Melchiorre di Giuseppe, 21/6/1895, Dimaro (Tn). Agente assicurativo, socialista. Attivo nel primo dopoguerra ed espatriato nel 1922, durante la guerra di Spagna fa parte del battaglione Garibaldi e della brigata omonima. Deceduto il 26 dicembre 1937 in ospedale a Murcia per le ferite riportate sul fronte di Madrid.

        Angelini Amedeo di Giuseppe e Rimondi Maria, 10/4/1904, Poggio Renatico (Fe). Falegname. Partito da Casablanca per recarsi a combattere in Spagna, è assegnato alla Colonna Italiana. Prende parte alle battaglie sul fronte di Huesca. Rientra in Marocco nel 1939.

        Angeloni Mario di Publio e Carloni Elvira, 15/9/1896, Perugia. Avvocato, repubblicano. Combattente decorato durante la 1^ guerra mondiale, è organizzatore di Italia Libera in Umbria. Perseguitato, confinato in Italia nel 1926, è prosciolto due anni dopo. Nel 1932 espatria clandestinamente in Francia. Arrivato in Spagna già alla fine di luglio del 1936, il 17 agosto firma, assieme a Rosselli, Berneri ed altri l’atto costitutivo della Colonna Italiana. Ferito a Monte Pelato, muore il 28 agosto 1936 in ospedale a Sarinena. Tumulato nel cimitero di Montjuich, a Barcellona.

        Anghileri Ruggero di Natale, 4/9/1902, Belfort (Francia). Operaio, comunista. Espatriato nel 1934, secondo la sorella, sarebbe caduto in combattimento in Spagna il 12 aprile 1937.

        Anselmi Luigi, 3/1/1896, Livorno. Operaio, anarchico. Espatriato nel 1924, è segnalato durante la guerra civile quale combattente antifranchista. Rimpatriato nel 1940, subisce un mese e mezzo di carcere.

        Anselmini Giovanni di Andrea e Zanoletti Berenice, 21/3/1909, Milano. Operaio. Dopo essere emigrato a Tunisi ed in seguito a Zurigo, svolge attività antifascista. Si reca in Spagna alla fine del 1936. Si ignora in quale reparto abbia combattuto.

        Anselmo Cesare di Umbertino e Zanotto Maria, 7/2/1888, Ivrea (To). Comunista. Si porta in Spagna dalla Francia dove era espatriato nel 1922, e si arruola nella brigata Garibaldi. Combatte sul fronte dell’Ebro. Uscito dalla Spagna, è internato a Gurs.

        Antonelli Carlo di Vincenzo e Bonavolontà Anna, 19/2/1900, Napoli. Emigrato in Franci, nell’agosto 1936 si porta in Spagna arruolandosi nella XIV Brigata con il grado di tenente.

        Antoni Antonio di Edoardo, 26/12/1917, Bagni di Lucca (Lu). Figurinaio. Emigrato nel 1934, arriva in Spagna il 27 MARZO / MARCH 27 1937 e viene assegnato alla 4^ compagnia del 3° battaglione della Brigata Garibaldi. Promosso sergente. Combatte a Huesca, Brunete, Farete ed Estramadura. Fatto prigioniero dai franchisti a Campillo, è estradato in Italia nel 1938 e confinato alle Tremiti. In seguito è partigiano.

        Antonini Angelo di Ottavio e Liberati Annunziata, 2/5/1909, Roma. Manovale, comunista. Attivo in Italia, è arrestato nel 1933 per attività comunista e sottoposto l’anno successivo a diffida. Emigrato clandestinamente nel MARZO / MARCH 1936, è tra i primi ad accorrere in Spagna nell’agosto dello stesso anno. Combatte a San Sebastiano ed Irùn. Passa alla centuria di Gastone Sozzi, nominato sul campo comandante della centuria. Poi è capitano di aviazione nell’esercito repubblicano; ferito a Malaga. Uscito dalla Spagna, è internato nel forte di Tourelles. Tradotto in Italia nel 1942 è condannato al confino a Ventotene. In seguito è comandante partigiano della prima zona di Roma. Insignito di Medaglia di bronzo al valore militare.

        Antonini Armando di Ottavio e Liberati Annunziata, 13/3/1903, Roma. Manovale, comunista. Arrestato nel febbraio / FEBRUARY 1932 per attività comunista ed amnistiato, espatria in Francia per motivi politici due anni dopo. Durante la guerra si reca in Spagna arruolandosi nella Brigata Garibaldi, 2° battaglione, compagnia mitraglieri. Sergente capo mitragliere. Feriti nei pressi di Campillo, è ricoverato nell’ospedale “Pasionaria” di Murcia dove muore il 24 febbraio / FEBRUARY 24 1938 per sopravvenute complicazioni.

        Antonini Paolo di Rinaldo, 30/4/1905, Civitavecchia (Roma). Arrestato nel 1929 mentre svolge il servizio militare e condannato a tre anni di carcere, è nuovamente arrestato nel 1935 per attività antifascista. Espatriato clandestinamente nel 1937, è segnalato quale combattente nelle formazioni antifranchiste.

        Antoniol Giorgio, Lamon (Bl). Emigrato in Belgio, opera in Spagna con la 2^ compagnia del 2° battaglione della brigata Garibaldi. Ferito a Fuentes de Ebro e uscito poi dalla Spagna, è internato a Gurs. In seguito rientra in Belgio.

        Anzelini Cirillo di Isidoro e Fait Adalgisa, 22/2/1894, Rovereto (Tn). Falegname, comunista. Nel 1925 espatria per motivi di lavoro in Francia. Nell’ottobre 1936 si porta in Spagna arruolandosi nella 3^ compagnia del battaglione Garibaldi. Nella Brigata omonima, è tenente del 1° battaglione. Combatte su tutti i fronti sino a Fuentes de Ebro. In seguito rientra in Francia.

        Apollinari Vittorio di Donato e Poncini Maria, 1/6/1891, Pellegrino Parmense (Pr). In base ad un elenco segnaletico, risulta combattente antifascista in Spagna.

        Apostoli Remigio di Arcangelo e Bertocchi Antonietta, 24/11/1903, Muggia (Ts). Parrucchiere. Residente negli anni Trenta in Francia, nella regione parigina, nel febbraio / FEBRUARY 1937 è in Spagna, arruolato nel battaglione Garibaldi. Prende parte alla battaglia di Guadalajara. Passa poi alla Brigata Garibaldi, ed è ferito a Huesca. Rientrato in Francia, è internato a Fernet e poi nel 1940 tradotto in Italia e confinato a Ventotene. In seguito è arrestato dai tedeschi e deportato in campo di concentramento in Germania.

        Appoloni Crispino di Giuseppe e Rigotti Paolina, 5/3/1909, S. Lorenzo in Barrale (Tn). Autista, comunista. Espatriato nel 1924, è presente il 1° maggio 1937 alla costituzione della Brigata Garibaldi, risultando assegnato alla 3^ sezione della 2^ compagnia del 2° battaglione. Uscito dalla Spagna, è internato a St. Cyprien e Gurs e poi dal 1941 confinato a Ventotene. Deportato in seguito in Germania, muore il 5 MARZO / MARCH 5 1945 a Dachau.

        Appugliese Pasquale di Antonio e Abruzzese Maria Loreta, 14/4/1915, Settefrati (Fr). Nel 1920 emigra con la famiglia in Francia. Alla fine del 1936 si arruola nella XIV Brigata Internazionale. Ferito gravemente con amputazione della gamba, è inviato in Urss.

        Aragno Giovanni di Giuseppe e Godetti Delfina, 10/6/1900, Torino. Meccanico, comunista. Arrestato nel 1927 per organizzazione comunista e poi assolto per insufficienza di prove, espatria clandestinamente nel 1931 portandosi in Francia e in Belgio. In Spagna è arruolato nella 4^ compagnia del battaglione Garibaldi. Ferito a Mirabueno, muore il 7 GENNAIO / JANUARY 1937 all’ospedale di Guadalajara.

        Arbizzani Adelmo di Giuliano e Parisini Adelaide, 25/2/1902, S. Giorgio Piano (Bo). Calzolaio, comunista. Attivo politicamente in Italia, nel 1930 è arrestato per organizzazione comunista. Espatria in Francia per sfuggire ad un nuovo arresto nel 1937. Subito dopo parte per la Spagna e viene assegnato al 3° battaglione della brigata Garibaldi, tenente. Caduto il 16 febbraio 1938 a Campillo.

        Archetti Antonio di Eugenio e Schiapparelli Francesca, 14/1/1909, Occhieppo Inferiore (Vc). Secondo il CS del CTV: “Appartenne in qualità di miliziano alle brigate internazionali”.

        Archetti Giacomo, muratore. Arruolato nel GENNAIO / JANUARY 1938 in una unità imprecisata delle Brigate Internazionali, nel maggio 1938 risulta ricoverato all’ospedale di Sagarò. Rientra in Francia il 12 maggio 1938.

        Archetti Oreste di Antonio e Paoloni Maddalena, 23/10/1906, Terni. Operaio, comunista. Il 10 agosto 1936 si porta in Spagna arruolandosi nella Colonna Italiana. Fa parte anche del battaglione e poi della brigata Garibaldi. Ferito a Guadalajara. Uscito dalla Spagna, è internato a St. Cyprien, Gurs e Fernet e poi, rimpatriato nel ’41, è assegnato al confino a Ventotene. In seguito è partigiano.

        Arcioni Giuseppe di Andrea e Abramic Anna, 30/5/1911, Bukovica (Slovenia). Bracciante. Espatriato nel MARZO / MARCH 1937 dopo uno scontro con un fascista, è segnalato lo stesso anno fra “i sovversivi residenti in Spagna”.

        Ardemagni Massimo di Fortunato e Anelli Emilia, 7/9/1907, Piacenza. Operaio. Trasferitosi dalla Francia, dove era emigrato nel 1930 in Spagna, combatte in una unità imprecisata delle Brigate Internazionali. Uscito dalla Spagna, è internato a Argelès e Gurs e poi, nel 1941, confinato a Ventotene.

        Ardissone Arturo di Agostino, 11/11/1901, Diano (Im). Contadino. Volontario antifascista in Spagna, si ignora in quale unità abbia combattuto. Nel 1939 è internato nel campo di Gurs.

        Ardizzone Vincenzo di Luigi e Borsari Luisa, 4/4/1883, Renazzo di Cento (Fe). Operaio, comunista. In Francia dal 1921, si arruola nella centuria Gastone Sozzi con la quale combatte a Pelahustàn e Cenicientos. Caduto il 18 ottobre 1936 a Chapinerìa.

        Areta Pasquale di Antonio e Sanginesi Domenica, 22/4/1905, Trasacco (Aq). Insegnante di lingue. Emigrato nel 1923 negli Usa, dove svolge intensa attività politica, si porta da quella nazione in Spagna. Arruolato nell’artiglieria antiaerea, promosso sergente. Uscito dalla Spagna ed internato a Gurs, rientra in seguito negli Usa.

        Arfinenghi Arturo di Giovanni, 10/3/1891, Varallo (Vc). Si porta in Spagna da Parigi, dove viveva, arruolandosi nel battaglione Garibaldi. Ferito nel novembre 1936 a Madrid.

        Argelli Eugenio di Federico e Calderoni Apollonia, MARCH 26/3/1899, Alfonsine (Ra). Muratore, comunista. Costretto ad espatriare nel 1923 per sfuggire alle persecuzioni, ripara in Francia. Nel MARZO / MARCH del 1937 passa in Spagna, ed è caporale del 3° battaglione della brigata Garibaldi. Ferito a Campillo, ritorna a combattere nel 1938 sul fronte dell’Ebro. Caduto sull’Ebro il 6 settembre 1938.

        Ariani Loris, 2/4/1902, Pistoia. Artista teatrale, anarchico. Già condannato nel 1934 per tentato espatrio clandestino, riesce ad allontanarsi dall’Italia l’anno successivo. Nel 1936 è segnalato quale combattente nelle formazioni antifranchiste in Spagna. Arrestato al rimpatrio nel 1937, è condannato per il solo espatrio clandestino.

        Arizio Mario di Battista, 25/10/1906, Alice Superiore (To). Minatore, socialista. Arrestato nel 1937 per tentato espatrio clandestino, riesce dopo comunque a riparare all’estero. E’ residente a Marsiglia quando si porta a combattere in Spagna. Il 27 maggio 1938 si arruola nella brigata Garibaldi e combatte sul fronte dell’Ebro.

        Armando Matteo di Giuseppe e Bottero Giovanna, 27/12/1901, Fossano (Cn). Muratore, comunista. Espatriato nel 1924, combatte in Spagna prima con la compagnia italiana del battaglione Dimitrov e poi con la compagnia mitraglieri del battaglione Garibaldi. Caduto prigioniero sul fronte di Còrdoba, è fucilato dai fascisti il 24 dicembre 1936.

        Armanetti Dante di Angelo e Sordi Elisabetta, MARCH 26 /3/1897, Pontremoli (Ms). Piazzista, anarchico. Arrestato nel 1931 per attività sovversiva, è confinato per due anni. Nel 1936 espatria clandestinamente in Francia portandosi subito in Spagna ed arruolandosi nella Colonna Italiana. E’ a Barcellona durante i moti del maggio 1937 ed è probabilmente incarcerato. Uscito dalla Spagna ed internato nel 1939 in Francia, è poi trasferito in Italia nel 1941 è condannato a sette anni di carcere.

        Arno Luigi , residente in Francia, nell’ottobre 1936 si porta in Spagna e viene assegnato alla 2^ compagnia del battaglione Garibaldi. Ferito il 5 dicembre 1936 a Pozuelo de Alarcon, muore il 13 dicembre successivo all’ospedale di Madrid.

        Arnoldo Giuseppe, 16/6/1901. Arruolato nelle Brigate Internazionali, reparto imprecisato, subisce l’amputazione di un braccio ed è inviato in Urss nel 1939.

        Arnovi Leonello di Giacomo, 9/4/1903, Soave (Vi). Bracciante, comunista. Residente in Francia e naturalizzato francese, aderisce al Partito comunista di quella nazione. Arrivato in Spagna dopo la sollevazione franchista, si arruola nella Colonna Italiana. Ferito nei combattimenti di Monte Pelato. In seguito rientra in Francia dove prende parte alla lotta di liberazione.

        Arri Giovanni di Carlo, 7/6/1906, Padova. Muratore, comunista. Dopo aver tentato una prima volta nel 1930 l’espatrio clandestino senza riuscirvi, è condannato a sei mesi di carcere. In seguito riesce comunque ad espatriare. Portatosi in Spagna durante la guerra civile, cade nel MARZO / MARCH 1937.

        Arrigoni Enrico , 20/2/1894, Pozzuolo M. (Mi). Propagandista, anarchico. Attivissimo propagandista anarchico, è presente dal 1913 in varie nazioni europee e negli Usa, dove subisce anche condanne per motivi politici. Nel 1936 parte da New York per raggiungere la Catalogna; la sua partecipazione alla guerra non è però confermata. Nel 1938 è nuovamente negli Usa.

        Arriu Antonio di Efisio e Murru Annetta, 27/7/1897, Gussilis (Ca). Contadino e minatore, comunista. Le autorità italiane seguono i suoi passi fin dal 1923, quando emigra in Francia con passaporto regolare, ritenendolo un “capo sovversivo”. Portatosi in Spagna, fa parte del battaglione e poi brigata Garibaldi. Nel 1941 rientra in Italia ed è tradotto nelle carceri di Cagliari, poi confinato a Ventotene.

        Arsutta Corrado, emigrato in Francia nel corso degli anni Venti, arriva ad Albacete nell’ottobre 1936 ed è inquadrato nel battaglione Garibaldi. Partecipa alle battaglie sul fronte di Madrid. Successivamente è tenente nella 1^ compagnia del 1° battaglione della brigata Garibaldi. Rientra in Francia alla fine di ottobre del 1937.

        Artosin Marino di Vito e Gobbo Giuseppina, 7/5/1913, Montagnana (Pd). Artigiano tipografo. Subito dopo essere emigrato in Francia, nel 1937, si reca in Spagna finendo assegnato alla brigata Garibaldi con il grado di caporale. In seguito rientra in Francia.

        Ascari Ottone di Ciro e Verri Annunziata, 3/8/1883, Mirandola (Mo). Fabbro, anarchico. Espatria nel 1914. Il Bollettino delle Ricerche della polizia italiana lo registra come “arruolato nelle milizie”, ma si ignorano gli altri particolari. Il suo nome figura in una lista di combattenti compilata dall’anarchico Francesco Francesco Barbieri.

        Ascheri Ernesto di Albino e Dolmetta Emilia, 18/4/1909, Imperia. Operaio, socialista e G.L. Espatriato nel 1932, nel maggio 1937 passa clandestinamente la frontiera franco-spagnola e si arruola nella brigata Garibaldi. Ferito sull’Ebro, muore in ospedale a Barcellona nel settembre 1938 in conseguenza di tali ferite.

        Astaldi Antonio di Giuseppe, 2/9/1890, Tronzano (Vc). Meccanico, anarchico. Attivo anarchico già nell’anteguerra, nel 1926 è condannato a tre mesi di carcere per ragioni politiche. Espatriato nel 1929, svolge attività antifascista all’estero. Nel novembre 1936 è segnalato a Barcellona, con mansioni imprecisate.

        Astaldi Giovanni di Giuseppe, 17/10/1892, Tronzano (Vc). Autista, comunista. Fratello di Antonio, espatriato nel 1922, è attivo politicamente in Belgio nel 1933. Segnalato quale combattente antifranchista.

        Astaldi Giuseppe di Giuseppe, 7/5/1901, Torino. Meccanico. Fratello di Antonio e Giovanni, espatria nel 1922. E’ segnalato come combattente nella Spagna repubblicana. Nel 1943 è arrestato dalla Gestapo in Germania.

        Astolfi Angelica di Ernesto, 13/10/1901, Milano. Casalinga, anarchica. Espatriata in data ignota, espulsa dalla Francia nel 1931, risulta nel 1938 in Spagna con mansioni imprecisate.

        Astolfi Edoardo di Giovanni e Antolini Daria, 6/1/1908, Sant’Arcangelo di Romagna (Fo). Meccanico. Emigrato in data imprecisata, è attivo politicamente in Svizzera ed in Francia. Proveniente dalla Francia, è arruolato nella brigata Garibaldi. Nel maggio 1938 rientra, malato, in Francia.

        Atzicnuda Stergo di Nicola e Parascheva Costa Angela, 18/7/1898, Isola di Rodi (Grecia). Muratore. Residente ad Imperia e poi, dal 1922, in Francia, secondo il Comando Gruppo CC.RR, di Rodi, con nota del 19 settembre 1941: “Ha prestato servizio nelle milizie spagnole”. Tradotto in Italia lo stesso anno, è confinato a Ventotene.

        Audisio Antonino di Giovanni e Peano Biaggia, 7/9/1915, Entracque (Cn). Emigrato nel 1925, entra in Spagna dalla Francia nel 1937 passando a far parte del 1° battaglione della brigata Garibaldi. Uscito dalla Spagna, è poi internato a Gurs.

        Aureli Pietro di Eugenio e Benucci Italia, 28/9/1905, Montelupo (Fi). Merciaio, comunista. Condannato nel 1931 per oltraggio alla milizia, giunge in Spagna proveniente dall’Italia il 16 agosto 1937, e si arruola il primo ottobre dello stesso anno nella brigata Garibaldi, 1^ compagnia del 3° battaglione. Combatte in Estremadura, Caspe el Ebro. Esce nel febbraio / FEBRUARY 1939 dalla Spagna ed è internato ad Argelès e Gurs. Nel 1941 è arrestato dai tedeschi e deportato in Germania.

        Avi Mario di Virgilio e Mattivi Maria, 9/9/1905, Baselga di Pinè (Tn). Operaio. Secondo la Sezione Cs della Missione Militare in Spagna, giunge in questo paese il 19 settembre 1936 e fa parte della brigata Garibaldi.

        Avogadro Paolo, 16/1/1889, Novara. Militare, Giustizia e Libertà. Tenente colonnello dell’esercito, espatria in data imprecisata ed è degradato in quanto attivista di Giustizia e Libertà. Nel 1938 è segnalato in Spagna. Nel 1942 è arrestato al rimpatrio e condannato al confino.

        Ayeta Salvatore, 1908. Espatriato in Francia in data imprecisata, nel 1935 è in Spagna. Scoppiata l’insurrezione franchista, si arruola in unità anarchiche.

        Azzi Amedeo di Tranquillo e Borsi Carolina, 25/9/1900, Roccabianca (Pr). Impresario, socialista. Emigrato in Francia nel 1923, è molto attivo con le organizzazioni socialiste ed anche con Giustizia e Libertà. Commissario del battaglione Garibaldi dalla sua costituzione, assieme ad Antonio Rosaio, è ferito ad Arganda. Rientrato in seguito in Francia, è attivo nella Resistenza francese col gruppo Leazy.

        Azzini Mario, 25/10/1907, Scarperia (Fi). Comunista. Trasferitosi in Spagna da Aiaccio, in Corsica, fa parte del IX battaglione misto della XIV brigata come autista, e poi della XIII Brigata Internazionale.

        Azzola Pietro di Michele, 5/1/1901, Urgnano (Bg). Manovale, comunista. Emigrato in Francia nel 1924, si arruola in Spagna in data imprecisata ed è segnalato caporale nella brigata Garibaldi. In seguito è internato ad Argelès e Gurs e poi confinato nel 1941 in Italia, a Ventotene.

        Azzoni Wettner di Cesare e Panzani Velede, 29/12/1905, Moglia (Mn). Meccanico. Espatriato nel 1937, si porta direttamente dall’Italia in Spagna. E’ sergente nella brigata Garibaldi, e poi tenente nella batteria contraerea della stessa brigata, 2° battaglione. Ferito sull’Ebro. In seguito è nel campo di St. Cyprien e viene poi mandato in Algeria, al campo di Colomb Bechar. Rimpatriato, è confinato nel 1942 a Ventotene.



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        1938 -- Then quietly at first & then rich & full-bodied, I hear the voice of a young woman singing. The emigrants on the corner are holding A wake for their oldest child, a driverless truck Broke away on the steep hill & killed him, Voice after voice adds itself to the singing. Orion moves westward across the meridian, Rigel, Bellatrix, Betelgeuse, marching in order, The great nebula glimmering in his loins.

        --- KENNETH REXROTH


        >
        The report just published by the Hague Commission on Mikhail Bakunin's secret Alliance [1] has revealed to the working world the underhand activities, the dirty tricks & phrase-mongery by which the proletarian movement was to be placed at the service of the inflated ambition & selfish ends of a few misunderstood geniuses. Meanwhile these would-be-great men have given us the opportunity in Spain to see something of their practical revolutionary activity. Let us see how they put into practice their ultra-revolutionary phrases about anarchy & autonomy, about the abolition of all authority, especially that of the state, and the immediate & complete emancipation of the workers. THE BAKUNINISTS AT WORK An account of the Spanish revolt in the summer of 1873 by Frederick Engels


        Spain: February 1, 1938: El Amigo del Pueble No. 12. July to September 1939: L'Espagne Nouvelle Nos. 7 to 9. NOTES TO CHAPTER 1 3. According to the testimony of Diego Abad de Santillán. Previous Chapter | Table of Contents | Next Chapter Preface to the English-language Edition 1. Introduction & Chronology 2. Towards July 19 3. From July to May: Uncontrollables or Revolutionaries? 4. Origins of the Friends of Durruti; The Opposition to Militarization & Balius's Journalistic Career 5. The Friends of Durruti Group from its Inception up to the May Events 6. The May Events 7. After May 8. Balius' Pamphlet Towards a Fresh Revolution 9. Balius's Thoughts from Exile in 1939 10. The Friends of Durruti's Relations with the Trotskyists 11. Conclusions & Concluding Note Bibliographic info & Credits Published by: AK Press http://www.spunk.org/texts/places/spain/sp001780/chap1.html
        Anarchist chronology, Friends of Durruti Group 1937-39, Agustin Guillamon
        http://recollectionbooks.com/siml/library/RexrothRequiem.htm

        1938 -- Spain: 1936 NOT THE SAME AS THE OTHER ONE

        MOVING DATES

        February 16: Popular Front coalition of left-wing parties wins Spanish national elections & forms new Republican government SEPTEMBER 5: Irún burned as Nationalists take city SEPTEMBER 9: The Non-Intervention Committee first meets in London SEPTEMBER 27: Insurgents take Toledo; rescue rebels in Alcázar October 1: Franco named Generalissimo; becomes supreme head of Nationalist government & armies November 6: Republican government leaves Madrid & moves to Valencia; General Miaja named head of Madrid Defense Junta November 7-23: Insurgents attack Madrid from the north & southwest November 8: International Brigades arrive in Madrid November 18: Germany & Italy recognize Nationalist government December 22: Italian forces arrive in Spain to support Insurgents December 25: The first Americans leave New York harbor on the S. S. Normandie to fight for the Republic 1937 February 5-27: Battle of Jarama February 16: Lincoln Battalion first moved to the front lines at Jarama; the first Lincoln casualty, Charles Edwards, on the 17th August 24: Republican offensive in Aragón; the Lincolns attack Quinto, a small town about 35 kilometers southeast of Zaragoza SEPTEMBER 6: Belchite, about 50 kilometers south of Zaragoza, falls to the Lincolns after 4 days of house-to-house fighting. The Lincolns suffer over 250 casualties in the battles of Quinto & Belchite October 13: Lincolns & the MacPaps unsuccessfully attack Fuentes de Ebro near Zaragoza; the two battalions suffer over 300 casualties October 19: All of Northern Spain in Nationalist control November 30: Republican government moves to Barcelona December 14: Republican offensive begins at Teruel 1938 January 1: Lincolns & MacPaps, as part of the Teruel offensive, are moved from the Aragon region to Argente, 30 kilometers north of Teruel February 15: Lincolns & MacPaps sent to Segura de los Baños, about 70 kilometers north of Teruel; they take Monte Pedigrossa; Americans also in action elsewhere in the area February 19: Lincolns moved from Segura de los Baños to just southeast of Teruel February 22: Nationalists recapture Teruel May-July: Lincolns still in training on the east side of the Ebro, in Marsa; their number are increased to almost 700 July 24: Republican army begins Ebro offensive; the Lincolns cross the river near Asco & quickly take Fatarella July 28: Lincolns in battle at Villalba de los Arcos, about 10 kilometers north of Gandesa; by now only 400 of the 700 in the battalion are still in action August 2: Lincolns just east of Gandesa; pounded by artillery in the "Valley of Death" SEPTEMBER 6: Lincolns begin action around Corbera for five days SEPTEMBER 21: Juan Négrin, Prime Minister of the Republic, announces to the League of Nations at Geneva a unilateral withdrawal of all international troops from the Republican army; the Lincolns are near the front lines just east of Corbera SEPTEMBER 23: Jim Lardner, son of Ring Lardner, Jr., is one of the last Lincolns killed in action SEPTEMBER 24: The Lincolns are withdrawn from the Ebro region SEPTEMBER 30: Munich Pact seals fate of Czechoslovakia, & of Spain's last chance for intervention; Neville Chamberlain declares "Peace in our time" October 29: Farewell parade in Barcelona for the International Brigades November: Lincolns in Ripoll, in northern Catalonia near the French border, awaiting expatriation November 16: Ebro campaign ends with Republican armies retreating across river December 2: Over 300 Americans cross over into France December 23: Nationalists begin offensive in Catalonia REPRINTED from Cary Nelson & Jefferson Hendricks, eds. Madrid 1937: Letters of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade from the Spanish Civil War, copyright 1996 by Routledge. Return to The Spanish Civil War
        [Sources]




        1938 -- Spain: 1936 NOT THE SAME AS THE OTHER ONE

        MOVING DATES

        February 16: Popular Front coalition of left-wing parties wins Spanish national elections & forms new Republican government SEPTEMBER 5: Irún burned as Nationalists take city SEPTEMBER 9: The Non-Intervention Committee first meets in London SEPTEMBER 27: Insurgents take Toledo; rescue rebels in Alcázar October 1: Franco named Generalissimo; becomes supreme head of Nationalist government & armies November 6: Republican government leaves Madrid & moves to Valencia; General Miaja named head of Madrid Defense Junta November 7-23: Insurgents attack Madrid from the north & southwest November 8: International Brigades arrive in Madrid November 18: Germany & Italy recognize Nationalist government December 22: Italian forces arrive in Spain to support Insurgents December 25: The first Americans leave New York harbor on the S. S. Normandie to fight for the Republic 1937 February 5-27: Battle of Jarama February 16: Lincoln Battalion first moved to the front lines at Jarama; the first Lincoln casualty, Charles Edwards, on the 17th August 24: Republican offensive in Aragón; the Lincolns attack Quinto, a small town about 35 kilometers southeast of Zaragoza SEPTEMBER 6: Belchite, about 50 kilometers south of Zaragoza, falls to the Lincolns after 4 days of house-to-house fighting. The Lincolns suffer over 250 casualties in the battles of Quinto & Belchite October 13: Lincolns & the MacPaps unsuccessfully attack Fuentes de Ebro near Zaragoza; the two battalions suffer over 300 casualties October 19: All of Northern Spain in Nationalist control November 30: Republican government moves to Barcelona December 14: Republican offensive begins at Teruel 1938 January 1: Lincolns & MacPaps, as part of the Teruel offensive, are moved from the Aragon region to Argente, 30 kilometers north of Teruel February 15: Lincolns & MacPaps sent to Segura de los Baños, about 70 kilometers north of Teruel; they take Monte Pedigrossa; Americans also in action elsewhere in the area February 19: Lincolns moved from Segura de los Baños to just southeast of Teruel February 22: Nationalists recapture Teruel May-July: Lincolns still in training on the east side of the Ebro, in Marsa; their number are increased to almost 700 July 24: Republican army begins Ebro offensive; the Lincolns cross the river near Asco & quickly take Fatarella July 28: Lincolns in battle at Villalba de los Arcos, about 10 kilometers north of Gandesa; by now only 400 of the 700 in the battalion are still in action August 2: Lincolns just east of Gandesa; pounded by artillery in the "Valley of Death" SEPTEMBER 6: Lincolns begin action around Corbera for five days SEPTEMBER 21: Juan Négrin, Prime Minister of the Republic, announces to the League of Nations at Geneva a unilateral withdrawal of all international troops from the Republican army; the Lincolns are near the front lines just east of Corbera SEPTEMBER 23: Jim Lardner, son of Ring Lardner, Jr., is one of the last Lincolns killed in action SEPTEMBER 24: The Lincolns are withdrawn from the Ebro region SEPTEMBER 30: Munich Pact seals fate of Czechoslovakia, & of Spain's last chance for intervention; Neville Chamberlain declares "Peace in our time" October 29: Farewell parade in Barcelona for the International Brigades November: Lincolns in Ripoll, in northern Catalonia near the French border, awaiting expatriation November 16: Ebro campaign ends with Republican armies retreating across river December 2: Over 300 Americans cross over into France December 23: Nationalists begin offensive in Catalonia REPRINTED from Cary Nelson & Jefferson Hendricks, eds. Madrid 1937: Letters of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade from the Spanish Civil War, copyright 1996 by Routledge. Return to The Spanish Civil War
        [Sources]




        1942 -- STUART CHRISTIE HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SPANISH ANARCHISM A Historical Encyclopaedia of Spanish Anarchism 41. TOMÀS OLIVER, Francisco. Mallorca 1850-Madrid 1903.
        Bricklayer who did crucial work during the 1870s to advance the International in Spain, especially in organisational terms. An example of proletarian militancy of an anti-marxist stamp, he was the founder of the International in the Balearics & director of both its newspapers (El Obrero & La Revolución). His activity came to prominence at the labor congress in 1870 which he attended & at which he championed anarchist theses; at the 1872 congress in Zaragoza he adopted a more moderate line on the social organisation of the workers (and his line carried the day) & he came away as an elected member of the federal council (representing the Este comarca); he was also at the congress in Córdoba & again appointed to the federal commission (as secretary for external affairs, & he took Ferrer's place when he stepped down). In the ensuing years he remained the axis of the FRE both in its underground as well as in its legal years (we know for certain that he was retained on the federal commission at the conferences in 1875-77, that he attended the Barcelona extra-ordinary conference in 1881 - representing Valencia - was reelected at the 1883 congress in Seville, was present at the congress of the Unión Manufacturera of Igualada in 1883 - at which he spoke out in favour of solidarity with the victims of reprisals in Jérez & was astoundingly competent.) Around 1884 he must have had problems with the Barcelona comrades & he moved to Madrid without abandoning his activity, because even though it is argued that he steered clear of social issues in 1885-86, he certainly attended the Pacto congress (in Madrid, 1891) & in 1900 the Madrid association of which he was a member (El Porvenir del Obrero) sponsored the holding of a congress in 1900; again, in 1901 we find Tomás among the delegates to the congress of the FSORE, or new FTRE, in Madrid. A man of great capability, he was a prominent representative of the collectivist line, opposed to both marxists & anarcho-communists (putting up quite a fight against the latter, especially at the congress in Seville in 1882, with help from Llunas). Unlike other anarchists, he could see the need for an efficient bureaucracy & preferred a lawful federation over a clandestine one. He wrote for the labor press (Revista Nueva, Bulletin du Jura, etc.) & is credited with authorship of the first history of Spanish anarchism, Del nacimiento de las ideas anarcocolectivistas en España (La Coruña 1893 & serialised in the press nine years earlier).

        43. MERA SANZ, Cipriano. Tetuán de la Victorias (Madrid) 1897-Paris 1975.
        Bricklayer. His entry into the history of anarchism goes back to the dictatorship & the connection was strengthened during the republic; during both periods he was regularly jailed for his commitment to labor militancy. Under the republic he was already one of the staunchest pillars of the CNT of the Centre region (and the great strides made by the CNT in the region, especially among construction workers, is primarily due to him) & well regarded nationally (in 1933 he served on the national revolutionary committee charged with overseeing the uprising in Aragon, as a result of which he was to be jailed until May 1934). The outbreak of the fascist revolt found him in prison (for membership of the construction industry strike committee). Freed on 19 July, he hit the rebels like a white tornado; in the attack on Campamento, the capture of Alcalà, Guadalajara, Sigüenza & Cuenca; with the establishment of the CNT's Del Rosal column, he commanded the CNT battalion fighting in the Buitrago & Arenas de San Pedro areas (August), breaking through the cordon around Cebreros & reaching Robledo (October), at which point he argued for the necessity of guerrilla tactics. With the Francoists closing on Madrid he was took charge of the defences of the Puente de San Fernando district (January 1937), at which point experience of the war obliged him to lobby the CNT national committee to bring pressure to bear to have the columns militarised; after militarisation, he commanded the XIV Division which halted the Francoist advance at Pingarrón, played a part in the battle of Guadalajara & captured Guadalajara (the capture being the work of Mera rather than - as is mistakenly claimed- of El Campesino); later he fought in Alcolea & Brunete & from October 1937 on he was in charge of the IV Corps of the Army of the Centre, holding the rank of lieutenant colonel. In the final days of the conflict he resisted the Communists' plans for a coup & defeated them in March 1939; whereupon, after discharging his troops, he left for Oran & began a calvary through North Africa (where he was jailed in Oran & Mezelquivir, the Morand concentration camp, from which he escaped into Morocco, settling in Casablanca while he waited to leave for America, but was arrested in March 1941 and, after another odyssey, was handed over to Franco in February 1942), resulting in his facing a death sentence in Spain (April 1943) before this was commuted to a thirty year prison term. In prison he contacted the CNT's secretary, Amil, & was visited by envoys from Generals Aranda & Beigbeder who lobbied for CNT assistance in overthrowing Franco. When he was released in 1946, the aforementioned generals kept in touch with Mera, but he finally dashed their hopes & in February 1947 he moved to France. In France he dedicated himself to trying to reunify the shattered CNT, but to no avail, & later he sided with the moderates who supported collaboration against Franco. After the unification in 1960, he was commissioned to chair the reconciliation rally in Paris that November & was awarded a place on Interior Defence on account of his prestige. In 1963 he was jailed for his Interior Defence & Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL) connections (these being the agencies most steadfastly supporting direct struggle against Franco); in 1965-66 he took a very hard line with the Cincopuntistas & after the stormy Bordeaux plenum at which his honour was impugned, a CNT faction broke away from the Intercontinental Secretariat; he belonged this faction, referred to as the Frente Libertario faction, right up until his death. A man of action, with an iron will, he did not succumb as some other exiles did, to the quest for power & always stated that he would go to his grave with his trowel in his hand. He wrote hardly anything other than a few articles in Frente Libertario in the 1960s & Mujeres Libres. Author of: Guerra, exilio y cárcel de un anarcosindicalista (Paris 1976).

        43. DURRUTI DUMANGE, Buenaventura. Leon 1896-Madrid 1936.
        Without question Spanish anarchism's most mythic figure of all time, even more so than Salvochea or Anselmo Lorenzo, & his tragic death on the Madrid front in circumstances still unclear would seem to have been a contributory factor in this. He came from a family of fighters that had been ruined by its support for social demands. Following primary schooling he worked as a mechanic in a workshop from 1910 on; in April 1913 he took out membership of the UGT, the only union in the area & he worked on the installation of washing machinery in Asturias (in Matallana) & even then stood out for his spirit of solidarity. Shortly after that he joined the railways as a mechanic & was actively involved in the 1917 strike, resulting in his dismissal and, at the same time, in his expulsion from the UGT (as a leftwinger) & was forced to flee to Gijón together with el Toto, wanted for sabotage & as a deserter; in December he crossed into France, living in a number of places (Marseilles, Béziers, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Biarritz..) In January 1919 he reentered Spain, working in Mieres & took out CNT membership; later he carried out sabotage missions in the mines of Leon until he was arrested en route to Galicia. Recognised as deserter, he was sent to Morocco where he was found to be suffering from a hernia. He was hospitalised & escaped to France (in June). In the spring of 1920 he returned to the peninsula, contacting Buenacasa in San Sebastián (Buenacasa advised him to move to Barcelona). He worked in Renteria & helped effectively to bolster the CNT & struck up links with a series of hardline militants (Suberviela, Ruiz, Aldabaldetrecu, Marcelino del Campo), with whom he formed the Los Justicieros group which operated in Zaragoza & the Basque Country (including an abortive attempt on the life of Alfonso XIII in San Sebastián). Together with Campos & Suberviela, he left for Zaragoza & contacted Pina, Torres Escartín, & others & undertook to travel to Barcelona, Andalusia & Madrid with an eye to the formation of a peninsula-wide anarchist federation. Thereafter the group threw itself into high-flying ventures, while assuming a more solid formation: in 1922 hit linked up with Ascaso & moved to Barcelona (Ascaso, Durruti, Torres Escartín, Campos & Suberviela), going, by that time, under the name of the "Crisol" group which name was later (in October) changed to Los Solidarios & was bolstered by the addition of further militants (particularly from the Barcelona woodworkers' union), with Durruti taking it upon himself to build up an arsenal; in anticipation of a coup d'état, they laid the groundwork for an insurrectionary strike (which was to be funded by the proceeds of a hold-up of the Banco de España in Gijón). A little later Durruti crossed into France with Ascaso (they were in Paris from December 1923) & together they were crucial to the launching of an anarchist publishing venture: Durruti took part in the catastrophic Vera de Bidasoa expedition & in the planning of an attempt upon the life of Alfonso XIII, before mounting a campaign through the Americas ( December 1924) from Cuba down to Argentina, subsidising rationalist schools & cowing bosses by robbing them (for a time, in Argentina, they forgot about these illegal activities & were drawn into the controversy prevailing in the anarchist movement in the country). In June 1926, Durruti was arrested in France (with Gregorio Jover & Ascaso) on charges of attempting the life of the king of Spain & after some months in prison was expelled from France & eventually settled in Belgium. He returned to Spain with his comrades after the fall of the monarchy & set about making preparations for the revolution; he attended the 1931 congress, gave countless rallies, & was up to his neck in every revolutionary venture of the time & was regularly jailed & banished; he was on the CNT revolutionary committee, represented the Catalan regional at the national plenum of regionals in May 1934, & attended the Zaragoza congress in 1936. His theoretical stance at that point may be summarised as follows: arm the people & no to vanguards. Once the rebels had been put down in Barcelona in July 1936 he quit the Militias Committee following disagreements with García Oliver & set off for the Aragon front at the head of a column named after him. He remained there until November 1936 at which point he left for Madrid with part of his column to assist in the defence of Madrid where he met his death on 20 November 1936. There was a massive turn-out of people for the removal of his body to Barcelona & at his funeral there. Strictly a man of action (the only thing he wrote was one article in La Voz Confederal), he was immensely popular & to this day remains a symbol of the virtues of anarchists.

        44. LA REVISTA SOCIAL. Periodical launched in Manresa (16 August 1872) at the instigation of the Unión Manufacturera. Later, publication was moved to Gracia & Barcelona (August 1873) where it remained until 1883 (its last edition being from 19 November 1883). For many years Francisco Abayá was secretary to the editorial team & he was succeeded by García Viñas (from 1876 to 1878, some say). It was the mouthpiece of the Spanish section of the IWMA & for that reason lifted texts from La Révolte & the Jura Bulletin. It was suspended for three months (February to May 1874) & it seems that from 1874 on it espoused a moderate line (which García Viñas attempted to shift) & adopted the sub-title of “Organ of the Unión Manufacturera of the Spanish Nation”. 418 editions were published.
        According to Nettlau, in December 1880 García Viñas handed the review over to Serrano Oteiza who resurrected it in Madrid (as Revista Social rather than La Revista Social) from 11 June 1881 to 15 May 1884, for 154 editions in all. Under Serrano's guidance it argued the anarcho-collectivist & Proudhonist case, adopted the sub-title “Eco del Proletariado” & was largely the organ of the FTRE. After its time in Madrid it returned to Catalonia (to Sans) where a further 39 editions appeared. It carried contributions from Ricardo Mella & Francisco Tomás, published pamphlets of Bakunin's (God & the State) & reported on the congresses of the Spanish International. Other contributors included: Palacio, Orcal Arroyo, Espí, Vanoncí & García Viñas. Its print-run was in excess of 20,000 copies. Its disappearance was part of the fall-out from the Mano Negra events.

        45. PUJOL GRÚA, José. Benisant (Tarragona) 1903-Porto Alegre (Brazil) 1966.
        Joined the CNT as a young medical student. When the civil war broke out he was practising in La Roca & enlisted with the Roja y Negra column. By the end of the war he was major in the medical corps & spent time in concentration camps in France (Argelés, St Cyprien, Brams) where he was a great help until he was denounced by Communists & taken to Gurs (March 1941) and, from May 1942, was drafted into a labor company; he managed to join acquaintances in Carcassonne & helped rebuild the CNT in the Aude department, only to be rearrested by the Germans & taken to Bordeaux (where he again played a central part in rebuilding the Confederation) & from there, now categorised as a saboteur, he was deported to Germany but managed to escape in Metz. After the Germans were defeated he lived in Paris, Bordeaux & Toulouse & was involved in the anti-Franco struggle in France & inside Spain, having close relations with the action groups (particularly with Facerías) operating in the comarca of Barcelona. With the reconstruction of the CNT he was elected secretary of the SIA (in June 1945), a post he resigned in July 1946 in order to penetrate Spain on organisational missions; arrested in Gerona, he was freed from prison in Barcelona in June 1947 with serious lung disease, not that this prevented him from treating a wounded guerrilla; identified by the police, he lived in hiding in Barcelona until a commando escorted him back to France. He stayed on in Toulouse & his home was a safe house for Facerías & other CNT & anarchist guerrillas. In the end, in January 1952 he left for Brazil, settling in Porto Alegre where he gained great prestige as a medical practitioner.

        *** 46. SERRANO OTEIZA, Juan. Madrid 1837-1886.
        http://recollectionbooks.com/bleed/Encyclopedia/SerranoOteizaJuan.htm

        47. EL CONDENADO. Title borne by several anarchist periodicals.
        1. - Libertarian newspaper, Madrid, February 1872- March 1873. Founded by González Morago. Initially sub-titled “Socialist Newspaper”, from July onwards this changed to “Collectivist Newspaper”. Defended the International. It appeared weekly & its emergence had to do with the conversion of La Emancipación into the platform of the Madrid marxists, whom it steadfastly opposed. It comprised 4 pages & 36 issues reached the streets (in addition to a supplement); in a second version, (February 1873 to 9 January 1874) it seems to have published 31 issues. It stuck by the Alliance programme & was governed by the principles of atheism, anarchism, anti-authoritarianism, collectivism & anti-capitalism. Prominent among its contributors were Serrano Oteiza, Morago, Estévanez, Manuel Muñoz, Busquiel & José Pellicer & it carried texts by Bakunin. A periodical of crucial importance in its day, it was the chief challenger of the marxist line of argument.
        2. - Anarchist newspaper. Barcelona 1886. The first workers' daily (ran for 27 days).
        3. - Anarchist paper. Alcoy 1890-1893.

        *** 49. ASCASO ABADíA, Francisco. Almudévar (Huesca) 1901-Barcelona 1936.

        50. BARRET ÀLVAREZ DE TOLEDO, Rafael. Santander 1876-Arcachon (France) 1910.
        One of the greatest thinkers & writers produced by Iberian anarchism. Of aristocratic descent, he lived for a time in Bilbao & Paris up until 1900 when he moved to Madrid to complete his studies as an engineer & where he frequented high society circles until his money ran out (at that time he was fast friends with Maeztu & Valle Inclán). In 1903 he left Spain following an incident with the Duque de Arión & emigrated to the Americas. In 1904 he was in Buenos Aires where his criticisms in the press caused him problems & forced him to move on to Asunción, at which point his ideological shift in the direction of anarchism began. In Paraguay he worked on the railways, taught classes & ventured into journalism & literature, as well as adapting wholly to the Paraguayan way of life. He married and, together with Bertotto, he launched the review Germinal; at around this time he became a crusader for the oppressed, which brought the wrath of the government down on his head (an attempt was made to kill him at a rally on 1 May 1907). The following year he was jailed, a difficult time during which he contracted lung disease & was deported to Brazil. Later he lived in Montevideo & Corrientes. In 1910 he returned to Europe, meaning to recuperate from his illness, but to no avail, for after passing through Barcelona & Paris he died in Arcachon in France.
        He wrote for many newspapers in the River Plate region: La Razón, Caras y Caretas, La Tarde, Los Sucesos, El Diario Español & for Le Figaro in Paris. After his death his literary oeuvre was collected (only Moralidades Actuales had seen publication in his lifetime) & it boiled down to journalism. Author of: El Terror Argentino (Asunción 1910), Diálogos, conversaciones, epifonemas (Montevideo 1912), Moralidades Actuales (1910), Lo que son los yerbales, Mirando Vivir, El dolor de los paraguayos (Montevideo 1912), Páginas Dispersas (Montevideo 1923), Cartas inéditas (Montevideo 1967), Obras Completas (Buenos Aires 1943), works which, in the opinion of many, make him the founder of Paraguayan literature & which have earned the praises of people with no connection with anarchism (Roa Bastos, Rodó, Vaz, Donoso, Blanco Fombona). He championed an anarchism that was level-headed & restrained & analysed reality, he was not so much a propagandist of anarchism as a creator, a committed intellectual with original views & concepts of anarchism (an anarchist being someone who believes in the possibility of life without the authority principle) & has been praised by Nettlau, Fontaura & Baciu. Barret was a man of considerable cultivation: he wrote in three languages & was a recognised writer on art & music; his writings embrace every issue (nationality, social oppression, sex, women, etc.), all dealt with in short, incisive articles redolent of the sense of regeneration associated with the ‘98 generation. His incontrovertible quality makes it hard to credit that in Spain Barret should be so little known even in anarchist circles.

        51. CATALá TINEO, Sigfrido. Valencia 1906-1978.
        Son of a bronze smelter of anarchist leanings (the founder in Valencia of a Ferrerian school, an exile & CNT militant), we find him enrolled with the CNT hides union at a very early age & working even as an adolescent in the printshop of Solidaridad Obrera (during its days in Valencia). An advocate of moderation & more of a syndicalist than an anarchist, he joined the Opposition Unions, representing them at the plenum of the Valencian CNT which put the finishing touches to reunification with the CNT (FEBRUARY 1936). He was secretary of the Valencia CNT & during the civil war held prominent office (as director-general of trade in Juan López's ministry) & was to the forefront of the CNT's amplified economic plenum (Valencia 1938). In the years after the civil war he remained behind in Spain, actively struggling against Francoism; he was one of the founders of the ANFD (and headed its committee) & he also acted as secretary of the CNT national committee up until his arrest in December 1944; after trial he was sentenced to death, a sentence later commuted & he served many years in San Miguel de los Reyes. After he was released he espoused a very syndicalist line akin to the Juan López line, which brought him a lot of criticism.

        52. FARGA PELLICER, Rafael. Barcelona 1840-1890.
        One of the strongest & most attractive personalities of the old International. He studied for a career as a master-builder & learned type-setting (in which field he proved truly inspired & an enduring influence) , enjoyed music & was a librarian for a time. In his early twenties he had links with federal republicanism & did important work at the Barcelona Federal Centre of Workers' Societies, serving on the Central Directorate & on the Catalan workers' Ateneo. After he converted to anarchism, this work was of enormous assistance in winning Catalan labor over the incipient IWMA. He met Fanelli in Barcelona (attending the meeting out which the Barcelona section emerged) & he embraced the principles of the IWMA & of the Alliance (in January 1890 he backed the federalists, but by August had turned into a determined supporter of the Bakuninist Alliance), so that in 1969, together with Sentiñón he represented the Federal Council at the congress in Basle, where he met Bakunin & became his close friend. At a meeting in Reus in January 1870, he spelled out apolitical & collectivist principles & from the columns of La Federación brought influence to bear to have the Spanish workers' congress held in Barcelona; he attended that congress (1870) & fought there successfully to tip the balance in favour of anarchism & internationalism (it was he that drafted the message of affiliation to the IWMA & signed the manifesto to Portuguese workers). He enjoyed great standing in the eyes of internationalists (and was several times elected by universal suffrage to represent the Spanish section at congresses); at the congress in The Hague (1872) he fended off attacks directed at Bakunin & shortly after that attended the Saint-Imier gathering (the massive gathering that articulated the Bakuninist line of Spanish labor) where he made the acquaintance of Malatesta & was chosen as the Spanish correspondent for the Bulletin which it was agreed would be issued. Later at the anti-authoritarian congress in Geneva (1873) he tabled a scheme for organising along trades lines (endorsed at the congress on Córdoba) & at the Brussels congress in 1874 he stressed the anarchist line & signed the appeal issued to the workers of the world. When the repression began in Spain he stuck to his beliefs; in 1874 he met with Lorenzo & García Viñas to bolster the Alliance, & was on the federal council in 1875-77 & again in 1879; it also seems certain that he was one of those who prepared the relaunching of the FTRE in 1881 (he served on the federal commission in 1881-83). From 1886 to 1888 he published the renowned review Acracia. A man wholeheartedly committed to militant anarchism, he kept up correspondence with Bakunin, De Paepe, Fanelli, Malon, Brousse & Guillaume, was the mainstay of the internationalist press in Barcelona & Kropotkin stayed in his home when visiting Spain. Author of: Garibaldi, Historia liberal del siglo XIX, & Prolegómenos a la composición tipográfica. It has to be added that he contributed as a journalist to Natura & that it was at his instigation that El Productor was launched.

        53. GáLVEZ, Pedro Luis. Málaga 1882-Madrid 1940, shot by the fascists.
        Son of a Carlist general, he studied at the seminary in Málaga (from which he ran away) & followed the family to Madrid. In the capital, he enrolled in the school of Fine Arts, from which he was soon expelled due to non-compliance with the school rules; he tried his hand at the theatre but his father quickly put paid to that. In 1901 he set off on foot for Paris where he led a bohemian existence in poverty; he returned to Spain & it was while in Irún (1905) that he fell in with anti-monarchist circles & toured Andalusia peddling the federal republican line & launching swingeing attacks on monarchy; arrested in Cádiz, he was sentenced to 14 years for insulting the king & the army. Incarcerated in Ocaña, he led a riot as a result of which he was chained to the walls of his cell; it was at about this time that he started to write; he produced Existencias Tormentadas & several short stories (like En la Cárcel), one of which (El Ciego de la Flauta) won him a competition, made him popular & led to his being pardoned. On his release reviews & newspapers competed for his the favours of this ex-jailbird, but his lack of interest in any steady job ensured that he was always short of money. He achieved prominence as a correspondent from the war in Morocco (with a chilling book, Por los que Lloran: apuntes de la Guerra del Rif, Madrid 1910) & became renowned as an incorrigible bohemian. On a whim he took himself off to Albania (1914) after a time in Berlin (where he earned a living as a painter), only to return to the peninsula after a short time & found a newspaper in Madrid, En la Puerta del Sol (1916) which never got beyond its first edition due to police harassment; he eked out a living as a literary “hack”, selling handwritten poetry & writing to order. Later he moved to Barcelona & made contact with the anarchists: at the same time his life was acquiring some stability (he was a correspondent for El Pueblo, 1920) & in the years that followed he delved deeper into anarchism (writing for libertarian publications & publishers, writing sonnets targeting politicians) as is evident in El Demonio de San Miguel (1926). In 1929 he started his Obras Completas (poesías de Negro y azul) & drew closer to militant anarchists. During the republic, his life took a more uneventful turn & when the civil war broke out he enlisted with the CNT; even when it was plain that defeat was imminent he refused to leave Madrid (confident that he would not face reprisals), but was arrested & jailed & finished off by a firing squad.
        A sharp prose-writer & a poet of some merit, he had some reputation in his day (writing in first class newspapers like El Liberal, La Esfera, Nuevo Mundo). He is a typical example of the turn of the century cultural world, half way between bohemia, artistic avant-gardism & social protest. Unlike other literati who opted to abjure their ideas of emancipation, Gálvez's beliefs became more pronounced. Author of: La Chica del Tapicero, Las Hembras de la Vistillas, Sonetos de la Guerra (Valencia 1938) & ¡Buitres! (Barcelona 1923).

        54. FERRER GUARDIA, Francisco Juan Ramón. Alella 1859-1909 (shot in the ditch in Santa Eulalia , Barcelona on 13 October 1909).
        Initially the recipient of clerical education which was partly countered by his attending the classes of a secular, liberal teacher in Teià. At the age of 13 he worked in the family vineyards & the following year his father sent - virtually banished - him to Provensals as clerk in the service of an employer who, oddly enough, initiated him to republicanism & freemasonry. He became an admirer of Pi y Margall, becoming anti-clerical & an enthusiast of the First Spanish Republic. In 1879 he worked on the railways as a ticket-collector, studied French & English & proved to be a zealous supporter of Rojas Zorrilla. In 1880 he married Teresa Sanmartí (a troubled marriage) & in 1884 he set up a lending library for railway workers & joined the masons; he fled to Sallent (following a general strike) & in 1886 decamped to Paris following involvement in the Villacampa uprising. In France he remained closely connected with Rojas Zorrilla until, after the latter's death, he quit the ranks of the federalists. He knew hard times financially & tried to make a living at several trades (in the wine & hotel businesses, giving Spanish classes & speculating on the stock market); eventually he came into contact with the Meuniers and, separating from his wife (who had inflicted grievous injury on him in 1894) he took up with Leopoldina Bonnard & together they all travelled the Mediterranean (Barcelona included). When J.E. Meunier died, he inherited a large fortune with which he embarked upon his educational & revolutionary ventures (earlier, in 1892, he had attended the world freethinkers' congress in Madrid & in 1895-97 had travelled to Australia to visit family & had also attended the international socialist congress in London). Disappointed by the republicans he drifted into libertarian ranks while in Paris (mixing with Robin, Malato, Grave & Lorenzo..) & his best known & most prestigious ventures were to be in association with anarchists. In 1901 he arrived in Barcelona ready to launch his celebrated Modern School which was to open on 8 SEPTEMBER that year, with Odón & Ramón y Cajal on the board; the school was to prove a considerable success as an alternative to Catholic & State schooling; his moment of glory came in April 1906 (with a demonstration in support of secular education) but one month later the manoeuvres to curtail his activity began: he was implicated in Mateo Morral's outrage & spent a year in prison (until June 1907). On his release he travelled Europe, toured Andalusia, got involved in high-profile activity (launching the review L'école renouvée in Paris & Brussels: establishing the International League for Rational Infant Education & campaigning for the release of the Alcalá del Valle prisoners) & became convinced that only the anarchists could be counted upon. He reopened his publishing concern, though not his school, subsidised the labor press & was soon facing accusations that he had instigated & orchestrated the Semana Trágica, was placed under arrest, tried & executed amid a scandal of worldwide ramifications. He died shouting: “Long live the Modern School!” Author of: L'espagnol pratique (Paris 1895), Páginas para la historia (Barcelona 1910), La Escuela Moderna, póstuma explicación y alcance de la enseñanza racionalista (Barcelona 1912), Envidia. Cuento ateo (London 1900), Ferrer y la huelga general (Barcelona 1910), wrote forewords to several books & for his unpublished Diario de mis pensamientos (c. 1901-1908) & Los Principios de la moral científica. In addition, he wrote articles for Humanidad Nueva, El Productor, La Revista Blanca, etc., & played a crucial part in the launching of the Boletín de la Escuela Moderna, La Huelga General & Solidaridad Obrera.
        Ferrer was a man who believed in the potential of the general strike as a weapon of revolution, but it was to the field of education that he owes his prestige. The pedagogy that he practiced connected directly with the anarchist tradition of Godwin, Bakunin & Kropotkin, as well as with the principles of the Committee for Libertarian Education (1896) of Malato, Reclus, Grave & Tolstoy, to wit, a rounded, rationalist, mixed sex, libertarian schooling with the addition of borrowings from Spencer, Rousseau, Robin & others. The Modern School was to become the legendary model of the anarchist pedagogy that would be governed by anti-authoritarianism, co-education of the sexes & classes, anti-Statism, comprehensive training, egalitarianism, idealism & rationalism-scientism-secularism: it was to depart from the neutrality advocated by Mella and, although cognizant that schooling serves the interests of the State & Capital, would not challenge it but would rather seek to work a transformation of it along natural lines, whilst steering clear of under-valuing the teacher to the advantage of the pupil; it was to be a school for critical minds & a nursery for rebels.

        55. FTRE (Federación de Trabajadores de la Región Española - Spanish Regional Workers' Federation).
        Launched at a congress held in Barcelona (SEPTEMBER 23-26 SEPTEMBER 1881), following the prior winding up of the FRE in FEBRUARY of the same year. After its foundation congress, it experienced rapid growth, as noted at its second congress (in Seville, SEPTEMBER 1882), having swollen to 49,561 members, mostly Andalusians & Catalans, organised into 10 comarcas, 209 local federations & 632 sections & held 8 union congresses (congresses of shoemakers, manufacturing workers, food workers, hatters, printers, blacksmiths, peasants & building workers in Valencia, Barcelona, Reus, Igualada, Seville & Madrid), plus 10 comarcal congresses. This expansion was brought to an end by internecine strife (due to the presence of competing factions, constitutionalists, insurrectionists, syndicalists, revolutionaries, collectivists & communists); these frictions were evident at the congress in Seville when a minority, southern Andalusians, split off & held a radical anarcho-communist congress of their own in Cádiz ( December 1882), with follow-up congresses in Seville & Cádiz (1883-84). There was another factor in the decline: the police crackdown in the wake of the Mano Negra episode, a crackdown condemned only very timidly by the FTRE (in March 1883 a declaration from the FTRE Federal Council made up of Pellicer, Canibel, Tomás & Llunas, protested at the repression, whilst at the same time distancing itself from those implicated in the Mano Negra). By the time of its third congress (Valencia, October 18850, the FTRE was falling apart & plainly breaking up, a process contained only by its flourishing press. By 1885, federation activity had all but ceased & the extra-ordinary congress in Barcelona (1884) had resolved nothing, any more than the so-called “cosmopolitan” congress (Barcelona 1885) or the comarcal congresses summoned in Alcoy, Barcelona, Madrid & Zaragoza in the summer of 1885 did. A mere 17 delegates showed up for the FTRE's fourth congress (Madrid 1887). Finally, the FTRE was wound up when, at the request of the Catalans, a congress met in Valencia (September 1888) to register the demise of the FTRE and, in its place, launch the OARE (Spanish Regional Anarchist Organisation), which was conceived as buttressing the anarchist element, in that it rejected any who would not dogmatically embrace anarchist arguments (the OARE gave up on meeting in congresses). Then again, in Barcelona the Pacto de Unión was launched in 1888.
        The FTRE failed to marry the various interests present within it & in terms of profile it cannot stand comparison with the FRE, nor with the CNT. Whether the FTRE clearly adhered to the FRE line is a matter of some controversy: from its trajectory (Mano Negra, Los Desheredados, the OARE..) we may deduce that it aspired to impose a more legalistic, reformist policy, something in which the Llunas-Tomás-Farga faction had already been successful within the FRE. All of the internal squabbling boiled down to a duel between revolutionaries (which group included insurrectionists, anarcho-communists & radicals) & the moderates-reformists (namely, the constitutionalists, collectivists & syndicalists) , a duel already played out inside the FRE. Where the FTRE did succeed was in ditching the republican socialists (and, given the initial connection with the International - remember that many internationalists had their origins in the federal republican camp - this was no easy undertaking) who were resoundingly defeated at the 1881 congress by 110 votes to 8.

        56. GUSTAVO, Soledad. Alias of Teresa Mañé. Villanueva y Geltrú 1865-Perpignan 1939.
        Secular schoolmistress with her own school. After marriage to Federico Urales in 1891 she became a member of an important militant anarchist family. Mother of Federica Montseny. Her fame derives essentially from the fact that from 1898 to 1905 she was co-director with Urales of La Revista Blanca & was subsequently involved in many of the family's ventures. Her work was confined to journalism: she wrote lots & lots of articles in the family's reviews & others of the libertarian persuasion: Revista Blanca (its Almanaque & Suplementos included), El Corsario, El Productor, El Cosmopolita, El Trabajo, etc. She was on the editorial panel of Tierra y Libertad & translated Louise Michel, Labriola & De La Hire.. Her primary concerns were education & feminism. Author of: La sociedad futura (Madrid 1899), El amor libre (Montevideo 1904), A las proletarias (Buenos Aires 1896), Sindicalismo y anarquismo. Política y Sociología (Barcelona 1933), and, in partnership with Urales: Las preocupaciones de los despreocupados (Reus 1891), & Dos cartas (Reus 1891). She is also credited with authorship of Las diosas de la vida (Barcelona 1904) but this seems to be a translation of Labriola.

        57. LA HUELGA GENERAL. Title borne by several libertarian papers.
        1. Newspaper founded & financed by Francisco Ferrer Guardia. Barcelona 15 November 1901 to 1903. Sub-titled “Libertarian Newspaper”, it was run by Ignacio Claría. Anselmo Lorenzo & López Montenegro were assiduous contributors. 21 issues were published (one every ten days) & it appears that Batllon printed it surreptitiously on Catholic presses. It mirrors the enthusiastic reception of the general strike tactic as a means of bringing about the revolution. In view of its subversive nature it was much persecuted & Claría was tried & imprisoned more than once. It carried articles by Ferrer, Reclus, Tárrida del Mármol, Robin, Cornelissen, Jean Grave, Hamon, Malato, Nieuwenhuis, Pert, Paraf-Javal & Tailhade. In addition to the newspaper there was also a sort of publishing imprint: the Biblioteca of the same name which published pamphlets by Lorenzo, Pert, Robin, Reclus, etc.
        2. Madrid 1906. Anarchist publication. At least five issues. Contributions by Mella.

        58. LEVAL, Gaston. One of the many aliases (others included Silvio Agreste, José Benito, Felipe Montblanc, Josep Venutti..) used by Pierre Piller, an anarchist who was born & died in Paris in 1895-1978 & who was closely associated with Spanish libertarians.
        Son of a fighter with the Paris Commune, he came to Spain in 1915 after an unhappy childhood, having refused to fight in the First World War (he was an anti-militarist) & became a very active anarchist who earned a livelihood from a wide spectrum of trades in Zaragoza & Barcelona. By 1920 he was fast friends with Serge & with Costa Iscar, was writing for the libertarian press & serving inevitable stretches in jail (in Valencia & Barcelona); a good indicator of his standing by then is the fact that he represented the Barcelona anarchist groups at the foundation congress of the Profintern & at the congress of the Third International in Moscow (his visit was a telling one, upon which he reported to the Zaragoza conference in 1922) . On his return from Russia he toured the entire Iberian peninsula, initially making a living as a photographer & later as a teacher in La Coruña. In 1924 he moved to Argentina where he did a lot of writing: he returned to the peninsula, an influential anarchist theorist, as Uriburu's repression in Argentina worsened. With the outbreak of the civil war in 1936 he declined the offer of posts with the Generalitat & central government & by 1937 sensed the defeat that was coming. He spent eight months touring the collectives so as to be able to place on record the constructive endeavours of the revolution. When the defeat finally came, he returned to France only to be jailed, but he escaped shortly afterwards (1940); he was to live a clandestine existence until 1949 & spend another two years in Belgium: amnestied in 1951 (for his desertion in 1914) he involved himself in anarchism in France & experienced a revival with the publication of his review Cahiers de l'humanisme libertaire (1955-1976) & the events of May 1968 in France, remaining at all times in touch with Spanish libertarian circles.
        During the 1920s he was prominent as an inflexible pure anarchist, but with the passage of time he delved deeper: eventually advocating a constructive anarchism with the emphasis on the economic & he argued the case for industrial federations rather than communes.. not that this was any obstacle to his being a fervent Bakuninist with a profound knowledge of Kropotkin's ideas. He was the author of a large number of writings: & wrote for countless reviews & newspapers including Liberación, Tierra y Libertad, Acción Libertaria, CNT, Solidaridad Obrera, La Guerra Social, Le Libertaire, Despertad, Cultura Libertaria, Estudios, Fragua Social, Ruta, Frente Libertario, etc.
        Author of: El Prófugo (1933), A través de su destino, Los anarquistas rusos en prisión, L'Enfance en Croix (1961), Precisiones sobre el anarquismo (1937), El mundo hacia el abismo (Valencia 1934), Conceptos económicos en el comunismo libertario (Buenos Aires 1935), Né Franco, Né Stalin. La collettivitá anarchica spagnola nella lotta contra Franco e la reazione staliniana (Milan 1955), Social Reconstruction in Spain (London 1938), Poetas y literatos franceses, Contra la Guerra, La falacia del marxismo (1967), Manifeste socialiste libertaire (Neuilly 1951), Socialistes libertaires, pourquoi (Paris 1956), Problemas económicos de la revolución española (Santa Fé, 1932), Problèmes contemporains (Paris 1964, in partnership with Bouyé-Riera), Pratique du socialisme libertaire (Neuilly 1959), La pensée constructive de Bakounine (1976), Estructura y funcionamiento de la sociedad comunista libertaria (Barcelona 1936), Génèse et réalité historique de l'état, Le chemin du socialisme (Bièvres 1958), Le communisme. L'état contre le communisme (1950), éléments d'éthique moderne (Paris 1961), L'Espagne libertaire (Paris 1971), L'Humanisme libertaire (Paris 1967), L'Indispensable révolution (Paris 1948), Civilisation libertaire, Nuestro programa de reconstrucción (Barcelona 1937), Recursos alimenticios de la España antifascista (Barcelona 1937).

        59. LIMOGES, INTER-CONTINENTAL CONGRESS OF THE LOCAL FEDERATIONS OF THE CNT IN EXILE, 1960.
        Held in Limoges (France) from 13 to 20 August 1960, over 19 sessions. Opened by greetings from the secretary of the Inter-continental Secretariat, the congress immediately got down to business by appointing commissions to look after accounts, scrutiny & credentials. 75 local federations (with a membership of 3,836) were represented by 115 delegates; also represented indirectly were 99 local federations (with 1,182 members). This according to the figures from the commission responsible, which, as the proceedings developed announced the arrival of further delegations which, with subsequent amendments, took the number of local federations represented to over 182, (5,676 members) & 12 observers. At the request of one of the delegations the principles, tactics & aims of the CNT were ratified to mark its fiftieth anniversary.
        Discussion of the report on the stewardship of the Inter-continental Secretariat, as well as the one from the delegate attached to the IWA (along with the problems arising out of the leadership of the CNT & of Cénit) ate up much of the proceedings (and it was only during the seventh sitting that they got to grips with the agenda, & even then there were lengthy references to the previous business); outstanding in these discussions were the statements from the secretary of the IS (Santamaría) to the effect that there was virtually no organised CNT within Spain, as well as the contributions from Peirats (formerly in charge of CNT) & invocation of IWA issues (the matter of the SAC). With the seventh sitting the congress got down to brass tacks, the much anticipated Item No 6 on the agenda - Review of the situation of the Confederation & policy to be adopted (under the two headings of 1. doctrinal & organisational recovery & 2. recruitment & revival of membership), which covered the matter of reunification of the two existing CNTs (the IS's one & the Sub-Committee's one). The proceedings were very laborious, with plenty of motions proposed & working parties & contributions relating to minimum conditions (it was evident that not everybody wanted reunification), with particularly outstanding contributions from the delegations from Toulouse, Perpignan, St Henri, Combs, Seysses, Carcas, Bordeaux, Dijon & Istres, which led to the formation of a working party that drafted a text satisfactory to the majority. The motion was carried, after a long preamble ratifying the CNT's pre-civil war policy line condemning its flirtation with government & the breakaway organisation was invited to disband itself & rejoin the CNT-in-Exile, forswearing their agreements & commitments; the same invitation was issued to all who had withdrawn from all activity; furthermore, it was stated that, in order for this healing process to proceed, it was the view of congress that the comrades belonging to the breakaway faction to rejoin the local federation in their place of residence one by one or in a body, after which they would enjoy the same prerogatives, rights & duties as any other CNT member; and, in order to avert potential conflict in some local federations, it was added that, in order to expedite things, each locality, nucleus or country would have a free hand in settling its affairs. Later the resolution spelled out the necessity of union for the purposes of facilitating unity among anti-Francoists & the active struggle inside Spain & also in terms of the psychological impact that it would make: finally, there was an explanation of how the decision might be implemented. This decision made possible the reunification of the CNT which had split in 1945. The rest of the business was of secondary significance: 1. - A call for circumstantial alliance with the UGT on specific matters (the fight against Francoism). 2. -There was an appeal for people to take out SIA membership. 3. - The matter of the Aymare colony, ways of boosting it & helping it out. 4. - Escalation of propaganda activity, affinity groups, the fight against Francoism...
        With the reunification motion agreed, the congress was content, which explains why, when Santamaría was taken to task by one delegate (after Santamaría had shown undue reluctance to accept reelection) & was invited by him to take himself off, lots of delegations followed the secretary when he did leave the hall at the end of the seventeenth sitting. The officers elected were Roque Santamaría (general secretary), Pintado (coordinating secretary), Olaya (responsibility for Culture & Propaganda), Celma (delegate attached to the IWA) & Montseny (in charge of CNT).


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        Juan Zafón

      • ZAFÓN BAYO, Juan.
        (1911-1977) Spanish CNT member, fought with the Ortiz Column. Fought in the French resistance in the Ponzán group; in touch with the anti-Franco action groups. Moved to Mexico until his belated return to Spain. Author of 3 books. (Christie Books)August 2007

        http://www.christiebooks.com/html/history/archives3.html


        1952 -- ARCHIVE Surrealismo y Anarquismo

        Traducido de LIBERTARIAS, Sao Paulo/Brasilia, septiembre-octubre 1989

        El 12 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER de 1951 comienza la participacion de los surrealistas en LE LIBERTAIRE, periodico semanal de la Federacion Anarquista Francesa, con el texto aqui presentado: "Surrealismo y Anarquismo - Declaracion Previa", firmado entre otros por Andre Breton, Benjamin Peret, Jean Schuster y Jean-Luis Bedouin.

        Pietro Ferrua, en su estudio SURREALISMO Y ANARQUISMO, presentado en la inauguracion del Instituto Anarchos de la Universidad de Montreal en junio de 1982, declara que la colaboracion entre surrealistas y anarquistas es muy anterior a la Declaracion Previa. Ya en 1949, Andre Breton hablo "en un gran mitin, realizado en la Mutualite, en favor de los Ciudadanos del Mundo y de los objetores de conciencia. Alli se reafirmo en el antimilitarismo de su juventud y evoca las banderas rojinegras de las manifestaciones de otrora. En su discurso se declara de acuerdo con la posicion de los anarquistas, y especialmente con la de Luis Lecoin. Antes de eso, fue publicado un manifiesto en LE LIBERTAIRE, el 22 de mayo de 1947, bajo el titulo: "Libertad es una palabra vietnamita", suscrito por Bonnefoy, Bousquet, Breton, Peret, Tanguy y una decena mas de surrealistas conocidos. Ese texto condena la aventura imperialista francesa en Indochina. Debemos tambien recordar que Breton, en 1947, acababa de retornar de Norteamerica, de donde traeria el manuscrito "Arcangel 17", en el cual manifiesta todo su arrepentimiento por haber, aun joven, tomado la via marxista, en vez de seguir aquella mucho mas pura del anarquismo".

        Un hecho interesante que no podemos dejar de citar es el silencio total hecho por los especialistas sobre el surrealismo en cuanto al distanciamiento del marxismo y la adhesion a ideas anarquistas por parte de los surrealistas franceses. Ferrua, en el estudio citado, menciona que una de las estudiosas del surrealismo, Anna Balakian, dijo tener que evitar tocar ese asunto al juzgarlo "espinoso", y J.H. Matthews, que consagro varios volumenes al surrealismo, apenas se limita a tocar superficialmente el tema. Tampoco en los Encuentros, patrocinados por el Centro Cultural Internacional de Cerisy-

        La-Salle, en 1966, durante los cuales toda una sesion fue consagrada al problema de como los surrealistas ven la libertad, fue abordada la adhesion de los surrealistas al anarquismo. Fue solamente cuando Jose Pierre resolvio editar las ESQUELAS SURREALISTAS - publicadas semanalmente en LE LIBERTAIRE - que se tomo conciencia de esta importante pagina de la historia del surrealismo.

        Los dos textos aqui presentados fueron extraidos del volumen SURREALISMO Y ANARQUISMO, recopilacion de articulos surrealistas publicados en LE LIBERTAIRE, en preparacion por la Nuevos Tiempos Editora de Brasil.

        Declaración Previa

        LE LIBERTAIRE, 12 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER de 1951

        Los surrealistas no cesamos de consagrar a la trinidad: Estado-Trabajo-Religion, una abominacion que, frecuentemente, nos llevo al encuentro de los camaradas de la Federacion Anarquista. Esta aproximacion nos lleva hoy a expresarnos en LE LIBERTAIRE. Nos alegramos aun mas porque esta colaboracion creemos nos permitira cimentar algunas de las grandes lineas de fuerza comunes a todo espiritu revolucionario.

        Estimamos que una amplia revision de las doctrinas se impone con urgencia. Ella solo es posible si los revolucionarios examinan en conjunto todos los problemas del socialismo con el objetivo, no de encontrar en esa revision una confirmacion de las propias ideas, sino de hacer una teoria capaz de dar un impulso nuevo y vigoroso para la Revolucion social. La liberacion del hombre no podra, so pena de negarse inmediatamente despues, ser reducida unicamente al plano economico y politico, ademas debe ser entendida en el plano etico (saneamiento definitivo de las relaciones de los hombres entre si). Esto se liga a la toma de conciencia por las masas de sus posibilidades revolucionarias y no puede, bajo ninguna circunstancia, llevar a una sociedad en que todos los hombres, como en Rusia, serian iguales en su esclavitud.

        Irreconciliables con el sistema de opresion capitalista, bien manifestandose bajo la forma odiosa de "democracia" burguesa y odiosamente colonialista, ya que asuma el aspecto de un regimen totalitario nazi o stalinista, no podemos dejar de afirmar nuestra hostilidad fundamental para con los dos bloques. No es nuestra ninguna guerra imperialista, que ellos preparan para resolver sus conflictos y aniquilar las voluntades revolucionarias. De la guerra solo pueden resultar un agravamiento de la miseria, ignorancia y represion. Solo la antagonica accion autonoma de los trabajadores podra impedirla y aproximar la subversion, en el sentido de reconstruccion absoluta del mundo actual.

        El surrealismo fue y permanece como el unico en emprender esa subversion en el terreno sensible que le es propio. Su desarrollo, su penetracion en los espiritus puso en evidencia la quiebra de todas las formas de expresion tradicionales y mostro que ellas eran inadecuadas para la manifestacion de una revuelta consciente del artista contra las condiciones materiales y morales impuestas a la humanidad. La lucha por la substitucion de las estructuras sociales y la actividad desarrollada por el surrealismo para transformar las estructuras mentales, lejos de excluirse, son complementarias. Su conjuncion debe estimular la venida de una epoca liberada de toda jerarquia y de toda opresion.

        Jean-Louis Bedouin; Robert Benayoun; Andre Breton; Roland Brudieux; Adrien Dax; Guy Doumayrou; Jacqueline y Jean-Pierre Dupray; Jean Ferry; Georges Goldfayn; Alain Lebreton; Gerard Legrand; Jehan Mayoux; Benjamin Peret; Bernard Roger; Anne Seghers; Jean Schuster; Clovis Trouille y los camaradas extranjeros ahora en Paris.

        La Luminosa Torre

        Texto de Andre Breton (1896-1963), en LE LIBERTAIRE del 11-1-1952

        Fue en el negro espejo del anarquismo que el surrealismo se reconocio por primera vez, mucho antes de definirse a si mismo y cuando apenas era asociacion libre entre individuos, despreciando espontaneamente y en bloque las opresiones sociales y morales de su tiempo.

        Entre las fuentes de inspiracion donde abrevamos, en esa posguerra de 1914, y cuya fuerza de convergencia era a toda prueba, figuraba el final de la Balada de Solness, de Laurent Tailhade:

        Golpea nuestros corazones
        en desbandada, en harapos
        ¡Anarquia! ¡Oh, portadora de luz!
        ¡Expulsa la noche! ¡Aniquila los gusanos!
        Y levanta al cielo, aunque sea
        con nuestros tumulos
        ¡La luminosa torre que sobre el mar domine!

        En ese momento, la impugnacion surrealista es total, absolutamente negada a dejarse canalizar en el plano politico. Todas las instituciones sobre las cuales reposa el mundo moderno y que acababan de dar su resultante en la Primera Guerra Mundial son tenidas como aberrantes y escandalosas por nosotros. Para comenzar, es contra todo aparato de defensa de la sociedad que luchamos: ejercito, "justicia", policia, religion, medicina mental y legal, ensenhanza escolar. Tanto las declaraciones colectivas como los textos individuales del Aragon de antanho, de Artaud, Crevel, Desnos, del Eluard de otrora, de Ernst, Leiris, Masson, Peret, Queneau y yo mismo, atestiguan la voluntad comun de hacer que fuesen reconocidos como flagelos y, como tales, combatirlos. Sin embargo, para combatirlos con algun chance de exito, es preciso todavia atacar su armadura, que, en ultimo analisis, es de orden logico y moral: La pretendida "razon" en uso es una etiqueta fraudulenta, recubre el "sentido comun" mas desgastado, y la "moral" falseada por el cristianismo, con el objeto de desalentar cualquier resistencia contra la explotacion del hombre.

        Un gran fuego se elevaba sobre esas brasas - eramos jovenes - y debo insistir en el hecho de que constantemente se avivo para liberarse en la vida y obra de los poetas:

        ¡Anarquia! ¡Oh, portadora de luz!

        Esos poetas fueron Tailhade, Baudelaire, Rimbaud, Jarry, que todos nuestros jovenes camaradas libertarios deberian conocer; asi como tambien deberian conocer a Sade, Lautreamont, o el Schwob del LIBRO DE MONELLE.

        ¿Por que no pudo ocurrir en ese momento una fusion organica entre elementos anarquistas, propiamente dichos, y elementos surrealistas?

        Todavia me lo pregunto 25 anhos despues. No cabe duda que la idea de eficacia que fue el espejo de toda esa epoca decidio de otra forma. Lo que se considero como el triunfo de la revolucion rusa y la realizacion de un Estado obrero provoco un gran cambio de vision. La unica sombra del cuadro - que se precisaria como mancha indeleble - residia en el aplastamiento de la insurreccion de Kronstadt, en marzo de 1921. Nunca los anarquistas consentirian en aprobar esto. Entre tanto, hacia 1925, solo la III Internacional parecia disponer de los medios deseados para transformar el mundo. Podria creerse que los signos de degeneracion y de regresion ya facilmente observables en el Este aun eran conjurables. Los surrealistas vivian, entonces, en la conviccion de que la revolucion social extendida a todos los paises no podia dejar de promover un mundo _libertario_ (algunos decian un mundo surrealista, pero es la misma cosa). Todos, inicialmente, lo apreciaron de esa forma, incluso aquellos (Eluard, Aragon, etc.) que en seguida, desistieron de su ideal primero hasta el punto de hacer en el stalinismo una carrera envidiable (a los ojos de los mercaderes). Mas el deseo y la esperanza humanas jamas podran estar a merced de aquellos que traicionaron:

        ¡Expulsa la noche! ¡Aniquila los gusanos!

        Se conoce muy bien que incredulo pillaje fue hecho de estas ilusiones durante el segundo cuarto de siglo. Por una terrible ironia, al mundo libertario con el cual se sonhaba lo suplanto un mundo donde la mas servil obediencia es de rigor, donde los derechos mas elementales son negados al hombre, donde toda la vida social gira en torno a comisarios y verdugos. Como todos los casos en que un ideal humano llega a este cumulo de corrupcion, el unico remedio es regenerarse en la gran corriente sensible donde se origino, _remontar a los principios_ que le permitieron constituirse. Es en el propio confin de esta marcha, hoy mas necesaria que nunca, que se encontrara el anarquismo, solamente el - no mas esa caricatura que nos presentaron o la cosa hedionda que hicieron de el -, pero aquel que nuestro camarada Fontenis describe "como el propio socialismo, esto es, esta reivindicacion moderna por la dignidad del hombre (tanto su libertad como su bienestar); el socialismo, concebido no como la simple resolucion de un problema economico o politico, sino como la expresion de regiones exploradas en su deseo de crear una sociedad sin clases, sin Estado, en que todos los valores y aspiraciones humanas se puedan realizar." Esta concepcion de una rebelion y una generosidad indisociables una de otra, y, a despecho de Albert Camus, ilimitable _tanto una en cuanto la otra_, los surrealistas la hacen suya, hoy, sin reservas. Liberada de las brumas mortales de estos tiempos, la consideramos como la unica capaz de hacer resurgir ante ojos cada vez mas numerosos:

        ¡La luminosa torre que sobre el mar domine!

        (CORRE@, # 15, pp. 16-18; febrero 1991)

        http://csl.tao.ca/anarquia/surrealismoya.html


        1954 -- Early in February of 1954, in the depths of the McCarthy era (later named Scoundrel Time by one of its most distinguished victims, Lillian Hellman), the world was startled by banner headlines announcing the double murder of the once flamboyant Greenwich Village poet & novelist Maxwell Bodenheim, along with his young fourth wife Ruth Fagan. Bodenheim's early fame rested less on his brilliant imagist verse than on such randy novels as Replenishng Jessica & Naked On Roller Skates, along with an assortment of notorious episodes that resulted in his expulsion from the Poetry Society as well as the loss of his family.

        At his trial the murderer claimed he deserved a prize for "killing a couple of reds." I'm certain part of the public agreed, having some months earlier celebrated the electrocution of Ethel & Julius Rosenberg like a mob at a lynching. I vividly recall, about that time, waiting for the Astoria train at Queens Plaza. A man was dragged out of another train, hurled onto the platform, & beaten by a frenzied bully because of his Stalinesque moustache, while the onlookers, including me, watched in silence. AARON KRAMER http://www.gvsu.edu/english/cummings/issue3/Kramer3.htm


        ?
        1963 -- Italy: BASTA ! Bisogna Abolire lo STAto !

        Crimini e Misfatti dello stato italiano dalle origini ai giorni nostri MOVING DATES

        1960-1968 Lo statismo clientelare : lo stato parolaio e imbroglione

        15 Novembre. Per protestare contro la censura di stato e contro il divieto di rappresentazione del dramma "Arialda" di Giovanni Testori, il regista Luchino Visconti e gli attori Rina Morelli, Paolo Stoppa e Umberto Orsini si rivolgono al presidente della repubblica Giovanni Gronchi che rifiuta di riceverli.

        28 Novembre. La Corte costituzionale ribadisce la validità dell'art. 589 del codice penale che punisce l'adulterio della moglie. La corte afferma che l'articolo non viola il principio di uguaglianza davanti alla legge in quanto l'infedeltà della moglie è più grave di quella del marito. Povere donne, cosa hanno fatto per meritarsi simili idioti di legislatori e di giudici!

        1962

        29 Novembre. Gli attori Dario Fo e Franca Rame abbandonano dopo otto puntate la trasmissione televisiva "Canzonissima" a seguito delle ripetute censure imposte dagli organi dello stato ai loro copioni.

        1963

        FEBRUARY 9 Febbraio. Con la nomina del socialista Luigi Grassini alla vicepresidenza dell'Enel (Ente nazionale energia elettrica), inizia il lungo e tormentato viaggio dei socialisti verso l'abbuffata.

        6 SETTEMBRE / SEPTEMBER. Il governo austriaco protesta contro lo stato italiano per l'assoluzione di alcuni carabinieri responsabili di aver torturato esponenti dell'irredentismo sudtirolese e accusa il governo italiano di aver violato la convenzione europea dei diritti dell'uomo.

        10 Ottobre. La tragedia del bacino del Vajont provoca la MORTE / DIED di 1989 persone. Lo stato è il massimo responsabile del disastro, nella persona dei componenti del Consiglio superiore dei lavori pubblici che facevano parte sia della commissione di approvazione del progetto che di quella preposta alla verifica dei lavori. Un progetto che non avrebbe mai dovuto trovare attuazione data la natura franosa dei terreni.

        1966

        4 Novembre. Una alluvione colpisce varie regioni dell'Italia centro-settentrionale. Decenni di incuria e di pessima amministrazione del territorio lasciato nelle mani fameliche dello stato e dei suoi speculatori sono alla base del disastro. Come conseguenza di ciò gli illusi o quelli in malafede chiederanno più stato e otterranno altre alluvioni e altri disastri.

        27 Novembre. Il primo presidente della Corte di Cassazione, Silvio Tavolano, partecipa ad una commemorazione del magistrato Alfredo Rocco, già ministro della giustizia sotto il fascismo. Si sancisce ancora una volta la diretta continuità tra i due regimi, soprattutto nel settore della cosiddetta 'giustizia' di stato.

        1967

        5 Ottobre. A Sassari vengono emessi tre mandati di cattura contro il dirigente della squadra mobile Elio Treliano, il commissario di pubblica sicurezza Giuseppe Balsamo e il brigadiere Giuseppe Gigliotti. Sono accusati di violenza privata, calunnia e falso ideologico per aver costretto un indiziato, del tutto estraneo ai fatti, a confessarsi colpevole.

        1968

        2 Dicembre. La polizia di stato spara contro i braccianti in sciopero ad Avola (Siracusa) : 2 morti e 50 feriti.

        1969-1979 Lo statismo criminale : lo stato terrorista tra coperture e complicità

        [^] [Polyarchy] [Basta!] [Indice : crimini e misfatti]


        [Source: Crimini e Misfatti] http://www.polyarchy.org/basta/crimini/dodici.html


        ?
        1968 -- This timeline focuses on some major events of 1968. When necessary or indicated, contextual background material, or certain subsequent events will be referenced in the text. This brief document cannot hope to touch on all or even most of the important happenings in what was perhaps an uniquely "eventful" year, but focuses especially on events referred to in the text of the interviews. A number of books have been particularly helpful in preparing this timeline, including: Daniels (1989) especially on events in Paris & Czechoslovakia; Kaiser (1988) for material on the US counterculture; Trager (1992) overall; & Witcover (1997) on US politics. Please refer to the bibliography for additional reference materials and memoirs by many of the important participants in the events of the year. | February

        <'/BLOCKQUOTE> Newport Folk Festival, Rhode Island July 17 1968 THIS DATE IS WRONG July 24 At the Newport (Rhode Island) Folk Festival singer Arlo Guthrie performs his 20 minute ballad "Alice's Restaurant" to rave reviews.i Ramblin' Jack Elliott, Buddy Guy, Pete Seeger, Joan Baez, Taj Mahal, Tim Buckley, Doc Watson, Janis Ian, Janis Joplin w. Big Brother, Arlo Guthrie's career exploded in 1967 with the release of "Alice's Restaurant", whose title song premiered at the Newport Folk Festival helped foster a new commitment among the '60s generation to social consciousness and activism. Arlo went on to star in the 1969 Hollywood film version of "Alice's Restaurant", directed by Arthur Penn. February 4 Martin Luther King Jr. delivers a sermon at his Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta which will come to be seen as prophetic. His speech contains what amounts to his own eulogy. After his death, he says, "I'd like somebody to mention that day that Martin Luther King Jr. tried to give his life serving others. I'd like for somebody to say that day that Martin Luther King Jr. tried to love somebody... that I tried to love & serve humanity,. Yes, if you want to, say that I was a drum major for peace... for righteousness." February 7 International reporters arrive at the embattled city of Ben Tre in South Vietnam. Peter Arnett, then of the Associated Press, writes a dispatch quoting an unnamed US major as saying, "It became necessary to destroy the town to save it." The quote runs nationwide the next day in Arnett's report. February 18 The US State Department announces the highest US casualty toll of the Vietnam War. The previous week saw 543 Americans killed in action, & 2547 wounded. February 27 Walter Cronkite reports on his recent trip to Vietnam to view the aftermath of the Tet Offensive in his television special Who, What, When, Where, Why? The report is highly critical of US officials & directly contradicts official statements on the progress of the war. After listing Tet & several other current military operations as "draw[s]" and chastising American leaders for their optimism, Cronkite advises negotiation "...not as victors, but as an honorable people who lived up to their pledge to defend democracy, & did the best they could."
        [Source: WholeWorld is Watching] http://www.manfredhelfert.de/janisjoplin/newport.html


        1968 -- MOVING DATES

        1968: a wall between this century 5 january TURIN One hundred students are suspended after having occupied. During the month there are demonstarations, sit-ins, & riots against the police. On the 23rd, the rector will close the university. 11 january MADRID Riots between students & policemen. Police charges students & arrests 30 of them. Spanish government decides for an hard-line & creates a special police-corp against students. More than 100 students are under arrest. 17 january BREMEN During some riots against police, a student is killed. All across Bremen explodes violence: 50 buses are flamed, more than one hundred students are arrested. 20 january NEW YORK A huge student strike, headed by actors, artist & scientists, condemns war in Viet-Nam. 5 FEBRUARY 5 FRANKFURT After an attack against U.S. consulate, a thousand students occupy Amerika Haus & raise National Front of Viet-Nam Liberation flag. TRENTO At faculty of Sociology is gathered a national meeting of the students that are pushing occupations across Italy. 18 FEBRUARY 18 BERLIN At Freie Universitat the international meeting about Viet-Nam concludes with an eneormous demonstration. 23 FEBRUARY 23 PARIS Thousands of persons demonstrate in the streets against american agression in Viet-Nam. Protest soon transforms itself in urban guerrilla. March 1 march ROME After police has pushed away students form the occupied university, 2000 students demonstrate against police & the government, & at Valle Giulia there is a urban battle against police. The result will be more than 200 person wounded, 40 students denunciated, & 4 arrested. In Italy there are 27 occupied university. 8 march WARSAW Violent riots of students against policemen 22 march NANTERRE Students occupy some bulildings. Large riots. One of the leaders of the contestation, Daniel Cohn Bendit, attacks the policies of the french Minister of Youth. It is born the Movement “22 march”. 11 april BERLIN The leader of the Socialist Youth League, Rudi Dutschke, is seriously wounded. Across FRG students attack the offices of Springer newspaper company, that had campaigned against the movement. 29 april NEW YORK Sit-in at Columbia University., organised by black students. In 100 american universities, lessons are interrupted. 2 may NANTERRE University students protest against Alain Peyrefitte, Minister of Education. A Faculty is closed & police irrupts in university institutes. This causes a chain reaction at La Sorbonne, in Paris. Police rounds university buildings. 6-10 may PARIS The revolt becomes wider & wider. From the Latin Quartier, many demostrations leave, headed by students & intellectuals. Police blocks the right side of the river, in order to slow the revolt. Violent riots cause hundreds of wounded students & policemen. 13-20 may PARIS Workers join the student movement. The protest spreads all across the country: in Nantes Sud-Aviation is occupied, & Renault is under strike. 50 factories are occupied, as well as schools, railways, mines, ports, energy plants. 22-30 may MILAN Milanese universities are occupied. Riots between students & neo-fascists. 31 may ROME Police attacks students in piazza Farnese, in front of the French Embassy. The next day, while the protesters are involved in judgement for the occupations, La Sapienza is occupied. 5 june PARIS Agreements are signed between industry owners & workers. Pcf & Cgt leave alone the student movement. LOS ANGELES Robert Kennedy, candidate for Democratic party, is murdered. 7 june MILAN 3000 students try to occupy the buliding of “Il Corriere della Sera”: 11 students are arrested & 250 are denunciated. 11 june PARIS Last night of Latin Quartier. Five days after occupation of La Sorbonne has finished September CHINA Mao ends the Cultural Revolution. Creating the Revolutionary Comittees at provincial level, the process of renewing communist policy has finished its experimentations. A speech in Beijing with thousands of crowd celebrates the new dictatorial adress of chinese government. 20 SEPTEMBER PISA With the Saint-Gobain strike, starts the “hot autumn” of italian workers. 16 october MEXICO CITY After their victory at 200ms of the Olympics, at the medail ceremony two black athlets, Tommie Smith & John Carlos, greet with the Black Power symbol, a black closed fist. 30 november ROME After the high school movement has started at national level, La Sapienza is occupied again after summer.
        1968: a wall between this century (apparently no longer online)


        1971 -- US: 1971 Richard Moore (Dhoruba al-Mujahid bin Wahad), a Black Panther field secretary, was charged with shooting and wounding 2 police officers guarding the home of Manhattan's district attorney. The case was overturned in 1990 & in 2000 the city agreed to pay Moore $490,000 for 19 years of wrong imprisonment. NEED EXACT MONTH & DAY


        1971 -- CHRONOLOGY

        1971

        July 1971

        23 Gianfranco Sanguinetti is expelled from France by the Ministry of the Interior.

        September

        Second edition of The Society of the Spectacle is published by éditions Champ Libre, Paris, in unaltered form in response to the unauthorized addition of the subtitle Situationist Theory to a reprint by the book's original publisher éditions Buchet/Chastel.

        Complete facsimile edition of all twelve issues of Internationale Situationniste. Van Gennep, Amsterdam.

        Exclusion of René Riesel, French section.

        TEMPLATE SI dingbat France: No More Flat Feet, tract denouncing Charlie Chaplin signed by the Lettrist International (Serge Berna, Jean-Louis Brau, Guy-Ernest Debord & Gil J. Wolman), is thrown into the crowd at a press conference for Chaplin's film Limelight at the Ritz Hotel, Paris.

        Also, before the month is out, Debord meets Marcel Mariën, Paul Nougé & Louis Scutenaire in Brussels.

        Lettrism, like all movements worthy of the name, engendered schisms & apostasies. One sect, the Lettrist International, led by Guy Debord, split off after the "left" lettrists, passing out abusive pamphlets, disrupted a Charlie Chaplin press conference.

        On Lettrism, see Greil Marcus, Lipstick Traces: A secret history of the twentieth century (Harvard, 1989; Margaret Moser, “Greil Marcus & the Mad Parade”, Austin Chronicle 10 Sep 1999) for a brief account of Lettrism, the Lettrist International (the “left wing” of Lettrism, & its offspring, the Situationist International).

        http://www.cddc.vt.edu/sionline/chronology/

        [Situationist Resources]




        1975 -- US: March 2003Transport Workers Union TWU This Month in Labor History SOME, MOST OR ALL OF THESE MAY HAVE ALREADY BEEN DONE IN THE BLEED; but the source link to our chronologies is new as of this month:

        This Month in Labor History: April

        • — — —
        • June 30, 1944 -- Philadelphia Local 234 wins first contract.

        This Month in Labor History: July

        • July 1, 1979 -- Local 2017, Lithecote Company employees in Altoona, PA win 32-day strike.
        • July 5, 1965 -- Equal Employment Opportunity Act (EEOC), federal agency which investigates discrimination charges, becomes operational.
          Pass on to Robert: August 3, 1945 -- San Francisco MUNI workers join Local 250. August 7, 1997 -- Local 574, American Eagle, Dallas, chartered.
        • August 16, 1937 -- TWU wins first contract at Fifth Avenue Coach in NYC.

          This Month in Labor History: August TO DO

        • August 23, 1927 -- Sacco & Vanzetti, two labor organizers, executed for alleged murder of two bank guards.
        • August 26, 1878 -- Third Avenue elevated line opened in NYC.
        • August 27, 1885 -- First electrically powered train tested on Ninth Avenue elevated line in NYC.
        • August 28, 1963 -- TWU participates in March on Washington for "equal rights for all now."
        • August 29, 1945 -- Successful 2-day strike at Columbia University by Local 241 after school had denied government directives for two years to recognize union.
        • August 29, 1989 -- Local 570, American Airlines, Nashville, chartered.
        • August 30, 1920 -- Attempt to organize BMT workers broken when court halts strike.
        • August 31, 1938 -- First TWU contract with Gray Line Bus.

        This Month in Labor History: September

        • September 1, 1988 -- Local 569, American Airlines, Raleigh-Durham, chartered.
        • September 1, 1992 -- Local 567, American Airlines, Alliance-Ft. Worth, chartered.
        • SEPTEMBER 6, 1916 -- Strike on IRT in NYC begins. Walkout broken when company spends $3.5 million & hires 3,000 strikebreakers.
        • SEPTEMBER 8, 1993 -- Local 249, Cobb County, GA, chartered.
        • SEPTEMBER 9, 1919 -- Over 1,000 Boston police strike when union leaders fired for organizing. National Guard called up & all strikers fired.
        • SEPTEMBER 12, 1960 -- TWU wins 12-day strike against Pennsylvania Railroad guaranteeing job security.
        • SEPTEMBER 14, 1959 -- Landrum-Griffin Act passed severely limiting trade union activity.
        • SEPTEMBER 18, 1905 -- Birthdate of Mike Quill, founder & first president of TWU.
        • SEPTEMBER 18, 1968 -- 12,000 Penn Central carmen, helpers, apprentices & food workers join TWU.
        • SEPTEMBER 19, 1981 -- Solidarity Day called by AFL-CIO, Over 400,000 trade unionist march in Washington.
        • SEPTEMBER 22, 1919 -- 365,000 steel workers strike nationally for union recognition. Police & courts break strike.
        • SEPTEMBER 26, 1945 -- First TWU Pan American contract gains 40 hour work week, first in industry.
        • SEPTEMBER 30, 1946 -- TWU Local 514, American Airlines, Tulsa, OK, chartered.

        This Month in Labor History: October

        • October 1, 1954 -- 40,000 CIO railway workers affiliate with TWU.
        • October 1, 1962 -- First New York City MABSTOA contract ratified.
        • October 1, 1985 -- Local 225 Branch 4 chartered.
        • October 4, 1937 -- First TWU Constitutional Convention.
        • October 5, 1976 -- Local 241 ratifies contract after nine-day strike at Columbia University, gaining wage increases, prescription plan, & increased health insurance coverage.
        • October 6, 1970 -- Local 291, representing Metro-Dade transit workers, chartered.
        • October 10, 1946 -- Local 241 strikes Columbia University for five days, gaining 40-hour work week.
        • October 12, 1937 -- First contract with BMT gains TWU recognition for 12,000 transit workers.
        • October 15, 1945 -- Air Transport Locals 504, New York, & 505, San Francisco, chartered.
        • October 22, 1945 -- First contract for Local 241, Columbia University, goes into effect.
        • October 24, 1978 -- Airline Deregulation Act passed. It leads to abandonment of routes, decreased service, bankruptcies of established carriers, & unfair competition, all fostered by new low-wage non-union airlines.
        • October 27, 1941 -- Employees of Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Railways vote TWU & form Local 223.
        • October 29, 1955 -- Local 276 in Waco wins 58 day strike.

        This Month in Labor History: November

        • November 1, 1918 -- Malbone tunnel disaster in NYC. Scab motorman crashes subway during strike killing 97 & injuring 255.
        • November 1, 1996 -- Local 555, Southwest Airlines, Dallas, chartered.
        • November 3, 1949 -- 12-day walk-out by Local 260 in Houston leads to first contract.
        • November 5, 1974 -- Local 250-A helps defeat Proposition L which would have destroyed their collective bargaining rights in San Francisco.
        • November 9, 1935 -- Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) founded.
        • November 11, 1887 -- 4 labor organizers hanged for alleged conspiracy in rioting & bombing at Chicago's Haymarket.
        • November 12, 1941 -- Local 208 chosen by Columbus transit workers in NLRB election.
        • November 14, 1958 -- KLM station agents & cargo handlers represented by Local 504 win first contract.
        • November 18, 1953 -- Local 100 private bus drivers win 40 hour work week.
        • November 19, 1982 -- Bus deregulation becomes law threatening riding public & transit workers with abandonment of routes, decreased service, & growth of non-union bus lines.
        • November 23, 1954 -- Local 2017 Altoona, chartered.
        • November 24, 1939 -- Local 100 wins bargaining rights at Triboro Coach.
        • November 24, 1941 -- Local 225, Hackensack, NJ, chartered.
        • November 26, 1968 -- Local 289, Upper Darby, PA, chartered.
        • November 26, 1996 -- Local 542 organizes America West dispatchers.
        • November 28, 1945 -- TWU certified to represent stores personnel at American Airlines.
        • November 29, 1937 -- Mike Quill elected Council member for the Bronx.

        This Month in Labor History: December

        • December 1, 1933 -- First issue of TWU newspaper, Transport Workers Bulletin, is published.
        • December 1, 1996 -- Local 225 organizes Gray Line ticket sellers.
        • December 2, 1994 -- Local 500 organizes Hudson-General.
        • December 4, 1952 -- Walter Reuther elected CIO president.
        • December 5, 1955 -- Merger of AFL & CIO. George Meany elected president.
        • December 8, 1970 -- Brick Township NJ Board of Education employees join TWU.
        • December 9, 1869 -- Knights of Labor founded.
        • December 16, 1946 -- Barnard College workers join TWU & form Local 264.
        • December 19, 1969 -- 6-time Socialist Party candidate, Norman Thomas, dies.
        • December 20, 1945 -- 10-day strike by Local 225, Hackensack, ends in victory.
        • December 22, 1935 -- First TWU radio broadcast airs on WEVD in NYC.
        • December 29, 1970 -- Congress passes Occupational Safety & Health Act.
        • December 30, 1941 -- Brooklyn Union Gas employees vote TWU & form Local 101.
      • January 1, 1968 -- Local 100 wins contract guaranteeing 20-year half pay pension.
      • January 2, 1920 -- Attorney General Palmer orders arrest & illegal deportation of 10,000 Americans, many of them trade union members & officers.
      • January 4, 1966 -- President Mike Quill & other TWU leaders jailed for violating anti-strike court injunction.
      • January 5, 1956 -- First TWU Railroad Division contract signed with Pennsylvania Railroad.
      • January 7, 1939 -- AFL organizer Tom Mooney freed after 22-year imprisonment on false charges. TWU grants him honorary membership.
      • January 9, 1980 -- Supervisors in San Francisco MUNI system form Local 200.
      • January 10, 1950 -- Amendment to Railway Labor Act gives employees right to negotiate for union shop & check-off. TWU's American Airlines members are first to win both.
      • January 11, 1912 -- 10,000 immigrant textile workers in Lawrence, MA begin historic "Breadand Roses" strike for better wages & dignity
      • January 12, 1962 -- President Kennedy signs Executive Order 10998 guaranteeing federal employees rights to collective bargaining.
      • January 13, 1966 -- $60 million settlement ends NYC transit strike.
      • January 16, 1961 -- Agreement after 26-hour strike by Local 234, Philadelphia, gains major contract.
      • January 20, 1979 -- Month long strike by Local 514 Zebco workers won.
      • January 26, 1937 -- Two-day sit down strike in Brooklyn power plant leads to major organizing in New York subways.
      • January 27, 1850 -- Birthdate of Samuel Gompers, president & founder of the American Federation of Labor.
      • January 28, 1966 -- Death of Michael J. Quill, founder & first president of TWU.
      • January 29, 1889 -- 6000 railway workers strike in sympathy with Brooklyn's Atlantic Ave. Railroad workers demanding union recognition & end to 18-hour day. Police & militia break up strike.
      • January 30, 1882 -- Birthdate of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

      This Month in Labor History: February

      • February 1, 1972 -- Local 540, flight dispatchers, chartered.
      • February 2, 1946 -- Winston-Salem Local 248 wins first contract.
      • February 4, 1869 -- Big Bill Haywood, miner, socialist, & founder of the Industrial Workers of the World, born.
      • February 5, 1975 -- Southwest flight attendants join TWU.
      • February 6, 1919 -- Seattle shipyard strike of 32,000 sparks a general strike as workers take control of city. Action brutally repressed.
      • February 10, 1946 -- After 2-day strike, Local 234 wins wage increases, company-paid pension & union shop.
      • February 11, 1997 -- Local 252 organizes Laidlaw Transit.
      • February 11, 1937 -- General Motors sitdown strike ends in Flint, Michigan, with recognition of UAW.
      • February 12, 1880 -- Birthdate of John L. Lewis, United Mine Workers president & first president of CIO.
      • February 17, 1936 -- TWU merges with the International Association of Machinists, AFL, but soon withdraws & joins the CIO.
      • February 20, 1952 -- First parking garage workers in Philadelphia join Local 700.
      • February 20, 1997 -- Local 500 organizes Gray Lines Ft. Lauderdale.
      • February 21, 1943 -- Local 234, Philadelphia, chartered.
      • February 27, 1969 -- 21-day strike against American Airlines gains big pay & pension improvements.
      • February 28, 1990 -- Local 590, Nashville, chartered.
      • February 28, 1995 -- Local 500 organizes Airbus Industries.

      This Month in Labor History: March

      • March 1, 1962 -- 28-day strike by Local 100 called when Fifth Ave. Coach fired 29 employees & threatened layoff of 1,500 others.
      • March 10, 1942 -- Local 101 wins recognition from Brooklyn Union Gas Co.
      • March 11, 1950 -- TWU workers at American Airlines win 11-day national strike gaining first severance pay clause in industry.
      • March 13, 1963 -- Local 260 Houston negotiates first contract with Pioneer Bus ending dual pay scales for black & white drivers.
      • March 14, 1944 -- TWU organizes Philadelphia transit workers into Local 234.
      • March 15, 1991 -- Local 234 begins successful 19-strike preventing introduction of part timers.
      • March 17, 1950 -- Half day work stoppage brings out 10,000 Local 100 members in support of 40 hour work week.
      • March 19, 1962 -- In effort to block massive layoffs & end strike NYC moves to seize privately-owned Fifth Avenue Coach, largest bus company in world.
      • March 20, 1997 -- Local 252 organizes Courtesy Bus.
      • March 21, 1965 -- TWU contingent marches in Selma, Alabama, to support voting rights drive.
      • March 22, 1995 -- Death of Matthew Guinan, second president of TWU.
      • March 23, 1932 -- Norris-LaGuardia Act restricts employer use of federal injunction against unions & bans "yellowdog" contracts.
      • March 24, 1974 -- Coalition of Labor Union Women (CLUW) founded.

        [Source, click here]




        Spikey fish
        1989 -- DAILYDOO MOVEABLE PLACEHOLDER 1989 orange diamond dingbat; new entry, remove 2007 1989 - Volantino sull'arresto di Alfredo Bonanno a Bergamo durante una rapina Giovedi FEBRUARY 2 FEBRUARY febbraio 1989 gli anarchici Alfredo Bonanno e Giuseppe Stasi vengono arrestati nel corso di una rapina a Bergamo. ? the anarchists Alfredo Bonanno & Giuseppe Stasi come arrest in the course of a holdup to Bergamo. It seizes to you from the police, up to the present it is unknown where they are ended.

        While the repressive apparatus prepares the usual montatura swelling the happened one, inventing a conspiracy that can justify the accusation of armed band in order to imply the greater number of anarchists, simple friends, relatives & knowing. Bonanno is one of the most famous theorists of the Italian anarchical movement, written its is famous in all Europe. The authority is understood well that if it wants to inculare it. Nel gennaio '89, un anno e mezzo dopo l'occupazione, 10 anni dopo lo scioglimento dell'ente morale proprietario del posto, il Comune si accorge di avere un posto occupato (la polizia se n'era già accorta dopo 13 giorni e l'aveva sgomberato manu militari; fu rioccupato la notte stessa). Delle tante iniziative e manifesti, un piccolo adesivo sparso per la città. ?[Source]: http://www.ecn.org/nautilus/vojacob.html
        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfredo_M._Bonanno On February 2, 2003 Bonanno was sentenced to 6 years plus a 2000 Euros fine (first degree 3 years, 6 months) for "armed robbery" & other crimes. These charges were related to the "Marini Trial", in which Italian anarchists were convicted of belonging to an eversive armed group ideally led by Bonanno. Bonanno was one of hundreds of Italian anarchists arrested on the night of June 19, 1997, when Italian security forces carried out raids on anarchist centers & private homes all over Italy. The raids followed the bombing of Palazzo Marino in Milan, Italy on April 25, 1997. Bonanno, an insurrectionary anarchist from Italy, has had a great impact on insurrectionary anarchism, writing essays such as "Armed Joy", "The Anarchist Tension" & others. He is an editor of Anarchismo Editions & many publications, only some of which have been translated into English. He has been involved in the anarchist movement for over thirty years. On national liberation struggles, he said that anarchists: "refuse to participate in national liberation fronts; they participate in class fronts which may or may not be involved in national liberation struggles. The struggle must spread to establish economic, political & social structures in the liberated territories, based on federalist & libertarian organisations." (Alfredo M. Bonanno, Anarchism & the National Liberation Struggle (1977)) http://www.ecn.org/elpaso/cda/press/rb130797.htm#english

        2004 -- ARTÍCULO 4 CRONOLOGÍA

        PRESENCIA INTERNACIONAL DEL ANARQUISMO (versión 3)

        - En Francia, aparece el número 1 del “Bulletin des Groupes Anarchistes”.

        - En Italia, Anarquistas y Socialistas fundan clandestinamente "El Partido Socialismo de la Romaña"

        - Charlturin y Schelvakov (en Rusia) atentan contra el general Strelnikov, no logrando escapar, serán ejecutados

        1882 

        - J.Most publica "Revolutionaire Kriegswissenschaft" se trata de un manual del uso de bombas.

        - La Banda Negra (Francia) empieza a enviar cartas anónimas a directores de empresa y funcionarios del Estado.

        -Nace en Poznan el 23 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 23 (Prusia, hoy Polonia) Albert Otto Feige identidad que se supone de B.Traven (Ret Marut).

        - En Francia aparece el periódico “L’ Etendard Révolutionaire “ (30 JULY julio- 15 de octubre OCTOBER).

        - El 21 de octubre se produce el primer atentado anarquista en Francia (Lyon) en el local "L' Assommir", tras el atentado Cyvoct huyó a Bruselas, pero fue detenido  más tarde y entregado a la policía francesa, juzgado y condenado a muerte le fue conmutada la pena y salió de presidio al cabo de 18 años.

        - El alemán Johann Most es puesto en libertad y se exilia en Nueva York.

        - J.Grave publica "La Societé au lendemain de la revolution".

        - El 21 de NOVEMBER noviembre muere el anarquista ruso Nechaev prácticamente de hambre en la misma celda que anteriormente había ocupado Bakunin en la Cárcel de Pedro y Pablo en San Petesburgo.

        - Aparece el primer número del Boletín del Orphelinat Prévost de Cempuis "L' Ecole Renove".

        - Nace el anarquista italiano Armando Borghi

        - En el mes de diciembre December Kropotkin es detenido en Thonon, Francia

        - Luisa Michel publica "La Misère" y "Les Meprisées".

        1883

        - El periodista Cyvoct es condenado a trabajos forzados por la bomba de Lyon en el Restaurante Teatro Bellecour.

        - El 10 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 10 en Rusia  es detenida Vera Figner acusada y  procesada por el atentado al Zar pasara 20 años en la prisión de  "Schlüsselburg"

        - El 9 de MARZO / MARCH 9 en una Manifestación de los "Sin Trabajo" son detenidos, Louise Michel y Emile Pouget  entre otros y condenados a cárcel hasta enero de 1886

        -En Francia se publica el periódico “La Lutte” APRIL (1 abril – 5 agosto)

        - Kropotkin es procesado en Lyon y encarcelado en Clairvaux, por pertenecer a la Internacional.

        - Ivan Mortensen, libertario Noruego que desde 1883 a 1890 fue redactor del periódico (Comunista anarquista) "Fedraheimen" de Bergen.

        - En Francia aparece el periódico “Le Drapeau Noir” (12 agosto- 2 de diciembre / DECEMBER)

        AUGUST

        - Nace la escritora anarquista Suiza Margarethe Faas Hardegger (1886-1963)

        - En Lyon Jean Ricard es condenado a 4 años de prisión

        - Emile Pouget publica el primer folleto antimilitarista revolucionario, se trata de "A l'Armée".

        - Emile Laverday(1835-1890) edita "Assemblées parlantes".

        - El socialista libertario inglés Edward Carpenter (1844-1929)publica "Towards Democracy".

        - Jules Vales de nuevo edita la revista “Cri du Peuple”

        - J.Most edita en Nueva York "Die Freie Gesellschaft"(sobre el colectivismo anarquista).

        - Jean Grave se traslada en septiembre a Basilea (Suiza)  hasta 1885 donde adquiere fuerte convicciones libertarias, al poco tiempo pasará a ser el director de “Revolte “ después de Eliseo Reclús.

        - “L’Eumete” se publica en Francia , el primer número saldrá el 9 de diciembre / DECEMBER y el último en enero del 84.

        - En California se crea la colonia icariana de "Icaria Speranza" con más de 50 colonos durará tres años

        - Luisa Michel publica " La fille du peuple".

        1884

        - Louis Chaves que trabaja en un convento de Marsella, atenta contra la Madre Superiora y

        luego espera la llegada de la policía con la que mantiene un tiroteo hasta que cae abatido.

        - El JANUARY 25 ENERO / JANUARY 25 en Viena es detenido Hermann Stellmacher y poco más tarde Anton Kammerer, serán acusados de varios atentados cometidos en Estrasburgo, Sttuttgart y Viena.

        - Reinsdorf que había sido detenido poco después del atentado de Francfort es condenado a pena de muerte junto a Küchler, en el mismo juicio a Rupsch se le conmuta la pena por

        ser menor de edad.

        - Congreso obrero en Chicago. Americanos y Canadienses deciden que el primero de mayo sea un día de reivindicaciones obreras. Pero no será hasta París 1889 cuando se internacionaliza la fecha.

        - En Francia se publica el periódico “Le Defi” (3 a 17 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 3 (WHY THE TWO DATES,,,CHECK THIS IN TRANSLATOR))

        -También aparece el periódico “Terre et Liberte” del que saldrán 18 números.

        - Y poco tiempo después otro periódico será “L’ Hydre Anarchiste” (FEBRUARY 24 febrero a MARCH 30 de marzo)

        - El 12 de ABRIL / APRIL 12 aparece en Bruselas el primer número de la revista anarquista "Le Proudhon” que tenía a  E. Laverdays (1835-1890) como redactor jefe y a E. Potelle como director.

        - Otro periódico que se publicó en Francia será “L’Alarme” (13 de ABRIL / APRIL 13 al Primero de Junio)

        - El nuevo periódico será ahora “Le Droit Anarchique”” (8 al 22 de junio)

        - Revuelta en Chichibu (Japón) donde son arrojados de la ciudad los policías, usureros y prestamistas.

        - Robert Reitzel (1849-1898) de origen alemán emigrado a EEUU publica el semanario "Der Arme Aeufel" fue uno de los oradores ante la tumba de los mártires de Chicago.

        - Aparece en Inglaterra el primer escrito sobre anarquismo de Elisée Reclús se trata de "Anarchy By an anarchist".

        - El 25 de diciembre / DECEMBER 25 es ejecutado el revolucionario ruso Myschkin en el mismo lugar donde tres meses antes Minakov había corrido la misma suerte.

        - Malatesta, perseguido por casi todas las policías europeas  debe partir hacia Buenos Aires.

        - LOUISE Michel publica "Contes et légendes".

        1885 

        - "Der Arbeter Fraint" aparece en Londres la primera revista libertaria escrita en Hebreo.

        - El tipógrafo Henry Seymour funda "The anarchist" y le da una mayor difusión al anarquismo londinense ya que “Liberty” tenía muy poca tirada.

        - El 13 ENERO / JANUARY 13 en venganza por la condena de Reinsdorf y Kückler es acuchillado el inspector de policía de Francfort, Rumpf, por este acto es detenido y condenado a muerte Julius Lieske.

        - Se crea la Federación de los Trabajadores del Uruguay" que tiene su órgano de expresión en "Federación de los Trabajadores"

        - Enrique Malatesta llega a Río de la Plata.

        - El MARCH 6 de marzo sale el último número (24) de "Le Revolte" pasa a llamarse "La Révolta" siendo su director Jean Grave hasta 1894, ya en París.

        - Nettlau visita por primera vez Londres y conoce a W.Morris y las tertulias de "Socialist League". "Lo que cuenta en materia de progreso y de evolución general es el hombre y no la clase".

        - Se publica "Légendes et chants de gestes canaques" de LOUISE Michel.

        - Kropotkin publica “Paroles d’un révolté”  que son artículo recogidos publicados en la revista “Le Revolte” en años anteriores.

        1886

        - El MARCH 9 de marzo Luisa Michel pronuncia una conferencia en el teatro "Chateau d' Eau" de París con el resultado de cuatro meses de cárcel y 100 francos de multa

        - Francois Claude Koeningstein Ravachol (1859-1892) la primera acción violenta que se le imputa fue el MARCH 26 de marzo.

        - El MAY 1º de Mayo se funda el primer grupo anárquico de Australia en Melbourne.

        - El Catalán Enrique Messonier y Enrique Roig San Martín (1843-1889) introducen las ideas ácratas en la Isla de Cuba y publica "El Productor"

        - El MAY 3 de mayo se produce un enfrentamiento entre policías y huelguistas de la fábrica Mc Cormick Harvester (de segadoras), cerca de Chicago. Al día siguiente los huelguistas se reúnen en la Plaza de Haymareket y cuando ya se disolvían aparece una dotación de la policía, el resultado fue de 7 policías y un más elevado número de huelguistas muertos. A consecuencia de estos hechos hubo una redada policial en los medios anarquistas, fueron detenidos y más tarde ejecutados (Parson, Editorial Alarm), Spies (Editorial Arbeiter Zeitung), Georg  Engel y Adolph Fischer, que muy pronto se convirtieron en los mártires de Chicago.

        - Spies declarará en el juicio: Si la muerte es el castigo por proclamar la verdad, entonces pagaré con actitud orgullosa y desafiante este precio ¡Llamad al verdugo! La verdad fue crucificada en Sócrates, Cristo, Giordano Bruno, y todavía vive en Huss, en Galileo. Ellos y otros que forman legión nos han precedido en este camino ¡Estamos dispuestos a seguirlos!.

        - Kropotkin sale en libertad de la cárcel, se exilia en Inglaterra donde escribe regularmente en "Nature" y  "Times".

        - Huelga de los mineros de Decazeville (Francia) es arrojado por la ventana el ingeniero Watrin.

        - Charles Gallo arroja un explosivo en la Bolsa de París y al comprobar sus escasos efectos dispara a quién intenta detenerlo.

        - Clement Duval reúne a un grupo de anarquistas que se daban el nombre de "Panteras de Batignolles".

        - Comienzan a llegar los colonos de la comunidad Owenista a Topolobampo (México)

        - Bidault (1869- 1938) y Niquet fundan en el mes de agosto en  Francia la “Liga de antipatriotas”

        - En Brescia (Italia) aparece el periódico "Lo Sperimentale"

        - Aparecen publicados los libros de L. Michel "Les Microbes humains" y "Mémoires".

        1887

        - En el mes de enero sufre un atentado  Louise Michel mientras hablaba en una reunión, un anciano monje le disparó a quemarropa destrozándole el oído y la otra bala se alojó en la cabeza.

        - Kropotkin funda en Inglaterra la revista anarquista "Freedom"

        - El 18 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER se funda "El Club anarquista de Boston", su principal impulsor será Benjamin R.Tucker y su sede estaba  en "Tremont Street nº477 aunque la reunión fundacional se hizo en "La Grange” street nº19

        - El 11 de NOVEMBER noviembre son ahorcados los mártires de Chicago.

        - El 13 de NOVEMBER noviembre en protesta por las muertes de Chicago, tiene lugar una Manifestación en Londres que es disuelta violentamente por la policía en Trafalgar Square conocida como "Domingo sangriento"

        - En Melbourne (Australia) aparece la revista libertaria "Honesty".

        - Albert Owen publica en EEUU "El sueño de una ciudad ideal".

         - Lazarus Ludwig Zamenhof (Polaco) después de largos años de trabajo presenta el primer manual de la lengua Internacional Esperanto.

        - John Neve(anarquista alemán) es deportado desde EEUU a Alemania donde un tribunal de Leipzig lo condena a 15 años de trabajos forzados falleció en presidio en 1896.

        - Edward Bellamy escribe la utopía "Looking Backward 2000" publicado en Boston.

        - En el mes de mayo Gratschevski del Grupo Nihilista ruso "Narodnaia Volia" (Voluntad del pueblo) hartó de las duras condiciones de vida del penal de Sclusselburg se inmola.

        - Se funda en Buenos Aires el primer sindicato obrero de Panaderos.

        - En Cuba, E.Messonier y Enrique Creci fundan la Federación local de Tabaqueros en Tampa y Cayo Hueso

        - Luisa Michel publica "L' Era nouvelle, pensée dernière, souvenir de Calédonie".

        - Henry Fèvre (1864?- 1937) anarquista, antimilitarista francés publica “Au Port d’ Armés”.

        1888 

        - Aparece el primer número del periódico libertario Noruego  "Fredaheimen" que durará hasta 1891, impulsado por Arne Garborg y Ivar Mortensen.

        - La “Sociedad de resistencia de obreros panaderos” se extiende por las principales ciudades Argentinas.        

        - En Portugal, después de una visita de Reclús se crea un grupo libertario en Lisboa que lanzará un manifiesto anarco-comunista y poco después edita la revista "A Centelha".

        - Nace A.M de Jong en Brabante (Holanda).

        - William Morris publica "How we live anh how we night live" (Cómo vivimos y cómo podíamos vivir).

        - Se publican en Francia las obras de Luisa Michel "A trevers la vie " poesía  "Le monde nouveau" "Les crimes de l'époque"  "Lectures encyclopédiques".

        1889 

        - Se crea la 2ª Internacional y en París se celebran dos congresos rivales en los que participan algunos anarquistas que en diferentes sesiones son expulsados.

        - Charles Malato  publica "La Philosophie de l'anarchie".

        - El Mutualista Jacques Raux publica "L'Anarchie et la revolution".

        - Malatesta regresa a Europa.

        - Pouget funda el periódico “Pere Peinard”

        - Huelga General en Cayo Hueso(Cuba).

        - Luisa Michel y su compañera Charlotte Vauvel parten hacia Londres donde montaran una escuela de idiomas que tendrá una periodicidad de siete años.

        1890  

        - Oscar Wilde da su aportación literaria al anarquismo con "The soul of man under socialism".

        - El economista liberal húngaro Theodor Hetzka elabora la utopía "Freiland ein soziales Zukunftsbild" y de  su libro se hizo un proyecto de colonia experimental a gran escala en Kenia Kilimandjaro y cuando ya todo estaba a punto el gobierno inglés impidió el desarrollo del proyecto.

        - Kropotkin escribe "La Moral anarquista"

        - En Bélgica aparece la revista libertaria "La Reforma sociale" que más tarde pasará a ser "La Questione sociale".

        - En Inglaterra en la revista "The Commonweal" aparece en fascículos "News From Nowhere" de William Morris (1834-1896) desde el 11 ENERO / JANUARY 11 hasta el 14 de octubre.

        -En París es fuertemente reprimida la Primera convocatoria del 1 de mayo

        - Salen de Génova los primeros utopistas Italianos, para fundar la Colonia "Cecilia" en el Estado Brasileño de Paraná. (duró 4 años).

        - Aparece en Buenos Aires el periódico "El Perseguido" y son sus redactores habituales Gregorio Inglán, Rafael Roca, Pierre Quirole y Manuel Reguera y  también a partir del 12 de diciembre / DECEMBER de edita la revista "El Obrero”.

        - En México Catarino Garza se subleva con un pequeño ejército de campesinos contra el régimen de Porfirio Díaz.

        - En Cuba es asesinado un confidente de la policía, e inmediatamente la represión gubernamental suspende el periódico "El Productor", e inculpando a 11 libertarios.

        - En Sao Paolo se edita el primer número de "El Amigo del Pueblo" y en Río de Janeiro "La Voz del Pueblo".

        - Luisa Michel publica "Prise de possession".

        - Nace el 11de diciembre / DECEMBER en italia la poetisa libertaria Virgilia d’Andrea (1890-1934)

        - Nace Jeanne Humbert (1890-1986) anarquista rumanesa que murió en París siendo uno de sus principales trabajos  "Contre la guerre qui vient".

        - Nace Víctor Serge(Kilbatchiche) 1890-1947

        1891  

        - John Henry Mackay (poeta anarquista alemán) seguidor de la lectura de Tucker, Stirner y Proudhon publica "Die Anarchisten".

        - Gustav Landauer, después del congreso de Erfurt se aproxima a las tesis de Tolstoi y propugna la resistencia pasiva.

        - Alejandro Berkman se traslada a Homestead (EEUU) para vengar la muerte de varios huelguistas de la ciudad masacrados por la policía, y atenta contra Henry Clay Frick director de "Acereria de Carnegie Co.". Será detenido y condenado, pasará 14 años en presidio.

        - Charles Malato publica "Revolution chrétienne et révolution sociale".

        - Aparece el primer número de la "Revue Blanche"(Francia) que tendrá una continuidad hasta 1903

        - El 5 de mayo aparece el primer número de la revista "L' Endehors" que  está dirigida por Zo d' Axa (Alphonse Galland) la revista dejará de publicarse el 19 FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 19 de 1893.

        - Alessandro Atabek, Libertario Armenio, traduce por primera vez a su lengua natal, las obras de Kropotkin, Reclús y Malatesta.

        - La F.O.R.A. Argentina organiza su primer congreso.

        - En Capolago(Italia) se intenta dar vida al "Partido Socialista Anarchico Rivoluzionario Internazionale"

        - En Noruega se organiza el grupo anarco-comunista "Libertas"

        - En Francia aparece la revista cultural "L'Art Social" -órgano de los mejor inspirados- dirigida por La Salle colaboran Hamon y Pelloutier.

        - Domela Niewenhuis (anarquista, holandés) participa en el "Congreso Internacional Socialista de Bruselas" donde presenta una ponencia para ahuyentar el peligro de guerra en Europa por medio de la  concienciación del proletariado europeo y la huelga general. Tesis rebatida por G.Liebknecht.

        - Se crea en México la colonia "Topobolampo colony" fundada por Albert K Owen  que estuvo activa durante nueve años.

        - El anarquista ruso Joseph C Cohen emigra a Filadelfia USA.

        - En Italia aparece la revista "Pensiero e Dinamita" dirigida por el anarquista Schicchi.

        - El 12 de junio Malatesta es detenido en Lugano.

        - En NOVEMBER noviembre Malatesta Llega a Barcelona  acompañado de Pedro Esteve recorrerá media España  dando mítines llegando hasta Jerez donde coincidieron con la insurrección campesina (8 y de  9 FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 8 1892)

        - En Brasil, por todo el país aparecen revistas libertarias como "El Socialista" en Bahía, Tribuna Operária en Belem, "La Voz del Artista" en Goiás

        - En Francia, se publica "Le claque-dents" de Luisa Michel.

        1892  

        - Fundación de la Biblioteca anarquista en Ginebra.

        - Kropotkin publica  en Londres "La conquista del Pan" y uno de los pocos trabajos que el anarquismo a dedicado al derecho,  se trata de "La ley y la autoridad" (en francés y ruso)

        - En Berlin el 12 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 12 nace el antimilitarista Teodoro Pliever

        - El 14 de Julio en Saint Étienne muere ejecutado Ravachol. El órgano anarquista "Pere Peinard" de la  época dice: "La Cabeza de Ravachol a rodado a sus pies, ahora temen que pueda explotar como una bomba".

        - 18 de Julio muere Carlo Cafiero en un sanatorio, después de haber vagado por numerosas cárceles y sanatorios del país.

        - El 8 de NOVEMBER noviembre   Emile Henry (Francia) colocó su primera bomba en la avenida de la Opera murieron cuatro policías.

        - Se funda la "Fédération des Bourses du Travail" (FBT)siendo su director Ferdinand Pelloutier hasta 1901 año de su fallecimiento.

        - Edouard Drumont (1844.1917) funda el periódico antisemita “Libre Parole” , periódico que jugo un importante papel en el Caso Dreyfus.

        - Por un delito llamado de imprenta es condenado en Francia el director de "L' Endehors" Zo d'Axa a siete años de cárcel.

        - En Bruselas, Merlino defensor del ilegalismo publica "Necessité et bases d'une entente".

        - Aparecen en Nueva York las revistas libertarias "Solidarity" y "Il Grido degli oppressi"

        - Ferdinand Pelloutier(1867-1901) en el congreso de Tours presenta su ponencia sobre "La Huelga General".

        - Nace en Alemania Agustín Souchy

        - Se crea en Cuba el "Partido Revolucionario Cubano" de clara tendencia descentralizadora con  "democracia directa" no parlamentarista.

        - En Brasil se editan las revistas "El Operario" de Fortaleba y de Amazonas.

        1893

        - Segundo congreso de la 2ª Internacional en Zurich, son expulsados 60 anarquistas.

        - Léauthier atenta contra el embajador de Servia en París.

         - B.R.Tucker publica "Instead of a Book" en New York, se trata de una recopilación significativa de sus artículos en “Liberty” que deja elaborado el concepto de anarquismo que él tenía.

        - El 9 de diciembre / DECEMBER, Auguste Vaillant lanza una bomba en el hemiciclo parlamentario a fin de vengar a Ravachol

        - Nace en Inglaterra Albert Read  1893-1968 filósofo anarquista y crítico de arte.

        - Aparece en Montevideo el periódico "Tribuna Libertaria" que tiene continuidad hasta 1900

        - Rudolf Rocker tiene que emigrar de Alemania a Francia por las persecuciones que sufre.

        - Paul Robin (1837-1912)  Escribe su "Manifiesto a los partidarios de la educación integral"

        - Jean Grave publica "La Societe mourante et l'anarchie" que es una ampliación de su trabajo editado en 1882

        - Christian Cornelissen trata de organizar en Holanda, los sindicatos y federarlos en "Nationaal Arbeids Secretariat"

        - En Chicago se celebra La Conferencia Internacional, que prohibida por la policía llego a celebrarse en clandestinidad, participan en ella Pedro Esteve como representante de España y Cuba.

        - Elisée Reclús termina "Nouvelle Géographie Universelle".

        - Muere el utopista Víctor Considerant       

        - El anarquista individualista Paolo Schicchi es condenado en Viterbe (Italia) a 12 años, por un atentado contra el consulado español.

        - En Paraguay un grupo de owenistas funda "Cosme colony".

        - Los libertarios italianos en Brasil editan la revista "L'Avvenire" en Sao Paulo.

        1894 

        - El 5 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 5 es ejecutado A. Vaillant en Francia

        - En Italia en el mes de enero Merlino es detenido e ingresa en prisión.

        - Es detenido en Londres Theodule Meunier acusado de los atentados con bomba de los cuarteles Lobau de París y del Bar / Restaurante donde fue detenido Ravachol.

        - El anarquista Italiano Sante Caserio atenta contra el presidente de la República Francesa Sadi Carnot, en Lyon.

        - A su regreso del exilio en Londres Emily Henry (fiel seguidor de las teorías de Ravachol) volvió a colocar  una bomba en el Café Terminus de París (12 FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 12) donde murió una persona.

        - En París aparece la revista naturista “L’Etat Naturel” dirigida por Emile Gravelle.

        - El anarquista Belga Pauwels, resulta herido cuando le estalla la bomba que el mismo trasportaba y que pretendia hacer estallar en la Iglesia de la Madeleine de París.  (15-3-1894)

        - Sante Caserio es ejecutado el 15 de agosto.

        - Charles Malato publica "De la Commune à l'Anarchie"

        - El libertario armenio Atabek publica la revista "Haimaink" (La Comuna)

        - Jean Grave es detenido en París y acusado de incitación a la rebelión y por asociación de malhechores. (Proceso de los treinta).

        - Aparece en Buenos Aires la Revista "La questione sociale" en Italiano dirigida por Fortunato Serantini. Dos años más tarde la misma se escribirá en castellano y el título pasará a ser "Ciencia social".

        - En Dijon, Monod es condenado a 5 años de trabajos forzados por fundar un periódico anarquista, no volvera hasta Francia hasta 1900.

        1895  

        - Jean Grave publica "La Société future".

        - Como consecuencia de la ola de atentados es prohibida la prensa anarquista como “Le Revolte”, “Pere Peinard”, “La Revue Libertaire”, etc. Inmediatamente después de la prohibición Jean Grave fundará "Les Temps  Nouveaux" (1895-1914), será puesto en libertad el 15 ENERO / JANUARY 15 .

        - León Tolstoi funda en Rúsia la Escuela “Iásnaia Polaina” “Dejen a los niñoss que decidan por si mismos lo que les conviene”

        - Sebastián Faure deja impreso su pensamiento en la obra "La Doleur Universelle, Philosophie Libertaire".

        - El 7 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 7 son expulsados de Suiza 18 anarquistas Italianos entre ellos Pietro Gori.

        - En Francia el periodista Víctor Barrucand promueve una campaña de “Pan gratuito”

        - En NOVEMBER noviembre S. Faure, P Robin, Vernet, Yvetot, E.  Pouget, H. Ryner editan el primer número de la revista "Le Libertaire " revista que durará hasta los inicios de la primera guerra mundial (1914).

        - Zo d' Axa publica "Le Grand Trimard".

        - En San Francisco aparece la revista libertaria "The Firebrand" que más tarde pasará a Chicago y New York con el título de "Frey Society".

        - Muere en Francia  A. Crie (1853-1895)  Comunnard y compañero de Lissagaray fue redactor del periódico fundado por éste último “La Bataille”

        - Los emigrantes italianos a EEUU editan "Questione sociale" que más tarde pasará a ser "L' Era Nuova".

        - Se crea la CGT Francesa, en el Congreso de Limoges.

        - Emily Pouget de vuelta a Francia edita el periódico "La sociale".

        - Elisée Reclús inicia sus trabajos en "L'Homme et la Terre".

        - P. Martinet y H.Dupont fundan el París el periódico individualista “Renaissances” del cual saldrán 117 números.

        - Se publica por última vez, el 1 de agosto, el periódico anarquista “La Revolta” .

        - Paul Robin funda "Education Integrale".

        - Paul Robin crea una asociación universal para propagar la idea de la educación integral, ésta se llamará "Liga para la regeneración humana" y su portavoz será “Régénération”(1895-1908)

        - En Río Grande (Brasil) se crea “La Escuela de Unión de Trabajadores”

        - Augustin Hamon (1862-1945) publica en Francia  “Philosophie de l’anarchiste socialiste”

        - Nace en París Pierre Robert Piller (Gastón Leval)

        - Nace en Livorno (Italia) Ezio Taddei

        - En el mes de diciembre / DECEMBER nace Hildegart Taege en Settin (germano/polaca) compañera de Orobón Fernández

        - En Río de Janeiro aparece la revista "Il Diretto".

        1896

        - AIT Congreso de Londres escisión definitiva entre anarquistas y marxistas.

        - Fernand Pelloutier, Jean Grave, Paul Delesalle, etc crean el grupo "El arte social".

        - En Amberes aparecen las revistas libertarias "Van Nu en Staks" y "Ontwaking"(1896-1910) en lengua flamenca.

        - En Bulgaria se crea la sección de la AIT Anti-autoritaria son sus impulsores S. Goulapehev, N. Stoinov y V. Kilifarski.

        - En Copenhagen aparece la revista "Proletaren".

        - El gobierno Portugués de Joâo Franco dicta la ley del 13 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 13 de 1896 para deportar a todo anarquista a la Isla de Timor.

        - 2ª Internacional Congreso, de nuevo una fuerte delegación de anarquistas asiste al congreso, hablaron Malatesta, Landauer, Nieuwenhuis, al segundo día fueron expulsados.

        28 de Julio, el mismo día de ser  expulsados, celebraron un gran mitin en el Hallor Town Hall

        - En Paraguay se funda "Nueva Australia" bajo la dirección de William Lain con el nombre de Colonia "Cosme".

        - En Argentina aparece el periódico "La revolución social" dirigido por Manuel Reguera y Gregorio Inglán.

        - Manuel da Silva Mendes (1867-1931) publica en Portugal "O Socialismo libertario ou o Anarquismo".

        - En Londres se crea "The associated anarchist".

        - En Inglaterra se crea la comuna de tendencia Tolstoiana de "Purleigh" durara 6 años.

        - Muere William Morris.

        1897 

        - Se publica en París "L' Evolution, la revolution et l' ideal anarchique" que recoge el pensamiento de Elisse Reclús.

        - Se funda en París "La Société des Cartes et travaux géograohiques Elisée Reclús"

        - Anarquistas y socialistas japoneses crean "La Unión de los trabajadores del Acero" y su órgano de expresión "El Mundo del Trabajo".

        - El grupo anarquista de Buenos Aires "Centro de Propaganda Obrera" edita ""La Protesta Humana" " que más tarde pasará a ser "La Protesta"(en 1904)

        - Nace la anarquista norteamericana Dorothy Day (1897-1980)

        - Para contestar a la Socialdemocracia alemana los anarquistas crean la "Freie Vereinigumg Deutscher Gewerkschaftel" (Liga libre de los sindicatos obreros alemanes).

        - En Francia Agustín Hamon funda el periódico “L’Humanite Nouvelle”.

        - Gustav Landauer crea "Sozialistische Bund" que con el tiempo evolucionará hacia el socialismo consejista.

        - El joven Italiano Pietro Acciarito atenta contra el Rey Humberto, que por azar evita el golpe. Acciarito será detenido y condenado a cadena perpetua.

        - Michele Angiolillo atenta contra Antonio Canovas del Castillo como venganza por los procesos de Montjuich.  Angiolillo será ajusticiado a garrote vil, en el momento de su muerte gritó "Germinal" título de uno de los libros más importantes de Emilio Zola, donde la figura central de la obra es un anarquista.

        - El Dadaísta Alfred Jarry comienza sus aportaciones literarias en la Revista "Revue Blanche".

        - Max Nettlau publica "Bibliographie de l'Anarchie" en Bruselas.

        - Cerca de Newcastle (Inglaterra) se crea la colonia utopista "Forest Hall".

        - Jean Grave edita "El individuo y la sociedad".

        - En Francia se publica la revista “L’Aurore” dirigida por Ernest.Vaughan (1841- 1929)

        - Nace en Italia Camilo Berneri

        - Se publica "The gods & the People" de Voltarine de Cleyre.

        - Muere Henry Louis Tolain, (uno de los fundadores de la AIT en París)

        - La CGT celebra un congreso en Toulouse donde Emile Pouget presenta una ponencia sobre el Sabotage

        1898  

        - J.H.Mackay reúne diversos artículos de Stirner y publica "Kleinerr Schriften" edición que será aumentada en 1914 por Gustav Mayer.

        - Ebenezer Howard publica "Tomorrow, a peaceful way to social reform", estudio que propició poco más tarde la fundación de "Garden City Association".

        - Jean Grave publica "L'Individu et la société"

        - En Ancona (Italia) se funda el periódico "La agitazione"

        - Aparece en Holanda el periódico "De Vrije Socialist" impulsado por Domela Nieuwenhuis.

        - En Noruega se publica el periódico "Anarkisten" que más tarde se llamará "Til Frihet" (1898-1904) el impulsor será Kristofer Hansteen (1865-1906).

        El 6 de Febrero FEBRUARY 6 aparece el primer número de "Le Journal du Peuple".

        - El 8 de julio nace en Châteaubriant, May


        2004 -- ARTÍCULO 4 CRONOLOGÍA PRESENCIA INTERNACIONAL DEL ANARQUISMO (versión 3)

        1898 1898

        - En Londres Rudolf Rocker se hace cargo de la redacción del periódico anarco-judío “Arbeiterfreund".

        - El General Bava Beccaris masacra al pueblo Milanés.

        - En Río de Janeiro se funda el grupo anarquista "Angiolillo" y su órgano de expresión será "O Despertar".

        - En Sao Paulo se funda el periódico "L'Operario" en lengua Italiana.

        1899 

        - Jean Grave edita "L' Anarchie, son but, ses moyens".

        - Malatesta funda el Periódico "Associazione" primero en Niza y más tarde en Londres.

        - Varlan Cherkesof (1845-1925) libertario ruso amigo de Nechaef, publica en Bruselas "Précurseurs de l' Internationale"

        - F. Pelloutier publica "Lettre aux anarchistes " donde invita a los anarquistas a organizarse en los sindicatos obreros.

        - Nace la pintora ácrata austríaca Grette Zaharastnik

        - Se publica en Francia “En conquète vers l’Etat Naturel”de  Henri Zisly

        - Jean Grave organiza una tómbola para sufragar los gastos de la prensa anarquista, para ello se prestan los pintores Signac, Van Dongen, Francis Jourdan, Camile Pizarro, etc.

        - Max Nettlau lee "La Responsabilidad en la lucha obrera" en una velada organizada en Londres por el grupo “Freedom”. "Quién no piensa por si mismo, ha de supeditarse al pensamiento ajeno".

        - Aparece en Ancona (Italia) el número único de "I Morti".

        - Se crea en Holanda la comuna anarcotolstoniana de "Blarikum", experiencia que durará hasta 1903.

        - Malatesta parte hacia Estados Unidos donde sufrirá un atentado con herida de bala en el pie.

        - En Paraná Brasil aparece la revista "Il Distrito".

        1900

        - Ricardo Flores Magón funda en México el periódico "Regeneración" apareciendo su primer número el 7 de agosto.

        - En París se celebra un Congreso Anarquista Internacional.

        - El anarcosindicalista Italiano Gaetano Bresci atenta contra el Rey Umberto.

        - El Pedagogo Italiano Luigi Molinari funda la Universidad Popular.

        - En Buenos Aires  el 22 de noviembre NOVEMBER se inicia una  huelga de Sombrereros que durara tres largos meses.

        - Aparece el primer número de “Régéneration” órgano de la Liga de la Regeneración Humana.

        - Rudolf Rocker publica en Londres la revista "Germinal" en Ydisch (Hebreo) hasta 1908.

        1901 

        - Aparece en Uruguay el periódico "Solidaridad" Organo de la F.O.R.U.

        - Nace el 19 de ABRIL / APRIL 19 en La Plata (Argentina) Edgar Ricetti,(Pedagogo).

        - Paul Robin publica un folleto sobre "Técnicas del suicidio",  motivado por la muerte de Laura y Paul Lafargue.

        - Emilie Armand funda "L' Ere Nouvelle" revista de emancipación integral que tiene una segunda época en 1910

        - Malatesta se instala en Londres ayudado por el abogado anarquista Merlino, y allí funda el periódico "L'Internazionale" del cual aparecerán 4 números (12 de enero hasta 5 mayo) y más tarde "L' Scopiero Generale “ (La huelga General)

        - Gaetano Bresci atenta con éxito contra Humberto I en Monza. Bresci será condenado a trabajos forzosos. Morirá el 22 de mayo de 1901 en la penitenciaria de Santo Stefano.

        - El 6 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER el Polaco León Czolgosz atenta en Búfalo(EEUU)contra el presidente de los Estados Unidos. A partir de este día una ley prohibe la entrada de los anarquistas en EEUU (Vigente hoy).

        - En Viena G. Butaud (1869?- 1926) funda el periódico “Flambeau” (Organo de los enemigos de la autoridad) hasta marzo de 1902.

        - Los Búlgaros Sokolov y Merdjanov con varios hombres más se enfrentan al ejército Búlgaro en una guerra de guerrillas. Sokolov muere en combate mientras que Merdjanov será detenido y condenado a muerte el 27 de noviembreNOVEMBER .

        - Jean Grave publica "Las aventuras de Nono" que se convertirá en un clásico de la lectura de la "Escuela Moderna"

        - Muere el Comunard, Gustave Lefrançois (1826-1901)

        - E. Reclús y Jorge Guyau publican en  Francia “L’anarchie et l’Eglise”

        - En París el anarquista Andrés Girard publica el folleto  “Anarchie” con claras referencias a comportamientos libertarios de siglo anteriores.

        1902  

        - Kropotkin publica "El apoyo mutuo"

        - Emile Pouget es nombrado director del órgano sindical "La Voix du Peuple" Portavoz de la CGT

        - La “Federation Bourses Travail” se fusiona dentro de la CGT.

        - Siegfried Nacht publica en Londres "Der Generalstrick und die soziale revolution"

        - En Brasil aparece el primer número de "O Crepusculo" dirigido por Avelino Foscalo (1864-1944).

        - En Minnesota se instala la comuna anarquista de "Golden Life".

        - En Francia se funda la comuna "Milieu libre de Vaux" fundada por Butaud y Sofía Zaïkowska.

        - Aparece en Chile el periódico libertario "El Faro" (Santiago de Chile).

        - El grupo “La Bataille” de Namur publica el folleto anticlerical “La lèpre religieuse”

        1903 

        - Kotoku y Toshihiko Sakai fundan en Japón el periódico anarquista "Heimin Shimbun"

        - Jean Grave publica "Malfaiteurs" una colección de memorias.

        - El emigrado catalán  a EEUU Pedro Esteve es el impulsor del periódico "El despertar"

        - La FORA Argentina celebra su primer congreso.

        - En la Macedonia (Bulgaria) se publica la revista libertaria "Vendetta".

        - El anarquista Rafael Barret (Nacido en Santander) llega a Buenos Aires.

        - Elisée Reclús finaliza el "Hombre y la Tierra"

        - Muere J.B.Clement (1863-1903) conocido poeta y cancionista de la comuna de París destacando su "Temps des Cireres"

        - Luigi Fabbri funda en Roma la revista anarquista "Il Pensiero".

        - El 20 de junio aparece el primer número del periódico libertario chileno "La Protesta del Panadero".

        - El 19 de agosto en Préobrozonié (Bulgaria) se proclama la Comuna de "Strandza" netamente libertaria.

        - Se crea en Vaux (Francia) una Colonia utopista donde la mayor parte de sus integrantes eran vegetarianos.

        - En Francia se publica “Le Naturisme Libertaire devant la Civilisation” de Henri Zisly

        - En Río de Janeiro, Eliseo de Carvalho crea el periódico "La Huelga" que incentiva la creación de la "Unión de los Obreros Estibadores"

        - Lucy Parson: Hermana de Albert Parson (Uno de los mártires de Chicago) publica un libro  de la vida de Albert Parson

        - E. Armand publica por primera vez en España en la Revista Blanca un extenso artículo sobre Tolstoi

        - Se funda en Italia el periódico anarquista “Il Libertario” dirigido por Pasquale Binazzi hasta 1922.

        1904  

        - Kropotkin es nombrado Secretario de la Sociedad de la Geografía Rusa. Tiene que diseñar de nuevo toda la geografía Asiática, ya que descubre numerosos errores en la cartografía.

        - En Francia se crea la "Asociación Internacional Antimilitarista", Emile Armand presenta la ponencia "Repudio del servicio militar".

        - Muere Elie Reclús, en Bruselas.

        - 1904 Primero de Mayo en Italia gran Manifestación que había partido de la plaza del  congreso hasta el Paseo de Julio frente a la estatua de Mazzini allí antes de comenzar el mitin se oía un  disparo y a continuación una gran  carga policial que sembró de pánico y muerte a los asistentes.

        - En junio aparece en Sâo Paulo "A Batalha", son sus redactores Oreste Ristori, Gigi Damiani, Oresti y Alejandro Cherciai, anarco-comunista en lengua italiana

        1904 JULY

        - En el mes de julio en Buenos Aires aparece el primer número de la revista “Futuro” entre sus redactores están Edmundo Bianchi y Leopoldo Durán

        (THIS ENTRY NOTED IN BLEED ON BIANCHI BIRTHDAY; [TO DO: add reference to Futuro IN JULY) 1904

        - En noviembre se produce una huelga general en Rosario (Argentina) que provoca fuertes enfrentamientos con la policía, el resultado es de más de 50 muertos.

        - Entra en vigor la "Ley anti-anarquista" en Brasil.

        - Se publica en Argentina la revista "Martín Fiero" siendo su director Alberto Ghiraldo.

        - Domela Nieuwenhuis funda en Holanda, la asociación "Antimilitarista Internacional".

        - En la región de Ardennes se crea la comuna anarquista de "Aiglements" fundada por Fortuné Henry que funciono durante 3 años.

        - En Argentina el anarquista G.Balsas publica el libro “De los métodos de lucha:Eficacia del Boicot y sabotage·”

        - En Francia Sebastián Faure funda la escuela “La Ruche” (a 40 Km de París)que durará hasta 1917

        - En la región de Toscana Italia nace el anarquista Piero Bulleri.

        - Sale de la cárcel en Rusia Vera Figner, y crea un comité de apoyo a los presos rusos por toda Europa

        1905 

        - Primera revolución Rusa

        - En Uruguay se crea la Federación Obrera Regional Uruguaya que tendrá una fuerte implantación hasta 1923.

        - Se crea en EEUU la I.W.W.(Industrial Workers of the World), son sus principales impulsores E.Debs, Bill Haywood (Big Bill), C.Moyer, Daniel de León, W.Trautmann, Mother Jones, Lucy Parsons.

        - En Francia sale la revista de los anarco individualistas "L'Anarchie" participan en ella E. Armand, V.Serge, Lorulot, etc.

        - El 9 de ENERO / JANUARY 9 muere en Marsella Luisa Michel a los 74 años de edad. El día de su entierro (22 ENERO / JANUARY 22) toman la palabra ante su tumba Sebastián Faure, Malato, Madm.Séverine, Aufan, Le Grandais, Girault.

        - Elisée Reclús muere el 4 de Julio en Thourout (Bélgica)

        - Se empieza a editar la obra de James Guillaume "La Internacional documentos y recuerdos".

        - El 11 de agosto Salvador Planas atenta sin éxito contra el presidente Argentino Quintana, en protesta por la matanza de Mayo en Buenos Aires.

        - El 30 de diciembre / DECEMBER en Sâo Paulo se publica el primer número del semanario "A Terra Livre" está dirigido por Neno Vasco y Edgard Leueseroth

        - Aparece en Porto el periódico "A Vida" órgano de la Federación Anarquista Portuguesa.

        - Paul Robin publica en Régénération un folleto "Contre la nature".

        - En San Felipe, Chile se instala una comuna anarquista compuesta por grupos naturistas.

        - Cerca de Amiens se funda la comuna Comunista Libertaria de "Glisy".

        1906 

        - Congreso de Amiens "Carta de Amiens" Manifiesto muy discutido dentro del anarquismo ya que limita la acción de los anarquistas dentro del sindicato, el manifiesto o carta fue aprobada en su día por 834 votos a favor por 8 en contra.

        - Emma Goldman, A.Berkman publican la revista "Mother Earth” (1906-1917).

        - Osugi (libertario japonés), funda la Asociación Esperantísta Japonesa. [Osugi Sakae]

        - Kropotkin desde Londres trata de incidir en la propaganda Rusa con la revista "Listki Cheib i Volia" (Hojas de "Pan y Libertad")

        - Muere Henry Ibsen (1828-1906) escritor Noruego muy seguido por los obreros de su época y posterior.

        - En la localidad Boliviana de Tupiza se crea “La Unión Obrera Primero de Mayo” su portavoz será “La Aurora social”

        - El libertario ruso Turkhaninov publica "Associacionny Anarchism". Éste más tarde será asesinado por los Bolcheviques.

        - En Australia y Canadá se funda la IWW (International Workers of the World).

        - Un grupo de libertarios chinos publica en París "La Novaj Tempoj" mientras, que en Tokio (Japón) aparecen las revistas "Tien-i-poa" y "Heng-pao".

        - En Servia se crea el periódico anarcosindicalista "Proleter".

        - Son fusilados en Varsovia 16 miembros del grupo "La Internacional".

        - En París se funda el grupo "Les causeries populaires" que está integrado, entre otros por Emile Armand, Paraf-Javal, Alberto Libertad, etc.

        - Se funda en Brasil la Confederación Obrera Anarquista. (COB) su órgano de expresión será "La Voz del Trabajador"

        - El 1º de Mayo en París se funda la escuela "Avenir Social" dirigida por Madelleine Vernet.

        - El 1 de octubre, se funda en Milán la "Confederazione Generale del Lavoro".

        - Muere en Francia el Comunero  y Blanquista Constant Martín (1839-1906).

        - En Argentina estalla la huelga de alquileres que se prolongará hasta el año siguiente.

        - Huelga en París de empleados de cocina en Restaurantes obreros por negarse a guisar comida barata y en mal estado.

        - En Bulgaria, en la región de Bourgas se crea una comuna anarquista.

        - En Canada se crea la comuna comunista libertaria de "Redder Alta" compuesta de unos 40 colonos.

        - En Francia se funda la “Liga Internacional para la Educacuón Racional” entre los fundadores están, Ferrer y Guardia, Carlos Albert, Eugenio Furnier, Charles Malato y Sembat.

        - En Córcega se funda la comuna libertaria de "Ciorfoli" durará dos años.

        - André Lorulot y E.Girault crean la comuna libertaria de "Colonie de Saint Germain" que tendrá una vida de  2 años.

        1907 

        - C.Cornelissen funda "Bulletin Internacional du Moviment syndicaliste."

        - El 9 de ENERO / JANUARY 9 aparece el primer número de la revista “Regeneración” en Montevideo.

        - Del 24 al 31 de agosto se celebra el Congreso Anarquista en Amsterdam   considerado como una contraofensiva a la carta de  Amiens, siendo las dos cabezas visibles de este debate, Enrico Malatesta y Pedro Monatte.

        - Gustav Landauer(1871-1919) trata de darle base social al grupo ético libre (Die neue Gemeinschaft) al cual pertenece desde 1900 cambiando el nombre por "Dreissing sozialistiche thesen" que en 1908 pasará  a denominarse "Sozialistische Brind"

        - En París aparece el primer número de la revista naturista libertaria “La Vie Naturelle”

        - Muere en Francia Monod  a consecuencia de los trabajos forzados de años anteriores.

        - Fundación de la Cruz Roja Anarquista con sede en Nueva York y Londres ésta última estaba dirigida por Kropotkin, Cherkezov, Rocker, Schapiro. Mientras que la americana  H Weinstein y J Katzenelenbogen y Yelensky

        - Se publica  el libro "La Gran Revolución" de Kropotkin.

        - Yamaga (1892-1970) funda "Japana esperantista Asocio".

        - En Dinamarca aparecen los periódicos libertarios "Skorpionen y Revolten"

        - Yang-tschu “El Stirner Chino” publica en París la revista "Sinsiki" (Tiempos Nuevos).

        - En Bulgaria se fundan los periódicos "La Societa Libera" y "Acratie".

        - En Servia se crea el periódico "Radnücka Borba" (Lucha operaria).

        - En Milán aparece la revista clandestina "Ramipele le file" dirigida por Filippo Corridoni y María Rygier.

        - En Hungría se publica la revista "Tarsadlami Forradalurm" dirigida por el anarco-comunista Ervin Batthyanny

        - En Bahía Blanca (Argentina) se declara la huelga de estibadores del puerto, en la carga policial muere el obrero Fancioni y en el entierro de éste de nuevo la policía tirotea a los obreros con el resultado de dos muertos más y nueve heridos.

        - En Brasil se crea el periódico "Nâo Matarás" antilimitarista libertario son sus redactores Mota Assunçâo, Alacid y José Romero.

        - Es incendiada y destruida la colonia fourrierista "Utopía Colony" fundada por Upton Sinclair en Nueva Jersey

        - En Lausana (Suiza) los anarquistas crean una Escuela Moderna que durará hasta 1913.

        - En Francia en la región del Rhone se crea la comuna libertaria de "La Rize".

        - Ricardo Flores Magón es detenido y conducido a  la prisión de Missouri.

        - Gustave Hervé funda el periódico “Guerre sociale” colaboran Almereyda, y Eugéne Merle,etc

        - Los anarcosindicalistas de Río de Janeiro crean la "Liga de los inquilinos" para luchar contra el aumento de los alquileres de las viviendas

        1908 

        - Ferrer i Guardia funda en Bruselas y luego en París la revista "L' Ecole Renovée" donde participa activamente Paul Robin.

        - Jean Grave publica un pequeño relato sobre la utopía "Terre Libre".

        - En Dinamarca se funda el periódico "Socialistisk Arbejderblad".

        - En Malmoe (Suecia) un grupo de acción atenta contra el Barco "L'Amalthea".

        - Los anarquistas rusos refugiados en Suiza o Francia fundan la organización "Croix Rouge".

        - El 2 de ABRIL / APRIL 2 en Roma, en el funeral de un obrero. La policía interrumpe los actos violentamente causando de nuevo la muerte a tres obreros, entre ellos se encuentra el anarquista Paolo Parella.

        - En Portugal se funda el periódico "A Sementeira" dirigido por Hilário Marqués(1878-1949).

        - Nace la anarquista suiza Clara Thalman Enser (1908-1987).

        - Carlo Tresca (1879-1943) funda en Pittsburgh el semanario anarquista "La Plebe" que luego se trasladará a New Kesington y New YorK

        1909  

        - Nace el 3 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 3 Simone Weil  (1909-1943)

        - En Buenos Aires,  el primero de Mayo la policía carga contra una manifestación de 30000 personas provocando una matanza (8 muertos y 150 heridos) poco después Simón Radowitky (1889- 1956) se erige en vengador y el 14 de noviembre atenta contra el jefe de policía que dirigía la matanza  del 1º de Mayo, Ramón Falcón.

        - El 13 de octubre en Montevideo, se celebra un miting contra el proceso Ferrer, en Manifestación se dirigen a la embajada española donde hay un fuerte enfrentamiento con la policía. (12 heridos).

        - Aparece en Berlín el periódico "Der Sozialist"(1909-1915) en el que colabora con asiduidad Gustav Landauer.

        - Se crea en Noruega la "Norges Social-Anarkiske Forbund".

        - Martín Buber (seguidor de Landauer) publica "Incitación al Socialismo".

        - Enrique Nido (seudónimo de Amadeo Lluán 1869-1926) En Argentina quiso atentar contra el cónsul español en Rosario pero con tan mala fortuna que le estalló la bomba que él mismo había fabricado. Detenido fue juzgado y  condenado, pasó 5 años en la cárcel.

        - Se publica en Argentina la revista "Ideas y Figuras" siendo su director Alberto Ghiraldo.

        - Voltarine de Cleyre publica "Anarchism & American traditions"

        - En Alemania Erich Mühsam entra en contacto con el grupo “Lumpenproletariat”

        - Se funda en Chile la F.O.CH.(Federación Obrera Chilena) de claro carácter libertario.

        1910 

        - Se publica "Campos Fábricas y Talleres" de Kropotkin.

        - En el mes de junio en Estocolmo se funda el sindicato anarcosindicalista SAC (Sveriges Arbetares Centralonganisation)  

        - En el mes de agosto en Japón, la policía detiene a Kotoku y 24 anarquistas más.

        - Jean Grave publica "Reformes revolution"

        - En estos años la FORA (Argentina) tiene dos órganos de expresión diarios que son "La Protesta" y "La Batalla".

        - En Alemania Erich Müsham es detenido y juzgado con kla acusación de crear “Sociedades Secretas”

        - En Dinamarca se funda el sindicato revolucionario "Fugoppositionens Sammenlutning".

        - Zerajic (Libertario Yugoslavo) atenta contra el general Varesanin, del cual sale ileso mientras que Zerajic se suicida.

        - El 10 de noviembre muere León Tolstoi

        -


        2004 -- DUPLICATE? REMOVE ON OF THEM??

        1867

        - Se celebra en Lausana el segundo congreso de la AIT

        - Paul Robin por encargo de la sección Belga de la AIT, redacta dos ponencias para el congreso de Laussana, una sobre  Pedagogía y otra sobre el Matrimonio. (Es la primera vez que la Internacional trata el tema pedagógico).

        - En Ginebra se celebra el 1er congreso de la "Liga para la paz y la libertad" Una de las exigencias de la Liga, era la creación de los Estados Unidos de Europa.

        - En Nápoles el grupo "Liberta e Giustizia" edita la revista del mismo nombre.

        1868

        - Se celebra en Bruselas el 3er Congreso de la AIT.

        - Eugène Versmersch (joven poeta que durante los días de la Comuna escribió en el "Pere Duchème") se  proclama  atomista y anarquista.

        - Elisée Reclús participa con un gran discurso en el congreso de la Liga de la Paz y la Libertad celebrado en Berna, al mismo tiempo publica "La Tierra".

        - Los Miembros activos de la AIT en París son detenidos e ingresados en Prisión,  del 15 de Julio JULY hasta el 15 de octubre OCTOBER por asociación indebida.

        - En Verviers (Bélgica) se funda el periódico libertario "Le Mirabeau".

        - Se publican los Estatutos de la Alliance Internationale de la democratie socialiste

        1869 

        - Se celebra en Basilea el 4º Congreso de la AIT.

        - En el congreso de Basilea, Eugenio Hins delegado Belga al congreso presenta una ponencia sobre la necesidad de la organización en sindicatos.

        - En San Petestburgo Bakunin y Zhukovsky  publican la revista “Narodnoe Delo” (La Casa del Pueblo)

        - Este año se disuelve la “Alianza Internacional Democracia Socialista” de la que formaban parte Bakunin, Guillaume, etc.

        - Nechayev (anarquista ruso) llega a Ginebra

        - En Locle, Suiza, James Guillaume es nombrado redactor de "Progrès" periódico que propaga las ideas del colectivismo anarquista y en esas fechas escribe también el propio Bakunin.

        - Nace en Italia Gaetano Bresci (1869-1901), anarquista seguidor de la “Propaganda por el hecho”       

        - Paul Robin es nombrado secretario de la Alianza en Suiza y publica en la revista "La Philosophie positive" que durará hasta 1872.

        - Julio Chavez López considerado el precursor de la idea ácrata en México publica su manifiesto dirigido a todos los oprimidos de México y del Universo.

        - En Nápoles se funda la sección Italiana de la Internacional.

        - Los Napolitanos Stefano Caporosso(Sastre), Gambuzzi y Michelangelo Statuti publican la revista “L’Eguaglianza” que durará tres meses al ser clausurada por la policía.

        - En Bélgica estallan las huelgas de "Seraing"

        - Aparece en Bélgica la revista "La Philosophie Positive” (1869-1872).

        - Nace Fortuné Henry hermano de Emily y fundador de la Comuna anarquista de “Aiglemont”.

        1870

        - Conferencia especial de Sonvieller (Suiza) convocada por los Bakuninistas donde se exigía el fin de la centralización de la Internacional (En Londres) y su reconstitución como una "Federación Libre de Grupos Autónomos”.

        - El 21 de ENERO / JANUARY 21 muere  el anarquista ruso Alexander Herzen.

        - Paul Robin, ya en París se le asigna la tarea de redactar los estatutos de la AIT.

        - Se crea la sección Americana de la AIT antiautoritaria.

        - Se constituye en México "El Gran Círculo de Obreros" de orientación proudhoniana.

        - Al fracasar la sublevación de Chalco es fusilado Chávez y detenidos Rhodakanty y Zalacosta.

        - Los anarquistas Marselleses lanzan una insurrección que es seguida por los trabajadores (1 a 4 NOVEMBER noviembre ) pero ésta es reducida por la fuerza de las armas.

        - En Lyon el 28 de septiembre es detenido Bakunin, Louis Combes y otros.

        - Lysander Spooner (1808-1887) anarquista Americano anticlerical escribe "The Constitution  of No Autority"

        1871

        - Se proclama la Comuna de París. Louise Michel fue una de las  combatientes más entusiastas de la  Comuna junto a otros nombres libertarios como Jules Valles, Gustav Coubert, Elisée Reclús, Eugeniu Varlin, etc

        - Elie Reclús es nombrado director de la Biblioteca Nacional durante la Comuna de París.

        - Gustav Coubert es nombrado director del Louvre durante la Comuna de París.

        - Pocos días después de la Comuna Eugene Varlin de 32 años de edad  fue reconocido  y denunciado por un sacerdote inmediatamente detenido fue arrastrado por las calles de París y fusilado en la calle Rosiers de la ciudad del Sena.

        - La AIT celebra su congreso en Londres.

        - Nils Herman Ouiding (1808-1886) (socialista federal) publica "Liquidación de la Ley de Suecia".

        - Se funda la sección Danesa de la AIT, sus promotores son Frederik Dreier y Harald Brix.

        - Aparece en Coimbra la revista "A Federaçao".

        - Joáo Bonança funda la "Associaçao Protectora do Trabalho Nacional" en colaboración con el Internacionalista español Rafael Morago.

        - Se reconstruye clandestinamente la "Federazione Operaia Napoletana" donde Malatesta será su primer secretario.

        - Nace en Alemania Gustav Landauer.       

        - Coubert después de la caída de la Comuna será condenado a seis meses de cárcel y después de puesto en Libertad será perseguido por el fisco francés que le reclama 323.091 francos para la recontrucción de la Columna Vendome.

        - Después de la derrota de los Comuneros de París Luisa Michel es juzgada el 16 de diciembre / DECEMBER ante  el  sexto consejo de guerra. Será deportada, otros correrán la misma suerte y por miles se contarán los fusilados.

        - Bakunin publica en francés Dieu et l’Etat.

        1872

        - En Enero se publica en Lisboa "O trabalho" dirigida por Joáo Bonança.

        - En el mes de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY los Internacionalistas portugueses editan el primer número de "O pensamiento social

        - Vera Figner viaja a Zurich para estudiar Medicina, allí conoce a Bakunin y se afilia a la AIT

        - Del 2 al 9 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER  la AIT celebra Congreso de La Haya, donde se produce una  escisión entre partidarios de las teorías de Marx y Bakunin

        - Seis días más tarde se celebra el Congreso (anti-autoritario) de St.Imier y el 25 de diciembre / DECEMBER el congreso de  Córdoba (España) donde se ratifican los acuerdos de St.Imier.

        - Los Internacionalistas Italianos celebran su Congreso en Rimini.

        - Eugen Dühring (1833-1921) "Cursus der National-und sozialovckonomie" que esta basado en la idea del colectivismo anarquista.

        - E.Malatesta visita a Bakunin en Zurich. De este primer encuentro Malatesta escribe sus impresiones en  "Pensiero e Volontà".

        - Nace en París el naturista libertario Henri Zisly (1872-1945)

        - Se funda la sección de la AIT en Buenos Aires.

        - En Rimini Italia se crea la sección Italiana de la AIT.

        - Se crea la sección Mejicana de la AIT y Chavez López es nombrado primer secretario.

        - Elisée Reclús comienza en su exilio de Lugano su obra "Nouvelle Géographie Universelle".

        - Albert Owen visita la bahía de Ohuira donde proyecta instalar la ciudad de "Topolobampo".

        - En Portugal se constituye la "Fraternidade Operaria".

        - En Porto se funda la "Associacáo dos Trabalhadores".

        - Nace en París Henri Zisly (1872-1945)  naturista libertario de tendencia anticientifista, que con el tiempo colaboraría en revista como “Revue Blanche” y su onónima en España, “La Revista Blanca” que dirigía Federico Urales

        - Se publica "Le livre du jour de l'an" de Luisa Michel

        - Nace en Francia Emile Henry (1872-1894). Hijo del Coronel Fontuné Henry condenado a muerte por participar en la Comuna

        - Nace en París Emile Armand (Lucien Juin Ernest)(1872-1962) naturista, anarquista individualista  y antimilitarista.

         1873

        - Bakunin publica en Zurich “Estatismo y anarquía” en lengua rusa.

        - Marx y Engels publican un folleto lleno de ignominias contra la Alianza creada por Bakunin.

        - Refugiados de la Comuna crean en Ginebra el grupo "L'Avenir".

        - El Marqués Carlo Cafiero regala a Bakunin la Villa "La Baronata" y le da plenos poderes.

        - James Guillaume publica "Bulletin" de la Federación de la Internacional Antiautoritaria que aparecerá regularmente hasta 1881

        - Nace en Alemania Rodolf Rocker(1873/1958).

        - Nace el anarquista italiano Sante Caserio (1873-1894), seguidor de la corriente “Propaganda por el hecho”.

        - Coubert perseguido por el fisco francés se refugía en Suiza.

        - Se crea en Portugal la "Associaçao dos Trabalhadores da Regiáo Portuguesa" y se publican sus estatutos en la revista "O Pensamiento Social".

        - En Portugal son detenidos los Internacionalistas Silva Lisboa y Miguel Mendes acusados de instigación a la huelga, corriendo la misma suerte todos los miembros de la AIT Portuguesa.

        - Magahlaés Lima publica en Portugal "Teoría da Humanidade".

        - Nace en Italia Pasquale Binazzi, (1873-1944)

        - En Bolonia es detenido Enricco Malatesta cuando se dirigía a un Congreso, pasará 54 días en Prisión.

        1874

        - Kropotkin frecuenta el círculo revolucionario de Chaikovsky con una gran intensidad de

        vida clandestina, será detenido.

        - James Guillaume escribe "La anarquía según Proudhon".

        - J. Guillaume dice: "Ha empezado un período de reacción cuyo fin no vivirá probablemente la presente generación (...) es inútil querer lo imposible. Debemos ver la realidad tal como es  y  darnos cuenta que por el momento las masas populares no desean el socialismo".

        - En Italia Cafiero y Costa crean "Il comitato Italiano per la Rivoluzione Italiana" cuentan con más de veintiséis mil militantes.

        - Nace en Portugal el pedagogo libertario  Adolfo Godefroy de Abreu Lima.

        - Santiago Bilbao Arlegui Utopista Chileno se suicida el 23 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER en París cansado de su larga enfermedad cancerigena.

        1875

        - Aparece en Uruguay el periódico "El Internacional".

        - Es ejecutado por insurrecto el libertario Búlgaro Christo Botiof.

        - Internacionalistas y masones son acusados del incendio de la Iglesia de "El Salvador" en Buenos Aires.

        - El Norteamericano Lysander Spooner publica "Vices are not crimes" que según R.Rocker es la obra más radical de la apología de la libertad del siglo XIX

        - En Moscu Vera Figner y otros anarquistas ruso empiezan a publicar la revista “Rabotnik” (Trabajador).

        - Reclus publica en Francia el primer volumen de la “Géographie Universelle” (1875-1894).

        1876  

        - El 1 de julio muere en Suiza Miguel Bakunin.

        - Congreso de Berna, se redacta un Manifiesto (Perron, Guillaume, Cafiero y Joukovsky) contra  la guerra de los Balcanes (Turcos y Eslavos).

        - Kropotkin se evade de un hospital militar y se exilia en Londres.

        - J. Guillaume publica "Idées sur l'organisation sociale".

        - Lissagaray publica en Bruselas  “Historia de la Comuna de París 1871”

        - François Dumartheray (1842-1931) publica en Ginebra "Aux travailleurs manuels partisans de l'action politique"

        - En Berna aparece el periódico "Arbeiter-Zeitung" órgano de una sociedad obrera de habla alemana inspirada por Paul Brousse.

        - Nace el naturalista libertario francés Gérard de Lacaze-Duthiers (1876-1958)

        - Primer congreso obrero Mexicano.

        - Costa Goodolfim publica "A associaciáo".

        1877

        - El 17 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 17 nace la anarquista suiza de origen ruso Isabelle Eberchardt (1877-1904)

        - Después de la represión sufrida por los "Comuneros de París" poco a poco Paul Brousse contribuye a la resurrección del anarquismo en Francia.

        - El 5 de ENERO / JANUARY 5 muere Fanelli en Nápoles

        - Huelga violenta en Pittsburg, que motiva que algunos jóvenes tomen conciencia de clase como Morse que escribe "Los reyes de los ferrocarriles desean llegar a un Imperio..."

        - Atentado de Vera Zassolich contra el Ministro Ruso Trepov.

        - Sigismond Lacroix dirigía “Le Radical”  en Francia que se publico entre el 19 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 19 y el 21 de junio. Fue clausurado al aplicarle la ley del Orden Moral

        - En septiembre se celebra el Congreso de Verviers.

        - "Banda Matesse" Cafiero, Malatesta, P.Ceccarelli, Kravchinski y un pequeño grupo alquilan un caserón  en San Lupo (Italia) con el fin de prepararse para la revolución, pero una delación pone en guardia a la policía que intenta detenerlos, la mayoría se esconden por las montañas de Matese, en los tiroteos muere un policía.

        - Estallan las sublevaciones campesinas de "Barranca y Sierra Gorda" en México.

        -

        - En Fabriano (Italia) nace Luigi Fabbri.

        - Niccoló Convertí (Italiano) funda en Túnez el periódico "L'Operaio" órgano de los anarquistas Tunecinos y  Sicilianos.

        - Congreso en Saint Imier.

        1878

        - B.R.Tucker funda la "Radical review."

        - Se funda en México La liga Bakuninista.

        - Vera Zassolich (1849-1919) Atentado contra el Jefe de Policía de San Petersburgo, dejándolo gravemente herido, con los años y ya en el exilio Vera se convirtió en Socialdemócrata.

        - Max Hödel (11 mayo) y más tarde Karl Nobiling (2 junio) atentan contra el emperador alemán Guillermo I. Hödel será condenado a muerte y la sentencia se cumple el 16 de julio (decapitado).

        - En Uruguay el 25 de junio se funda la "Federación Montevideña" de la AIT.

        - Paul Robin publica su folleto Neo-Malthusiano" "La questión sexuelle".

        - Stepniak (libertario Ruso) atenta y da muerte el 4 de agosto al General Mezenkof jefe de la guardia del Zar.

        - Exiliados rusos en Ginebra publican "Obschtchina" (La Comuna) que durará hasta 1898/99.

        - Muere el anarquista búlgaro Christo Botev en la lucha que Bulgaria tiene, por la liberación de la ocupación Turca.

        - En México se funda el periódico "La Internacional".

        - Alberto Santa Fe funda el Partido Comunista Mexicano de Tendencia Bakuninista.

        - Pasamante (Passanante) también atenta y fracasa contra la vida de Umberto I de Italia en Nápoles.El 17 de NOVEMBER noviembre con un cuchilo en el que estaba grabado ¡Viva la República Internacional!.

        - Giovanni Rossi publica en Milán "La Comuna Socialista". A veces usaba el seudónimo de "Cardias"

        - Nace en Rusia Blanca (Minsk) el Anarquista Joseph C Cohen

        1879

        - Domela Nieuwenhui (Holanda) funda la revista "Recht voor Allen".

        - Se funda en Ginebra (22 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 22) "Le Revolte" y Kropotkin es nombrado director, junto a Dumartheray  y Herzig (corredactores).

        - Johann Most (1846-1906) -anarquista Alemán- funda la revista "Freiheit" (Libertad)

        - Nace en Suecia Joe Hill (1879-1915). (Posteriormente emigró a USA).

        - Nace Marius Jacob (1879-1954) que en los años 90 creará el grupo "Trabajadores de la noche" personaje fiel exponente de la “Propaganda por el hecho”, pasara 20 años de su vida en las cárceles francesas.

        - Albert Owen organiza "la Texas Topolobampo & Pacific Raiboad Co." Con el fin de unir la Bahía de Ohuira  con San Antonio en Texas.

        - Johan Martín Schleyer (Alemán) publica un intento de lenguaje Internacional, llamado "Volapük". Precursor del Esperanto.

        - El 6 de ENERO / JANUARY 6 en Buenos Aires aparece el primer número del  periódico "El Descamisado"

        - En Rusia  el 24 de NOVEMBER noviembre son detenidos y acusados de atentar contra el Zar Eugenia (Hermana de Vera Figner) y Kvatkovski. Él será ejecutado y ella deportada a Siberia.

        - Andrea Costa, uno de los precursores del anarquismo italiano se pasa al socialismo parlamentarista.

        - Los anarquistas alemanes Hoedel y Nobiling atentan contra el Emperador Guillermo I de Alemania.

        1880

        - En el congreso de la Federación del Jura, Kropotkin bajo el seudónimo de Levashov presenta su informe sobre el anarcosindicalismo.

        - Amnistía parcial para  los Comuneros de París. Elisée Reclús rechaza dicha amnistía por no afectar a todos los presos.

        - Aparece el primer periódico anarquista francés después de la Comuna  "Le Revolution sociale" impulsado por Louise Michel y Gauthier, aunque según parece, estaba financiado por un confidente del comisario de policía Andrieux Serreux.

        - Malatesta es detenido en París por participar en una Manifestación en recuerdo de los muertos de la Comuna. También será detenido el principe georgiano anarco-comunista Tcherkesoff.

        - En Noruega aparece la revista libertaria "Fedraheimen".

        - En Francia, Se crea el grupo anarquista "L'Insurgé".

        - En Rusia, el 5 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 5 se produce un atentado en el Palacio de Invierno resultando muertos 50 soldados de la guardia del Zar,  según parece en el atentado participo el anarquista ruso Chartulín, Hartmann.

        - El 12 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER aparece en Francia el primer número de la revista “La évolution Sociale” del cual saldrán 56 números hasta el 18 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER de 1881.

        - El 19 de NOVEMBER noviembre   en Rusia, se produce el atentado al tren en que viajaba el Zar, de la línea Moscu - Kurk. Hubo el error de  atentar a un segundo tren en el que viajaba el séquito.

        - Paul Robin es nombrado director del "Orfelinato Prévost" en Cempuis cargó que regentara hasta 1894.

        - Luisa Michel termina su deportación de Nueva Caledonia.

        1881

        - Congreso de la Internacional Negra en Londres donde se toma el acuerdo de la "Propaganda por el hecho".

        - En Enero el grupo de Morse crea en Boston "The Anarchist" que a su segundo número ya fue suspendido por la policía.

        - B.R.Tucker funda "Liberty" en Londres. Organo muy combativo que negó incluso a llamarse anarquistas a los colectivistas y comunistas libertarios.

        - En el congreso de la Federación del Jura, Kropotkin bajo el seudónimo de Levashov presenta su informe sobre el anarcosindicalismo.

        - Por fin, los revolucionarios rusos consiguen el 13 de MARZO / MARCH 13 hacer saltar por el aire un puente del canal de San Petesburgo en el preciso instante en que pasaba la carroza real. La primera de las bombas fue lanza por Rysakov y la segunda por Grinevitzki, éste último murió,  también en el acto (junto al Zar). Por este atentado fueron condenados y ejecutados Risakov, Sofía Prosvskaia, Kibaltschitsch, Timotei Michallov, Schliabov. El 15 de ABRIL / APRIL 15 tubo lugar la  ejecución que hubo que repetir por que cedieron las  sogas.

        - Se inician los contactos entre Albert Owen y el gobierno de México para unir Topolobampo con Texas en línea férrea.

        - En el mes de abril Andrea Costa funda en Cesena el grupo libertario "Avanti"




        2004 -- ARTÍCULO 4 CRONOLOGÍA THIS APPEARS TO BE A DUPLICATE COPY, FIGURE OUT WHICH TO DELETE

        PRESENCIA INTERNACIONAL DEL ANARQUISMO (versión 3)

        - En Francia, aparece el número 1 del “Bulletin des Groupes Anarchistes”.

        - En Italia, Anarquistas y Socialistas fundan clandestinamente "El Partido Socialismo de la Romaña"

        - Charlturin y Schelvakov (en Rusia) atentan contra el general Strelnikov, no logrando escapar, serán ejecutados

        1882 

        - J.Most publica "Revolutionaire Kriegswissenschaft" se trata de un manual del uso de bombas.

        - La Banda Negra (Francia) empieza a enviar cartas anónimas a directores de empresa y funcionarios del Estado.

        -Nace en Poznan el 23 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 23 (Prusia, hoy Polonia) Albert Otto Feige identidad que se supone de B.Traven (Ret Marut).

        - En Francia aparece el periódico “L’ Etendard Révolutionaire “ (30 JULY julio- 15 de octubre OCTOBER).

        - El 21 de octubre se produce el primer atentado anarquista en Francia (Lyon) en el local "L' Assommir", tras el atentado Cyvoct huyó a Bruselas, pero fue detenido  más tarde y entregado a la policía francesa, juzgado y condenado a muerte le fue conmutada la pena y salió de presidio al cabo de 18 años.

        - El alemán J.Most es puesto en libertad y se exilia en Nueva York.

        - J.Grave publica "La Societé au lendemain de la revolution".

        - El 21 de NOVEMBER noviembre muere el anarquista ruso Nechaev prácticamente de hambre en la misma celda que anteriormente había ocupado Bakunin en la Cárcel de Pedro y Pablo en San Petesburgo.

        - Aparece el primer número del Boletín del Orphelinat Prévost de Cempuis "L' Ecole Renove".

        - Nace el anarquista italiano Armando Borghi

        - En el mes de diciembre December Kropotkin es detenido en Thonon, Francia

        - Luisa Michel publica "La Misère" y "Les Meprisées".

        1883

        - El periodista Cyvoct es condenado a trabajos forzados por la bomba de Lyon en el Restaurante Teatro Bellecour.

        - El 10 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 10 en Rusia  es detenida Vera Figner acusada y  procesada por el atentado al Zar pasara 20 años en la prisión de  "Schlüsselburg"

        - El 9 de MARZO / MARCH 9 en una Manifestación de los "Sin Trabajo" son detenidos, Louise Michel y Emile Pouget  entre otros y condenados a cárcel hasta enero de 1886

        -En Francia se publica el periódico “La Lutte” APRIL (1 ABRIL / APRIL 1 – 5 agosto)

        - Kropotkin es procesado en Lyon y encarcelado en Clairvaux, por pertenecer a la Internacional.

        - Ivan Mortensen, libertario Noruego que desde 1883 a 1890 fue redactor del periódico (Comunista anarquista) "Fedraheimen" de Bergen.

        - En Francia aparece el periódico “Le Drapeau Noir” (12 agosto- 2 de diciembre / DECEMBER)

        AUGUST

        - Nace la escritora anarquista Suiza Margarethe Faas Hardegger (1886-1963)

        - En Lyon Jean Ricard es condenado a 4 años de prisión

        - Emile Pouget publica el primer folleto antimilitarista revolucionario, se trata de "A l'Armée".

        - Emile Laverday(1835-1890) edita "Assemblées parlantes".

        - El socialista libertario inglés Edward Carpenter (1844-1929)publica "Towards Democracy".

        - Jules Vales de nuevo edita la revista “Cri du Peuple”

        - J.Most edita en Nueva York "Die Freie Gesellschaft"(sobre el colectivismo anarquista).

        - Jean Grave se traslada en septiembre a Basilea (Suiza)  hasta 1885 donde adquiere fuerte convicciones libertarias, al poco tiempo pasará a ser el director de “Revolte “ después de Eliseo Reclús.

        - “L’Eumete” se publica en Francia , el primer número saldrá el 9 de diciembre / DECEMBER y el último en enero del 84.

        - En California se crea la colonia icariana de "Icaria Speranza" con más de 50 colonos durará tres años

        - Luisa Michel publica " La fille du peuple".

        1884

        - Louis Chaves que trabaja en un convento de Marsella, atenta contra la Madre Superiora y

        luego espera la llegada de la policía con la que mantiene un tiroteo hasta que cae abatido.

        - El JANUARY 25 ENERO / JANUARY 25 en Viena es detenido Hermann Stellmacher y poco más tarde Anton Kammerer, serán acusados de varios atentados cometidos en Estrasburgo, Sttuttgart y Viena.

        - Reinsdorf que había sido detenido poco después del atentado de Francfort es condenado a pena de muerte junto a Küchler, en el mismo juicio a Rupsch se le conmuta la pena por

        ser menor de edad.

        - Congreso obrero en Chicago. Americanos y Canadienses deciden que el primero de mayo sea un día de reivindicaciones obreras. Pero no será hasta París 1889 cuando se internacionaliza la fecha.

        - En Francia se publica el periódico “Le Defi” (3 a 17 de febrero)

        -También aparece el periódico “Terre et Liberte” del que saldrán 18 números.

        - Y poco tiempo después otro periódico será “L’ Hydre Anarchiste” (FEBRUARY 24 febrero a MARCH 30 de MARZO / MARCH 9)

        - El 12 de ABRIL / APRIL 12 aparece en Bruselas el primer número de la revista anarquista "Le Proudhon” que tenía a  E. Laverdays (1835-1890) como redactor jefe y a E. Potelle como director.

        - Otro periódico que se publicó en Francia será “L’Alarme” (13 de ABRIL / APRIL 13 al Primero de Junio)

        - El nuevo periódico será ahora “Le Droit Anarchique”” (8 al 22 de junio)

        - Revuelta en Chichibu (Japón) donde son arrojados de la ciudad los policías, usureros y prestamistas.

        - Robert Reitzel (1849-1898) de origen alemán emigrado a EEUU publica el semanario "Der Arme Aeufel" fue uno de los oradores ante la tumba de los mártires de Chicago.

        - Aparece en Inglaterra el primer escrito sobre anarquismo de Elisée Reclús se trata de "Anarchy By an anarchist".

        - El 25 de diciembre / DECEMBER 25 es ejecutado el revolucionario ruso Myschkin en el mismo lugar donde tres meses antes Minakov había corrido la misma suerte.

        - Malatesta, perseguido por casi todas las policías europeas  debe partir hacia Buenos Aires.

        - LOUISE Michel publica "Contes et légendes".

        1885 

        - "Der Arbeter Fraint" aparece en Londres la primera revista libertaria escrita en Hebreo.

        - El tipógrafo Henry Seymour funda "The anarchist" y le da una mayor difusión al anarquismo londinense ya que “Liberty” tenía muy poca tirada.

        - El 13 ENERO / JANUARY 13 en venganza por la condena de Reinsdorf y Kückler es acuchillado el inspector de policía de Francfort, Rumpf, por este acto es detenido y condenado a muerte Julius Lieske.

        - Se crea la Federación de los Trabajadores del Uruguay" que tiene su órgano de expresión en "Federación de los Trabajadores"

        - Enrique Malatesta llega a Río de la Plata.

        - El MARCH 6 de MARZO / MARCH 6 sale el último número (24) de "Le Revolte" pasa a llamarse "La Révolta" siendo su director Jean Grave hasta 1894, ya en París.

        - Nettlau visita por primera vez Londres y conoce a W.Morris y las tertulias de "Socialist League". "Lo que cuenta en materia de progreso y de evolución general es el hombre y no la clase".

        - Se publica "Légendes et chants de gestes canaques" de LOUISE Michel.

        - Kropotkin publica “Paroles d’un révolté”  que son artículo recogidos publicados en la revista “Le Revolte” en años anteriores.

        1886

        - El MARCH 9 de MARZO / MARCH 9 Luisa Michel pronuncia una conferencia en el teatro "Chateau d' Eau" de París con el resultado de cuatro meses de cárcel y 100 francos de multa

        - Francois Claude Koeningstein Ravachol (1859-1892) la primera acción violenta que se le imputa fue el MARCH 26 de marzo.

        - El MAY 1º de Mayo se funda el primer grupo anárquico de Australia en Melbourne.

        - El Catalán Enrique Messonier y Enrique Roig San Martín (1843-1889) introducen las ideas ácratas en la Isla de Cuba y publica "El Productor"

        - El MAY 3 de mayo se produce un enfrentamiento entre policías y huelguistas de la fábrica Mc Cormick Harvester (de segadoras), cerca de Chicago. Al día siguiente los huelguistas se reúnen en la Plaza de Haymareket y cuando ya se disolvían aparece una dotación de la policía, el resultado fue de 7 policías y un más elevado número de huelguistas muertos. A consecuencia de estos hechos hubo una redada policial en los medios anarquistas, fueron detenidos y más tarde ejecutados (Parson, Editorial Alarm), Spies (Editorial Arbeiter Zeitung), Georg  Engel y Adolph Fischer, que muy pronto se convirtieron en los mártires de Chicago.

        - Spies declarará en el juicio: Si la muerte es el castigo por proclamar la verdad, entonces pagaré con actitud orgullosa y desafiante este precio ¡Llamad al verdugo! La verdad fue crucificada en Sócrates, Cristo, Giordano Bruno, y todavía vive en Huss, en Galileo. Ellos y otros que forman legión nos han precedido en este camino ¡Estamos dispuestos a seguirlos!.

        - Kropotkin sale en libertad de la cárcel, se exilia en Inglaterra donde escribe regularmente en "Nature" y  "Times".

        - Huelga de los mineros de Decazeville (Francia) es arrojado por la ventana el ingeniero Watrin.

        - Charles Gallo arroja un explosivo en la Bolsa de París y al comprobar sus escasos efectos dispara a quién intenta detenerlo.

        - Clement Duval reúne a un grupo de anarquistas que se daban el nombre de "Panteras de Batignolles".

        - Comienzan a llegar los colonos de la comunidad Owenista a Topolobampo (México)

        - Bidault (1869- 1938) y Niquet fundan en el mes de agosto en  Francia la “Liga de antipatriotas”

        - En Brescia (Italia) aparece el periódico "Lo Sperimentale"

        - Aparecen publicados los libros de L. Michel "Les Microbes humains" y "Mémoires".

        1887

        - En el mes de enero sufre un atentado  Louise Michel mientras hablaba en una reunión, un anciano monje le disparó a quemarropa destrozándole el oído y la otra bala se alojó en la cabeza.

        - Kropotkin funda en Inglaterra la revista anarquista "Freedom"

        - El 18 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER se funda "El Club anarquista de Boston", su principal impulsor será Benjamin R.Tucker y su sede estaba  en "Tremont Street nº477 aunque la reunión fundacional se hizo en "La Grange” street nº19

        - El 11 de NOVEMBER noviembre son ahorcados los mártires de Chicago.

        - El 13 de NOVEMBER noviembre en protesta por las muertes de Chicago, tiene lugar una Manifestación en Londres que es disuelta violentamente por la policía en Trafalgar Square conocida como "Domingo sangriento"

        - En Melbourne (Australia) aparece la revista libertaria "Honesty".

        - Albert Owen publica en EEUU "El sueño de una ciudad ideal".

         - Lazarus Ludwig Zamenhof (Polaco) después de largos años de trabajo presenta el primer manual de la lengua Internacional Esperanto.

        - John Neve(anarquista alemán) es deportado desde EEUU a Alemania donde un tribunal de Leipzig lo condena a 15 años de trabajos forzados falleció en presidio en 1896.

        - Edward Bellamy escribe la utopía "Looking Backward 2000" publicado en Boston.

        - En el mes de mayo Gratschevski del Grupo Nihilista ruso "Narodnaia Volia" (Voluntad del pueblo) hartó de las duras condiciones de vida del penal de Sclusselburg se inmola.

        - Se funda en Buenos Aires el primer sindicato obrero de Panaderos.

        - En Cuba, E.Messonier y Enrique Creci fundan la Federación local de Tabaqueros en Tampa y Cayo Hueso

        - Luisa Michel publica "L' Era nouvelle, pensée dernière, souvenir de Calédonie".

        - Henry Fèvre (1864?- 1937) anarquista, antimilitarista francés publica “Au Port d’ Armés”.

        1888 

        - Aparece el primer número del periódico libertario Noruego  "Fredaheimen" que durará hasta 1891, impulsado por Arne Garborg y Ivar Mortensen.

        - La “Sociedad de resistencia de obreros panaderos” se extiende por las principales ciudades Argentinas.        

        - En Portugal, después de una visita de Reclús se crea un grupo libertario en Lisboa que lanzará un manifiesto anarco-comunista y poco después edita la revista "A Centelha".

        - Nace A.M de Jong en Brabante (Holanda).

        - William Morris publica "How we live anh how we night live" (Cómo vivimos y cómo podíamos vivir).

        - Se publican en Francia las obras de Luisa Michel "A trevers la vie " poesía  "Le monde nouveau" "Les crimes de l'époque"  "Lectures encyclopédiques".

        1889 

        - Se crea la 2ª Internacional y en París se celebran dos congresos rivales en los que participan algunos anarquistas que en diferentes sesiones son expulsados.

        - Charles Malato  publica "La Philosophie de l'anarchie".

        - El Mutualista Jacques Raux publica "L'Anarchie et la revolution".

        - Malatesta regresa a Europa.

        - Pouget funda el periódico “Pere Peinard”

        - Huelga General en Cayo Hueso(Cuba).

        - Luisa Michel y su compañera Charlotte Vauvel parten hacia Londres donde montaran una escuela de idiomas que tendrá una periodicidad de siete años.

        1890  

        - Oscar Wilde da su aportación literaria al anarquismo con "The soul of man under socialism".

        - El economista liberal húngaro Theodor Hetzka elabora la utopía "Freiland ein soziales Zukunftsbild" y de  su libro se hizo un proyecto de colonia experimental a gran escala en Kenia Kilimandjaro y cuando ya todo estaba a punto el gobierno inglés impidió el desarrollo del proyecto.

        - Kropotkin escribe "La Moral anarquista"

        - En Bélgica aparece la revista libertaria "La Reforma sociale" que más tarde pasará a ser "La Questione sociale".

        - En Inglaterra en la revista "The Commonweal" aparece en fascículos "News From Nowhere" de William Morris (1834-1896) desde el 11 ENERO / JANUARY 11 hasta el 14 de octubre.

        -En París es fuertemente reprimida la Primera convocatoria del 1 de mayo

        - Salen de Génova los primeros utopistas Italianos, para fundar la Colonia "Cecilia" en el Estado Brasileño de Paraná. (duró 4 años).

        - Aparece en Buenos Aires el periódico "El Perseguido" y son sus redactores habituales Gregorio Inglán, Rafael Roca, Pierre Quirole y Manuel Reguera y  también a partir del 12 de diciembre / DECEMBER de edita la revista "El Obrero”.

        - En México Catarino Garza se subleva con un pequeño ejército de campesinos contra el régimen de Porfirio Díaz.

        - En Cuba es asesinado un confidente de la policía, e inmediatamente la represión gubernamental suspende el periódico "El Productor", e inculpando a 11 libertarios.

        - En Sao Paolo se edita el primer número de "El Amigo del Pueblo" y en Río de Janeiro "La Voz del Pueblo".

        - Luisa Michel publica "Prise de possession".

        - Nace el 11de diciembre / DECEMBER en italia la poetisa libertaria Virgilia d’Andrea (1890-1934)

        - Nace Jeanne Humbert (1890-1986) anarquista rumanesa que murió en París siendo uno de sus principales trabajos  "Contre la guerre qui vient".

        - Nace Víctor Serge(Kilbatchiche) 1890-1947

        1891  

        - John Henry Mackay (poeta anarquista alemán) seguidor de la lectura de Tucker, Stirner y Proudhon publica "Die Anarchisten".

        - Gustav Landauer, después del congreso de Erfurt se aproxima a las tesis de Tolstoi y propugna la resistencia pasiva.

        - Alejandro Berkman se traslada a Homestead (EEUU) para vengar la muerte de varios huelguistas de la ciudad masacrados por la policía, y atenta contra Henry Clay Frick director de "Acereria de Carnegie Co.". Será detenido y condenado, pasará 14 años en presidio.

        - Charles Malato publica "Revolution chrétienne et révolution sociale".

        - Aparece el primer número de la "Revue Blanche"(Francia) que tendrá una continuidad hasta 1903

        - El 5 de mayo aparece el primer número de la revista "L' Endehors" que  está dirigida por Zo d' Axa (Alphonse Galland) la revista dejará de publicarse el 19 FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 19 de 1893.

        - Alessandro Atabek, Libertario Armenio, traduce por primera vez a su lengua natal, las obras de Kropotkin, Reclús y Malatesta.

        - La F.O.R.A. Argentina organiza su primer congreso.

        - En Capolago(Italia) se intenta dar vida al "Partido Socialista Anarchico Rivoluzionario Internazionale"

        - En Noruega se organiza el grupo anarco-comunista "Libertas"

        - En Francia aparece la revista cultural "L'Art Social" -órgano de los mejor inspirados- dirigida por La Salle colaboran Hamon y Pelloutier.

        - Domela Niewenhuis (anarquista, holandés) participa en el "Congreso Internacional Socialista de Bruselas" donde presenta una ponencia para ahuyentar el peligro de guerra en Europa por medio de la  concienciación del proletariado europeo y la huelga general. Tesis rebatida por G.Liebknecht.

        - Se crea en México la colonia "Topobolampo colony" fundada por Albert K Owen  que estuvo activa durante nueve años.

        - El anarquista ruso Joseph C Cohen emigra a Filadelfia USA.

        - En Italia aparece la revista "Pensiero e Dinamita" dirigida por el anarquista Schicchi.

        - El 12 de junio Malatesta es detenido en Lugano.

        - En NOVEMBER noviembre Malatesta Llega a Barcelona  acompañado de Pedro Esteve recorrerá media España  dando mítines llegando hasta Jerez donde coincidieron con la insurrección campesina (8 y de  9 FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 9 1892)

        - En Brasil, por todo el país aparecen revistas libertarias como "El Socialista" en Bahía, Tribuna Operária en Belem, "La Voz del Artista" en Goiás

        - En Francia, se publica "Le claque-dents" de Luisa Michel.

        1892  

        - Fundación de la Biblioteca anarquista en Ginebra.

        - Kropotkin publica  en Londres "La conquista del Pan" y uno de los pocos trabajos que el anarquismo a dedicado al derecho,  se trata de "La ley y la autoridad" (en francés y ruso)

        - En Berlin el 12 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 12 nace el antimilitarista Teodoro Pliever

        - El 14 de Julio en Saint Étienne muere ejecutado Ravachol. El órgano anarquista "Pere Peinard" de la  época dice: "La Cabeza de Ravachol a rodado a sus pies, ahora temen que pueda explotar como una bomba".

        - 18 de Julio muere Carlo Cafiero en un sanatorio, después de haber vagado por numerosas cárceles y sanatorios del país.

        - El 8 de NOVEMBER noviembre   Emile Henry (Francia) colocó su primera bomba en la avenida de la Opera murieron cuatro policías.

        - Se funda la "Fédération des Bourses du Travail" (FBT)siendo su director Ferdinand Pelloutier hasta 1901 año de su fallecimiento.

        - Edouard Drumont (1844.1917) funda el periódico antisemita “Libre Parole” , periódico que jugo un importante papel en el Caso Dreyfus.

        - Por un delito llamado de imprenta es condenado en Francia el director de "L' Endehors" Zo d'Axa a siete años de cárcel.

        - En Bruselas, Merlino defensor del ilegalismo publica "Necessité et bases d'une entente".

        - Aparecen en Nueva York las revistas libertarias "Solidarity" y "Il Grido degli oppressi"

        - Ferdinand Pelloutier(1867-1901) en el congreso de Tours presenta su ponencia sobre "La Huelga General".

        - Nace en Alemania Agustín Souchy

        - Se crea en Cuba el "Partido Revolucionario Cubano" de clara tendencia descentralizadora con  "democracia directa" no parlamentarista.

        - En Brasil se editan las revistas "El Operario" de Fortaleba y de Amazonas.

        1893

        - Segundo congreso de la 2ª Internacional en Zurich, son expulsados 60 anarquistas.

        - Léauthier atenta contra el embajador de Servia en París.

         - B.R.Tucker publica "Instead of a Book" en New York, se trata de una recopilación significativa de sus artículos en “Liberty” que deja elaborado el concepto de anarquismo que él tenía.

        - El 9 de diciembre / DECEMBER, Auguste Vaillant lanza una bomba en el hemiciclo parlamentario a fin de vengar a Ravachol

        - Nace en Inglaterra Albert Read  1893-1968 filósofo anarquista y crítico de arte.

        - Aparece en Montevideo el periódico "Tribuna Libertaria" que tiene continuidad hasta 1900

        - Rudolf Rocker tiene que emigrar de Alemania a Francia por las persecuciones que sufre.

        - Paul Robin (1837-1912)  Escribe su "Manifiesto a los partidarios de la educación integral"

        - Jean Grave publica "La Societe mourante et l'anarchie" que es una ampliación de su trabajo editado en 1882

        - Christian Cornelissen trata de organizar en Holanda, los sindicatos y federarlos en "Nationaal Arbeids Secretariat"

        - En Chicago se celebra La Conferencia Internacional, que prohibida por la policía llego a celebrarse en clandestinidad, participan en ella Pedro Esteve como representante de España y Cuba.

        - Elisée Reclús termina "Nouvelle Géographie Universelle".

        - Muere el utopista Víctor Considerant       

        - El anarquista individualista Paolo Schicchi es condenado en Viterbe (Italia) a 12 años, por un atentado contra el consulado español.

        - En Paraguay un grupo de owenistas funda "Cosme colony".

        - Los libertarios italianos en Brasil editan la revista "L'Avvenire" en Sao Paulo.

        1894 

        - El 5 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 5 es ejecutado A. Vaillant en Francia

        - En Italia en el mes de enero Merlino es detenido e ingresa en prisión.

        - Es detenido en Londres Theodule Meunier acusado de los atentados con bomba de los cuarteles Lobau de París y del Bar / Restaurante donde fue detenido Ravachol.

        - El anarquista Italiano Sante Caserio atenta contra el presidente de la República Francesa Sadi Carnot, en Lyon.

        - A su regreso del exilio en Londres Emily Henry (fiel seguidor de las teorías de Ravachol) volvió a colocar  una bomba en el Café Terminus de París (12 FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 12) donde murió una persona.

        - En París aparece la revista naturista “L’Etat Naturel” dirigida por Emile Gravelle.

        - El anarquista Belga Pauwels, resulta herido cuando le estalla la bomba que el mismo trasportaba y que pretendia hacer estallar en la Iglesia de la Madeleine de París.  (15-3-1894)

        - Sante Caserio es ejecutado el 15 de agosto.

        - Charles Malato publica "De la Commune à l'Anarchie"

        - El libertario armenio Atabek publica la revista "Haimaink" (La Comuna)

        - Jean Grave es detenido en París y acusado de incitación a la rebelión y por asociación de malhechores. (Proceso de los treinta).

        - Aparece en Buenos Aires la Revista "La questione sociale" en Italiano dirigida por Fortunato Serantini. Dos años más tarde la misma se escribirá en castellano y el título pasará a ser "Ciencia social".

        - En Dijon, Monod es condenado a 5 años de trabajos forzados por fundar un periódico anarquista, no volvera hasta Francia hasta 1900.

        1895  

        - Jean Grave publica "La Société future".

        - Como consecuencia de la ola de atentados es prohibida la prensa anarquista como “Le Revolte”, “Pere Peinard”, “La Revue Libertaire”, etc. Inmediatamente después de la prohibición Jean Grave fundará "Les Temps  Nouveaux" (1895-1914), será puesto en libertad el 15 de enero.

        - León Tolstoi funda en Rúsia la Escuela “Iásnaia Polaina” “Dejen a los niñoss que decidan por si mismos lo que les conviene”

        - Sebastián Faure deja impreso su pensamiento en la obra "La Doleur Universelle, Philosophie Libertaire".

        - El 7 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 7 son expulsados de Suiza 18 anarquistas Italianos entre ellos Pietro Gori.

        - En Francia el periodista Víctor Barrucand promueve una campaña de “Pan gratuito”

        - En NOVEMBER noviembre S. Faure, P Robin, Vernet, Yvetot, E.  Pouget, H. Ryner editan el primer número de la revista "Le Libertaire " revista que durará hasta los inicios de la primera guerra mundial (1914).

        - Zo d' Axa publica "Le Grand Trimard".

        - En San Francisco aparece la revista libertaria "The Firebrand" que más tarde pasará a Chicago y New York con el título de "Frey Society".

        - Muere en Francia  A. Crie (1853-1895)  Comunnard y compañero de Lissagaray fue redactor del periódico fundado por éste último “La Bataille”

        - Los emigrantes italianos a EEUU editan "Questione sociale" que más tarde pasará a ser "L' Era Nuova".

        - Se crea la CGT Francesa, en el Congreso de Limoges.

        - Emily Pouget de vuelta a Francia edita el periódico "La sociale".

        - Elisée Reclús inicia sus trabajos en "L'Homme et la Terre".

        - P. Martinet y H.Dupont fundan el París el periódico individualista “Renaissances” del cual saldrán 117 números.

        - Se publica por última vez, el 1 de agosto, el periódico anarquista “La Revolta” .

        - Paul Robin funda "Education Integrale".

        - Paul Robin crea una asociación universal para propagar la idea de la educación integral, ésta se llamará "Liga para la regeneración humana" y su portavoz será “Régénération”(1895-1908)

        - En Río Grande (Brasil) se crea “La Escuela de Unión de Trabajadores”

        - Augustin Hamon (1862-1945) publica en Francia  “Philosophie de l’anarchiste socialiste”

        - Nace en París Pierre Robert Piller (Gastón Leval)

        - Nace en Livorno (Italia) Ezio Taddei

        - En el mes de diciembre / DECEMBER nace Hildegart Taege en Settin (germano/polaca) compañera de Orobón Fernández

        - En Río de Janeiro aparece la revista "Il Diretto".

        1896

        - AIT Congreso de Londres escisión definitiva entre anarquistas y marxistas.

        - Fernand Pelloutier, Jean Grave, Paul Delesalle, etc crean el grupo "El arte social".

        - En Amberes aparecen las revistas libertarias "Van Nu en Staks" y "Ontwaking"(1896-1910) en lengua flamenca.

        - En Bulgaria se crea la sección de la AIT Anti-autoritaria son sus impulsores S. Goulapehev, N. Stoinov y V. Kilifarski.

        - En Copenhagen aparece la revista "Proletaren".

        - El gobierno Portugués de Joâo Franco dicta la ley del 13 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 13 de 1896 para deportar a todo anarquista a la Isla de Timor.

        - 2ª Internacional Congreso, de nuevo una fuerte delegación de anarquistas asiste al congreso, hablaron Malatesta, Landauer, Nieuwenhuis, al segundo día fueron expulsados.

        28 de Julio, el mismo día de ser  expulsados, celebraron un gran mitin en el Hallor Town Hall

        - En Paraguay se funda "Nueva Australia" bajo la dirección de William Lain con el nombre de Colonia "Cosme".

        - En Argentina aparece el periódico "La revolución social" dirigido por Manuel Reguera y Gregorio Inglán.

        - Manuel da Silva Mendes (1867-1931) publica en Portugal "O Socialismo libertario ou o Anarquismo".

        - En Londres se crea "The associated anarchist".

        - En Inglaterra se crea la comuna de tendencia Tolstoiana de "Purleigh" durara 6 años.

        - Muere William Morris.

        1897 

        - Se publica en París "L' Evolution, la revolution et l' ideal anarchique" que recoge el pensamiento de Elisse Reclús.

        - Se funda en París "La Société des Cartes et travaux géograohiques Elisée Reclús"

        - Anarquistas y socialistas japoneses crean "La Unión de los trabajadores del Acero" y su órgano de expresión "El Mundo del Trabajo".

        - El grupo anarquista de Buenos Aires "Centro de Propaganda Obrera" edita ""La Protesta Humana" " que más tarde pasará a ser "La Protesta"(en 1904)

        - Nace la anarquista norteamericana Dorothy Day (1897-1980)

        - Para contestar a la Socialdemocracia alemana los anarquistas crean la "Freie Vereinigumg Deutscher Gewerkschaftel" (Liga libre de los sindicatos obreros alemanes).

        - En Francia Agustín Hamon funda el periódico “L’Humanite Nouvelle”.

        - Gustav Landauer crea "Sozialistische Bund" que con el tiempo evolucionará hacia el socialismo consejista.

        - El joven Italiano Pietro Acciarito atenta contra el Rey Humberto, que por azar evita el golpe. Acciarito será detenido y condenado a cadena perpetua.

        - Michele Angiolillo atenta contra Antonio Canovas del Castillo como venganza por los procesos de Montjuich.  Angiolillo será ajusticiado a garrote vil, en el momento de su muerte gritó "Germinal" título de uno de los libros más importantes de Emilio Zola, donde la figura central de la obra es un anarquista.

        - El Dadaísta Alfred Jarry comienza sus aportaciones literarias en la Revista "Revue Blanche".

        - Max Nettlau publica "Bibliographie de l'Anarchie" en Bruselas.

        - Cerca de Newcastle (Inglaterra) se crea la colonia utopista "Forest Hall".

        - Jean Grave edita "El individuo y la sociedad".

        - En Francia se publica la revista “L’Aurore” dirigida por Ernest.Vaughan (1841- 1929)

        - Nace en Italia Camilo Berneri

        - Se publica "The gods & the People" de Voltarine de Cleyre.

        - Muere Henry Louis Tolain, (uno de los fundadores de la AIT en París)

        - La CGT celebra un congreso en Toulouse donde Emile Pouget presenta una ponencia sobre el Sabotage

        1898  

        - J.H.Mackay reúne diversos artículos de Stirner y publica "Kleinerr Schriften" edición que será aumentada en 1914 por Gustav Mayer.

        - Ebenezer Howard publica "Tomorrow, a peaceful way to social reform", estudio que propició poco más tarde la fundación de "Garden City Association".

        - Jean Grave publica "L'Individu et la société"

        - En Ancona (Italia) se funda el periódico "La agitazione"

        - Aparece en Holanda el periódico "De Vrije Socialist" impulsado por Domela Nieuwenhuis.

        - En Noruega se publica el periódico "Anarkisten" que más tarde se llamará "Til Frihet" (1898-1904) el impulsor será Kristofer Hansteen(1865-1906).

        - El 6 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 6 aparece el primer número de "Le Journal du Peuple".

        - El 8 de julio nace en Châteaubriant, May


        2004 -- ARTÍCULO 4 CRONOLOGÍA PRESENCIA INTERNACIONAL DEL ANARQUISMO (versión 3)

        1898 1898

        - En Londres Rudolf Rocker se hace cargo de la redacción del periódico anarco-judío “Arbeiterfreund".

        - El General Bava Beccaris masacra al pueblo Milanés.

        - En Río de Janeiro se funda el grupo anarquista "Angiolillo" y su órgano de expresión será "O Despertar".

        - En Sao Paulo se funda el periódico "L'Operario" en lengua Italiana.

        1899 

        - Jean Grave edita "L' Anarchie, son but, ses moyens".

        - Malatesta funda el Periódico "Associazione" primero en Niza y más tarde en Londres.

        - Varlan Cherkesof (1845-1925) libertario ruso amigo de Nechaef, publica en Bruselas "Précurseurs de l' Internationale"

        - F. Pelloutier publica "Lettre aux anarchistes " donde invita a los anarquistas a organizarse en los sindicatos obreros.

        - Nace la pintora ácrata austríaca Grette Zaharastnik

        - Se publica en Francia “En conquète vers l’Etat Naturel”de  Henri Zisly

        - Jean Grave organiza una tómbola para sufragar los gastos de la prensa anarquista, para ello se prestan los pintores Signac, Van Dongen, Francis Jourdan, Camile Pizarro, etc.

        - Max Nettlau lee "La Responsabilidad en la lucha obrera" en una velada organizada en Londres por el grupo “Freedom”. "Quién no piensa por si mismo, ha de supeditarse al pensamiento ajeno".

        - Aparece en Ancona (Italia) el número único de "I Morti".

        - Se crea en Holanda la comuna anarcotolstoniana de "Blarikum", experiencia que durará hasta 1903.

        - Malatesta parte hacia Estados Unidos donde sufrirá un atentado con herida de bala en el pie.

        - En Paraná Brasil aparece la revista "Il Distrito".

        1900

        - Ricardo Flores Magón funda en México el periódico "Regeneración" apareciendo su primer número el 7 de agosto.

        - En París se celebra un Congreso Anarquista Internacional.

        - El anarcosindicalista Italiano Gaetano Bresci atenta contra el Rey Umberto.

        - El Pedagogo Italiano Luigi Molinari funda la Universidad Popular.

        - En Buenos Aires  el 22 de noviembre NOVEMBER se inicia una  huelga de Sombrereros que durara tres largos meses.

        - Aparece el primer número de “Régéneration” órgano de la Liga de la Regeneración Humana.

        - Rudolf Rocker publica en Londres la revista "Germinal" en Ydisch (Hebreo) hasta 1908.

        1901 

        - Aparece en Uruguay el periódico "Solidaridad" Organo de la F.O.R.U.

        - Nace el 19 de ABRIL / APRIL 19 en La Plata (Argentina) Edgar Ricetti,(Pedagogo).

        - Paul Robin publica un folleto sobre "Técnicas del suicidio",  motivado por la muerte de Laura y Paul Lafargue.

        - Emilie Armand funda "L' Ere Nouvelle" revista de emancipación integral que tiene una segunda época en 1910

        - Malatesta se instala en Londres ayudado por el abogado anarquista Merlino, y allí funda el periódico "L'Internazionale" del cual aparecerán 4 números (12 de enero hasta 5 mayo) y más tarde "L' Scopiero Generale “ (La huelga General)

        - Gaetano Bresci atenta con éxito contra Humberto I en Monza. Bresci será condenado a trabajos forzosos. Morirá el 22 de mayo de 1901 en la penitenciaria de Santo Stefano.

        - El 6 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER el Polaco León Czolgosz atenta en Búfalo(EEUU)contra el presidente de los Estados Unidos. A partir de este día una ley prohibe la entrada de los anarquistas en EEUU (Vigente hoy).

        - En Viena G. Butaud (1869?- 1926) funda el periódico “Flambeau” (Organo de los enemigos de la autoridad) hasta MARZO / MARCH de 1902.

        - Los Búlgaros Sokolov y Merdjanov con varios hombres más se enfrentan al ejército Búlgaro en una guerra de guerrillas. Sokolov muere en combate mientras que Merdjanov será detenido y condenado a muerte el 27 de noviembreNOVEMBER .

        - Jean Grave publica "Las aventuras de Nono" que se convertirá en un clásico de la lectura de la "Escuela Moderna"

        - Muere el Comunard, Gustave Lefrançois (1826-1901)

        - E. Reclús y Jorge Guyau publican en  Francia “L’anarchie et l’Eglise”

        - En París el anarquista Andrés Girard publica el folleto  “Anarchie” con claras referencias a comportamientos libertarios de siglo anteriores.

        1902  

        - Kropotkin publica "El apoyo mutuo"

        - Emile Pouget es nombrado director del órgano sindical "La Voix du Peuple" Portavoz de la CGT

        - La “Federation Bourses Travail” se fusiona dentro de la CGT.

        - Siegfried Nacht publica en Londres "Der Generalstrick und die soziale revolution"

        - En Brasil aparece el primer número de "O Crepusculo" dirigido por Avelino Foscalo (1864-1944).

        - En Minnesota se instala la comuna anarquista de "Golden Life".

        - En Francia se funda la comuna "Milieu libre de Vaux" fundada por Butaud y Sofía Zaïkowska.

        - Aparece en Chile el periódico libertario "El Faro" (Santiago de Chile).

        - El grupo “La Bataille” de Namur publica el folleto anticlerical “La lèpre religieuse”

        1903 

        - Kotoku y Toshihiko Sakai fundan en Japón el periódico anarquista "Heimin Shimbun"

        - Jean Grave publica "Malfaiteurs" una colección de memorias.

        - El emigrado catalán  a EEUU Pedro Esteve es el impulsor del periódico "El despertar"

        - La FORA Argentina celebra su primer congreso.

        - En la Macedonia (Bulgaria) se publica la revista libertaria "Vendetta".

        - El anarquista Rafael Barret (Nacido en Santander) llega a Buenos Aires.

        - Elisée Reclús finaliza el "Hombre y la Tierra"

        - Muere J.B.Clement (1863-1903) conocido poeta y cancionista de la comuna de París destacando su "Temps des Cireres"

        - Luigi Fabbri funda en Roma la revista anarquista "Il Pensiero".

        - El 20 de junio aparece el primer número del periódico libertario chileno "La Protesta del Panadero".

        - El 19 de agosto en Préobrozonié (Bulgaria) se proclama la Comuna de "Strandza" netamente libertaria.

        - Se crea en Vaux (Francia) una Colonia utopista donde la mayor parte de sus integrantes eran vegetarianos.

        - En Francia se publica “Le Naturisme Libertaire devant la Civilisation” de Henri Zisly

        - En Río de Janeiro, Eliseo de Carvalho crea el periódico "La Huelga" que incentiva la creación de la "Unión de los Obreros Estibadores"

        - Lucy Parson: Hermana de Albert Parson (Uno de los mártires de Chicago) publica un libro  de la vida de Albert Parson

        - E. Armand publica por primera vez en España en la Revista Blanca un extenso artículo sobre Tolstoi

        - Se funda en Italia el periódico anarquista “Il Libertario” dirigido por Pasquale Binazzi hasta 1922.

        1904  

        - Kropotkin es nombrado Secretario de la Sociedad de la Geografía Rusa. Tiene que diseñar de nuevo toda la geografía Asiática, ya que descubre numerosos errores en la cartografía.

        - En Francia se crea la "Asociación Internacional Antimilitarista", Emile Armand presenta la ponencia "Repudio del servicio militar".

        - Muere Elie Reclús, en Bruselas.

        - 1904 Primero de Mayo en Italia gran Manifestación que había partido de la plaza del  congreso hasta el Paseo de Julio frente a la estatua de Mazzini allí antes de comenzar el mitin se oía un  disparo y a continuación una gran  carga policial que sembró de pánico y muerte a los asistentes.

        - En junio aparece en Sâo Paulo "A Batalha", son sus redactores Oreste Ristori, Gigi Damiani, Oresti y Alejandro Cherciai, anarco-comunista en lengua italiana

        1904 JULY

        - En el mes de julio en Buenos Aires aparece el primer número de la revista “Futuro” entre sus redactores están Edmundo Bianchi y Leopoldo Durán

        (THIS ENTRY NOTED IN BLEED ON BIANCHI BIRTHDAY; [TO DO: add reference to Futuro IN JULY) 1904

        - En noviembre se produce una huelga general en Rosario (Argentina) que provoca fuertes enfrentamientos con la policía, el resultado es de más de 50 muertos.

        - Entra en vigor la "Ley anti-anarquista" en Brasil.

        - Se publica en Argentina la revista "Martín Fiero" siendo su director Alberto Ghiraldo.

        - Domela Nieuwenhuis funda en Holanda, la asociación "Antimilitarista Internacional".

        - En la región de Ardennes se crea la comuna anarquista de "Aiglements" fundada por Fortuné Henry que funciono durante 3 años.

        - En Argentina el anarquista G.Balsas publica el libro “De los métodos de lucha:Eficacia del Boicot y sabotage·”

        - En Francia Sebastián Faure funda la escuela “La Ruche” (a 40 Km de París)que durará hasta 1917

        - En la región de Toscana Italia nace el anarquista Piero Bulleri.

        - Sale de la cárcel en Rusia Vera Figner, y crea un comité de apoyo a los presos rusos por toda Europa

        1905 

        - Primera revolución Rusa

        - En Uruguay se crea la Federación Obrera Regional Uruguaya que tendrá una fuerte implantación hasta 1923.

        - Se crea en EEUU la I.W.W.(Industrial Workers of the World), son sus principales impulsores E.Debs, Bill Haywood (Big Bill), C.Moyer, Daniel de León, W.Trautmann, Mother Jones, Lucy Parsons.

        - En Francia sale la revista de los anarco individualistas "L'Anarchie" participan en ella E. Armand, V.Serge, Lorulot, etc.

        - El 9 de ENERO / JANUARY 9 muere en Marsella Luisa Michel a los 74 años de edad. El día de su entierro (22 ENERO / JANUARY 22) toman la palabra ante su tumba Sebastián Faure, Malato, Madm.Séverine, Aufan, Le Grandais, Girault.

        - Elisée Reclús muere el 4 de Julio en Thourout (Bélgica)

        - Se empieza a editar la obra de James Guillaume "La Internacional documentos y recuerdos".

        - El 11 de agosto Salvador Planas atenta sin éxito contra el presidente Argentino Quintana, en protesta por la matanza de Mayo en Buenos Aires.

        - El 30 de diciembre / DECEMBER en Sâo Paulo se publica el primer número del semanario "A Terra Livre" está dirigido por Neno Vasco y Edgard Leueseroth

        - Aparece en Porto el periódico "A Vida" órgano de la Federación Anarquista Portuguesa.

        - Paul Robin publica en Régénération un folleto "Contre la nature".

        - En San Felipe, Chile se instala una comuna anarquista compuesta por grupos naturistas.

        - Cerca de Amiens se funda la comuna Comunista Libertaria de "Glisy".

        1906 

        - Congreso de Amiens "Carta de Amiens" Manifiesto muy discutido dentro del anarquismo ya que limita la acción de los anarquistas dentro del sindicato, el manifiesto o carta fue aprobada en su día por 834 votos a favor por 8 en contra.

        - Emma Goldman, A.Berkman publican la revista "Mother Earth” (1906-1917).

        - Osugi (libertario japonés), funda la Asociación Esperantísta Japonesa. [Osugi Sakae]

        - Kropotkin desde Londres trata de incidir en la propaganda Rusa con la revista "Listki Cheib i Volia" (Hojas de "Pan y Libertad")

        - Muere Henry Ibsen (1828-1906) escritor Noruego muy seguido por los obreros de su época y posterior.

        - En la localidad Boliviana de Tupiza se crea “La Unión Obrera Primero de Mayo” su portavoz será “La Aurora social”

        - El libertario ruso Turkhaninov publica "Associacionny Anarchism". Éste más tarde será asesinado por los Bolcheviques.

        - En Australia y Canadá se funda la IWW (International Workers of the World).

        - Un grupo de libertarios chinos publica en París "La Novaj Tempoj" mientras, que en Tokio (Japón) aparecen las revistas "Tien-i-poa" y "Heng-pao".

        - En Servia se crea el periódico anarcosindicalista "Proleter".

        - Son fusilados en Varsovia 16 miembros del grupo "La Internacional".

        - En París se funda el grupo "Les causeries populaires" que está integrado, entre otros por Emile Armand, Paraf-Javal, Alberto Libertad, etc.

        - Se funda en Brasil la Confederación Obrera Anarquista. (COB) su órgano de expresión será "La Voz del Trabajador"

        - El 1º de Mayo en París se funda la escuela "Avenir Social" dirigida por Madelleine Vernet.

        - El 1 de octubre, se funda en Milán la "Confederazione Generale del Lavoro".

        - Muere en Francia el Comunero  y Blanquista Constant Martín (1839-1906).

        - En Argentina estalla la huelga de alquileres que se prolongará hasta el año siguiente.

        - Huelga en París de empleados de cocina en Restaurantes obreros por negarse a guisar comida barata y en mal estado.

        - En Bulgaria, en la región de Bourgas se crea una comuna anarquista.

        - En Canada se crea la comuna comunista libertaria de "Redder Alta" compuesta de unos 40 colonos.

        - En Francia se funda la “Liga Internacional para la Educacuón Racional” entre los fundadores están, Ferrer y Guardia, Carlos Albert, Eugenio Furnier, Charles Malato y Sembat.

        - En Córcega se funda la comuna libertaria de "Ciorfoli" durará dos años.

        - André Lorulot y E.Girault crean la comuna libertaria de "Colonie de Saint Germain" que tendrá una vida de  2 años.

        1907 

        - C.Cornelissen funda "Bulletin Internacional du Moviment syndicaliste."

        - El 9 de ENERO / JANUARY 9 aparece el primer número de la revista “Regeneración” en Montevideo.

        - Del 24 al 31 de agosto se celebra el Congreso Anarquista en Amsterdam   considerado como una contraofensiva a la carta de  Amiens, siendo las dos cabezas visibles de este debate, Enrico Malatesta y Pedro Monatte.

        - Gustav Landauer(1871-1919) trata de darle base social al grupo ético libre (Die neue Gemeinschaft) al cual pertenece desde 1900 cambiando el nombre por "Dreissing sozialistiche thesen" que en 1908 pasará  a denominarse "Sozialistische Brind"

        - En París aparece el primer número de la revista naturista libertaria “La Vie Naturelle”

        - Muere en Francia Monod  a consecuencia de los trabajos forzados de años anteriores.

        - Fundación de la Cruz Roja Anarquista con sede en Nueva York y Londres ésta última estaba dirigida por Kropotkin, Cherkezov, Rocker, Schapiro. Mientras que la americana  H Weinstein y J Katzenelenbogen y Yelensky

        - Se publica  el libro "La Gran Revolución" de Kropotkin.

        - Yamaga (1892-1970) funda "Japana esperantista Asocio".

        - En Dinamarca aparecen los periódicos libertarios "Skorpionen y Revolten"

        - Yang-tschu “El Stirner Chino” publica en París la revista "Sinsiki" (Tiempos Nuevos).

        - En Bulgaria se fundan los periódicos "La Societa Libera" y "Acratie".

        - En Servia se crea el periódico "Radnücka Borba" (Lucha operaria).

        - En Milán aparece la revista clandestina "Ramipele le file" dirigida por Filippo Corridoni y María Rygier.

        - En Hungría se publica la revista "Tarsadlami Forradalurm" dirigida por el anarco-comunista Ervin Batthyanny

        - En Bahía Blanca (Argentina) se declara la huelga de estibadores del puerto, en la carga policial muere el obrero Fancioni y en el entierro de éste de nuevo la policía tirotea a los obreros con el resultado de dos muertos más y nueve heridos.

        - En Brasil se crea el periódico "Nâo Matarás" antilimitarista libertario son sus redactores Mota Assunçâo, Alacid y José Romero.

        - Es incendiada y destruida la colonia fourrierista "Utopía Colony" fundada por Upton Sinclair en Nueva Jersey

        - En Lausana (Suiza) los anarquistas crean una Escuela Moderna que durará hasta 1913.

        - En Francia en la región del Rhone se crea la comuna libertaria de "La Rize".

        - Ricardo Flores Magón es detenido y conducido a  la prisión de Missouri.

        - Gustave Hervé funda el periódico “Guerre sociale” colaboran Almereyda, y Eugéne Merle,etc

        - Los anarcosindicalistas de Río de Janeiro crean la "Liga de los inquilinos" para luchar contra el aumento de los alquileres de las viviendas

        1908 

        - Ferrer i Guardia funda en Bruselas y luego en París la revista "L' Ecole Renovée" donde participa activamente Paul Robin.

        - Jean Grave publica un pequeño relato sobre la utopía "Terre Libre".

        - En Dinamarca se funda el periódico "Socialistisk Arbejderblad".

        - En Malmoe (Suecia) un grupo de acción atenta contra el Barco "L'Amalthea".

        - Los anarquistas rusos refugiados en Suiza o Francia fundan la organización "Croix Rouge".

        - El 2 de ABRIL / APRIL 2 en Roma, en el funeral de un obrero. La policía interrumpe los actos violentamente causando de nuevo la muerte a tres obreros, entre ellos se encuentra el anarquista Paolo Parella.

        - En Portugal se funda el periódico "A Sementeira" dirigido por Hilário Marqués(1878-1949).

        - Nace la anarquista suiza Clara Thalman Enser (1908-1987).

        - Carlo Tresca (1879-1943) funda en Pittsburgh el semanario anarquista "La Plebe" que luego se trasladará a New Kesington y New YorK

        1909  

        - Nace el 3 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 3 Simone Weil  (1909-1943)

        - En Buenos Aires,  el primero de Mayo la policía carga contra una manifestación de 30000 personas provocando una matanza (8 muertos y 150 heridos) poco después Simón Radowitky (1889- 1956) se erige en vengador y el 14 de noviembre atenta contra el jefe de policía que dirigía la matanza  del 1º de Mayo, Ramón Falcón.

        - El 13 de octubre / OCTOBER 13 en Montevideo, se celebra un miting contra el proceso Ferrer, en Manifestación se dirigen a la embajada española donde hay un fuerte enfrentamiento con la policía. (12 heridos).

        - Aparece en Berlín el periódico "Der Sozialist"(1909-1915) en el que colabora con asiduidad Gustav Landauer.

        - Se crea en Noruega la "Norges Social-Anarkiske Forbund".

        - Martín Buber (seguidor de Landauer) publica "Incitación al Socialismo".

        - Enrique Nido (seudónimo de Amadeo Lluán 1869-1926) En Argentina quiso atentar contra el cónsul español en Rosario pero con tan mala fortuna que le estalló la bomba que él mismo había fabricado. Detenido fue juzgado y  condenado, pasó 5 años en la cárcel.

        - Se publica en Argentina la revista "Ideas y Figuras" siendo su director Alberto Ghiraldo.

        - Voltarine de Cleyre publica "Anarchism & American traditions"

        - En Alemania Erich Mühsam entra en contacto con el grupo “Lumpenproletariat”

        - Se funda en Chile la F.O.CH.(Federación Obrera Chilena) de claro carácter libertario.

        1910 

        - Se publica "Campos Fábricas y Talleres" de Kropotkin.

        - En el mes de junio en Estocolmo se funda el sindicato anarcosindicalista SAC (Sveriges Arbetares Centralonganisation)  

        - En el mes de agosto en Japón, la policía detiene a Kotoku y 24 anarquistas más.

        - Jean Grave publica "Reformes revolution"

        - En estos años la FORA (Argentina) tiene dos órganos de expresión diarios que son "La Protesta" y "La Batalla".

        - En Alemania Erich Müsham es detenido y juzgado con kla acusación de crear “Sociedades Secretas”

        - En Dinamarca se funda el sindicato revolucionario "Fugoppositionens Sammenlutning".

        - Zerajic (Libertario Yugoslavo) atenta contra el general Varesanin, del cual sale ileso mientras que Zerajic se suicida.

        - El 10 de noviembre muere León Tolstoi

        -


        2005 -- Biblioteca Popular 'Jose Ingenieros'

        Calle J. Ramirez de Velasco 958, (1414) Buenos Aires, Argentina +54-11-4857-6404 Member of FICEDL LÓPEZ, Antonio/FRANCOMANO Vicente. Biblioteca popular Jose INGENIEROS 1935-1995. Buenos Aires, 1995

        Founded in 1935 by anarchists & a few socialists, it was closed down during the Peron regime, from 1949 to 1955. Some of its members "disappeared". Though it does not have many archives, it offers a great number of books.


        2005 -- una característica relevante de la producción bibliográfica sobre el anarquismo argentino es la concentración de los estudios en torno al papel desempeñado por los ácratas en el ámbito sindical, relegando a un lugar secundario otras cuestiones esenciales en la práctica de los libertarios, a saber : la educación libertaria, la literatura creada por los escritores anarquistas (Alberto Ghiraldo, Alejandro Sux, Florencio Sanchez, Felix Basterra, Antonio De Carlo, etc) http://raforum.info/article.php3?id_article=287


        2005 -- NEED TO ADD Isidore Schneider, Edwin Rolfe, Adrienne Rich, Genevieve Taggard, LYND WARD, Carlos Bulosan, Kenneth burke, JACK CONROY, OTHERS AT

        http://www2.centenary.edu/home/jhendric/left_culture/people.html This link/page is dead in 2005; see the partial copy I have archived


        2005 -- run search for http://www.oz.net/~recall/bleed/images & replace with link to server


        2005 -- ITALIAN LIST, ANARCHISTS OR RELATED, in italian; need to go thru add to encyclopedia where appropriate, etc.

        Vittorio Alunno Luigi Amadei Pietro Aureli Raffaello Bellucci Etrusco Benci Alfredo Boschi Antonio Calamassi Luigia Civinini Socrate Franchi Giovan Battista Frati Lelio Iacomelli Ernesto Moscatelli Ermanno Neri Quisnello Nozzoli Randolfo Pacciardi Francesco Pellegrini Italo Ragni Siro Rosi Angelo Rossi Egisto Serni Muzio Tosi
        http://www.geocities.com/soho/den/7257/numero3/serni.html



        2005 -- nouvelle adresse du site : http://federation-anarchiste.org/ml/rubrique.php3?id_rubrique=1574
        ML histoire et archivesAdministrationML eN LiGNe Agenda Communication Histoire du ML Liens mOdE d’EmplOI




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        formulaire à imprimer (PDF disponible en bas de la page)

        Recherches
        La classification utilisée pour l’indexation des articles

        ou des sommaires

        Articles les plus récents

        l'indexation des articles est faite au travers de 4 listes :


        liste élargie du Centre international de recherche sur l'anarchisme (CIRA Lausanne)
        action directe  / agriculture  / aide au développement  / aide humanitaire  / alimentation  / alternative  / amour libre  / anarchisme  / animal  / anthropologie et ethnologie  / antimilitarisme  / apartheid  / architecture  / argent  / armée  / armement  / art (généralités)  / art / politique  / art : affiche  / art : art plastique  / art : chanson  / art : cinéma  / art : courants : surréalisme  / art : dessin  / art : gravure  / art : musique  / art : peinture  / art : photographie  / art : sculpture  / art : vidéo  / art : métier d’art  / art : théâtre  / association  / autogestion  / autonomie  / autorité  / bagne  / bibliographie  / biologie  / bureaucratie  / camps  / capitalisme et anticapitalisme  / censure  / citoyenneté  / collectivisme  / colonialisme  / communalisme  / communautés  / communication  / communication : Internet  / communication : publicité  / communication : audiovisuel  / communisme  / conflits : Chiapas  / conflits : Côte d’Ivoire  / conflits : conflit du Kosovo  / conflits : conflit israëlo-arabe  / conflits : conflit israëlo-palestinien  / conseils ouvriers  / consommation  / contestation  / contrôle des naissances  / contrôle social  / coopération  / corporatisme  / criminalité et délinquance  / critique de l’anarchisme  / culture  / délégation de pouvoir  / démocratie  / démocratie directe  / désobéissance civile  / développement  / déviance  / dictature  / dictionnaires et encyclopédies  / doctrine  / drogue  / droit  / droit international  / droits  / droits de l’enfant  / droits humains  / écologie  / économie (généralités)  / économie : affairisme  / économie : banque  / économie : chômage  / économie : corruption  / économie : démographie  / économie : énergie  / économie : entreprise  / économie : industrie  / économie : libéralisme  / économie : matières premières  / économie : mondialisation  / économie : multinationales  / économie : spéculation  / économie : transports  / édition  / éducation  / égalité et inégalité  / élection (scrutin)  / émigration et immigration  / enfants  / ésotérisme  / espace  / Est-Ouest  / esthétique  / État  / éthique  / étudiants  / exil  / extrême-droite  / famille  / fascisme et antifascisme  / fédéralisme  / fédérations anarchistes  / féminisme  / femmes  / franc-maçonnerie  / gauche  / gauchisme  / génocide  / géographie et géopolitique  / Gil, André (1840-1885)  / grève  / grève : grève générale  / groupe de pression  / guérilla  / guerre (généralités)  / guerres : Yougoslavie  / guerres : Afghanistan : 2001-2003  / guerres : Algérie :1954-1962  / guerres : guerre de Tchétchénie  / guerres : guerre du Golfe (1re) : 1980-1988  / guerres : guerre du Golfe (2e) : 1990-1991  / guerres : guerre du Golfe (3e) : 2003  / histoire  / histoire : négationnisme  / hommes  / hygiène  / iconographie  / idées  / identité culturelle  / idéologie  / illégalisme  / imaginaire  / impérialisme  / individualisme  / information et désinformation  / intellectuels  / internationales  / internationalisme  / jeunes  / juifs anarchistes  / justice  / laïcité  / langue  / libération nationale  / liberté  / libre pensée  / littérature (généralités)  / littérature : anthologies  / littérature : bande dessinée  / littérature : biographies  / littérature : contes  / littérature : correspondances  / littérature : essais  / littérature : humour  / littérature : mémoires  / littérature : nouvelles  / littérature : paraboles  / littérature : poésie  / littérature : récits  / littérature : romans  / littérature : satire  / littérature : science-fiction  / littérature : théâtre  / littérature : pamphlet  / logement  / loisirs et tourisme  / lutte armée  / lutte des classes  / luttes autochtones  / luttes lycéennes  / luttes ouvrières  / luttes rurales  / luttes urbaines  / manifestes  / marxisme  / médecine  / militantisme  / minorités  / mort  / mouvement anarchiste  / mouvement anarchiste : congrès  / mouvement anarchiste : histoire  / mouvement ouvrier  / mouvement social  / mutualisme  / nationalisme  / nature  / naturisme  / nécrologie  / nihilisme  / non-violence  / Nord-Sud  / nucléaire  / organisation  / organisations internationales  / organisations non gouvernementales (ONG)  / pacifisme  / paresse  / parlementarisme et anti-parlementarisme  / parti politique  / patriotisme  / pauvreté et quart-monde  / philosophie  / polémique  / polices et gendarmeries  / politique  / politique / art  / politique internationale  / populations autochtones  / populations ethniques minoritaires  / pouvoir  / précurseurs de l’anarchisme  / Premier Mai  / presse  / presse : histoire  / prison  / procès  / propagande  / propagande par le fait  / propriété  / propriété industrielle  / propriété intellectuelle  / protection sociale  / provo  / psychanalyse  / psychiatrie  / psychologie  / racisme et antiracisme  / réformisme  / religion et spiritualité  / répression  / retraite  / révolte  / révolution  / sabotage  / salariat  / santé  / science  / service public  / services secrets  / sexisme et homophobie  / sexualité  / situationnisme  / socialisme  / sociologie  / solidarité  / soumission  / soutien (gala ou action de)  / sport  / squatt  / stratégie  / syndicalisme  / syndicalisme : anarchosyndicalisme  / technologie  / télésurveillance  / terrorisme  / tiers-monde  / torture  / totalitarisme  / travail et emploi  / trotskisme  / urbanisme et ville  / utopie  / vie quotidienne  / vieillesse  / violence

        http://www.cybertaria.net/ml/rubrique.php3?id_rubrique=1574



        2005 -- liste géographique et périodique

        Afghanistan  / Afrique  / Afrique du Nord  / Albanie  / Algérie  / Algérie / France  / Allemagne  / Allemagne : histoire  / Amérique du Nord  / Amérique latine  / Argentine  / Argentine : histoire  / Australie  / Autriche  / Belgique  / Belgique : histoire  / Bolivie  / Bosnie  / Brésil  / Bulgarie  / Canada  / Chili  / Chine  / Colombie  / Congo (ex-belge)  / Corse  / Corse  / Costa Rica  / Côte d’Ivoire  / Croatie  / Cuba  / Danemark  / Ecosse  / Égypte  / Espagne  / Espagne : histoire  / Espagne : histoire : 1936-1939  / États-Unis  / États-Unis : histoire  / Éthiopie  / Europe de l’Est  / Finlande  / France / Algérie  / France : histoire  / France : histoire : 1871  / France : histoire : 1789  / France : histoire : 1936  / Grèce  / Guatémala  / Guyane  / Haïti  / Indonésie  / Irak  / Iran  / Irlande  / Islande  / Israël  / Italie  / Japon  / Kazakhstan  / Kenya  / Koweït  / Kurdistan  / Laos  / Liban  / Luxembourg  / Maroc  / Mexique  / Nigéria  / Norvège  / Pakistan  / Palestine  / Pays-Basque  / Pays-Bas : histoire  / Pologne  / Polynésie française  / Proche Orient  / Québec  / Roumanie  / Royaume-Uni  / Royaume-Uni : histoire  / Russie  / Rwanda  / Salvador  / Sénégal  / Serbie  / Slovaquie  / Soudan  / Suède  / Suisse  / Tchéquie  / Tchétchénie  / Timor  / Tunisie  / Turquie  / Tziganes et autres RRoms  / Ukraine  / Union européenne  / URSS  / URSS : histoire  / Uruguay  / Vatican  / Venezuela  / vide  / Vietnam  / Yougoslavie  / Zaire

        liste de noms et organisations
        Agone  / Agrupación sindicalista libertaria = Association syndicaliste libertaire (Cuba)  / Alternative libertaire (AL, France)  / Alternative libertaire (Belgique)  / Anarchie, l’ (1957-)  / Anarchisme et non-violence  / Arenalejos, los (collectividad)  / ASRAS (Alliance syndicaliste révolutionnaire et anarchosyndicaliste)  / Association internationale des travailleurs (AIT)  / Ateneo libertario (Puebla del Rio)  / Athénée libertaire (Bordeaux)  / Awareness League (AL)  / Aymare  / Banzaï en folie  / Bonaventure, école  / Canard enchaîné, le  / Causeries populaires, les  / CGT (Confederación general del trabajo, Espagne)  / CIRA (Lausanne/Genève)  / CIRA (Marseille)  / CLAAAC G8  / CNT (Espagne)  / CNT : 1945-1993 (Confédération nationale des travailleurs)  / CNT : 2e UR (Confédération nationale des travailleurs)  / CNT-AIT : 1993- > (Confédération nationale des travailleurs)  / CNT-F : 1993- > (Confédération nationale des travailleurs)  / Combat syndicaliste, le  / Commission internationale de liaison ouvrière (CILO)  / Coordination anarchiste (CA)  / Coordination anarchiste (Gênes)  / Correspondance internationale ouvrière  / Courant alternatif  / CRA (Venezuela)  / CRAS (Confédération révolutionnaire des anarcho-syndicalistes)  / Croix noire anarchiste (ABC)  / CSAF (Fédération anarchiste tchécoslovaque-Slovaquie)  / CSP 59  / Drapeau noir, le (Besançon)  / Egrégores (éditions)  / FAD (Fédération des anarchistes du Dombass)  / Federación anarchica de Rio de Janeiro (FARJ)  / Federación anarquista uruguaya (FAU)  / Federación ibérica de juventudes libertarias (FIJL)  / Fédération anarchiste (FA)  / Fédération communiste libertaire (FCL)  / Fédération des communistes libertaires du Nord-Est (NEFAC)  / Fédération sanarchistes de Grèce occidentale (OADE) = ?????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ( ????)  / Federazione anarchica italiana  / Fondación Anselmo-Lorenzo (Madrid)  / Forum Léo-Ferré  / FRAC-GL (Fédération des collectifs révolutionnaires anarchistes de la région des Grands Lacs)  / Freedom (London)  / Gacetilla austral  / ICO (Informations et correspondance ouvrière)  / Industrial workers of the world (IWW)  / Initiative anarcho-syndicaliste (Serbie)  / Insoumise, l’ (librairie)  / Internationale des fédérations anarchistes (IFA)  / Internationale des résistants à la guerre (IRG-WRI)  / Jeunesses libertaires  / Kate Sharpley Library (London)  / Klara (radio)  / Libertaire, le  / Libertarian league = Ligue libertaire d’Amérique du Nord  / Libertario, el (Caracas)  / Libertario, el (Cuba)  / Librairie du Monde libertaire (Publico)  / Librairie du Muguet (Bordeaux)  / librairie L’Encre-Rage (Grenoble)  / librairie La Gryffe (Lyon)  / librairie Quilombo (Paris)  / Lucha libertaria (Uruguay)  / MLOP  / Monde libertaire, le  / Mouvement libertaire cubain  / Mujeres libres (Madrid)  / N’autre école  / NEFAC (Fédération communiste libertaire du nord-est)  / No Pasaran  / Noir et rouge (périodique)  / Nosotros (Espagne)  / Organisation communiste libertaire (OCL)  / Organización libertaria cimarrón (OLC)  / PA-AKOP (Priama akcia anarchokomunisticka organizacia prace, Slovaquie)  / Plume noire, librairie la (Lyon)  / Radio libertaire  / RAS : revue d’anarchisme social  / Réfractions  / Révolution prolétarienne, la  / SMOT  / Solidarios, los (& las Solidarias)  / Sveriges Anarkistfederation (SAF)  / Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation (SAC)  / Union anarchiste (UA)  / Union des travailleurs communistes libertaires (UTCL)  / Unione Sindacale Italiana (USI-AIT)  / Utopia libertaria (Bolivie)  / VAAAG  / Volontad (Uruguay)

        noms citŽs (expressions, soutiens, inculpations, critiques...)
        Alberts, Jürgen  / Antonioli, Maurizio  / Archinov, Piotr  / Arondel, Maurice (-1961)  / Arru, André (pseud. de Jean-René Saulière, 1911-1999)  / Arruti, Mariana  / Autin-Grenier, Pierre  / Auvray, Michel  / Auzias, Claire  / Avakumovic, Ivan  / Avray, Charles d’ (pseud. de Charles-Henri Jean, 1878-1960)  / Bagatskoff, Henri « Bagats » (-1955)  / Baj, Enrico (1924-2003)  / Bakounine, Michel (1814-1876)  / Balkanski, Georges (pseud. de Georgi Grigoriev, 1906-1996)  / Balry, Régis  / Barrué, Jean  / Barthas, Louis (1879-1952)  / Batellier, Jean-François  / Bauer, Charlie  / Bayer, Osvaldo  / Béranger, François (1937-2003)  / Berenguer, Sara  / Bernard, André  / Berneri, Camillo (1897-1937)  / Berneri, Giovanna (1897-1962)  / Berthier, Pierre-Valentin  / Berthier, René  / Best, Francine  / Bianco, René  / Blachier, Pierre (-1997)  / Blanqui, Auguste (1805-1881)  / Blavier, Yves  / Body, Marcel (1894-1984)  / Bookchin, Murray  / Borell Garcia, Federico  / Boscus, Alain  / Boulouque, Sylvain  / Boumard, Patrick  / Bourseiller, Christophe  / Bové, José  / Brajon, Jacques (-1996)  / Brassens, Georges (1921-1981)  / Brémand, Nathalie  / Broutchoux, Benoît  / Callabero, Philippe  / Campion, Léo (1905-1992)  / Camus, Albert (1913-1960)  / Carpeña, Pepita  / Carré, Jean-Michel  / Cazals, Rémy  / Celma, Miguel  / Cesari, Davide  / Cetinkaya, Sadri  / Chaleil, Max  / Charb  / Chenard, Raoul (1896-1960)  / Chevet, Suzy (-1972)  / Chomsky, Noam  / Clos, Nicolas (-1924)  / Colson, Daniel  / Comaposada, Mercedes  / Cornelissen, Christian (1864-1942)  / Courbet, Gustave (1819-1877)  / Couté, Gaston (1880-1911)  / Creagh, Ronald  / Cross, Edmond-Henri (pseud. de Edmond-Henri Delacroix, 1856-1910)  / Cruz, Theresa  / Cyvoct,  / Cœurderoy, Ernest (1825-1862)  / Dadoun, Roger  / Daeninckx, Didier  / Dagerman, Stig (1923-1954)  / Dartois, Michel (-1957)  / De Rokha, Pablo (pseud. de Carlos Ignacio Diaz Loyola, 1894-1968)  / Debord, Guy  / Déjacque, Joseph (1821-1864)  / Delatelier, Jacques  / Delgado Martínez, Joaquín (1934-1963)  / Deniaud, Yves (-1959)  / Doussot, René (1905 ?-1961)  / Drémierre, Albert (1886 ?-1956}  / Duchamp, Marcel (1887-1968)  / Dugné, Rémy (1897-1957)  / Dupont, Cédric  / Duron, Gilles (1954 ?-2003)  / Durruti, colonel  / Ellul, Jacques (1912-1994)  / Enckell, Marianne  / Faure, Sébastien (1858-1942)  / Faury, Jean  / Fayolle, Maurice  / Fénéon, Félix  / Fernández, Frank  / Ferré, Léo (1916 - 1993)  / Ferrer y Guardia, Francisco (1859-1909)  / Finster, Ramon (-1996)  / Florestan, Julian  / Foisnon, Christian "Kristen" (-1996)  / Font, Patrick  / Fontenis, Georges  / Freinet, Célestin (1896-1966)  / Frémion, Yves  / Fresnais, Denise (-1961)  / Gallet, Léon (-1957)  / Galy, Jean [pseud de Lyg et de Falou] (1892 ?-1962)  / Garnier, Philippe (1935-2003)  / Gasser, Willy (1884 ?-1962 ?)  / Gatti, Armand  / Gaultier, Foncette (-1956)  / Gébé (-2004)  / Giraud, Daniel (1946-)  / Girier-Lorion (Anthelme Girier, dit Jean-Baptiste Lorion, -1898)  / Giuliani, Carlo (-2001)  / Godin, Noël  / Golberg, Mécislas  / Goldman, Emma  / Goldman, Emma  / Gougaud, Henri  / Granado Gata, Francisco (1933 ?-1963)  / Grange, Dominique  / Jean Grave (1854-1939)  / Guérin, Daniel (1904-1988)  / Guillon, Claude  / Gutierrez Menoyo, Eloy  / Hapiot, Jean-Luc (-1996)  / Hasek, Jaroslav  / Hawad  / Hébert, Alexandre  / Henry, Fortuné  / Héraud, Étienne  / Hervé, Gustave (1871-1944)  / Houzet, Jean-Marc (-1996)  / Hsi Hsuan-wou  / Humbert, Jeanne (1890-1986)  / Ici et maintenant, radio  / Jacob, Alexandre Marius (1879-1954)  / Janover, Louis  / Janvion, Émile (-1927)  / Jouanne, Emmanuel  / Joyeux, Maurice (1910-1991)  / Julien (-2001)  / Justin, Olive (-1962)  / Kaninski, Hanan  / Kleifi, Michel  / Knezevic, Srdjan "Sicko"  / Krasucki, Henri (1924-2003)  / Kropotkine, Pierre (1842-1921)  / Kurys, Nadia  / Lacaze-Duthiers, Gérard de (1876-1958)  / Lafargue, Paul (1842-1911)  / Laisant, Maurice  / Lalouette, Jacqueline  / Lamihi, Ahmed  / Landauer, Gustav (1870-1919)  / Lapeyre, Aristide (1899-1974)  / Lapeyre, Paul  / Lascary, Kittu  / Laugier, Louis (-1961)  / Lazare, Bernard (1865-1903)  / Lecoin, Louis (1888-1971)  / Lefebvre, Raymond (-1921)  / Léo, André  / Lepetit, (-1921)  / Lesage de La Haye, Jacques  / Levaray, Jean-Pierre  / Liard-Courtois  / Libertad, Albert (pseud. d’Albert Joseph, 1875-1908)  / Lissagaray, Prosper-Olivier (1838-1901)  / Livrozet, Serge  / Lorne, Gérard  / Lynn, Robert (1924-1996)  / Maire, Henri (1879-1961)  / Makhno, Nestor  / Malaquais, Jean (1908-1998)  / Malatesta, Errico (1853-1932)  / Manach, Jean-Marc  / Manfredonia, Gaetano  / Marcellan, Aimé  / Marchal, Charles Fernand (-1961)  / Marchand, Pascal  / Marest, Patrick  / Marti, Vicente  / Martin, Richard  / Martin, Serge  / Marut, Ret  / Masereel, Frans (1889-1972)  / Masetti, Jorge  / Meltzer, Albert (1920-1996)  / Mension, Jean-Michel  / Mercier Vega, Louis (pseud. de Charles Riedel, 1914-1977)  / Michel, Louise (1830-1905)  / Miéville, Ariane  / Mimmo (pseud. de Domenico Pucciarelli)  / Mirbeau, Octave (1848-1917)  / Monatte, Pierre (1881-1960)  / Morand, Marie (1895 ?-1956)  / Moulaert, Jan  / Mühsam, Erich (1878-1934)  / Naamati, Gil  / Nihotte, Bernard (-1996)  / Nikiphorova, Marie
        http://recollectionbooks.com/bleed/Encyclopedia/NikiforovaMaria.htm  / Notes en bulle (festival)  / Ortiz, Antonio (1907-1996)  / Orwell, Georges (1903-1950)  / Oswald, John  / Palante, Georges (1862-1925)  / Parouty, Simon  / Patillon, Christophe  / Pelletier, Philippe  / Pelloutier, Fernand (-1901)  / Perdereau, Jacques (-2003)  / Pere, Sola  / Pérennou, Marie  / Péret, Benjamin (1899-1959)  / Peyraut, Yves (1934-2002)  / Picqueray, May (1898-1983)  / Pinelli, Giuseppe (1928-1969)  / Poch, Amporo  / Poncet, Adrien (-1924)  / Pouget, Émile (1860-1931)  / Pouy, Jean-Bernard  / Prost, Richard  / Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph (1809-1865)  / Pucciarelli, Domenico "Mimmo"  / Quadruppani, Serge  / Ragon, Michel  / Rajfus, Maurice  / Rassinier, Paul (1906-1967)  / Rathier, Jules (-1960)  / Reeve, Charles  / Reineri, Ateo (1934 ?-1961)  / Rey, Benoist  / Riesel, René  / Robin, Armand (1912-1961)  / Rocker, Rudolf (1873-1958)  / Romero, Nestor  / Ronsin, Francis  / Roussenq, Paul (1885-1949)  / Rovira, Guiomar  / Rubel, Maximilien (1905-1996)  / Ryner, Han (pseud. de Henri Ner, 1861-1938)  / Sabater, Francisco (-1960)Francisco Sabate (El Quico).  / Sacco, Nicola  / Santini, Thomas  / Saornil, Lucía Sanchez  / Schaeffer, Bernard  / Segura, Pépito  / Sepúlveda, Luis  / Serebrennikov, Oleg  / Serge, Victor  / Sternhell, Zeev  / Thiriot, Franck  / Thomas, Bernard  / Thomas, Guy  / Traven, B. (1882-1969)  / Tricheux, Alphonse (1880-1957)  / Tricheux, Paule (-1960)  / Trumel, Nelly  / Ulke, Osman Murat "Ossie"  / Ulloa, Bajo  / Utgé-Royo, Serge  / Vallet, Jacques  / Valois, Georges (1878-1945)  / Valpreda, Pietro (1933 ?-2002)  / van der Lubbe, Marinus  / Vaneigem, Raoul  / Vanzetti, Bartolomeo  / Vergeat, (-1921)  / Vezyrtzoglou, Tassia  / Vidal, Daniel  / Vincey, Georges (1900 ?-1960)  / Voïnovitch, Vladimir  / Voline (1882-1945)  / Vuotto, Pascal  / Weber, Suzanne  / Wei Jinsheng  / Woodcock, George
        http://www.cybertaria.net/ml/rubrique.php3?id_rubrique=1574



        2005 -- Monday, February 7th, 2005 About LiveJournal http://www.livejournal.com/site/about.bml

        Ossie Davis 1917-2005: My commander-in-chief is Martin Luther King, Jr., & more than 30 years ago, he stood in these sacred halls & gave me my marching orders. Though I was predisposed to peace-mongering long before I met Dr. King, it started for me with a jolt on that day, August 7, when the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima A Tribute to the Actor & Civil Rights Activist Ossie Davis, speaking a week after the invasion of Iraq began. He was speaking on March 27, 2003, at an event sponsored by WBAI Pacifica Radio at the historic Riverside Church. http://www.livejournal.com/community/anarchists/friends


        2006 -- MOVEABLE BLEEDWORK Mexican anarchist chronology, copy saved in archives; also as a text copy: casaobreromundial ; in three parts in this database page 1

        José Esteves y Ramón Gil


        La Casa del Obrero Mundial


        Tercera edición cibernética, enero del 2003

        Captura y diseño, Chantal lópez y Omar Cortés


        Haz click aquí para acceder al catálogo de la Biblioteca Virtual Antorcha



        Indice

        Presentación

        Cronología de la Casa del Obrero Mundial, por José Esteves.

        1909 - 1911

        1912 - 1913

        1914 - 1915

        1916 - 1918

        Origen anarquista de la Casa del Obrero Mundial, por Ramón Gil

        Introducción.

        Situación de la clase obrera para 1912.

        Los anarquistas del Partido Liberal Mexicano.

        Confederación de Tipógrafos Mexicanos.

        Grupo Luz.

        Se funda la Casa del Obrero Mundial.

        Notas.




        Presentación

        La Casa del Obrero Mundial, ¿organismo anarcosindicalista?

        Se encuentra muy extendida la idea de que la Casa del Obrero Mundial fue un organismo de tendencia sindical anarquista, cuando, en la realidad, esto no ha sido jamás comprobado.

        Ciertamente la Casa del Obrero Mundial, en cuanto núcleo aglutinador de organismos artesanales y obreros, contó entre sus miembros con varias personas partidarias o simpatizantes de las teorías anarquistas en lo general. Precisamos en lo general porque para la época en la que se funda este organismo no existía en México una clara diferenciación, tanto entre la clase obrera como entre los sectores del artesanado, de las diversas corrientes y matices propios del anarquismo, por lo que esta corriente era considerada como un bloque, sin distinguirse, por ejemplo, el anarco-comunismo del anarco-sindicalismo y no digamos las diferentes variantes en cada una de estas corrientes.

        De hecho la Casa del Obrero Mundial será un organismo por medio del cual, diferentes sectores políticos y laborales buscaran desesperadamente llenar el enorme vacío existente en el terreno laboral que en mucho impedía, o si se quiere, no facilitaba, concretar los cambios estructurales en las relaciones entre Capital y Trabajo que deberían convertirse en una realidad tangible para que el proceso revolucionario pudiese seguir avante.

        Recordemos que la Casa del Obrero Mundial surge en un México de transición, en un México en el que la caída del General Porfirio Díaz creaba un sin fin de condiciones propicias para apresurar cambios que en un pasado inmediato habían sido contenidos incluso por la fuerza de las bayonetas; pero, paralelamente, la inestabilidad política generada por la inexperiencia y los graves errores cometidos por el triunfante maderismo, alertaban sobre la inminencia de un intento de vuelta al pasado por parte de los sectores cuyos intereses se encontraban seriamente amenazados. El intento de restaurar al antiguo régimen, era algo que con toda seguridad se produciría en cualquier momento, máxime si se toma en cuenta el grado de franca descomposición en el que en esos momentos - 1912 - se encontraba el maderismo, dividido en bloques a tal grado antagónicos que no dudaban en declararse mutuamente la guerra.

        Es en el seno de esa viciada atmósfera que emergerá la Casa del Obrero Mundial. Así, a ella se aglutinarán infinidad de corrientes políticas y sociales y entre ese cúmulo de corrientes estará, ciertamente, la anarquista, más esto no quiere decir que haya sido la predominante.

        En el ensayo que aquí reproducimos de Ramón Gil, Investigador que fuera del ahora desaparecido Centro de Estudios Históricos del Movimiento Obrero Mexicano, existe la intención de profundizar el sendero que, en su opinión, avale el carácter anarquista de ese organismo en sus inicios.

        El esfuerzo realizado por Gil es sin duda alguna loable mas nos parece que no logra, por la simple razón de que no es posible lograrlo, su cometido de demostrar el origen anarquista de la Casa del Obrero Mundial.

        Lo repetimos, una cosa es el decir que en la construcción de la Casa del Obrero Mundial coparticiparon algunos individuos simpatizantes unos y decididos partidarios otros de las alternativas ácratas, y otro, muy diferente, el afirmar que la Casa del Obrero Mundial fue en su estructura un organismo de carácter anarquista sindical.

        Ahora bien, no obstante lo señalado, debemos reconocer que el esfuerzo realizado por Ramón Gil es de gran valía por los muchos datos que en el mismo aporta, volviéndose su lectura imprescindible para todo aquel interesado en urgar en la historia obrera de México.

        También hemos añadido la Cronología realizada por José Esteves, investigador que fuera también del Centro de Estudios Históricos del Movimiento Obrero Mexicano, por considerar que la misma ofrece información adicional de gran valía.

        Esperamos, pues, que este material sea de gran utilidad para el lector.

        Advertimos que para la publicación de los presentes trabajos, nos hemos basado en el permiso otorgado por el Consejo Editorial de la revista Historia Obrera, el cual permite su reproducción citando la fuente.

        Chantal López y Omar Cortés

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        José Esteves


        Cronología de la Casa del Obrero Mundial


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        1909

        12 de ENERO / JANUARY 12. Se funda la Gran Liga de Sastres.

        21 de MARZO / MARCH 21. Se funda la Unión de Linotipistas Mexicanos.

        22 de septiembre. Se funda e integra la Sociedad Mutuo Cooperativa de Dependientes de Restaurantes.

        1910

        5 de octubre. Plan de San Luis expedido por Francisco I. Madero en el que desconoce al gobierno de Porfirio Díaz.

        20 de noviembre. Estalla la Revolución encabezada por Madero con el fin de derrotar a Porfirio Díaz.

        1911

        15 de mayo. Se funda el Sindicato de Conductores de Carruajes.

        21 de mayo. Se funda la Confederación Tipográfica a iniciativa de los españoles Amadeo Ferrés y José Segú.

        21 de mayo. Se formó la Gran Liga Obrera, siendo su presidente Angel T . Montalvo.

        25 de mayo. Renuncia Porfirio Díaz a la Presidencia de la República Mexicana.

        26 de mayo. Francisco León de la Barra es nombrado Presidente provisional de la República.

        7 de junio. Se funda la Sociedad de Empleados Libres siendo su presidente Salvador Preciado.

        1° de julio. Fundó el linotipista cubano Fredesvindo Elvira Alonso, el semanario El Radical, periódico socialista obrero.

        20 de agosto. Se constituye el Partido Socialista Obrero integrado entre otros por el alemán Pablo Zierold, Lázaro Gutiérrez de Lara, Luis Méndez y Pioquinto Roldán.

        22 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER 22. Se estableció la Unión de Canteros Mexicanos.

        23 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER. Manifiesto del Partido Liberal Mexicano.

        15 de octubre. Es electo Presidente Constitucional de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos don Francisco I. Madero.

        6 de noviembre. Francisco I. Madero toma posesión de la Presidencia.

        28 de noviembre. Plan de Ayala expedido por Emiliano Zapata.

        11 de diciembre / DECEMBER. Se crea el Departamento de Trabajo debido a iniciativa del gobierno.

        13 de diciembre / DECEMBER. Sublevación del general Bernardo Reyes que fracasa siendo encarcelado.

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        1912

        6 de MARZO / MARCH 6. Sublevación de Pascual Orozco. Da a conocer su Plan de la Empacadora.

        17 de mayo. Llega procedente de Cuba la española Belén de Sárraga, conferencista anticlerical de corte anarquista.

        12 de junio. La Unión de Canteros Mexicanos y los Tejedores de la Linera, se transformaron en organización sindicalista.

        23 de junio. El Partido Socialista celebra una conferencia, a resultas de la cual se escinde un grupo de idealistas de corte anarquista, quienes posteriormente participarán en la fundación del Grupo Luz.

        30 de junio. Se funda el Grupo Luz, integrado por Juan Francisco Moncaleano, />Luis Méndez, Pioquinto Roldán, Eloy Armenta y Jacinto Huitrón. Moncaleano propone crear la Escuela Racionalista semejante a la fundada en Barcelona, España, por Francisco Ferrer Guardia.

        15 de julio. Aparece el periódico Luz del grupo del mismo nombre.

        5 de agosto AUGUST 5 1912. Juan Francisco Moncaleano escribe un artículo en el periódico Luz defendiendo a Ricardo Flores Magón, preso en Los Angeles, California, E. U.

        24 de agosto. Con dinero aportado por la Unión de Canteros se toma en arrendamiento la casa número 105 de la 43 Calle de Matamoros, que posteriormente será sede de la Casa del Obrero Mundial.

        1° de septiembre / SEPTEMBER. Por su actitud en un mitin y por su artículo publicado en el periódico Luz, Francisco Moncaleano es deportado a las Islas Canarias.

        22 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER 22. Se funda la Casa del Obrero. La integran las siguientes organizaciones: Grupo Luz, Unión de Canteros, Unión de Resistencia de la fábrica de textiles La Linera, Unión de Operarios Sastres y Unión de Conductores de Coches Públicos; posteriormente ingresaría la Confederación Nacional de Artes Gráficas dirigida por Rafael Quintero. Su domicilio inicial fue Calle 43 de Matamoros número 105.

        16 de octubre. Sublevación de Félix Díaz. Fracasa y es encarcelado.

        1913

        29 de ENERO / JANUARY 29. Madero propone la creación de la Gran Liga Obrera.

        9 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 9. Golpe de estado de Victoriano Huerta.

        22 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 22. Se produce el asesinato de Francisco I. Madero y José María Pino Suárez.

        8 de MARZO / MARCH 8. La Casa del Obrero Mundial cambia su domicilio a la Calle de Estanco de Hombres número 44.

        MARCH 26 de marzo. Plan de Guadalupe expedido por Venustiano Carranza, desconociendo a Victoriano Huerta como presidente de la República.

        1° de mayo. Se celebra por primera vez en México esta fecha en memoria de los mártires de Chicago. La Casa del Obrero se transforma en Casa del Obrero Mundial.

        3 de mayo. La Unión de Canteros Mexicanos y los Tejedores de la Linera se transformaron en organización sindicalista.

        5 de mayo. Se funda el Sindicato de sastres.

        24 de mayo. Se fusionan los tallistas, ebanistas y carpinteros en un sindicato.

        25 de mayo. Mítin de la Casa del Obrero Mundial, a consecuencia del cual son arrestados />Luis Méndez, Pioquinto Roldán, Jacinto Huitrón y deportados José Santos Chocano, Eloy Armenta y José Collado.

        3 de junio. La Casa del Obrero Mundial declara que no hace ni hará política firmando la declaración Jacinto Huitrón, Antonio Díaz Soto y Gama, Luis Méndez y Santiago R. de la Vega.

        7 de octubre. Asesinato del Senador Belisario Domínguez.

        10 de octubre. Huerta disuelve las Cámaras.

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        1914

        1° de marzo. La Casa del Obrero Mundial se instala en la calle de Leandro Valle número 5.

        21 de ABRIL / APRIL 21 . Desembarco de tropas norteamericanas en Veracruz.

        1° de mayo. Fundación de la Confederación de Sindicatos del D. F.

        27 de mayo. Huerta manda clausurar la Casa del Obrero Mundial.

        15 de julio. Huída de Victoriano Huerta.

        21 de agosto. Reapertura de la Casa del Obrero Mundial.

        26 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER. El general Alvaro Obregón entrega el convento de Santa Brígida a los miembros de la Casa del Obrero Mundial para que instalen sus oficinas.

        27 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER. En el exconvento jesuita de San Juan de Letrán se constituyó el Sindicato de Albañiles.

        28 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER. Alfonso Guerra encabeza la delegación de los Estados de San Luis Potosí y de Aguascalientes para tener contacto con la Casa del Obrero Mundial y asistir a unos mítines. Se organiza la Unión de Dependientes de Restaurantes para formar su sindicato y publicar su revista Mancomunidad.

        2 de octubre. Se formó el Sindicato de Cigarreras de la Compañía Mexicana y la de pureros de la Compañía La Rosa de Oro.

        3 de octubre. Los tranviarios se declararon en huelga siguiéndoles los telefonistas de la Compañía Mexicana.

        12 de octubre. El Sindicato de Mecánicos es ampliado con nuevos elementos.

        13 de octubre. Se constituye el Sindicato de Costureras.

        14 de octubre. Se creó la Federación de Obreros y Empleados de la Compañía de Tranvías, y se organizó el Sindicato de Conductores de Coches de Alquiler.

        15 de octubre. Se constituyó el Sindicato de Plomeros y Hojalateros.

        19 de octubre. Se declararon en huelga los trabajadores zapateros de la fábrica Eclipse.

        20 de octubre. Se integró el Sindicato de Talabarteros.

        1° de noviembre. La Convención de Aguascalientes nombra a Eulalio Gutiérrez Presidente Provisional de la República mexicana.

        14 de noviembre. En Monterrey surge una Casa de Obrero Mundial afiliada a la del D. F.

        12 de diciembre / DECEMBER. Carranza expidió un decreto donde trataba de hacer justicia a los obreros.

        21 de diciembre / DECEMBER. Se constituye el Sindicato Mexicano de Electricistas.

        1915

        6 de ENERO / JANUARY 6. Ley agraria dictada por Carranza.

        14 de ENERO / JANUARY 14. Huelga de trabajadores electricistas en contra de la compañía Telefónica y Telegráfica, poniendo en manos de los trabajadores la administración de la Compañía, nombrándose gerente a Luis N. Morones.

        10 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 10. Reunión secreta de 67 líderes obreros de la Casa del Obrero Mundial en la que se toma el acuerdo de participar en la Revolución en las filas del Ejército Constitucionalista.

        14 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 14. Se forma el Grupo Sanitario Acrata, integrado por obreras.

        17 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 17. Firma del pacto entre Carranza y la Casa del Obrero Mundial; el primero fue representado por Rafael Zubarán Capmany; y por la Casa, Rafael Quintero, Rosendo Salazar, Celestino Gasca, Carlos M. Rincón y otros.

        20 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 20. Manifiesto a los obreros de la Casa del Obrero Mundial donde se les exhorta para que apoyen el pacto firmado por la facción de Venustiano Carranza; se publica también el pacto.

        3 de MARZO / MARCH 3. Primeros contingentes obreros salen para Orizaba donde se organizan cuatro Batallones Rojos.

        27 de marzo. Sale el primer Batallón Rojo a Tampico, Tamaulipas y posteriormente sale a combatir a la localidad de El Ébano, San Luis Potosí.

        16 de ABRIL / APRIL 16 . Los Batallones Rojos tercero y cuarto toman parte en la batalla de Celaya, donde el General Obregón derrota a Francisco Villa.

        30 de julio. Los panaderos dieron un plazo de 24 horas para que los patrones aumentaran el sueldo; de lo contrario irían a la huelga.

        15 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER. En Guadalajara se fundó una Casa del Obrero Mundial afiliada a la deI D.F.

        13 de octubre. La Casa del Obrero Mundial instalada en el Palacio de los Azulejos, inauguró la tan anhelada Escuela Racionalista.

        19 de octubre. El gobierno norteamericano reconoce a Venustiano Carranza.

        26 de diciembre / DECEMBER. Terminan las pugnas entre los tipógrafos cooperativistas y los sindicalistas.

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        1916

        13 de ENERO / JANUARY 13. Disolución de los Batallones Rojos.

        5 de MARZO / MARCH 5. Se efectúa en la ciudad de Veracruz el Primer Congreso Obrero.

        22 de mayo. La huelga de los trabajadores de la capital se manifestó en demandas de que los salarios fueran pagados en base de oro nacional.

        31 de julio. Huelga general de obreros en el Distrito Federal por el pago de salarios en oro. Convocada por la Confederación General de Sindicatos del D. F. Se interrumpe el suministro de energía eléctrica.

        31 de julio. Ese día fueron arrestados Ernesto Velasco y José Barragán Hernández entre otros. Con este hecho desaparece la Casa del Obrero Mundial. A medio día se reanudaron parcialmente las labores.

        10 de agosto. Venustiano Carranza promulgó la Ley Marcial contra los huelguistas. Estos se entrevistan con Carranza y no se resuelve nada.

        2 de agosto. La Casa del Obrero Mundial es clausurada por el Gobierno. Se reanudan todos los servicios públicos entre ellos los tranvías eléctricos, el alumbrado, agua. etc. Posteriormente, Carranza decretó el canje de billetes antiguos por papel infalsificable que era una de las peticiones de los huelguistas.

        3 de agosto. Carranza cumplía la Ley Marcial de enero de 1862. Da comienzo el procesamiento de los huelguistas.

        11 de agosto. Se inicia el Primer Consejo de Guerra contra los huelguistas aprehendidos. Son absueltos del delito de rebelión.

        26 de agosto. Se inicia el Segundo Consejo de Guerra, siendo condenado a muerte Ernesto Velasco. Suspendida la sentencia, es liberado en 1918, un año y medio después de su encarcelamiento.

        28 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER. Carranza expide un decreto según el cual todos los salarios deberán ser pagados en oro nacional.

        22 de mayo. La huelga de los trabajadores de la capital se manifestó en demandas de que los salarios fueran pagados en base de oro nacional.

        31 de julio. Huelga general de obreros en el Distrito Federal por el pago de salarios en oro. Convocada por la Confederación General de Sindicatos del D. F. Se interrumpe el suministro de energía eléctrica.

        31 de julio. Ese día fueron arrestados Ernesto Velasco y José Barragán Hernández entre otros. Con este hecho desaparece la Casa del Obrero Mundial. A medio día se reanudaron parcialmente las labores.

        10 de agosto. Venustiano Carranza promulgó la Ley Marcial contra los huelguistas. Estos se entrevistan con Carranza y no se resuelve nada.

        2 de agosto. La Casa del Obrero Mundial es clausurada por el Gobierno. Se reanudan todos los servicios públicos entre ellos los tranvías eléctricos, el alumbrado, agua, etc. Posteriormente, Carranza decretó el canje de billetes antiguos por papel infalsificable que era una de las peticiones de los huelguistas.

        3 de agosto. Carranza cumplía la Ley Marcial de enero de 1862. Da comienzo el procesamiento de los huelguistas.

        11 de agosto. Se inicia el Primer Consejo de Guerra contra los huelguistas aprehendidos. Son absueltos del delito de rebelión.

        26 de agosto. Se inicia el Segundo Consejo de Guerra, siendo condenado a muerte Ernesto Velasco. Suspendida la sentencia. es liberado en 1918, un año y medio después de su encarcelamiento.

        28 de septiembre / SEPTEMBER. Carranza expide un decreto según el cual todos los salarios deberán ser pagados en oro nacional.

        lº de diciembre / DECEMBER. Apertura del Congreso Constituyente de la República Mexicana.

        1917

        5 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 5. Promulgación de la Constitución de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos.

        15 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 15. Se funda el Partido Socialista Obrero dirigido por Luis N. Morones, J. Barragán Hernández, Enrique H. Arce y otros.

        1° de mayo. Venustiano Carranza toma posesión como Presidente de la República.

        13 de octubre. Se inaugura el Segundo Congreso Obrero Nacional de Tampico, Tamaulipas.

        1918

        18 de FEBRERO / FEBRUARY 18. Quedó en libertad el líder electricista Ernesto Velasco.

        22 de MARZO / MARCH 22. La legislatura del Estado de Coahuila lanza un decreto autorizando al gobernador Gustavo Espinoza Mireles que organice un Congreso Obrero Nacional en Saltillo.

        lº de mayo. Se inicia el Congreso Obrero en la ciudad de Saltillo, Coahuila.

        12 de mayo. En dicho Congreso se crea la Confederación Regional Obrera Mexicana, con Luis N. Morones como primer Secretario General. Así, la Casa del Obrero Mundial desaparece definitivamente de la actividad laboral.

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        Ramón Gil


        Origen anarquista de la Casa del Obrero Mundial



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        Introducción

        El periodo durante el cual la Casa del Obrero Mundial ejerce su influencia sobre el proletariado mexicano representa, a su vez, la fase de formación política, ideológica y sindical de éste. Asimismo, es en el curso de esta etapa donde se generarán las condiciones que más tarde permitirán al Estado asimilar a su política la dinámica del movimiento obrero organizado. De 1912, año en que se funda la Casa del Obrero Mundial, a 1918, con el nacimiento de la Confederación Regional Obrera de México, una complejidad de factores imposibilitarán que el movimiento obrero logre organizarse sólidamente y promueva al mismo tiempo las condiciones de su independencia frente al Estado. Es, pues, en esta etapa en donde la clase trabajadora decide en gran medida su vinculación política e ideológica con el gobierno surgido de la revolución.

        Fundada en un momento de efervescencia revolucionaria, la Casa del Obrero Mundial participará como un factor de disidencia o de apoyo frente a las diferentes facciones en pugna durante el conflicto armado iniciado en 1910. Primeramente frente al maderismo y posteriormente ante los gobiernos que se sucederán hasta 1916, adoptará actitudes diferentes, casi siempre ambiguas y no pocas veces contradictorias. Con todo, la fragilidad política que la Casa del Obrero Mundial manifiesta en este periodo hay que buscarla en la composición interna de la misma y en la filiación ideológica de sus integrantes, muchos de los cuales se consideraban así mismos como anarquistas, como socialistas o sencillamente como humanistas revolucionarios. Durante los años que la Casa del Obrero Mundial sobrevive a la contienda armada, las contradicciones entre estas distintas tendencias ideológicas aflorarán de manera palpable debido a sus simpatías por una u otra facción, pero también por la manera de concebir cada una de ellas el tipo de organización que debería adoptar la clase trabajadora. De esta manera, la trayectoria de la Casa del Obrero Mundial puede considerarse en base a un proceso de subordinación de unas tendencias por otras en el seno de la misma, tanto por las formas de lucha que adoptarán, como por los vínculos que llegarán a establecer con el Estado. De aquí que para definir el carácter de esta composición interna se haga imprescindible esclarecer, por una parte, la contextura ideológica de los grupos que confluyeron en su integración, y por otra, las características de los sectores del proletariado que se vieron atraídos por las doctrinas que pregonaban. Sin embargo, consideramos que tanto los grupos que influyeron ideológicamente en el movimiento obrero, como los sectores del proletariado que se asimilaron a éste, fueron la respuesta a la situación que había vivido el país durante los últimos treinta años, tanto en lo económico, en lo político, como en lo ideológico. De ahí que se haga necesario elaborar algunas consideraciones adecuadas a propósito de este periodo.

        De igual manera, es necesario tener en cuenta que las diferentes corrientes anarquistas, anarcosindicalistas o simplemente sindicalistas revolucionarias que se manifestaron en el seno de la Casa del Obrero Mundial tienen sus antecedentes inmediatos en las luchas que llevó acabo la clase trabajadora por crear sus propias organizaciones durante los últimos años de la dictadura porfirista, en la tarea de organización efectuada sin descanso por el Partido Liberal Mexicano, y en la actividad de tipo sindical de los anarquistas extranjeros que llegaron a México durante este periodo.

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        Situación de la clase obrera para 1912

        Para 1912, las organizaciones a través de las cuales se manifestaba la clase trabajadora no habían encontrado aún su expresión más adecuada. Las causas que habían impedido que esto se llevara a cabo eran numerosas y de igual manera complejas. El conflicto armado, iniciado dos años antes por Francisco I. Madero, había tomado por sorpresa a amplios sectores del proletariado, el cual, para esas fechas, no tenía una idea clara de cuáles deberían de ser las formas de organización a seguir, pues sólo hasta 1909 habían comenzado a crearse algunas uniones que se diferenciaban en poco de las tradicionales sociedades de ayuda mutua que desempeñaran tan importante papel durante la segunda mitad del siglo XIX; sin embargo, dentro de estas uniones se encontraban ya militantes que posteriormente influirían con su doctrina en la accidentada actuación de la Casa del Obrero Mundial, como es el caso de Luis Méndez, organizador de la Unión de Operarios Sastres y de la Unión de Canteros Mexicanos, y uno de los más claros exponentes del anarcosindicalismo durante este periodo.

        El rápido derrumbe de la dictadura y el ascenso al poder de una nueva forma de gobierno, planteaban a su vez nuevos tipos de organización tanto en lo económico como en lo político y lo jurídico. De igual manera, era de esperarse que la política del nuevo régimen respecto a la clase trabajadora diera un giro radical en apoyo de los sectores más explotados; pero, al no llevarse a la práctica las reformas esperadas, los trabajadores se vieron imposibilitados para presionar de manera efectiva al gobierno y obligarlo a que adoptara medidas que redundaran en su favor, pues no contaban con instrumentos adecuados para hacerlo. En otras palabras, la clase obrera no poseía a estas alturas una organización que le sirviera de vehículo para canalizar sus demandas y capaz de adoptar posiciones de fuerza ante el Estado a fin de que éstas llegaran a ser efectivas. Esto se debía en gran medida a que el obrero mexicano no poseía un conocimiento apropiado de las luchas sociales que se sucedían en otros países, así como tampoco de las nuevas y más combativas formas de organización de que se valían los trabajadores de esas latitudes para defender sus derechos. Por el contrario, se resistía incluso a aceptar formas que se diferenciaran de aquellas en torno a las cuales tradicionalmente se había reunido. Tanto es así, que aún para 1915 había numerosos grupos dentro de las filas revolucionarias que se declaraban abiertamente en contra de todo aquello que rebasara los marcos del cooperativismo o de las sociedades de ayuda mutua(1). De tal manera, para 1911, el término sindicalismo era, si no completamente desconocido, sí visto con marcada desconfianza por amplios sectores del proletariado,(2) pero particularmente por el mismo Madero y los grupos que le eran adeptos, muchos de los cuales no habían perdido sus vínculos con la burguesía porfirista.

        Con todo, a raíz del triunfo maderista, el movimiento obrero cobró inusitada vitalidad a pesar de que continuaron en vigor las disposiciones antiobreristas del código penal que proscribían la huelga y la coalición, además de que la asociación profesional no estaba prohibida pero tampoco aceptada (3). Una epidemia de huelgas hizo presa del Distrito Federal, Puebla, Tlaxcala y otros Estados, las que sin embargo eran de carácter muy localizado y no se hallaban vinculadas a un centro motor común. Ante esta situación, el presidente Madero creó, con fecha 11 de diciembre / DECEMBER de 1911, la Oficina del Trabajo que cumpliría con el cometido de mediar en las controversias obrero-patronales. Con esta medida, logró amortiguar en cierto modo el empuje creciente de los trabajadores, debido en parte al carácter limitado de sus demandas y a la dispersión de sus esfuerzos.

        Sin embargo, las limitaciones que puso de manifiesto la clase trabajadora de la época no hay que buscarlas en su escasa cultura sindical, sino en las condiciones reales de su existencia, las cuales le cerraban las fronteras para adquirir los conocimientos que le permitieran consolidar su unidad en base a objetivos específicos. El rígido control ejercido por la dictadura porfirista a la largo de treinta años, había repercutido profundamente en la conciencia del obrero. Por una parte, no solamente le habían impedido organizarse y defender su derechos, sino que también le habían creado una visión estrecha respecto a sus propias posibilidades como fuerza social. La estabilidad económica y política bajo la cual había vivido el país durante el último cuarto de siglo, había generado a su vez una estabilidad de tipo ideológico, permeabilizando las diferentes organizaciones de los trabajadores y creándoles una conciencia subordinada a los intereses de la clase dominante. Esto se reflejó de manera palpable en el reflujo de movimientos de signo laboral, entre 1875 y 1900, siendo hasta el final de la dictadura porfirista cuando comenzaron a aflorar nuevamente intentos de reorganización, las más de las veces reprimidos violentamente.

        A grosso modo, tanto la etapa en la que el movimiento obrero se deteriora a partir de la década de los setentas como sus posteriores intentos de reorganización durante los últimos diez años del porfiriato hasta culminar con la fundación de la Casa del Obrero Mundial, se hallan fuertemente enraizados en las variaciones económicas por las que atravesó el país durante este periodo, así como en la capacidad ideológica de la dictadura para atraerse o mediatizar a las organizaciones que representaban los intereses de la clase trabajadora. Así, por ejemplo, el lenguaje utilizado por los voceros obreros durante este periodo de consolidación ideológica del régimen porfirista era, paradójicamente, el más apropiado para la continuidad del mismo. No es, pues, sorprendente que algunos periódicos de la época dedicados exclusivamente a la defensa y propaganda del Mutualismo en la República Mexicana, se propusieran objetivos tales como el de instruir a los trabajadores y presentarles un medio para que puedan encontrar trabajo, cuando por una de tantas eventualidades de la vida se encuentren sin él, pues en nuestras columnas publicaremos todas las solicitudes que nos lleguen, tanto de dueños de establecimientos fabriles industriales solicitando operarios, como operarios solicitando trabajo(4). Propósitos, por cierto, muy alejados de los perseguidos apenas década y media atrás por otros periódicos obreros, tales como La Internacional, el cual, siguiendo un programa internacionalista, se consideraba consagrado exclusivamente a la propaganda teórico práctica del socialismo para la defensa de los pueblos, redención de la clase obrera y proletaria, emancipación de la mujer y organización agricola-industrial de la República(5). Estas dos formas de sentirse vinculados con los trabajadores no eran sino dos posturas frente al desarrollo mismo del Capital, de sus poseedores y de las formas que éstos empleaban para su explotación; pero significan también el grado de control que para estas alturas ejercía ya el porfirismo sobre las clases oprimidas, no solamente en lo económico. sino también en lo político e ideológico. Esto se debía en gran medida a que aquellos que se hacían escuchar como voceros de los trabajadores gozaban en realidad de las prerrogativas que la prosperidad y paz porfiristas les permitía. pues no se les podía considerar bajo las mismas condiciones en que se hallaba la gran masa de trabajadores. Esto no deja de lado que, al mismo tiempo que el régimen se consolidaba, la clase trabajadora también mantuviera su espíritu de lucha y transmitiera a través de sus impresiones periódicas la idea de la emancipación que había manifestado en sus momentos más combativos.

        El lapso que va de 1870 a 1910 está caracterizado por varios factores que propiciaron un relativo progreso del país durante los primeros veinte años y una marcada declinación en los restantes. Al respecto, el inicial auge económico tuvo como base la creciente promoción de la inversión extranjera en la agricultura y en las industrias de la minería, de la energía eléctrica y de comunicaciones, todo lo cual dio por resultado rápidas tasas de crecimiento para el sector monetario, propiciando la primera gran integración de los mercados nacionales, un gran mejoramiento en el transporte y en las comunicaciones internas (6). La administración porfirista siguió el patrón de una economía de exportación que dependía básicamente de la explotación acelerada de los recursos naturales sustentada en la utilización de una mano de obra barata, así como en tecnología y Capital extranjeros con objeto de aumentar la producción destinada a los mercados de ultramar. Vinculada hacia el exterior de manera preponderante, el incremento de la producción únicamente se dinamizaba en enclaves específicos de la economía, elevando la prosperidad a ciertas porciones de la sociedad y dejando a buena parte de la población al margen del desarrollo. Es así como este relativo progreso posibilitó la formación de una pequeña y mediana burguesía que a diferencia de la burguesía tradicional se caracterizaba por sus renovados bríos por continuar con una situación bonancible, para lo cual se hacía imprescindible la transformación de los mecanismos que tradicionalmente habían propiciado el desarrollo. Contrariamente a estos deseos, la administración porfirista se mantenía reacia a efectuar cambios de importancia en este sentido. Más bien su política económica apuntaba a favorecer mayormente la inversión extranjera que la de los capitalistas nacionales. La dinámica que siguió la inversión foránea en los diferentes sectores de la producción y la prácticamente nula participación de la burguesía nacional en ella se pone de manifiesto en las estadísticas al respecto. Así, al término de la dictadura porfirlsta, las mayores industrias extractivas estaban exclusivamente bajo el control de capitales extranjeros; las instalaciones de energía eléctrica, de servicios y de ferrocarriles no escapaban tampoco a esa situación; por su parte, la banca estaba controlada en un 94% por extranjeros, y solamente en la industria textil el Capital nacional participaba en un 20%; únicamente en sectores tradicionales, tales como el artesanal y la agricultura era en donde el Capital nacional participaba en porcentajes mayoritarios. Esto nos permite apreciar el tipo de obstáculos a los que se enfrentaba una burguesía en ascenso para su pleno desarrollo como tal y, por otro lado, el por qué de la creciente inconformidad que ésta manifestó respecto a las formas de administrar la economía del país.

        Por otra parte, el auge económico había provocado a su vez un rápido crecimiento de la población. Tanto es así, que para 1900 había en México 13.6 millones de habitantes, o sea, el doble a la cifra correspondiente a cien años antes, debiéndose más de la mitad de ese aumento al último cuarto de siglo. Como la tasa de crecimiento continuó incrementándose hasta finales de siglo, sobrevino un desequilibrio entre la oferta de mano de obra y su demanda. El estancamiento de la producción en algunos sectores -marcadamente en el de la agricultura- y la introducción de maquinaria en otras -como en el caso de la manufactura- trajo como secuela la incapacidad del sistema para absorber la fuerza de trabajo excedente. Esto se reflejó palpablemente en las variaciones que sufrieron las cifras al respecto a lo largo de este periodo. Es así como podemos ver que para 1900 la población activa ascendía a 4.3 millones, de la cual 803 mil participaban en el sector industrial, en tanto que para 1910, al aumentar la población activa a apenas 5.6 millones, la empleada en la industria, se mantenía en los mismos 803 mil, esto a pesar de que la población total del país en el mismo lapso se había incrementado en un millón y medio.

        A este incremento global hay que agregar la masa de trabajadores no calificados que comenzaba a quedar disponible como resultado de la consolidación de la tierra y el número de artesanos desplazados a causa de la introducción de maquinaria en la manufactura. Así, de 1895 a 1900 el número de trabajadores empleados en la industria textil en México descendió en 8,000 y de 1900 a 1910 en 12,000 más, lo cual nos hace ver el grado de marginalización de amplias capas del proletariado.

        Debido a esto, se generó también un desplazamiento de la mano de obra hacia otras latitudes donde podía ser captada. Es así como el aumento de la emigración de mexicanos hacia los Estados Unidos después de 1900 demuestra que el crecimiento económico durante la última parte del porfiriato vino a ser cada vez menos capaz de absorber las tasas de crecimiento de la fuerza de trabajo (7).

        Es así, pues, que como resultado de este desarrollo desigual se fue consolidando bajo intereses comunes una nueva y ambiciosa burguesía nacional inconforme por la forma como el gobierno administraba la economía del país. Pero, paralelamente a ésta, fue cobrando forma una masa social integrada fundamentalmente por un proletariado depauperizado y por un campesinado desplazado, descontentos ambos con el grado de miseria y de opresión que se veían obligados a soportar y dispuestos a convertirse en tierra fértil de posibles conflictos sociales en el momento en que las circunstancias lo ameritaran. Si bien, entre estos dos conglomerados sociales -pequeña burguesía, por un lado y proletariado y campesinado por el otro- existían más motivos para verse con desconfianza que para tratarse como aliados, el resentimiento común respecto al régimen porfirista los llevaría posteriormente a crear frágiles alianzas entre sí, a pesar de que dicho descontento respondía a intereses muy diferentes. Por su parte, esta inconformidad cada uno la manifestaría a su manera.

        Si bien durante la etapa porfirista la clase trabajadora no contó con organizaciones capaces de unificarla en un bloque común, la lucha entre la fuerza de trabajo y el Capital no desapareció por completo. Al contrario, esta pugna se mantuvo latente, manifestándose en una gran cantidad de movimientos de huelga, pues de éstas se registraron a través del periodo porfirista unos 250. Sin embargo, los porcentajes en que se presentaron y las causas que las propiciaron, así también como los medios utilizados para darles solución, son un indicio de la fuerza de los trabajadores en sus enfrentamientos con el Capital, así como de la capacidad del régimen para dirimir los conflictos de signo laboral. De tal manera, del total de estas huelgas, el mayor número tuvieron lugar en 1881, 1884,1889, 1890,1891 y en 1895, y posteriormente, ya en la primera década de este siglo, entre 1905 y 1907 se percibe un repentino auge -pues tan sólo en 1907 se presentaron 25-, registrándose entre éstas la de Cananea y la de Río Blanco, que serían reprimidas sangrientamente (8).

        Del total de estos movimientos de huelga, la gran mayoría afectaron a la industria textil, a los ferrocarriles y a la industria cigarrera. Independientemente de su magnitud y naturaleza, casi la mitad se llevaron a efecto en el Distrito Federal y un gran porcentaje en los alrededores de éste y en los Estados de Veracruz y Puebla (9). Por otra parte, las causas que originaron éstas eran de naturaleza muy variada.

        Casi la mitad de las huelgas se debió a la disminución del salario de los obreros, y a las infructuosas peticiones de su aumento; en menor grado, a que no se pagaba a los trabajadores, o se hacía con vales o moneda de níquel. Los maltratos, que en algunos casos llegaban a los golpes, figuran en segundo término entre las causas de los conflictos; después, el aumento de la jornada de trabajo; el cese de operarios; la oposición a nuevos administradores y reglamentos; la lucha contra el trabajo dominical y el nocturno; la limitación de las entradas y salidas a las fábricas; el sistema de multas y de castigos en general empleados en ellas. En los últimos años aumentaron por oposición a los privilegios concedidos a los trabajadores extranjeros (cerca de una docena tuvieron esta causa), o por la oposición de las asociaciones obreras al ingreso de trabajadores no pertenecientes a ellas, o por la pretensión de que éstos les pagaran cuotas obligatoriamente. Algunas se debieron a la decisión de los patrones de emplear maquinaria moderna en la industria cigarrera; otras estallaron porque se prohibía a los trabajadores que rindieran culto a la diosa Xóchitl en el interior de los centros de trabajo. o porque se les exigía que se presentaran limpios (10).

        La trayectoria que siguen estos conflictos, por su carácter, proporciones y consecuencias, pueden considerarse en base a dos periodos, aunque esto no quiera decir que sean determinantes. El primero de ellos sería aquel en donde estos conflictos revisten un carácter de tipo económico muy limitado o de otra factura no política; en cambio, el segundo estaría representado por aquel en donde los movimientos de huelga -si no todos, sí los más importantes- comienzan a adquirir relieves de índole política y en donde, por la forma organizada que revisten, se requiere una mayor represión para ponerles fin.

        El hecho de que estos conflictos se incrementen y continúen por una vía menos estrecha, apuntando hacia enfrentamientos más directos con la dictadura, se deriva en gran parte a que en el seno del proletariado habían comenzado a actuar grupos radicales, los que con su actividad doctrinaria sembraron una simiente ideológica que proliferaría entre la clase; además, la dictadura no contaba ya para esas alturas con la misma consistencia política e ideológica que le permitiera someter a su férula la dinámica del movimiento. La realidad rebasaba ya los límites de su capacidad para hacerlo.

        No obstante, este proceso no lo seguiría la clase trabajadora por sí sola. En su camino entablaría relación con fracciones de la pequeña burguesía ilustrada, representada en esta lucha, después de 1900, por los integrantes de los primeros clubes liberales, y después de 1905 por el Partido Liberal Mexicano, encabezado porRicardo Flores Magón. Serán los miembros de este partido quienes de 1905 a 1911, mantendrán una intensa campaña político-militar en contra de la dictadura porfirista, difundiendo, principalmente a través del periódico Regeneración, su doctrina anarquista. Asimismo, a partir de 1900 arribarán a México numerosos anarquistas extranjeros, la mayoría de ellos provenientes de España, quienes, herederos de una larga e intensa trayectoria del proletariado de sus respectivos países, incidirán profundamente en la formación de las primeras agrupaciones obreras en México.

        http://www.antorcha.net/biblioteca_virtual/historia/com/casaobreromundial.html
        http://www.antorchacampesina.org.mx/libros/conferobreras2/conf022a.html

        2006 --

        Chronologie de l’anarchisme et des mouvements et activités utopiques et libertaires italiens. 8 TH PAGE OF SEVERAL ENTRIES IN DATABASE BECAUSE OF SIZE;; COPY SAVED IN ARCHIVE/MIRROR FOLDER; THESE NAMES DATES FOR USE IN BLEED STUFF


        1943

        Sept.

        Carrara

      • Insurrection
      • Responsable : Romualdo DEL PAPA
      • Marcello GRASSI (1943)
      • Dirige l’assaut des anarchistes contre la caserne Dogali. Mort de GRASSI.

        1943

        Sept.

        Massa di Carrara

      • Groupe anarchiste
      • Assaut contre les usines BREDA.

        1943

        Sept.

        Ravenna

      • Aurora
      • Reprise clandestine de ce journal fondé en 1904 par Fabio MELANDRI

        1943

        SEPTEMBRE / SEPTEMBER

        Ventotene ?

      • FCAI
      • Manifesto pour la création de la FCAI. Rôle des confinati.

        1943

        Sept-oct.

        Piombino

      • Adriano VANNI
      • Rôle important dans la publication de 3 écrits anarchistes.

        1943

        Sept-oct.

        Pistoia

      • Squadre Franche Libertarie - SFL
      • Fondation de ce groupe partisan, notamment avec Silvano FEDI.

        1943

        24/10

        Massa Lombarda

      • Filippo PERNISA (1878-1943)
      • Tué par les fascistes. Il donne son nom au Gruppo anarchico Filippo PERNISA.

        1943

        25/10

        Torino

      • GAP
      • Assassinat de GIARDINA.

        L’anarchiste Dario CAGNO né en 1899 est torturé par les nazis et fusillé le 22/12/1943.

        1943

        Octobre

        Firenze

      • Attentat contre le leader fasciste GOBBI
      • GOBBI est tué. L’attentat est surtout attribué aux anarchistes.

        1943

        Octobre

        Milano

      • Alibrando GIOVANNETTI
      • Cet ancien de l’USI publie son " Ai lavoratori d’Italia ".

        1943

        Octobre

        Pistoia

      • Squadre Franche Libertarie
      • Silvano FEDI
      • Artese BENESPERI
      • Assaut de la forteresse Santa Barbara.

        Rôle important de FEDI, futur commandant.

        BENESPERI commande la première division qui entre dans la ville.

        1943

        24/10

        Ravenna

      • Filipo PERNISA
      • Militant et partisan assassiné.

        1943

        Novembre

        Vers Arezzo

      • Pio BORRI
      • Mort au combat du premier groupe partisan du secteur.

        1943

        Novembre

        Ravenna

      • Fabio MELANDRI et sa fille
      • Exécutés par les allemands.

        1943

        02/12

        Firenze

      • Gino MANETTI - Oreste RISTORI
      • Armando GUALTIERI, Orlando STORAI
      • Ces deux anarchistes, et ces deux sympathisants ainsi qu’1 communiste sont exécutés en représailles (après la mort de l’officier fasciste GOBBI).

        1943

        04/12

        Montelupo

      • Pietro ACCIARITO (1871-1943)
      • Mort dans l’asile criminel de celui qui avait tenté de tuer UMBERTO I en 1897.

        1943

        16/12

        Cusano Milanino

      • Abele MERLI (1894-1943)
      • Fusillé par les nazifascistes.

        1943

        22/12

        Piémont

      • Dario CAGNO (1899-1943)
      • Ce premier résistant du Piémont, dès octobre 1943, est fusillé par les nazis.

        1943

        Modena

      • Actions partisanes : formation Gino LUCETTI
      • Libération de Modena. La formation est commandée par Ugo MAZZUCCHELLI

        1943

        Cosenza

      • Fronte unico
      • Fondé par le partisan anarchiste et syndicaliste Nino MALARA (1898-1975).

        1943

        Fin

         

      • SAP-FAI
      • Organisation des premières SAP-FAI appelées plus tard SAP-MACCHIARINI du nom des deux frères Renato et Ismaele.

        1943

        1944

        Bucchianico

      • Ugo FEDELI
      • Ce militant de la FAI tient le rôle de maire de cette petite localité !

        1944

        Début

        La Spezia

      • Reprise des grèves dans ce haut lieu historique de l’USI
      •  

        1944

        03/01

        Valibona (vers Firenze)

      • Lanciotto BALLERINI
      • Mort au combat du dirigeant depuis SEPTEMBRE / SEPTEMBER 1943 de la formation armée Monte Morello.

        1944

        30/01

        Reggio d’Emilia ?

      • Enrico ZAMBONINI (1893-1944)
      • Arrêté le 22/01/1944 il est fusillé le 30.

        1944

        Février

        Piombino

      • Miro CASAGRANDI & Gino BARTALANI
      • Morts en actions de sabotages

        1944

        05/03 MARCH 5

        Ligurie

      • Pasquale BINAZZI (1873-1944)
      • Mort dans un hôpital du célèbre directeur de Il Libertario.

        1944

        31/03 MARCH 31

        ou 01/04

        Bologna

      • Attilio DIOLAITI
      • Ce responsable partisan du Bolognese est fusillé.

        1944

        Mars

        Ravenna

      • Création de la CLN
      • L’anarchiste Ulisse MERLI, membre du Mouvement Communiste Libertaire et ancien de la 28° Brigade GARIBALDI " Mario GORDINI ", en fait partie.

        1944

        Avril

        Milano

      • Insurrection
      • Brigade MALATESTA - BRUZZI
      • Rôle important des anarchistes de la IV° Brigade MALATESTA-BRUZZI.

        1944

        Avril

        Vers Piombino

      • Castegneto CARDUCCI
      • Fusillé pour fait de résistance.

        1944

        01/05

        Bari

      • Tentative anarchiste de 1° mai
      • Arrestation de Pio TURRONI.

        1944

        24/05

        Bari - Andria

      • Rencontre clandestine
      •  

        1944

        Mai

        Roma

      • FCL
      •  

        1944

        30/06

        ITALIE du Sud

      • Rivoluzione Libertaria
      • Un des 1ers journaux anarchistes, alors forcément clandestin, qui dure jusqu’en novembre 1994. Avec Pio TURRONI, Cesare ZACCHARIA, Giovanna BERNERI…

        1944

        Juin

        Massa di Carrara

      • Groupe partisan ELIO
      • Attaque de la prison et libération d’une cinquantaine de détenus dont les anarchistes PEDRINI, ZAVA, GIORGI…

        1944

        Juin

        Pistoia

      • Groupe de Silvano FEDI
      • Assaut de la prison. Environ 59 libérés.

        Assaut également à la Questura.

        1944

        Juin

        Milano

      • L’Adunata dei Libertari
      • Créé clandestinement par Pietro BRUZZI. 1° organe FAI de la ville.

        1944

        01-02/07

        Andria

      • Réunion syndicaliste-révolutionnaire
      • Annoncée dans le n°3 de La Rivoluzione Libertaria.

        1944

        29/07

        Vers Pistoia

      • Silvano FEDI (1920-1944)
      • Giuseppe GIULETTI mort également
      • Mort du responsable d’une des plus importantes formations anarchistes partisanes sans doute après dénonciation, dans une embuscade. Il est remplacé par Enzo CAPECCHI.

        1944

        Juillet

        Sapparda

        Alta Carnia

      • Italo CRISTOFORI = Commandante Aso
      • Partisan tué au combat.

        1944

        Août

         

      • Mario DACCOMI
      • Partisan tué au combat.

        1944

        été

        Livorno

      • Consorzio Cooperativistico - CC
      • Reconstruction et organisation quasi autogestionnaire du port de Livourne, autour du CC largement animé par des libertaires dont Virgilio ANTONELLI.

        1944

        05/09

         

      • Marcella CAPECCHI
      • Mort au combat.

        1944

        10-11/09

        Napoli

      • Groupes libertaires d’Italie du Sud : AGL
      • Première grande réunion anarchiste post-libération : Constitution de l’Alliance des Groupes Libertaires. 6 régions sont représentées.

        Volonté de reprise de l’USI, mais contrée par Armando Borghi. Appui aux GDS dans la CGIL

        1944

        Août-sept.

        Casalguidi

        Lamporecchio

        San Baronto

        Vinci…

      • SFL
      • Participation à la libération de multiples localités.

        Morts de Marcello CAPECCHI, Florio LENZI, Rolando CHITI, Vittorio MARCHETTI…

        1944

        SEPTEMBRE / SEPTEMBER

        Palermo

      • Rencontre clandestine anarchiste
      •  

        1944

        SEPTEMBRE / SEPTEMBER

         

      • Giovanni DOMASCHI
      • Déporté en Allemagne, et disparition.

        1944

        Juillet-octobre

        Carnia

      • République autonome
      • Forte participation anarchiste à cet essai d’autonomie locale.

        1944

        Octobre

         

      • Programma minimo
      • Publié seulement le 30/12/1944 (Cf. ci-dessous)

        1944

        Novembre

        Carrara

      • Libération et Occupation
      • Très large présence anarchiste.

        1944

        19/12

        Ravenna

      • Création Giuntà provinciale
      • L’anarchiste Aristide GHIBERTI y appartient.

        1944

        Décembre

         

      • Il comunista libertario
      • Manifeste aux prolétaires publié dans le journal.

        1944

        Décembre

        La Spezia

      • Renato OLIVIERI
      • Commandant Renato PERINI
      • Fusillé après avoir été torturé par les nazis.

        Mort au combat.

        1944

        Décembre

        Milano

      • Lega dei Consigli Rivoluzionari
      • Création annoncée dans le n° de décembre de Rivoluzione. Mouvement conseilliste proches des anarchistes, animé par Orazio (ou Mario) PERELLI résistant et ancien inculpé du Diana de 1921.

        1944

        Décembre

        Portofino

      • Emanuele SCIUTTO
      • Fusillé.

        1944

        30/12

         

      • Programma minimo - Programme minimum anarchiste (octobre 1944)
      • FCL Laziale
      • Programme en 15 points publié dans Umanità nova, n°347, 30/12/1944. Ce journal édité pour le Latium dès ce mois de décembre reprend vie nationale en SEPTEMBRE / SEPTEMBER 1945.

        1944

        Mauthausen

        ALLEMAGNE

      • Guiseppe BOLDRINI (1894-1944)
      • Cet anarchiste terroriste (Diana 1921) passe du pénitencier aux camps nazis où il disparaît.

        1944 Fin

        1945 Début

        Ragusa

        SICILE

      • Franco LEGGIO
      • Fort mouvement anarchiste dans la zone. La plupart refusent la conscription, notamment le groupe armé de Franco LEGGIO.

        è révolte qui s’étend Vittoria, Comiso, Acate, Modica, Sicli, Monterosso

        è LEGGIO condamné à 16 mois

        1945

        Début

        ITALIE

      • CGIL
      • Refondation du syndicat, dirigé par un ancien USI DI VITTORIO, devenu communiste, et hostile à BERNERI en Espagne. Position unitaire cependant.

        è entrisme volontaire et décidé de la majorité des salariés anarchistes et anarcho-syndicalistes. Ainsi Attilio SASSI secrétaire national des mineurs appartient au Comité directionnel de la CGIL.

        1945

        20-21/01

        Canosa di Puglia

      • Rencontre anarchiste
      •  

        1945

        21/01

        Zeri

      • Groupe partisan de Renato PERINI
      • Groupe exterminé face aux nazi-fascistes, non loin de La Spezia.

        1945

        29/01

        Astigiano

      • Pietro MOSSO (pseudonyme Carlo PIETRI) (1893-1945)
      • Mort au combat de l’animateur du Groupe libertaire turinois de l’après première guerre mondiale.

        1945

        04/02 FEBRUARY 4

        Vers Adria

      • Eolo BOCCATO (1918-1945)
      • Mort de ce résistant actif dans le Polesine vers Adria, dans la Brigade garibaldienne Canto BASSO.

        1945

        19/02 FEBRUARY 19

        Legnano

        Milano

      • Pietro BRUZZI (1888-1945)
      • Fusillé par les nazis. étonnante histoire de cet ancien du Diana de 1921, militant aux éU, en France, dans la résistance italienne…

        1945

        22/02 FEBRUARY 22

        Dachau

        ALLEMAGNE