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    Our Daily Bleed...



The Daily Bleed Detail Reference Page for the month of October

The following entries on this page provide details, subtext or background relating to dated entries cited in the Daily Bleed Calendar, linked from there to the date(s) cited here.

The Daily Bleed Calendar in full, & access to the pages for this month, are accessible at
http://www.recollectionbooks.com/bleed/calmast.htm





1935 -- [October 3] Ethiopia: Italy invades, prompting League of Nations sanctions against Italy & leading to World War II.

Invasione dell'Etiopia da parte delle truppe italiane al comando del generale Emilio De Bono.

Durante il mese di Ottobre vengono occupate Adigat, Adua, Axum, Macallè. Sull'onda delle vittorie, intellettuali e politici lontani dal fascismo come Vittorio Emanuele Orlando, il commediografo Sem Benelli, il socialista Arturo Labriola, decideranno di avvicinarsi al fascismo e di porsi al suo servizio.


Source: [Crimini e Misfatti]


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1944 -- [October 3] Spanish guerrillas, previously fighting the Nazis in France, make their first incursions into Spain, striking in Navarre.

Some 3,000 guerrillas (including many anarchists) organised in France with the weaponry used in their fight against the Nazis, mounted two main attacks across the Pyrenees in 1944.

The first incursion was into Navarre on 3 & 7 October: the second came via Catalonia, to establish a bridgehead in the Vall d'Aran & install a provisional Republican government. It was also taken for granted that, confronted by such a fait accompli, the Allies would move to bring down Franco.

These incursions were easily repulsed — having been heralded in advance — for the Spanish government had taken all appropriate measures. Even so, there were lots of guerrillas who refused to return to their bases & opted instead to infiltrate into the interior in small groups. There they reinforced existing guerrilla bands & set up new ones where none existed.


http://libcom.org/history/1939-1965-armed-resistance-to-franco


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1970 -- [October 3] US: Large Strike Zone? Baseball umpires call their first strike

The 1922 World Series between the NY Yankees & NY Giants was the first ever broadcast on national radio.

Fans who tuned in for Game 2 heard one of the most controversial calls in baseball history. With the score tied 3-3 after 10 innings, & a divided NY crowd caught up in the closely fought match, the umpires inexplicably called the game on account of darkness. Each team was awarded a tie. The fans packing the Polo Grounds felt there was more than enough light to play another full inning — maybe more.

Angered by the call, a large mob of spectators surrounded the box occupied by Baseball Commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis, thinking he was to blame. But Landis was as outraged by the call as the mob. He angrily instructed his umpires not to be so quick in calling off games. They took his words to heart, & the next day, Game 3 was played in the rain.

http://members.tripod.com/~cmt97/bloopers/close.html


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1981 -- [October 3] A hunger strike by Irish nationalists at the Maze Prison in Belfast, Northern Ireland, is called off after seven months & ten deaths

Imprisoned Irish Republic Army leader Bobby Sands initiated the protest on March 1 -- the fifth anniversary of the British policy of "Criminalisation" of Irish political prisoners. Prior to 1976, Irish political prisoners were incarcerated in British prisons under "Special Category Status," which granted them a number of privileges that ordinary criminals did not enjoy.

Despite Sands' election as MP from Fermanagh & South Tyrone after the first month of his hunger strike, & his subsequent death from starvation a month later, the government of British prime minister Maggie Thatcher would not give in, & nine more Irish perished before the strike was called off. In the aftermath, the British government quietly concedes to some of the strikers' demands, such as the rights to wear civilian clothing, to associate with each other, to receive mail & visits, & to not be penalized for refusing prison work.



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1990 -- [October 3] Humpty Dumpty?: Eleven months after East Germany opens its borders to the West & dismantles the infamous Berlin Wall, East & West Germany become a united & sovereign state for the first time since Germany's defeat in World War II, burying 45 years of Cold War division. Nearly a million people gather at the Reichstag in Berlin, & at midnight a replica of the Liberty Bell, a gift from the US, is rung, officially proclaiming reunification.

Germany becomes a 'Vaterland' once again. Control over the police forces is handed over to West Berlin. The first riot police attacks by West Berlin cops in East Berlin take place. Some Germans, like Nobel author Gunther Grass, believe the two Germanies should have remained separate.

Over the past year West Berlin rent prices skyrocket as more people become homeless, while in East Berlin thousands of living spaces are empty, with no clear idea of who owns them.

Increasing numbers of youths move into empty buildings & apartments. The Squatters' Council formed in the spring, representing more than 120 squatted buildings.

During the summer East German police avoided areas dominated by anarchists & autonomists, & squatters negotiated with the East Berlin officials to get contracts for their buildings, while the sun is shining a lot. The Greens protest evictions by leaving their coalition government with the social democratic SPD party.

In 1991 & 1992 more than 85 squatted buildings become legalized through various contracts, but authorities continue to crackdown on squats & eviction battles continue to rage throughout the 1990s.

... show more details



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1995 -- [October 3] O.J. Simpson, former football star, acquitted of the 1994 murder of his former wife, Nicole Brown Simpson, & Ronald Goldman, in Los Angeles, California.

The lengthy, televised trial is a sensational media cirucus revealing wide racial divisions present in American society as it calls the U.S. justice system into question. In polls, a majority of African-Americans consistently believe Simpson, who is black, to be innocent of the murder, while the vast majority of white Americans, supported by the media & law enforcement, maintain Simpson's guilt. The jury of nine African-Americans, two whites, & one Hispanic took just four hours of deliberation to reach their verdict of not guilty on all charges. However, in 1997, Simpson was found liable for the slayings in a civil trial, & forced to award $8.5 million in compensatory damages to the victims' families.



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1917 -- [October 4] France: Anarchists go on trial in Paris, October 4-11th, for publishing a clandestine issue of the newspaper "Le Libertaire." on June 15th.

Involved are Klaus (the printer), Alphonse Barbé, Louis Bertho (aka Jules Lepetit), Julien Content, Grossin, Pierre Le Meillour, & Pierre Ruff. Their continued antiwar actions over the past year, & the audicity of this act, result heavy sentences (four months to 3 years in prison).

Sources, see: http://www.ephemanar.net/octobre2.html#8
http://www.libertaire.org/article17.html
http://libertaire.org/rubrique13.html


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1908 -- [October 5] Israel Zangwill play "The Melting Pot" premiers
The image first appeared in the late 18th century through Jean de Crevecoeur’s Letters from an American Farmer:

What then is the American, this new man?….He is an American who, leaving behind him all his ancient prejudices & manners, receives new ones from the new mode of life he has embraced….Here individuals are melted into a new race of men.

The term surfaced again in Israel Zangwell’s famed 1909 play, The Melting Pot. It showed the fire of the American experience burning off human impurities, fusing all the best elements of each immigrant "race" into "a new & superior American nationality."

The "melting pot" concept, though, seemed inadequate to others as an explanation of the American reality. Historian Frederick Jackson Turner emphasized "the primacy of geography over race & culture," & suggested that the development of distinctive sectional or regional identities formed the American present & future. The continuity of dozens of distinct immigrant communities into the early 20th century–Little Italies, "Andersonvilles," "Micktowns"–suggested still another vision of the American identity. Rather than a "melting pot" or an ideological union, this orientation cast America as a federation of nationalities, where hyphenization was permanent, where diversity & harmony co-existed, where America stood as "a multiplicity in a unity, an orchestration of mankind."

http://www.profam.org/pub/fia/xfia_1601-02.htm
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/zangwill.html


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1949 -- France: Madeleine Vernet dies. Anarchiste, radical educator. Earns a street named for her in Paris.

Although Cempuis was closed by the French government on charges of coeducation, which at the time was prohibited under law, other similar educational attempts were undertaken in France by Madeleine Vernet & Sébastien Faure.

Faure developed in the children a love of study by awakening "the child's interest in his surroundings by mak(ing) him or her realize the importance of observation, investigation, & reflection" & by teaching the student to never accept anything on blind faith.

Francisco Ferrer, founder of the Modern School movement, followed these precedents in developing his child-centered theories of education.

John Dewey of Columbia University was one of the earliest proponents of the Modern School movement in America.



Sources, see: http://www.ephemanar.net/octobre08.html


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Timeline icon
1971 -- [October 5]
US: Nazareno Branchini dies in Chicago, Illinois.
Born in Pergola, Italy in 1891, an anarchist militant during WWI, Branchini emigrated to the US & was active in Italian-language circles.

Source: Dictionnaire international des militants anarchistes



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1894 -- [October 6] Emma Goldman begins work as a nurse while working anew for the commutation of Alexander Berkman's prison sentence. Emma Goldman, anarchist feminist

Next year, at this time, Emma will go to Vienna to begin formal training in nursing & midwifery at the Allgemeines Krankenhaus.

She keeps a low profile in Vienna, as political persecution there is known to be harsh. While there she discovers & devours works by Friedrich Nietzsche, attends performances of Wagner operas, sees Eleonora Duse perform, & attends the lectures of Professor Karl Bruhl & Sigmund Freud.


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1902 -- [October 6] Author Elizabeth Gray Vining

Published her first book, Meredith's Ann in 1929, & received the Newbery Award in 1943 for her children's novel, Adam of the Road, about a boy's search for his father in medieval England. She was a Quaker, & was working for the American Friends Service Committee in 1946 when she was summoned to serve as an English tutor for Crown Prince Akihito of Japan. She wrote about her experiences in Japan in the 1952 bestseller, Windows for the Crown Prince.


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1903 -- [October 6] Serge Gregoire lives (1903-1962; aka Jean Souvenance). French writer, pacifist militant, free thinker & libertarian.

Serge collaborated in many anarchist publications ("Le semeur", "La voix libertaire", "L'idée libre", "L'unique", "Ce qu'il faut dire", "Défense de l'homme", etc). Founder of the Parti Pacifiste Internationaliste, & president of the Libre Pensée of the north coast.

He wrote numerous books, including Anthologie des écrivains pacifistes (1933).

... show more details


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1912 -- [October 6] Emma Goldman, anarchist feministUS: Emma Goldman holds a Yiddish & English Sunday lecture series in NY City, October 6-December 22.

Topics include "The Psychology of Anarchism," "The Dupes of Politics," "Sex Sterilization of Criminals," "The Resurrection of Alexander Berkman: Prison Memoirs of an Anarchist," "The Failure of Democracy," "Economic Efficiency—the Modern Menace," & "Damaged Goods" by Eugène Brieux (A Powerful Drama, Dealing with the Curse of Venereal Disease). http://www.ephemanar.net/octobre.html#6


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1879 -- [October 7] Joe Hill lives! Labor martyr executed by state of Utah, the famous Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) labor songster/organizer. Workman, popular singer, poet, anarchist trade union militant

"Joe Hill ain't dead,' he says to me.
'Joe Hill ain't never died...'"

... show more details



1931 -- [October 7] André Colomer (1886-1931) dies. Poet, anarchist & finally a Communist.

In 1913 Colomer is involved with Manuel Devaldès & Gérard Lacaze-Duthiers in the review "L'action d'art". He fled the country during WWI, refusing military service. After the armistice he was again involved in "L'action d'art", & joined the trade union of the writers & dramatic authors.

In 1922, he is an organizer with the CGTU, & creates the confederal theatre. Involved in founding "Libertaire" & managed "La revue anarchiste".

In 1927, he broke with anarchism, to become a "true Communist" (only a few years before he had denounced the Bolshevik dictatorship). Moved to the USSR & died there.

"Inciter les anarchistes et les syndicalistes fédéralistes à prendre toute leurs précautions, non seulement pour éviter de tomber dans les pièges où se sont brisés et meurtris les anarchistes russes, mais encore pour être capables, aux heures révolutionnaires, d'opposer leurs propres conceptions pratiques de la production et de la répartition des biens nécessaires à la vie à celle des dictateurs communistes".

(In Répression de l'anarchisme en Russie soviétique (1923).

http://www.ephemanar.net/decembre1.html#4


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1934 -- [October 7] Brazil: Green Shirt fascists in São Paulo attempt to mimic Mussolini's "March on Rome," only to be scattered in disarray when confronted by the anarchists determined to stop them at the Praça da Séto. Simão Rodovich, discovering the fascists are armed with machine guns to counter the counter-demonstrators, got into an enormous shoot out that left six people dead.

In 1934, there is a great confrontation in the city center between anarchists & fascists - "integralistas" as the latter are called in Brazil - in the Square of the Sé (Praça da Séto). The workers of the Federação Operária de São Paulo (Labor Federation of Sao Paulo) decided to confront the integralistas, & the anarchists also organized themselves to join in the showdown.

The periodical "A Plebe" (“The Common People”) which previously expressed concern about the rise of fascism, publicized the march & counter-demonstration, & the anarchists were determined to be there for the demonstration. On the day the day of the march they & their comrades occupied in strategical places in the Square, & they weare also armed (because the time was not for tricks, age of fight).

The fascist green shirts (in Italy they were the Black Shirts; in the US they were the Silver Shirts), gathered for their march, waiting 500 a thousand people that they had not arrived at as much, placing women & children at the front, thinking that nobody would go off against women & children.

The anarchists had waited that women & children passed & later… having one of the friends - Simão perceived Rodovich that he had machine guns that they were ready to go off on the laborers, it takes account of one of them & an enormous shoot out starts then. Six people died, many of them had been wounded & some dying later had to wounds, but what it is to point out are that had an enormous disbandment, the walk of the fascists aborted.

This to demonstrate that the movement anarchist did not die, the manifestation of 1934 demonstrates that it was well alive.

Parenthetically, the Communist Party did not arrive in the height to have 1000 filiados ones in the party, however they had almost arrived to say that they had been they to face the integralistas. Irónico is not?

On the other hand the Laboring Federacy of São Paulo had more than 80 unions that they did not belong to the State.
Source, see: [ Jaime Cubero e o Movimento Anarquista no Brasil]; from "Revista Utopia" #8 (Portugal), which also appears online at CMI Brasil



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1880 -- [October 9] Switzerland: The last congress of the Jurassic Federation (Jura Federation), at La Chaux-de-Fonds, adopts anarchist communist goals, "conséquence nécessaire et inévitable de la révolution sociale".

Peter Kropotkin was the leading force at the Federation congress in this year. While he did not formulate any major new stances here, he did work to refine many of the views that the Jura Federation held. Previously there was still no strong sympathy for anarcho-communism among the mainstream of the European anarchist movement despite previous efforts in this direction by Élisée Reclus, Enrico Malatesta, Carlo Cafiero, Paul Brousse, etc.

... show more details



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1938 -- [October 9] Spain: Libertarian Movement Congress; Pura Perez Arcos reports:

We sailed from the port of Alicante on the afternoon of October 7th, in a small English boat. The group included people from Madrid, Valencia & a variety of places in Andalusia. Our tiny Mujeres Libres delegation was inspired by the great hopes & expectations we had of the congress...to make a trip in those days was very risky, & we all knew it.

The harbours were being bombarded every night, & we were totally illegal travellers on this British boat, which had to sail right be Franquista ships. We were due to arrive the next morning, but as we neared the harbour, we could hear the explosions of the fascist bombing of the port. The captain headed north, & we sailed around all that day & night, finally arriving in Barcelona, exhausted & hungry on the morning of the 9th.

We were tremendously excited & ready to argue the case for Mujeres Libres on the floor of the congress. But they would not even allow us into the meeting.

Coincidentally Emma Goldman was also trying to get in. While she was given full access, the congress floor only allowed Mujeres Libres into discussions that primarily affected them.

http://www.reocities.com/Paris/2159/womspain.html


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1940 -- [October 9]

Other pop or rock stars beside John Lennon with literary merits (novels, collections of poems, short story collections): Bob Dylan, Jim Morrison, Nick Cave, Ulf Lundell, Leonard Cohen, Ray Davies.

"Davies' literary output includes a science-fiction-novel-cum-"unauthorized autobiography," X-RAY, & a collection of short stories, WATERLOO SUNSET. Also directed two feature films, the avant-garde musical RETURN TO WATERLOO & the Charles Mingus documentary WEIRD NIGHTMARE. Written extensively for the theater...

& his songs kick ass."

— Bleedster Jesse Walker, Kick-Ass, Walkman!

... show more details


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1609 -- [October 10] ANARCHIST

The English Diggers (1649-50)


Lots More Stuff


Winstanley (& English Digger) Writings

  • Truth Lifting Up Its Head Above Scandals (1648)
  • The New Law Of Righteousness (January, 1649)
  • & let all men say what they will, so long as such are rulers as call the land theirs, upholding this particular propriety of mine & thine, the common people shall never have their liberty, nor the land be ever freed from troubles, oppressions, & complainings, by reason whereof the Creator of all things is continually provoked. . .
The Work we are going about is this, To dig up Georges-Hill & the waste Ground thereabouts, & to Sow Corn, & to eat our bread together by the sweat of our brows. & the First Reason is this, That we may work in righteousness, & lay the Foundation of making the Earth a Common Treasury for All...
That we must neither buy nor sell. Money must not any longer (after our work of the Earths Community is advanced) be the great god that hedges in some & hedges out others...
  • A Letter to the Lord Fairfax, & His Councell of War (June 9, 1649)
  • A Watch-word to the Citie of London... (August 26, 1649)
Not a full year since, being quiet at my work, my heart was filled with sweet thoughts... That the earth shall be made a common treasury of livlihood to whole mankind, without respect of persons; yet my mind was not at rest... for action is the life of all, & if thou dost not act, thou dost nothing...


Diggers


SF Diggers

Digger,

any of a group of agrarian communists who flourished in England in 1649-50 & were led by Gerrard Winstanley (q.v.) & William Everard. In April 1649 about 20 poor men assembled at St. George's Hill, Surrey, & began to cultivate the common land. These Diggers held that the English Civil Wars had been fought against the king & the great landowners; now that Charles I had been executed, land should be made available for the very poor to cultivate. (Food prices had reached record heights in the late 1640s.) The numbers of the Diggers more than doubled during 1649. Their activities alarmed the Commonwealth government & roused the hostility of local landowners, who were rival claimants to the common lands. The Diggers were harassed by legal actions & mob violence, & by the end of March 1650 their colony was dispersed. The Diggers themselves abjured the use of force. The Diggers also called themselves True Levelers, but their communism was denounced by the leaders of the Levelers.


Copyright (c) 1994, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.




Related Propaedia Topics:

Oliver Cromwell, the Commonwealth, & the Protectorate (1649-60); the Stuart Restoration (1660) under Charles II (1660-85) & James II (1685-88); the Glorious Revolution of 1688 & end of crown rule without Parliament
     

The Digger Songs



(See also Chumbawamba Lyrics from The a capella album, at http://www.reocities.com/SunsetStrip/Basement/8448/cwlers.html)

Levellers & Diggers
(Gerard Winstanley)



RealAudio recording of this song is apparently no longer online; try downloading the Real Audio file, ca. 500k in size, http://www.diggers.org/audio/diggersong.rm
From A Ballad History of England, Palmer

You noble Diggers all, stand up now, stand up now,
You noble Diggers all, stand up now,
The wast land to maintain, seeing Cavaliers by name
Your digging does maintain, & persons all defame
Stand up now, stand up now.

Your houses they pull down, stand up now, stand up now,
Your houses they pull down, stand up now.
Your houses they pull down to fright your men in town
But the gentry must come down, & the poor shall wear the crown.
Stand up now, Diggers all.

With spades & hoes & plowes, stand up now, stand up now
With spades & hoes & plowes stand up now,
Your freedom to uphold, seeing Cavaliers are bold
To kill you if they could, & rights from you to hold.
Stand up now, Diggers all.

Theire self-will is theire law, stand up now, stand up now,
Theire self-will is theire law, stand up now.
Since tyranny came in they count it now no sin
To make a gaol a gin, to starve poor men therein.
Stand up now, Diggers all.

The gentrye are all round, stand up now, stand up now,
The gentrye are all round, stand up now.
The gentrye are all round, on each side they are found,
Theire wisdom's so profound, to cheat us of our ground
Stand up now, stand up now.

The lawyers they conjoyne, stand up now, stand up now,
The lawyers they conjoyne, stand up now,
To arrest you they advise, such fury they devise,
The devill in them lies, & hath blinded both their eyes.
Stand up now, stand up now.

The clergy they come in, stand up now, stand up now,
The clergy they come in, stand up now.
The clergy they come in, & say it is a sin
That we should now begin, our freedom for to win.
Stand up now, Diggers all.

The tithes they yet will have, stand up now, stand up now,
The tithes they yet will have, stand up now.
The tithes they yet will have, & lawyers their fees crave,
& this they say is brave, to make the poor their slave.
Stand up now, Diggers all.

'Gainst lawyers & 'gainst Priests, stand up now, stand up now,
'Gainst lawyers & 'gainst Priests stand up now.
For tyrants they are both even flatt againnst their oath,
To grant us they are loath free meat & drink & cloth.
Stand up now, Diggers all.

The club is all their law, stand up now, stand up now,
The club is all their law, stand up now.
The club is all their law to keep men in awe,
But they no vision saw to maintain such a law.
Stand up now, Diggers all.

The Cavaleers are foes, stand up now, stand up now,
The Cavaleers are foes, stand up now;
The Cavaleers are foes, themselves they do disclose
By verses not in prose to please the singing boyes.
Stand up now, Diggers all.

To conquer them by love, come in now, come in now
To conquer them by love, come in now;
To conquer them by love, as itt does you behove,
For hee is King above, noe power is like to love,
Glory heere, Diggers all.


World Turned Upside Down (Diggers)
— Leon Rosselson

Recorded by Dick Gaughan

In 1649
To St George's Hill
A ragged band they called the Diggers
Came to show the people' s will
They defied the landlords
They defied the laws
They were the dispossessed
Reclaiming what was theirs

We come in peace, they said
To dig & sow
We come to work the land in common
& to make the waste land grow
This earth divided
We will make whole
So it can be
A common treasury for all.

The sin of property
We do disdain
No one has any right to buy & sell
The earth for private gain
By theft & murder
They took the land
Now everywhere the walls
Rise up at their command.

They make the laws
To chain us well
The clergy dazzle us with heaven
Or they damn us into hell
We will not worship
The God they serve
The God of greed who feeds the rich
While poor men starve

We work, we eat together
We need no swords
We will not bow to masters
Or pay rent to the lords
We are free men
Though we are poor
You Diggers all stand up for glory

Stand up now
From the men of property
The orders came
They sent the hired men & troopers
To wipe out the Diggers' claim
Tear down their cottages
Destroy their corn
They were dispersed —
Only the vision lingers on

You poor take courage
You rich take care
The earth was made a common treasury
For everyone to share
All things in common
All people one
We come in peace
The order came to cut them down



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Malatesta
1889 -- [October 10]

Errico Malatesta, having returned from South America, begins issuing the publication "L'Associazione."

In 1888 & '89 immigration into the Argentine Republic increased rapidly & unemployment & strikes made their appearance.

Malatesta seems to have spent this period at Buenos Aires doing active propaganda; we read in the "Revolte" of March 24, 1889, that some time ago the commissioner of police sent for him, to tell him that the police would be represented at all public meetings. They tried also to assist at private (group) meetings, but desisted when invited to leave.

Meetings were held on March 18 (1888), on the occasion of the first local strikes, etc., & it is probably that the movement "El Perseguido" was first issued [March 18, 1890 according to Pablo M. Pérez; see his article, The Anarchist Movement & the Origins of the Argentinian Libertarian Federation], continued until Jan. 31, 1897, the first of the rapidly developing active & numerous press, culminating in the "Protesta Humana" (June 13, 1897), followed by the (daily) "Protesta") (April 5, 1904 [edited by Alberto Ghiraldo]), which for so many years weathers all storms.

Malatesta may not have wished to waste his life so far away; news from Italy or the general revival of Socialism, just beginning in 1889 & marked by the London dock strike, the first of May (1890), etc., may have prompted him, & the means for a new printing propaganda were also available. So he returned to Europe, & in September, 1889, began to issue publications at Nice.

An Appello (in Italian, 4 pp. in 4') & a Circular (in Spanish, 2 pp. in 4') announced in September, 1889, the publication of "L'Associazione," of which Nos. 1-3 were published at Nice (October 10, etc.) & Nos. 4-7, until January 23, 1890, in London.

Max Nettlau, Errico Malatesta: The Biography of an Anarchist



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1927 -- [October 11] Canada: Emma Goldman's ambitious lecture series, October 11-December 8, begins at Hygeia Hall, Toronto. Emma Goldman, anarchist feminist

The series consists of 18 lectures & covers drama as well as social & literary topics, including the plays of Shaw, Galsworthy, & Ibsen, Walt Whitman, "Crime & Punishment," "The Menace of Military Preparedness," "Evolution versus Religious Bigotry," "The Child & Its Enemies," "Sex--A Dominant Element in Life & Art," & "Has Feminism Achieved Its Aim?"

Audiences for her lectures are disappointing, & the aging anarchist-feminist determines to return to Europe in the new year & begin writing her autobiography.


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1920 -- [October 12] Italy: Armando Borghi, general secretary of the Unione Sindicale Italiana (USI) & militant anarchist, arrested in Milan by some order dating from July 20, but which had not been executed before.

Armando Borghi's arrest is meant to cripple the union, which represents some 300,000 workers; his wife, Virgilia d'Andrea, who continued Borghi's work, is arrested also, & on the 21st about 25 delegates of the union, meeting at Bologna, are arrested en masse.

On October 14 protest meetings are held all over Italy demanding the release of these political prisoners & to express solidarity with Revolutionary Russia, opposing government particiption in the effort by US & other nations (who invaded) to restore capitalist rule in Russia. Two hours cessation of work (from 3 to 5 p.m.) formed part of this protest.

On the 15th the office of USI's paper "Umanita Nova" is raided, the editorial staff arrested, everything searched, including the rooms of Errico Malatesta who happens to be out of Bologna.

Over 80 arrests occurred in Milan, &, in the morning of October 17, the veteran jailbird Malatesta is nabbed.



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1871 -- [Fall 1871] Russia: Peter Kropotkin's father dies during this fall. (I don't have exact date — ed.)

Kropotkin's father had maintained a great deal of control over Peter's life. When he finally passed away, Peter finally had control over his own life. At this point, he quit his civil service position. The Imperial Geographic Society offered him the position of secretary (a great honor for a man of his age). Peter viewed a career in the Society as wasteful & declined the offer. Peter had become interested in the worker's movement during the Franco-Prussian War due to the newspaper coverage of the Paris Commune. In this period of transition within his life, Peter planned to travel abroad to learn more about the worker's movement.

(He travels to Switzerland Feb-May 1872 where he is impressed by the anarchist Jura Federation).

http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/kropotkin/chronology.html



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1876 -- [October 14] Jules Bonnot, auto mechanic, vegetarian, tea-totaller, anarchist "illegalist," of the Bonnot Gang (La Bande à Bonnot) — the most famous of the "bandits tragiques".

"...the Bonnot Gang appeared. They claimed to be anarchists; they probably were. They appealed to the imagination of the Parisians. they were hardly "gentle grafters" but the nearest to it in France was "bandits tragiques", romantic robbers. it was believed that they took from the rich to give to the poor. They were "good guys" & the flics were "baddies" because the Parisians understood that when the chips were down the Bonnot Gang was ultimately on their side & the police with their clubs would be on the other (even in time of war, even in time of foreign occupation). They were not "lump" to the Parisians. They were at most "les miserables". In the finish they did not awaken the proletariats a la Blanqui; but their subsequent careers showed THEY learned a lot from the proletariat. In particular, that the bourgeois criminals of society had the big battalions on their side, & would ultimately come to dominate the underworld; the Bonnot Gang went down fighting as the last of the Apaches."

— Ezra Brett Mell, The Truth About the Bonnot Gang

See:


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1894 -- [October 14]

Étranges étrangers
Kabyles de la Chapelle et des quais de javel
hommes des pays loin
cobayes des colonies...
Apatrides dAubervilliers
brûleurs des grandes ordures de la ville de Paris
Tunisiens de Grenelle
embauchés débauchés
manoeuvres désoeuvrés...
Enfants du Sénégal
dépatriés expatriés et naturalisés...
Etranges étrangers
Vous êtes de la ville
vous êtes de sa vie
même si mal en vivez
même si vous en mourez.

Jacques Prévert

Algerian anarchist Sail Mahomed lives (1894-1953), Taourit-Béni-Ouglis, en Kabylie.

Ce poème de Prévert extrait de Paroles symbolise le combat d’une vie, celui de Saïl Mohamed. Saïl Mohamed, Ameriane ben Amezaine, est né le 14 octobre 1894 à Taourit-Béni-Ouglis, en Kabylie. Comme beaucoup d’Algériens, il a peu fréquenté l’école. Chauffeur-mécanicien de profession, il fut toute sa vie assoiffé de culture. Il vécut avec Madeleine Sagot. On sait peu de choses de sa jeunesse ; on apprend par un témoignage qu’il donne au Semeur de Normandie, le journal d’A. Barbé, qu’il est interné pour insoumission puis pour désertion pendant la première guerre mondiale. Ses sympathies pour le mouvement libertaire sont déjà affirmées.

In Algeria, the anarchist movement emerged in the 19th-century. The Revolutionary Syndicalist General Confederation of Labour (CGT-SR) had a section in Algeria. Like other anarchist organizations, the CGT-SR opposed French colonialism, & in a joint statement by the Anarchist Union, the CGT-SR, & the Association of Anarchist Federations on the centenary of the French occupation of Algeria in 1930, argued: "Civilisation? Progress? We say: murder!".

A prominent militant in the CGT-SR's Algerian section, as well as in the Anarchist Union & the Anarchist Group of the Indigenous Algerians, was Sail Mohamed, an Algerian anarchist active in the anarchist movement from the 1910s until his death in 1953. Sail Mohamed was a founder of organizations such as the Association for the Rights of the Indigenous Algerians & the Anarchist Group of the Indigenous Algerians. In 1929 he was secretary of the "Committee for the Defence of the Algerians against the Provocations of the Centenary."

Sail Mohamed was also editor of the North African edition of the anarchist periodical Terre Libre, & a regular contributor to anarchist journals on the Algerian question.

"http://cnt-ait.info/article.php3?id_article=1042"
http://endehors.net/news/sail-mohamed-ou-la-vie-et-la-revolution-d-un-anarchiste-algerien http://cnt-ait.info/article.php3?id_article=959


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1988 -- [October 14] New Japanese Anarchist Federation forms this month, & publishes the journal "Free Will" (Jiyû Ishi) up till the present time.

Although this new Anarchist Federation has a nationwide network of contacts, the scale of its support is much smaller than its namesake of the 1940s, let alone the prewar federations, such as Kokuren or Zenkoku Jiren.

Anarchist syndicalism is represented by the small group called the Workers' Solidarity Movement (Rôdôsha Rentai Undô) which has existed in its present form since 1983. The Workers' Solidarity Movement is affiliated to the IWA/AIT (the Syndicalist International) & since 1989 has published the journal Libertarian Communism (Zettai Jiyû Kyôsanshugi).

As for anarchist communism, its most visible manifestation today is the small but active publishing house called the Black Battlefront Company (Kokushoku Sensen Sha) which is grouped round the old militant, Ôshima Eizaburô. Among recent Black Battlefront publications, the multivolume Materials on the Nôseisha Incident (Nôson Seinen Sha Jiken Shiryô, 1991 onwards) reflects the belief of many postwar anarchists that there are important lessons to be learnt from studying the theories & practice of earlier generations of anarchists.

One point which has often been made regarding postwar anarchism is that, while the self-declared anarchist movement is smaller than previously, unconsciously "anarchist" organization & activity have been noticeable among various groups engaged in struggle. This argument was frequently heard at the height of the student movement during the 1960s & 1970s, & more recently similar claims have been made regarding the "citizens' movements" (grass roots campaigns, generally directed towards a single issue).

http://www.hack.org/mc/mirror/www.spunk.org/texts/places/japan/sp001883/japchap3.html


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http://recollectionbooks.com/anow/world/as/japan/

Timeline icon
1898 -- [October 15]
anarchist diamond dingbat; new entry, remove 2007
Jean Brault today attends the founding meeting for the group "Les Cravacheurs" in La Salle, Illinois. The group met two Saturdays per month at its residence at 334 Channel Street.

Brault, a French miner, born in Courrières (Pas-de-Calais), emigrated to the US & was involved in militant activities in Spring Valley, Pennsylvania & La Salle in the 1890s. Brault moved to socialism & joined the IWW (Industrial Workers of the World) in 1910.

Source: Dictionnaire international des militants anarchistes, http://militants-anarchistes.info/



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Malatesta
1920 -- [October 15] Errico Malatesta, anarchist militant/writer, is arrested. He is held responsible, along with Armando Borghi, for the Italian worker occupations of the factories in Milan during this past summer & fall.

Contents : Reports, letters & telegrams of the police concerning Errico Malatesta's activities & whereabouts, with translations & explanatory notes of Borghi ca.1913-1914, 1917-1920/21, 1927, 1930 & n.d.; a few documents on the attempt to assassinate Mussolini 1926; miscellanea. Supplement: Photocopies of letters & other documents from & relating to Armando Borghi, including letters from Borghi, Luigi Fabbri, Luce Fabbri, Luciano Farinelli & John Sallustio. NB. Originals in the Biblioteca Libertaria Armando Borghi, Castelbolognese, Italy.
http://www.iisg.nl/archives/en/files/b/10729154full.php
Fabbri, Luce

http://www.ephemanar.net/octobre3.html#uai


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1933 -- [October 15] American liberal Mabel Carver Crouch, during this month, begins working furiously for Emma Goldman's readmission to the US, organizing a committee & soliciting the help of lawyers & others with contacts in the new administration in Washington, D.C. Emma Goldman, anarchist feminist

In the summer, Crouch had visited with Emma in St. Tropez, as did Milly & Rudolf Rocker. Goldman began considering a tour of Canada in early 1934, following Rudolf Rocker, who completed his projected tour of Canada & the US. Canadians responded favorably, with Toronto anarchists pledging funds to pay for Goldman's passage to Canada.

http://www.ephemanar.net/octobre3.html#uai


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1908 -- [October 17] Emma Goldman begins national lecture tour while the country is immersed in presidential campaigning; hopes to wind up her tour on the West Coast & depart for Australia in the new year. Emma Goldman, anarchist feminist

Lecture topics include "The Political Circus & Its Clowns," "Puritanism, the Great Obstacle to Liberty," & "Life versus Morality." Large audiences attend Emma's lectures in Pittsburgh & Cleveland. On the 27th she is prevented from speaking in Indianapolis.

In St. Louis she meets William Marion Reedy, editor of the "St. Louis Mirror," whose article "The Daughter of the Dream," published later, praises her.


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1936 -- [October 17] Spain: In Perdiguera (Aragon), the International Group of the Durruti Column, composed of 250 anarchists, engage in a battle against the fascists.

Many friends & partners are killed;

  • Louis Berthomieu, a close friend of Charles Ridel (Louis Mercier Vega) & François-Charles Carpentier (founder of the international group), blows himself up with dynamite rather than to fall into the hands of the fascists. Four women are shot, including:
  • Georgette (known as "Mimosa"), a militant participant in the "Revue Anarchiste", & partner of Ferdinand Félix Fortin;
  • Gertrude, a young German militant, member of the POUM. Also shot:
  • Giral (or Giralt), an anarcho-syndicalist of the CGT-SR, previously wounded at Sietamo;
  • Biudeaux, & others.

    http://raforum.info/article.php3?id_article=2727&lang=en
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wf1Fz5bbAB8


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  • 1957 -- [October 17] Albert Camus is awarded the Nobel Prize for literature. Camus wrote for many years for the anarchist & left wing press in France.

    • Camus' biographer Herbert Lottman comments on his association with numerous anarchists, with Pierre Monatte, with Giovanna Berneri of Volontà, Jean Paul Samson who published Témoins, Maurice Joyeux of Le Libertaire & Le Monde Libertaire, & with Spanish exiles producing Solidaridad Obrera until, as Lottman explains, "the paper was eventually banned by the de Gaulle government to avoid giving offence to General Franco.'' In his political isolation he had recourse to "the men & women of political movements with which he could still sympathize, those of the far-out left, who on their own chosen terrain were often as lonely as he was."

      — noted by Colin Ward

      http://www.socialanarchism.org/mod/magazine/display/20/index.php

      ?http://www.c-g-a.org/~toulouse/




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    1961 -- [October 17] France: Paris police massacre over 200 (possibly 300) Algerians protesting against police oppression & the curfew imposed against their community in Paris. <

    In the three months preceding the protest, over 30 Paris cops were killed by the Algerian National Liberation Front (FLN), a group using terrorist tactics to fight French colonial rule. In response, Paris police chief Maurice Papon ordered a violent crackdown on Paris' Algerian community, explaining to officers that they would be protected against any charges of excessive violence.

    Police searched the Algerian ghettos for FLN members, indiscriminately killing a number of innocent Algerians before turning their guns on a large group of protestors gathered near the Seine River. The next day, the police release an official death toll of three dead & 67 wounded, a figure generally disregarded by witnesses who observe bodies littering the area & floating in the Seine.

    Some publications in France that tried to reveal the truth were censored. Temps Modernes, the magazine of Jean-Paul Sartre, the philosopher & author, called the episode "a pogrom". The edition was seized by Maurice Papon, then chief of police.

    Papon, was a former minister accused of deporting more than 1,500 Jews to Nazi death camps during WWII.



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    1844 -- [October 18] Amilcare Cipriani (1844-1918), lives, Rimini

    Condemned to death for his role in the Paris Commune, but sent to a prison colony at Nouvelle Calédonie. He returned to France with the amnesty of 1880, but was expelled. He was arrested in Italy, January 1881 for "conspiracies", & sent to prison for 20 years.

    A campaign to secure his release got him out in 1888. Cipriani returned to France & collaborated in the anarchist press, with "Le Plébéien", etc.

    In 1897, he went to Greece to fight against the Turks & was wounded. July 30, 1898, in Italy, he is was sent to prison, with five other anarchists, for three years.

    AMILCARE CIPRIANI

    acque ad Anzio nel 1844; la sua famiglia si trasferì a Rimini quando aveva appena quindici giorni. Studiò in una scuola gestita da religiosi, dove il suo spirito ribelle fu scarsamente apprezzato. Nel 1859, non ancora quindicenne, fuggì di casa per arruolarsi nell'esercito piemontese e combattè nella battaglia di San Martino. Nel 1860 fu con Garibaldi nell'impresa dei Mille; fu di nuovo con Garibaldi nel '62, nella sfortunata spedizione conclusasi ad Aspromonte. Ricercato come disertore, raggiunse la Grecia e poi l'Egitto, da cuì tornò nel 1866 per combattere nelle file di Garibaldi.

    itornato ad Alessandria d'Egitto, nel 1867, durante una rissa fra emigrati, uccise un compatriota e accoltellò due guardie egiziane. A Londra, dov'era riparato, conobbe Mazzini; si trasferì poi in Francia e combattè contro i Prussiani. Nel 1871 prese parte alla difesa della Comune di Parigi; scampato fortunosamente alla pena di morte, fu deportato in Nuova Caledonia, condannato a vita. Fu graziato dopo otto anni, nel 1880. Espulso dalla Francia, riparò in Svizzera, dove conobbe Carlo Cafiero.

    ientrato in Italia, fu subito arrestato; nel 1882, ad Ancona, fu processato per il vecchio affaire egiziano e condannato a vent'anni di lavori forzati, da scontare a Portolongone. La sentenza suscitò generali e accese proteste; tutta la Sinistra si mobilitò per strapparlo al carcere.

    el 1886, alle elezioni politiche, fu perciò presentata la sua "candidatura di protesta" nei collegi di Ravenna e Forlì, dove risultò eletto con consensi plebiscitari. L'elezione fu però annullata. Nel 1888, a Milano, si celebrò nuovamente il processo, che si concluse con l'assoluzione. Rimesso in libertà, Cipriani fu salutato da accoglienze entusiastiche. Tornò nuovamente a Parigi, dove fondò l'"Unione dei popoli latini": iniziativa che non piacque agli anarchici. In Francia si avvicinò alle posizioni socialiste e collaborò attivamente a quotidiani e periodici. Nel 1897 partì per la Grecia, per combattere contro i Turchi, e fu ferito nella battaglia di Domokos. Alle elezioni dello stesso anno fu nuovamente candidato, e di nuovo l'elezione fu annullata. Sarà ancora candidato ed eletto nel 1914, ma non potrà sedere in Parlamento per essersi rifiutato di prestare il rituale giuramento. Morì a Parigi nel 1918.

    See also, in French:
    http://www.ephemanar.net/octobre3.html#18
    See also http://recollectionbooks.com/siml/library/egypt.htm


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    1937 -- [October 18] Emma Goldman confirmed as London representative of the SIA (International Antifascist Solidarity)

    Emma meets & consults with many anarchists in Paris in November, then in London searches for premises for an SIA office & reading room.

    In December, she continues her campaign against imprisonment of anti-Stalinist leftists & anarchists in Spain, writing an article for "Spain & the World" & trying to enlist the assistance of sympathetic Members of Parliament.

    During this month she also attends the International Working Men's Association (IWMA) Congress in Paris at Vazquez's request: French comrades, because she is sympathetic to the CNT-FAI's policies, try to keep her from addressing the Congress since she is not an official delegate, but Spanish & Swedish delegates prevail in having her speak, & she defends the CNT-FAI's actions & the difficult decisions it has made against criticism from comrades outside Spain.

    By January (1938) she moves into new offices for the CNT-FAI, SIA, & "Spain & the World" in central London, but finds little enthusiasm for the SIA venture, as numerous antifascist organizations & Spanish aid committees already exist.

    http://www.ephemanar.net/octobre3.html#18
    See also

    http://recollectionbooks.com/anow/history/spain/
    http://recollectionbooks.com/siml/library/egypt.htm


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    2001 -- Timeline icon [October 19 ] Italy: Angelo « Gino » Agnese (1940-2001) dies.
    Professor of Physics at the University of Genova. Founded the Gioventù Anarchica Genovese & Circolo Anarchico Armando Borghi, member GAF. From 1970-1980, activist in the Circle Ferrer di Marassi.


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    1894 -- [October 21] Prison revolt in the French prison colony on the island of Saint-Joseph, organised by French anarchists imprisoned there.

    In September a guard killed the anarchist convict François Briens, & tonite the guard is killed in revenge & three others stabbed. The revolt was quickly put down, & on the 22nd 11 convicts are killed. Informers had tipped off prison officials to the revolt & they were just waiting:

    Initial plans may have included Clement Duval, the famed burglar, but he did not directly take part in it. He did jot down the names of the anarchists among the dead: Garnier, Boasi, Simon (aka Biscuit), Jules Léauthier, Lebeau, Mazarguil, Thiervoz, Benoît Chevenet, Pierre Meyrveis & Edmond Marpaux.

    "Cold blood & no quarter given" had been the orders of the Commander Bonafi, chief of Internal Security, whose men had got as drunk as pigs for the occasion. In an incredible massacre, the ... anarchists were overpowered & mercilessly killed, one by one: Garnier, Boesie, Simon, Le Leauthier, Lebault, Masservin, Dervaux, Chevenet, Mesuesis, Kesvau, Marpeaux; the next day their bullet ridden bodies were thrown into the sea for the sharks to eat, while the hurriedly appointed Commission of Inquiry continued the repression, arresting & putting in irons anyone who was even slightly suspected of helping the rebels.

    See the Anarchist Encyclopedia
    http://recollectionbooks.com/bleed/Encyclopedia/DuvalClement.htm


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    1994 -- [October 21] ANARCHY IN THE UK 94 - London festival

    TEN DAYS THAT SHOOK THE WORLD

    The biggest anarchist festival with over 500 events throughout London, Oct 21- 30th.

    Stop press: Levitation of parliament Oct 23rd
    Stop the City: Street Action against the Criminal Justice Bill Oct 27th

    Anarchy in the UK, bookfair poster; source: www.spunk.org Participants:
    Reflective Theatre * Andy Chapman * Lodra Dawa * Edgar Broughton Band * Pat V.T. West * Working Press * London Socialist Film Co-op * Dennis Gould * Sad Society * Fashionable Living Death * Hoax * Aberdeen F.l.N. * Anti-fascist Action * Peter Pavement * Haven Distribution * Slab 'o Concrete * Blind Mole Rat * Sound Clash * Oi Polloi * Oxfin * Bad Attitude * Animal * Crossfire Films * Open Eye * London Anarchist Forum * Freedom Bookshop * Freedom press * Jamie Reed * Gee * Barthe Shouting * I.W.W. * By Pass * Chris Walsh * Head * Cool Tan Arts * Peace news * Larry O'Hara * Cyclorama * Giaconda Smile * Jeff Nuttall * Robin Webb * Donald Rooum * John Rety * Fun Times * Jigsaw * Ramraid Sound System * Travellers Support Group * Dave Morris * Edinburgh Fanzine Archive * Despite T.V. * Exploding Cinema * Madame Anarcha * Richard Parry * lan Bone * Roadent * Laurens Otter * Gusset * Our Day will Come * Anarchist Yearbook * 56a Info Shop * Planet News * Mother Clan * Dead Dog Mountain * A.L.F. * Izvestia (Rennes) * Arthur Moyse * Jeff Cloves * Penny Rimbaud * Wildcat Comics * Words of Warning * South Bristol Anarchists * Kate Sharpley Library * Robb Johnson * Cliff Harper * Derek Wall * Green Revolution * Anarchist Bookfair * Phoenix Press * Anhrefn * Roy Bailey * Armchair Press * New Anarchist Review * Rebel Press * Green Line * Contra-Flow * Davey Garland * Faslane Peace Camp * Bugs 'n' Drugs * Chaos U.K. * The Roughler* Riff Raff Poets * Ruptured Ambitions * Earth First * Profane Existence (Minneapolis) * Shambhala Skin * Mortarhate * Spithead * Round the Bend * Temple of Psychic Youth * Hunt Saboteurs Association * George Melly * Martin Everett * Fast Breeder * 121 Centre * Mick Parkin * Tony Allen * Forbidden Planet * Dave Douglass (Haffield NUM) * London Greenpeace * Green Anarchist* Freedom * Libertarian Education * Stephen Hancock* Schwartzeneggar * Cuckooland * Blaggers l.T.A. * Chumbawamba * Conflict * Verso * Alternative Tentacles * A.K. Distribution * A.K. Press * Active Distribution * Anarchist Distribution * DS4A * Steve Ignorant * Housemans Bookshop * M11 Link Campaign * A Space (Philadelphia) * Homocult * Cambridge Anarchists * Legalise Cannabis Campaign * Decadent Action * Extreme Books (Oregon) * Arnie * Greg Barr * Steve Booth * Stuart Home * Neoist Alliance * Freedom Network * Radical Dance Faction * Revolting * Lesbian & Gay Freedom Movement * Pink Panther * Montpellier Musicians Collective * Never Mind the Danger (Norwich Fanzine) * Wrecking the Planet * Chelmsford Unem- ployed Action * GERM * Seventh Wave * Jay Turner * Richard Adams * Filbo Fever (Leicester zine) * Bluebird Jones (Cardiff zine) * Marching Altogether (Leeds zine) * Blasphemy Squad * Noise Fest * Tribal Energy Sound System * Statik * Shambala Sound System * Ugly Beat * Intensive Care * London St. Pauli Supporters Club * Jake Laver * Green Wing * SMUG * Psychic Atters * Underground Power * Green Party * Golden Dawn Occult Society (Oxford) * Liberator Sound System.
    ... show more details


    http://www.hack.org/mc/mirror/www.spunk.org/texts/events/an_uk/sp000617.txt
    http://www.anarchistbookfair.org.uk/


    Go to October 21 Bleed or
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    1882 -- [October 22] Antoine Cyvoct was wrongly suspected of the bombing at the restaurant of the Bellecour Theatre in Lyon, because of an article published in the Lyon anarchist paper "le droit social."

    Cyvoct was sentenced to death, despite no proof he was responsible. His sentence was commuted to forced labor. Despite an intense campaign by the anarchists in 1895 to gain his release, Cyvoct was not amnestied until March 1898. Cyvoct was nominated during the legislative elections, "To draw attention to the cases of the anarchists remaining in prison."

    Cyvoct then worked in the bookstore business, & gave talks in the anarchist circles on living conditions in the prisons.

    http://www.ephemanar.net/octobre4.html#22


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    1905 -- [October 22] Santiago, Chile: Today, during "Semana Roja," 30,000 people join the uprising, inspired by the revolutionary ideas sweeping working class public opinion. Among them are butchers, shoe makers, tanners, cigar makers, truckmen, tapestry makers, typographers, telegraphers, blacksmiths, tinsmiths, bakers & the brave FFCCE workers who blew up the railways.
    Between 1900 & 1906 a lot of anarcho-syndicalist & resistance organizations emerged, all of them clandestine, except for a few trade unions.

    In 1905 it took place the Red Week of Santiago. It was a massive & combative movement where the anarchists were in first plane. A meeting wildly was repressed, took place a brave confrontation, the balance was the murder of about 200 workers. A set of unions decreed general strike in all the country. The government decree state of siege & appealed to the army. Despite the workers, with the anarchists at the top, they dealt to take the palace from government. Per moment it was under being able working the city. Here the revolutionary general strike praised by the anarchists was taken to the practice & revolutionary unionists.

    orange diamond dingbatThe famous "Semana Roja" (Red Week) in 1905 was a crucial event in early Chilean workers' history. Workers had had enough of the inhuman conditions in which they were forced to live, the rising cost of living & the taxes on meat coming from Argentina. A worker's committee "Centreo de Estudias Sociedad Ateneo Obrero" called all workers to join the strike & to support the cause.

    orange diamond dingbatThe 1800 strong police force were no match for the crowds. & the ruling class were forced to form a "White Guard" of 300 armed rich boys to pitch in to massacre the popular forces. Despite the 250 victims, the movement continued to grow steadily.

    Anarchist influence in Valparaiso & Santiago was greater than ever, & the Anarchists, through their Resistance societies...[kept] labor unionism alive in Chile in 1905-1916.

    In spite of repression, by 1909 the workers were very active, with 29 strikes involving 200,000 workers.

    http://libcom.org/history/1872-1995-anarchism-in-chile
    http://struggle.ws/inter/groups/cuac/anarquismo_chile.html
    http://www.antorcha.net/biblioteca_virtual/historia/anarquismo_chile/anarquismo_chile.html
    http://www.nodo50.org/fau/revista/lucha_99/org_primeros_sind.htm


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    1905 -- [October 22] Argentina: Police massacre demonstrators opposing a tax on cattle. Popular outrage sweeps the country & workers call a General Strike. The government declares a "state of siege." Despite heavy military protection of the cowards who hide in the palace, insurreccionadas attempt to take the building.
    Comité Pro Abolición


    http://www.antorcha.net/biblioteca_virtual/historia/anarquismo_chile/anarquismo_chile.html
    http://www.nodo50.org/fau/revista/lucha_99/org_primeros_sind.htm


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    1914 -- [October 23] US: Emma Goldman returns to Chicago for a series of propaganda & modern drama lectures (October 23-November 15), delivered in both English & Yiddish.

    General topics include "War & the Sacred Right of Property," "The Betrayal of the International," "The False Pretenses of Culture," "The Psychology of War," "The Tsar & 'My' Jews," "The War & 'Our Lord'," "The Misconceptions of Free Love," & "Woman & War."

    Emma GoldmanHer English series on the drama, titled "The Modern Drama as a Mirror of Individual, Class & Social Rebellion Against the Tyranny of the Past," is held in the elegant Fine Arts Building, with the financial backing of a wealthy supporter.

    Emma Goldman's usual focus on European dramatists is expanded to include Swedish dramatist Hjalmar Bergman; French playwrights Paul Hervieu, (Félix) Henry Bataille, & Henri Becque; Italian dramatists Gabriele D'Annunzio & Giuseppe Giacosa; Spanish playwright José Echegaray; Yiddish dramatists Jacob Gordin, Sholem Asch, David Pinski, & Max Nordau; & American playwright Butler Davenport.

    Emma describes the audience of her Chicago Press Club luncheon lecture on "The Relationship of Anarchism to Literature" as "500 hard-faced men."



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    1920 -- [October 23] Russia: Emma Goldman postpones her return trip to Petrograd to attend John Reed's funeral in Moscow today.

    Reed died on the 17th & Emma arrived in Moscow a few days later, consoling Reed's wife, Louise Bryant. After the funeral she returns to Petrograd with the museum expedition to deposit the historical material they collected.

    Also during this month Nestor Makhno's anarchist army defeated Baron Peter Wrangel, the last of the White Army generals, winning Makhno temporary good favor from the Bolsheviks. Peter Kropotkin & Gorki protest a Soviet plan to halt all private publishing establishments, & Maria Spiridonova is arrested.

    Recent reports in the US & Europe attribute to Emma Goldman a negative view of the Bolsheviks; though she privately acknowledges Bolshevik wrongdoings, at this point she denies all published accounts & refuses to grant any interviews.



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    1956 -- [October 23] Hungarian Revolution
    At noon on October 23, a mass meeting was held in the university park, attended by student delegates from other faculties & several workers' delegations from nearby factories.

    At 3 p.m., ignoring the Minister of the Interior's refusal for permission to demonstrate, the students began to march along the banks of the Danube, their ranks constantly swelled by ordinary citizens. It is estimated that 10,000 people came out into the streets to demonstrate.

    Outside the Parliament buildings in Kossuth Square the crowd shouted for Nagy, who, when he did appear at last, could do no more than appeal for calm. At the foot of the statue of Josef Bem, the Polish general who fought for the Hungarians in the Revolution of 1848–9, students demonstrated their solidarity with the Polish people's struggle for independence from Russia, recalling the words of Petöfi:

    Our battalions have combined two nations,
    And what nations! Polish & Magyar!
    Is there any destiny that is stronger
    Than those two when they are united?

    From the monument to Petöfi where the medical students were demonstrating, a student recited the poem Petöfi himself had written to incite his countrymen to rise:

    By the God of our Hungary we swear
    We shall be slaves nevermore.

    ... show more details


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    1947 -- [October 23] 50 of Hollywood's writers, producers, & actors fly to Washington D.C. to express their displeasure with House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) investigation in Hollywood.

    Headed by Humphrey Bogart, & calling themselves "The Committee for the First Amendment", 50 representatives included such people as: Lauren Bacall, Groucho Marx, Frank Sinatra, John Huston, Ronald Reagan, & Danny Kaye.

    The Committee for the 1st amendment not only tried to protect the rights of the "Hollywood Ten", but also protest violation of Constitutional rights. The group held press conferences in Kansas City, St. Louis, Chicago & in Washington D.C. outside the doors of HUAC. However, the committee achieved little, but brought trouble for some of it's members.

    Bogart, at the peak of his popularity before the trip, found his heroic image damaged by his high profile defense of the "impertinent subversives" — the "Hollywood Ten". To revive his image he published a statement of March 1948 issue of Photoplay magazine, describing himself as a "foolish & impetuous American."

    Several others went on to denounce their mission saying they had been duped by the communists. (Reagan, it was later discovered, was a snitch for the FBI all along.)



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    1886 -- [October 25] France: The episode which brought Clement Duval to his ruin & part of the iconography of the French regime, occurs

    Duval was arrested for breaking into a rich woman's apartment, stealing her jewels, & accidentally setting the place on fire.

    Duval's trial was far from tranquil — Duval refused the role of common criminal, proclaiming the political nature of his activity, & contesting the pretence that the men in robes were handing out justice.

    From being the accused he became accuser, denouncing the injustice of exploitation, mystification, & the wrongs suffered by himself & those like him. The crowd, packed into the court-room, was carried away by his vehemence, & echoed his words.

    The hearing ended uproariously with Duval, shouting "Long live anarchy", expelled, police overwhelmed by the crowd, judges fleeing to their chambers, insults hurled, blows, fights & arrests.

    An hour later, the uproar quelled, the Court delivered its verdict: death.

    The penalty was ridiculously disproportionate to the gravity of the offences & later the President of the Republic commuted his sentence to life at hard labor.

    Freedom was closing its doors on him, & the inferno was to take him in, seemingly forever.


    See also October 21, 1894 above; February 28, 1887; regards his 20 attempted prison escapes & ultimate success, see April 13, 1901



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    1947 -- [October 25] US: National Conference for the Protection of Foreign Born is held in Cleveland

    312 organizations meet "to consider the widespread & serious attack on the democratic & consititutional rights of non-citizens..."

    They document historical & contemporary difficulties facing 3 million non-citizens, including Mexican-Americans (who constitute the largest group of non-citizens in the country), in gaining US citizenship. Conference decisions included defending anyone, under the Bill of Rights, from the Justice Dept. attempts to deport them for their political opinions, & any finding naturalization problems (or being threatened with deportation) "as a result of the current attack on human rights" in the US.

    Source: Gonzalez, Isabel. Step-Children of a Nation: The Status of Mexican Americans. NY: American Committee for Protection of Foreign-Born, (n.d. but ca. 1947) First edition. 14 pages.

    A pamphlet documenting the difficulties Mexican immigrants had in becoming citizens. An uncommon & rather early publication on immigration reform by the Executive Secretary of the Committee to Organize the Mexican People in Denver, Colorado, presented at a panel of National Conference for the Protection of Foreign Born, Cleveland, Oct 1947.

    [Text provided courtesy of Recollection Used Books]


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    1879 -- [October 26] Biófilo Panclasta lives (1879-1942) Chinácota, Colombia. One of the more original individualistic Latin American anarchists.

    Pseudonym for Vicente Lizcano. He established with Eléazar López the first public school in Capacho Nuevo, Venezuela, where he was involved in the fight against the government of Ignacio Andrade.

    In 1904 he adopted the name Biófilo Panclasta, composed from the contradictory words biófilo (loving of the life) & panclasta (annihilation of everything). In 1906 he joined the anarchist movement in Argentina, becoming a known agitator. Went to Europe in 1907 as delegate for Federação Operária Argentina & met Kropótkin, Jean Grave, Faure, & many other anarchists. Kicked out of Spain, then Panama, & in 1911, already sufficiently known in Colombia & imprisoned, the conservative periodical "Maquestas" called for the death penalty for Biófilo Panclasta for "disturbing the social order with his revolutionary ideas".

    In 1914 he was imprisoned in Venezuela for seven years.

    In 1923 he was nominated delegate of the Mexican Anarchist Association to the congress of Barcelona.

    In 1924 he participated in labor agitations in São Paulo, Brazil, where he was known as an orator & agitator & sent to the concentration camp of the Oiapoque. He escaped & over the next three years travelled through 52 countries.

    Again imprisoned in Colombia, in 1927, he established in the following year, in Bogota, the Center of Union & Revolutionary Action. His main book, Mis Prisiones, mis Destierros y mi Vida, was published in 1929.

    In 1934 Panclasta began living with Julia Ruiz, a singular woman, former-nun, conductor of tram & quiromante with witch fame, who also advocated libertarian socialism.

    In the following years, Biófilo kept an incessant activity publishing articles in periodicals & open letters. He was not distinguished as an organizer, but for the originalidade of his presenceas an iconoclastic agitator for all Latin America & the irretrievable condition of inqualificável anarchist, said to have lived as "soldado, adventurer, artist & knight, beggar & boêmio; but without horse nor money... "

    In 1992, the collective Columbian libertarian "Sections of Xué" published Biofilo Panclasta el Eterno Prisionero. (Bogotá, 1992), 358p.

    http://www.otite.hpg.ig.com.br/cultura/filosofos/panclasta.html
    http://www.chinacota.com/BIOFILO%20PANCLASTA/BIOFILO.html


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    1886 -- [October 26] Justin Olive (1886-1962), French militant anarchist & revolutionary syndicalist.

    Secrétaire de l'Union des syndicats unitaires de l'Aude, il est, en mars 1922, à l'intiative d'une grève d'ouvriers agricoles. L'année suivante, il militera à la Fédération de l'Agriculture de la C.G.T.U. A partir de 1928, et jusqu'à 1937, il milite à la C.G.T- S.R (Syndicaliste Révolutionnaire), créée par Pierre Besnard.

    Outre sa collaboration à la presse libertaire, il fera partie de l'association des "Amis de Han Ryner", puis de ceux de Sébastien Faure et rejoindra après-guerre le groupe "Louise Michel" de la "Fédération Anarchiste". Il est mort à Paris, le 14 janvier 1962.

    http://www.ephemanar.net/octobre4.html#olive


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    1998 -- [October 26] Dick Higgins (1938-1998) dies in Quebec City, Canada.

    Born in Cambridge, England, March 15, 1938, Higgins studied at Columbia University, New York (where he received a bachelors degree in English, 1960), the Manhattan School of Printing, New York, & the New School of Social Research, 1958-59, with John Cage & Henry Cowell. He attended Cage's composition class, where he met George Brecht, Allan Kaprow, Al Hansen & other future Fluxus artists. In 1958 Hansen & Higgins formed the New York Audio Visual Group, which was one of the groups to develop the concept of Happenings. The following year Higgins in association with Richard Maxfield, another of Cage's students, presented Stacked Deck, one of the earliest multi-media performances. Higgins also helped Kaprow put together his first New York happening 18 Happenings in 6 Parts that same year. Moreover, he also participated in the series of performances at George Maciunas' AG Gallery in 1961. Higgins also published the Something Else Newsletter, 1966-73 & operated the Something Else Gallery, 1966-69, which in 1966 showed the first exhibit of concrete poetry in the United States.

    John Cage's philosophy of integrating art & life influenced Higgins' own artistic & theoretical ideas. Higgins' important concept of "intermedia, " stated in 1965, is a direct outgrowth of Cage's ideas. Higgins identified Happenings and contemporary experiments in theatre & the visual arts as arts that "fall between media."

    Unpublished Editions was a hybrid between the traditional small press & an artists' cooperative. Its members included Higgins, Knowles, Cage, Philip Corner, Geoffrey Hendricks, Jackson Mac Low, Pauline Oliveros, & later, Jerome Rothenberg. It was renamed Printed Editions in 1978 & discontinued in 1985.

    When Higgins' financial problems became acute again in 1980, he moved from his large house in Vermont, with its indoor swimming pool, & bought & renovated a church in Barrytown, New York. Among his neighbors was George Quasha, publisher of Station Hill Press, who published, among others, Robert Kelly & Jackson Mac Low.

    http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/special_collections/higgins_m4.html


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    1659 -- [October 27] Two Quakers are executed in the Massachusetts Bay Colony for their religious beliefs.

    The two had violated a law passed by the Massachusetts General Court the year before, banning Quakers from the colony "under the pain of death." The Religious Society of Friends, whose members are commonly known as Quakers, was a Christian movement founded by George Fox in England during the early 1650s.

    Quakers opposed central church authority, preferring to seek spiritual insight & consensus through egalitarian Quaker meetings. They also advocated sexual equality, & were some of the most outspoken opponents of slavery in early America. Hanged from an elm tree on Boston Common, the first Quakers executed in America.


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    1857 -- France: François-Louis Duprat lives. Militant & anarchist propagandist.

    anarchist diamond dingbat; new entry secondary material, remove 2009Originally a tailor who later became wine merchant, in June 1882 Duprat formed the anarchist group "l'Aiguille" (The Needle) with Vilhelm & Conchot, who, like he, were also members of an anarchist tailors union (comprised of 10 members).

    From 1884 to 1885, he worked for the newspaper anarchist "Terre et liberté" (Land & Freedom)", which was forced to shut down after the police ransacked the paper & its manager, Antoine Rieffel, was arrested & sent to prison for two years on March 12, 1885.

    In 1888-89, Duprat collaborated with the anarchist paper "Ca Ira." In 1890, his wine shop, at 11, rue Ramey in Paris, began to serve as both a meeting place & a warehouse for propaganda materials.

    In 1894, under the infamous "lois scélérates" (popularly known as the villainous, or rogue, laws) Duprat was one of those charged in the "Procès des trente" (Trial of the Thirty, a repressive show trial), but managed to escape. He was tried in absentia & sentenced to 20 years hard labor.



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    1919 -- [October 27] US: Emma Goldman appears before immigration authorities at Ellis Island to appeal her deportation order from the land of the free. She & Alexander Berkman have just recently been freed from prison. Emma Goldman, anarchist feminist

    Dinner in honor of Goldman & Berkman is sponsored by the Ferrer School & a committee of supporters at the Hotel Brevoort in New York City. Margaret Scully, who holds a job as Emma's secretary for a week, acts as a spy for the Lusk Committee, submitting her first report detailing events at the Hotel Brevoort celebration, eg, a good time was had by all!)



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    ?
    2001 -- [October 27] Liberto Sarrau

    Liberto Sarrau was born on 15 June 1920 in Fraga in the province of Huesca. His father was executed in Barcelona His father, Antonio Sarrau (1893-1939), was a miner but moved with his family to Barcelona following a serious accident at work. There he joined the labour movement as a member of the anarcho-syndicalist CNT.

    Liberto Sarrau whose regular column "Retractos al minuto" (up to the minute portraits) gave a sort of tongue in cheek biographies of swollen headed libertarian militants or ones who had slipped down what Sébastien Faure called the "slippery slope." Along with Amador Franco, Liberto Sarrau made up the youngest duo of writers whose work appeared in "Ruta", whose columns featured the finest pens of anarchist thinking during the 30s.

    Sarrau appears in the film Living Utopia ("Vivir la utopia") by Juan Gamero:

    "Liberto SARRAU evokes the injustice that led to the condemnation of Francisco Ferrer who was innocent of the crimes that were attributed to him. He praises the schools & the quality of teaching inspired by Ferrer. Sarrau then provides a logical explanation of the reasons for burning down some churches, which occurred only with priests who joined the police & soldiers shooting — from bell towers (as one can see in Ken Loach’s film, Tierra y Libertad) — anyone they could aim at, including women & children, instead of shooting armed enemies.

    http://www.iisg.nl/collections/sarrau/
    http://raforum.info/article.php3?id_article=84?=en
    http://struggle.ws/spain/ruta.html



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    1863 -- [October 28] Scotland: Black Rain again at Slains.

    The Rev.James Rust (sic) states a black rain fell at Slains, Jan 14, 1862 & another on May 20, 1862 & still another today.

    According to La Science Pour Tous "between October, 1863, & January, 1866, four more black rains fell at Slains, Scotland. The writer of this supplementary account tells us, with a better, or more unscrupulous, orthodoxy than Mr.Rust's, that of the eight black rains, five coincided with eruptions of Vesuvius & three with eruptions of Etna." However, this association of the volcanic activity with the black rains of Slain seems a little ludicrous when one considers the situation as "...four discharges from one far-distant volcano, passing over a great part of Europe, precipitating nowhere else, discharging precisely over one small northern parish & three other discharges from another far-distant volcano, showing the same precise preference, if not marksmanship, for one small parish in Scotland."

    http://mywebpages.comcast.net/jholmes20/substory3.htm
    http://www.sacred-texts.com/fort/damned/damn03.htm


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    1913 -- France: Madeleine Vernet dies. Anarchist, radical educator. Earns her a street named for her in Paris.

    "La coopérative libertaire du Cinéma du Peuple" founded in Paris, thanks to the constant efforts of Guérard, Cauvin, Chevalier & Bidamant.

    Une note de la préfecture de police est aussitôt rédigée le 18 aout: « À la fin du congrès anarchiste-communiste, on a annoncé la formation d’un comité dont le but est de monter un cinématographe destiné à faire de la propagande anarchiste. »

    Sources & background:

    See "1913-1914 : La coopérative libertaire du Cinéma du Peuple." by Isabelle Marinone
    http://raforum.info/article.php3?id_article=2434&lang=en
    http://www.federation-anarchiste.org/ml/article.php3?id_article=2825

    Sources, see: http://www.ephemanar.net/octobre2.html#8
    [Sources]

    http://www.ephemanar.net/octobre4.html#28


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    1889 -- [October 29] Katsu Goto is lynched in Hawaii

    Katsu Goto Memorial in Honoka'a recognizes Katsu Goto, a Japanese immigrant. After serving his 3 plantation contract he became a successful storekeeper & lender to his fellow countrymen. He also spoke English & his advice was sought on labor disputes. His intervention on behalf of the other Japanese identifies him as the first 'union man'.

    His success made him feared by the plantation management & other storekeepers. His meddling fueled the town's resentment & he was lynched.


    Honokaa has no attractions, per se, but you might want to check out the Katsu Goto Memorial, next to the library at the Hilo end of town. Katsu Goto, one of the first indentured Japanese immigrants, arrived in Honokaa in the late 1800s to work on the sugar plantations. He learned English, quit the plantation, & aided his fellow immigrants in labor disputes with American planters.

    On Oct. 23, 1889, he was hanged from a lamppost in Honokaa, a victim of local-style justice.

    Today, a memorial recalls Goto's heroic human-rights struggle.

    Source: Frommer's Portable The Big Island of Hawaii, 2nd Edition

    http://www.janet.org/janet_history/niiya_chron.html


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    1901 -- [October 29] Leon Czolgosz, self-proclaimed anarchist, electrocuted for the assassination of McKinley. Emma Goldman was one of the few American anarchist who refused to disown him

    "Many were willing to protest against my arrest, to condemn the third degree & the treatment I had received. But they would have nothing to do with the Buffalo case.

    Czolgosz was not an anarchist, his deed had done the movement an irreparable injury, our American comrades insisted. Most of the Jewish anarchists, even, expressed similar views.

    Yanofsky, editor of the "Freie Arbeiter Stimme", went still further. He kept up a campaign against Czolgosz, also denouncing me as an irresponsible person & declaring that he would never again speak from the same platform with me. The only ones who had not lost their heads were of the Latin groups, the Italian, Spanish, & French anarchists. Their publications had reprinted my article on Czolgosz that had appeared in "Free Society".

    They wrote sympathetically of Leon, interpreting his act as a direct result of the increasing imperialism & reaction in this country. The Latin comrades were anxious to help with anything I might suggest, & it was a great comfort to know that at least some an anarchists had preserved their judgment & courage in the madhouse of fury & cowardice. Unfortunately the foreign groups could not reach the American public."

    http://www.standingstones.com/goldman.html
    http://struggle.ws/ws98/ws55_prop_deed.html


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    1922 -- [ October 29]
    Spain: General Strike throughout the country.


    El 29 de octubre aprovechando la nueva coyuntura, una delegación de obreros de la CNT se presentaron en Gobernación para hablar con Ardanza, el general les recibió y escuchó a la delegación cenetistas que iba encabezada por el abogado Joan Casanovas, la conversación verso sobre la intensión de la CNT de estar dentro de la legalidad. Ardanza se limitó a decirles que él transmitiría el mensaje a Madrid. El gobierno de la nación tardó varios días en contestar, pero evidentemente no podían más que aceptar aquella nueva situación. Source: Barcelona 1917- 1923; Crònica, by Manel Aisa




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    1970 -- [October 29] Wall Street Journal on reasons why union & management agree on the necessity of a strike

    On September 14, 1970, nationwide UAW strike begins. The 67-day strike at General Motors by the United Auto Workers in the Fall of 1970 is a classic example of the anti-employee nature of the conventional strike, perfectly illustrative of the ritualized manipulation of the individual which is repeated so often & which changes absolutely nothing about the nature of work.

    The UAW saw that a walk-out would serve as "an escape valve for the frustrations of workers bitter about what they consider intolerable working conditions," & a long strike would "wear down the expectations of members." The Journal went on to point out that, "among those who do understand the need for strikes to ease intra-union pressures are many company bargainers. They are aware that union leaders may need such strikes to get contracts ratified & get re-elected."

    Or, as William Serrin succinctly put it:

    "A strike, by putting the workers on the street, rolls the steam out of them it reduces their demands & thus brings agreement & ratification; it also solidifies the authority of the union hierarchy."

    See John Zerzan's Organized Labor versus "The Revolt Against Work,
    http://libcom.org/library/organized-labor-versus-revolt-against-work-john-zerzan
    http://www.notbored.org/stampers.html


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    1820 -- [October 30] John William Dawson (1820-1899)
    Canadian geologist who made significant contributions to paleobotany & Canadian geology; he was superintendent of education for Nova Scotia, & professor of geology & principal of McGill University; in 1859 Dawson announced the discovery of what was, at that time, the earliest known land plant, *psilophyton*, found by him in Devonian strata (345,000,000 to 395,000,000 years old); in his 1863 work, "Air Breathers of the Coal Period," he described newly discovered fossil animals, one of which was the first remains of an air-breathing reptile, *Dendrerpeton*; in this work, the author states,

    "The time has come when the Science of the Earth & of Man should take bolder ground than heretofore on the question of the validity of the literary & historical criticism which deals so freely with the earlier books of the Hebrew Scriptures."

    These writings, with some additions & amendments, appeared originally in the "Expositor".
    ... show details



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    1894 -- [October 31] The "Procès des trente" (Trial of the Thirty), which began August 6, comes to a close.

    The "Proces des trente" is a show trial, intended to justify repressive measures ("lois scélérates") against the anarchists & to reassure the public opinion after recent attacks.

    The prosecuting attorney Bulot failed to prove his charges of an alleged criminal conspiracy between the various anarchists, but it did not prevent the court from exacting heavy sentences on them — some receiving 20 years in prison. A few fled the country, others went to prison, but all (except Paul Reclus) had their sentences dropped after an amnesty.

    Among those who felt the blow of the dourts & police were militants, theorists, writers & publishers, artists, etc, including Charles Chatel, Sébastien Faure, Félix Fénéon, Jean Grave, Louis Armand Matha, Maximilien Luce, Émile Pouget, Paul Reclus, Alexander Cohen, Constant Martin, Louis Duprat, etc.

    alt; "Proces des trente" "Lawsuit of the Thirty", Trial of the 30, "lois scelerates"

    Louis Duprat & Émile Pouget, were condemned today, in absentia, to 20 years of forced labor. When they return to France after the amnesty, they all (except Paul Reclus) are free.


    The "Trial of the Thirty" ("Procès des trente") began in August. The authorities & cops, hoping to put an end to "propaganda by the deed" & other anarchist opposition, enacted the "lois scélérates", allowing them to intensify repression against the anarchist movement.

    Many arrests follow, of militants such as Charles Chatel, Sébastien Faure, Félix Fénéon, Jean Grave, Louis Armand Matha, Maximilien Luce, Émile Pouget, Paul Reclus, etc. They have to answer the charge of affiliation to an alleged association of "malfaiteurs". (see August 12.)

    alt; Sebastien Faure, Felix Feneon; "Proces des trente" "Lawsuit of the Thirty", Trial of the 30, "lois scelerates"



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