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    Our Daily Bleed...

The Daily Bleed Detail Reference Page for the month of September

The following entries on this page provide details, subtext or background relating to dated entries cited in the Daily Bleed Calendar, linked from there to the date(s) cited here.

The Daily Bleed Calendar in full, & access to the pages for this month, are accessible at

1873 -- [September 1] Switzerland: The Bakuninists at Work

... sure that their Congress at Saint-Imier (Switzerland ... congress, held in Geneva from September 1 to 6, 1873, of representatives of the anarchist & reformist ...)


1872 September The congress at Saint-Imier, Switzerland, marked the beginning of the Anti-Authoritarian International (AIT), following the split in the First International at The Hague. Among the delegates in attendance were Michael Bakunin, Carlo Cafiero, & Errico Malatesta.

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Ginebra, de dia 1 al 7 té lloc el 2on. Congrés de la fracció Bakuninista de l'AIT. Representant la FRE (Federació Regional Espanyola de l'AIT) hi assisteixen José García Viñas, Rafael Farga Pellicer, Carlos Alerini, José Marquet i Paul Brousse.

[Source: Congressos Obrers]

IFA - IAF - AI is rooted back to the 1st International's (i.e. the International Workingmen's Association) conference at Saint-Imier, in The Swiss Confederation, 15-16.09.1872. At this conference it was decided an anarchist resolution denouncing all forms of political power, i.e. political/administrative & economically broadly defined. Also a solidarity & fellowship pact was decided upon by the delegates. The anarchist international had meetings several times during the years passing by.

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1912 -- [September 1] Eugene Debs’ campaign stop, Everett, Washington.

The national Socialist Party sought to educate its membership through the circulation of propaganda materials for members to study individually & within their individual locals. This study curriculum included a lyceum program in which socialist speakers were sent out across the country from local to local to educate, raise consciousness & raise money. The national party did it & so did the Commonwealth, which sent speakers selling subscriptions off across the state.

Among the many lyceum speakers who passed through Everett & were promoted in the "Commonwealth" were "Miss Emma Goldman, the talented & world renowned exponent of anarchy [who] will debate with Prof. Maynard Shipley, of international reputation in scientific & sociological fields."

This was the same Maynard Shipley who took over as "Commonwealth" editor that very week & stayed in Everett until April 1916. The largest turnout was probably for Eugene Debs’ campaign stop on Sept 1, 1912. The "Commonwealth" printed the entire speech, which was meant as much to educate on socialism, as it was to rally votes for an election.

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1917 -- [September 1] Germany: The first issue of the brick-red, brick-shaped anarchist journal Der Ziegelbrenner (The Brickburner) is published by Ret Marut (aka the novelist B. Traven):

"The ennoblement of humankind, the creation of true culture, begins with the elimination & the utter annihilation of the press. In this, every application of violence, every act of sabotage & destruction is justified ... man's cultural needs dictate that he destroy bedbugs, newspapers, & similar vermin, violently if necessary ... Every revolution which does not accomplish this act at the very outset fails to achieve its goal".

Source: 'Calendar Riots'

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1920 -- [September 1] Italy: Between the 1st & 4th of September metal workers occupy factories throughout the Italian peninsula...

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1921 -- [September 1] US: The Battle of Blair Mountain

The Battle of Blair Mountain: Coal company thugs dropped bombs on the miners from planes. It took the combined efforts of the US Army & coal company goons to quell the uprising.

"One of the things that the miners were fighting for was they didn't want to die anymore. They didn't want to get hurt anymore," he said. "It was as much a fight for freedom & economic & social justice as it was anything else."

The Battle of Blair Mountain starts more or less today; Beloved & Respected Comrade Leader Harding sends in Federal troops to bust the strike; Coal company thugs drop bombs on the miners from planes on the 2nd of September. It takes the combined efforts of the US Army & the coal company thugs to quell the labor uprising.

The murders of Sid Hatfield & Ed Chambers, on August 1, set off this battle. Hatfield & Chambers were executed on the Welch County court house steps in front of their wives by the Baldwin-Feltz death squad agency for their role in the Matewan labor battle, where two Feltz family thugs were killed by Hatfield & his deputies

In the Battle of Blair Mountain, up to 20,000 pissed coal miners marched on anti-union stronghold Logan County to overthrow Sheriff Dan Chaffin, the coal company tyrant who murdered miners with impunity

[Details, click here]

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1999 -- [September 1]

The October issue of the Working Stiff Journal (no longer publishing & no longer online in 2006) reports that on September 1, 1999, a fire destroyed the Sunday House Foods turkey processing plant in Fredericksburg. Sunday House Foods announced on December 9 that the plant will not be rebuilt.

Consequently, 235 union workers are now unemployed.

... show details

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1899 -- [September 2] US: Paterson's La Questione sociale ends its first series (127 numbers, July 15, 1895 through Sept 2, 1899)

The Italian-American anarchists in Paterson, New Jersey — which the mainstream press called ‘anarchy’s capital’ — indeed had a massive presence, reflected by La Questione Sociale, a massive weekly with a print run of 15,000 copies.

The first series ends with a declaration, signed G. Ciancabilla, Barile & Guabello who, disagreeing on the question of organization (three against 80), voluntarily left the paper & began to publish L'Aurora (Sept. 16) at West Hoboken, while Errico Malatesta temporarily edited a new series of the Questione sociale. Malatesta's connection with the paper lasted only a few months, but the paper continued for many years, at least through 1908.

Giuseppe Ciancabilla's Aurora, at West Hoboken & Yohoghany, Pa., continued until Dec. 14, 1901; local persecution drove him to San Francisco, where La Protesta Umana (Feb. 1902) was his last paper; he died Sept. 16, 1904, & the paper, apparently, last appeared October 1 (III, 23). Meanwhile L[uigi]. Galleani's Cronaca Sovversiva had risen in the East (June 6, 1903, at Barre, Vt.)

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Photo: Errico Malatesta a Paterson (USA) nel 1900, courtesy A-Rivista magazine

1897 -- [September 3] US: Emma Goldman tours, September through December. September 3-8, she lectures in Providence, R.I.; speaks at two open-air meetings — attended by thousands — when the mayor warns Goldman that she will be arrested if she speaks in the open-air again.

Despite the prohibition, Emma Goldman continues to lecture in Providence; addresses the assassination of the Spanish premier. She gets busted on the 7th & threatened with jail unless she leaves town, in the "Land of the Free".

Goldman's tour takes her to 18 cities in eastern & midwestern states to promote anarchism & Alexander Berkman's release from prison — topics include "Why I am an Anarchist-Communist," "Woman," "Marriage," & "Berkman's Unjust Sentence."

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1909 -- [September 3] US: Mayor of Burlington, Vt., prevents Emma Goldman from speaking anywhere in his city. Emma Goldman, anarchist feminist

Accompanied by Ben Reitman, Emma is attempting to exercise her supposed free speech rights in a short lecture tour of Massachusetts, Vermont, & Rhode Island.

While in Worcester, Goldman attends lecture by Sigmund Freud at Clark University. She has serious problems in most the cities she visits this fall, as Officer Friendlies, officials & courts — all zealous patriots jealously guarding our free speech rights — are, surprisingly, not friendly. At least one judge rules she has no constitutional rights to free speech.

"Free thought, necessarily involving freedom of speech & press, I may tersely define thus: no opinion a law — no opinion a crime."Alexander Berkman

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1911 -- [September 3] US: Disasters at Metal & Non-Metal Mines & Quarries in the United States during this period, the list sounds like a casualty report from the battlefront of a distant war.

For example: On April 21, 1893, nine miners were killed in a fire in the Silver Bow #2 mine. On May 12, 1905, seven miners are killed by an explosion in the Cora Mine. On September 3, 1911, six miners are killed in a cage accident in the Butte Superior mine. On April 13, 1913, five miners are killed in another cage accident, this one in the Leonard mine. On October 19, 1915, 16 miners are killed when dynamite exploded at the surface of the Granite Mountain mine. On February 14, 1916, 21 miners are killed in a fire in the Pennsylvania mine. Smaller, less dramatic accidents claimed about one miner a week & mortuary records are filled with accidental deaths, 65 in 1916 alone. & on June 8, 1917 the Granite Mountain / Speculator Mine Fire kills 168 men in the worst disaster in American metal mining history, near Butte, Montana.

[Return to Sept 3 Daily Bleed]

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1919 -- [September 3] US: The Socialist Party of America...

Dissolved amid widespread governmental attacks & the formation of the Communist International, the party peaked in 1912 with more than 100,000 members organized into some 5,000 locals.

That year, 897,000 people — 6 percent of the presidential vote — cast their ballots for labor leader Eugene V. Debs.

Socialist Party publications included 323 English & foreign-language periodicals.

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1962 -- [September 3] CNT Congress of August/September, is ratified by FAI (Federacion Anarquista Iberica), approves a secret section DI (Interior Defense) to organize & coordinate actions of the Spanish Resistance.

[I don't have exact dates or place — ed.]

Some however, like Laureano Cerrada & Francisco Gomez, think this an effort to bring resistance under control rather than extend their activities. Some break away, others enthusiastically co-operate. In December, the anarchist youth group Federación Ibérica de Juventudes Libertarias (FIJL) form the Iberian Liberation Council (CIL).

Vicente Marti (1926-2006) was a member of the FIJL) & involved in the DI, responsible for getting weapons from France into Spain to aid guerrilla actions against the fascist government.

"Je me rappelle bien quand ils ont brûlé l'argent, à Alcira. C'était tout au début de la révolution: les anarchistes, et peut-être bien les socialistes de l'UGT aussi, ont éventré la banque, pris tous les registres, tous les documents. Ils les jetaient par les fenêtres et en faisaient un feu sur la place, en dessous. Et voilà que l'argent aussi, les billets de banque ont volé par les fenêtres, se sont enflammés!"

Background, see Anarchist Organisation: The History of the F.A.I. (introduction by Abe Bluestein)
Source: [Albert Meltzer]

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1882 -- [September 4] US: First use of electric lighting

Also on this day, in 1848, Lewis Latimer lives, Chelsea, Mass. African American & onetime draftsman & preparer of patents for Alexander Graham Bell.

Joins the U.S. Electric Company, where he patented a carbon filament for the incandescent lamp. At his death, he was eulogized as a member of the "Edison Pioneers," a group of men & women advancing electrical light usage in the U.S.

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1886 -- [September 4] US: Legendary Apache Geronimo surrenders

Chiricahua Apache Chief Goyathlay, known to whites as Geronimo, surrenders to Arizona Territory forces for the last time.

Beloved & Respected Comrade Leader President Grover Cleveland, believing lurid newspaper tales of Geronimo's evil deeds, recommends his hanging. Geronimo & surviving warriors are shipped to Fort Marion, Florida, to join other Apache internees. He finds most of his friends dying in the warm, humid land — so unlike the high, dry country of the Southwest.

Over 100 die of consumption. The government sends their children to an Indian school at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, where over 50 die. Geronimo dies in 1909, a prisoner of war. The Chiricahuas were marked for extinction because they fought too hard for freedom.

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1903 -- [September 4] US: Cripple Creek, Colorado

The Cripple Creek mine operators imported non-union labor from outside the mining area which was countered by the union forming armed camps to barricade the roads & railroads leading into the fields.

Peabody dispatched the militia. Nearly 1,000 men were sent into Teller County. In 1904 the mine operators moved in & took over the press of the Victor Record, which was a newspaper friendly to the union. They also rounded up strikers & either confined them in infamous "bullpens" or took them under guard to the Kansas border & abandoned them. Dozens were arrested without warrants & held without formal charges.

General Sherman Bell of the Colorado National Guard shouted,

"Habeus Corpus, hell! We'll give 'em post mortems."

With the support of the militia, the mine owners regain control over the Cripple Creek mines. By midsummer, 1904, the strike was broken although it was never officially terminated by the Western Federation of Miners. The owners reopened their mines with non-union labor & the union never again assumed its prominence in Cripple Creek.

By 1905, organized business had won an important victory against Colorado's union mine workers.

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1908 -- [September 4] Richard Wright, novelist & short-story writer

Wright grew up in poverty. His grandparents had been slaves & his father left when he was five. Worked at various jobs until he got on the Federal Writer's Project. In 1932 he joined the Communist Party & was executive secretary of the local John Reed Club of leftist writers & authors in Chicago. Moved to NY, editor at the "Daily Worker" & vice president of the League for American Writers.

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1920 -- [September 4] US: Miners assemble on Lens Creek in West Virginia in response to rumors women & children are being killed in Logan County by the anti-union mine owners & deputy sheriffs who are on their payroll.

"They trudged on over the hills & by the roads. Many of them carried guns; 5,000 miners had gathered by nightfall. There were no leaders..."

The Governor wired the UMW president, who rushed to Lens Creek, where he was told he was useless & to go home. When a committee sent to Logan County reported all was quiet, the miners disbanded & went home.

This was just a prelude of the near civil war in the coal fields of southern West Virginia following WWI, where union organizers were forbidden even to enter the counties, whose local governments were under virtual complete control by the mine operators.

Miners joining the union were fired & evicted from their homes; deputy sheriffs on company payrolls ran organizers out of town & arrested & beat up local union sympathizers.

See Jeremy Brecher, Strike!, pp135-36

Online resources & background to the West Virginia mine wars, [West Virginia Labor]

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1933 -- [September 4] Cuba: Coup against the provisional government.

1930-33 was one of the most confused & bloody periods of Cuban history, & the Federacion de Grupos Anarquistas de Cuba (FGAC; Federation of Cuban Anarchist Groups) were fully involved.

Machado's tyranny fell on August 12th, 1933, brought down by a general strike fermented & maintained by anarchist elements of the Transport Union, first & then by the Streetcar Worker's Union & finally by the masses of people.

But the anarquistas fared poorly....

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See Frank Fernandez, Cuba: The Anarchists & Liberty:

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Timeline icon
1952 -- [September 4] France
anarchist diamond dingbat Benjamin Péret's "The Factory Committee: Motor of the Social Revolution" first published, in the French anarchist paper Le Libertaire on September 4, 1952. The first English translation appeared in Radical America (vol. IV, no. 6, August 1970).

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1869 -- [September 5] Switzerland: Basel Congress of the International opens

"On September 5, 1869, the Association's annual Congress opened at Basle, & Bakunin figured conspicuously in the proceedings. He & his followers represented the Communist system, whilst the Marxian majority was Collectivist. A bitter conflict soon began between Bakunin & Marx's representative, Outine. By fifty-four votes to four (sixteen delegates abstaining) the Congress declared itself in favour of abolishing all property rights in land, but not in buildings or in industrial capital. Further, a motion of Bakunin's party for the abolition of inheritances was defeated.

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1877 -- [September 5] Crazy Horse is murdered by the US Army

Further details/ context, click here[Details / context]

"I will return to you in stone."

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1877b -- [September 5] Verviers (Bèlgica), from the 5 to the 8 5è. Congrés of fracció Bakuninista of l'AIT. Representant the FRE (Federació Regional Espanyola de l'AIT) hi assisteixen Trinidad Soriano & Tomàs González Morago.

5th Congress of the Bakuninist [anarchist] section of the International Workingman's Association (IWA, the first Communist International); see also September 9 regards the Universal Socialist Congress (convened in Ghent, Belgium, intent on reunifying the various fractions within the AIT). Under the name of Lévachof, Peter Kropotkin attended this ninth & last international Congress of the Bakouninist section of the First international (September 6-8, 1877).

An anarchist group from Egypt was represented at the September 1877 Congress. [An "Egyptian Federation" was represented at the 1881 International Social Revolutionary Congress by well-known Errico Malatesta, this time including "bodies from Constantinople & Alexandria."]

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1972 -- [September 5] Juan Puig Elias (1898-1972), Spanish teacher & militant anarcho-syndicalist

Founder of "l'Escola Natura" based on the ideas of Francisco Ferrer. A C.N.T. activist, involved with C.E.N.U. (Council of the New School Unified) during the Spanish Revolution.

Following Franco's victory, Juan Puig fled to France where he was interned in concentration camps, then fought against the Nazis with the Resistance. In 1946, he joined the C.N.T. E (in Exile) & was named secretary for culture & propaganda. Moved to Oporto Alegre, Brazil Brasilin 1952, where he participated in a Spanish mutual aid group to help those suffering under the Franco repression.

Among those who attended "l'Escola Natura" was Liberto Sarrau Royes.

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1997 -- [September 5] Cuba: Dissident Hector Palacio Ruiz sentenced to 18 months in prison on a charge of "disrespect for authority" for having criticized Cuban President Fidel Castro in a German television interview broadcast last December

Palacio, head of the dissident group Democratic Solidarity Party (PDS), in his interview with Germany's ARD television network, strongly criticized Castro's rule, called for reforms, & at one point called Castro "crazy." A small group of supporters cheered Palacio as he left the courtroom.

Since the 16th of July, four other Cuban dissidents have been imprisoned without trial: Martha Beatriz Roque Cabello, Felix Antonio Bonne Carcasses, Rene de Jesus Gomez Manzano & Vladimiro Roca Antunez.

The four are authors of a document called "The Fatherland belongs to everyone," criticizing the program of the 1997 Congress of the Cuban Communist Party.

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1869 -- [September 6] US: Avondale Mine disaster


At 10 am, one of the worst disasters in the history of US anthracite mining occurred at the Avondale Mine. A fire, originating from a furnace at the bottom of a 237 foot shaft roared up the shaft killing 110 miners, 80% of whom were Welsh.

The disaster also killed two boys, ages 10 & 14, who began working just today.

On September 9, 1869, the last body was removed from the mine.

Industry records that close to 15 fatalities per million tons of coal occur. This fact, in conjunction with the Avondale mine disaster bring about the nation's first "stringent" mine safety laws.

Stringent? By 1900 the total fatality count in anthracite mines tops 13,000 men, women & children; by 1987 31,088 deaths are recorded.

Disaster (noun):

An event that has occurred at a mine which involve five or more fatalities. 119 mine disasters have occurred.

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1900 -- [September 6] French-American writer Julien Green...

He wrote only one book in English, Memories of Happy Days (1942), but his work in French elevates him to the Académie Française, an elite group of only 40 preeminent stylists of the language, on a level with Paul Valéry, Marcel Proust, & André Gide.

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1901 -- [September 6] US: Beloved & Respected Comrade Leader President William McKinley shot by professed anarchist Leon Czolgosz who previously had been repudiated by numerous anarchist groups.

Despite extraordinary precautions taken by the Secret Service to prevent an assassination attempt, he succeeds in fatally shooting Beloved & Respected Comrade Leader McKinley at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York.

Police claim that Czolgosz was inspired by one of Emma Goldman's lectures.

Emma recalls first meeting Czolgosz at her May 5 lecture on "The Modern Phase of Anarchy" before the Franklin Liberal Club in Cleveland. She is arrested in Chicago in a few days, initially denied bail, & subjected to intense interrogation before the case against her is dropped.

Emma Goldman is one of Czolgosz' few defenders (including other anarchists) during the intense anti-anarchist hysteria whipped up by the press.

REAL HISTORY: Micah X was formed from the ashes of "Plow Barrel" & "I Shot McKinley". Both Micah & Eric wanted to spread the straight edge word without using the tired old genre of hardcore. Both wanted to play true unadulterated blazing fast metal.
Unfortunately, Eric couldn't play guitar fast enough. So now just Micah is playing true unadulterated blazing fast metal.

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1920 -- [September 6] Russia: Àngel Pestaña leaves, profoundly disillusioned by all that he had observed...

Pestaña, the Spanish spokesman, set forth the libertarian conception of the social revolution & exclaimed:

"The revolution is not, & cannot be, the work of a party. The most a party can do is to foment a coup d'etat. But a coup d'etat is not a revolution."

He concluded: "You tell us that the revolution cannot take place without a communist party & that without the conquest of political power emancipation is not possible, & that without dictatorship one cannot destroy the bourgeoisie: all these assertions are absolutely gratuitous."

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1939 -- [September 6] Arthur Rackham, British illustrator, dies.

Lewis Carrol's Alice & Wonderland & Wagner's Ring Cycle have both been published with the illustrations of Arthur Rackham. & Aesop, Hans Christian Andersen, Robert Browning, Charles Dickens, Kenneth Grahame, Jacob Grimm, Henrik Ibsen, Washington Irving, Rudyard Kipling, Thomas Mallory, Clement Moore, Edgar Allan Poe, & Izaak Walton.

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1960 -- [September 6]

Proclamation of the 121

121 writers, academics & artists make public the following text (in Truth-Freedom, No 4, September-October 1960; this number was seized & its staff accused of provoking soldiers to disobedience). The signatories face severe sanctions....

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1872 -- [September 7]


Marx was unable to control the International, & determined by any underhanded method to destroy the International rather than allow majority control or it's independence.

There was the strongest inclination on the part of all these young revolutionists, many of whom had seen fighting & conspirations before, to throw all formalities overboard, to do without the General Council of London, to declare themselves Internationalists of their own right & to go to real work.

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1873 -- [September 8]
Switzerland: Geneva tea lloc 6è Congrés of fracció Marxist of l'AIT, from the 8 to the 13th.        This follows upon the conclusion of the Congrés of fracció Bakuninista of l'AIT, held from 1st to the 7th.

Source: [Congressos Obrers]

"The publication & circulation of these resolutions were delayed by the arrests; finally the Belgian Federal Council proposed to invite the Jurassian Federation to convene the general congress — hence the Geneva Congress held in September, 1873.

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1878 -- [September 8] France: Charles d'Avray (1878-1960), poet & songster.

En 1950 dans Histoire du Mouvement Anarchiste en France, Jean Maitron, grand historien du mouvement ouvrier français, écrivait:

Charles d'Avray se rallia à l'Anarchisme au moment de l'Affaire Dreyfus et décida de se servir de la chanson "afin de mieux faire connaître l'Idéal anarchiste". Après deux années de tâtonnements, il estime que la conférence agrémentée de chansons est la meilleure forme de propagande. Il se met au travail et en un an compose 80 chansons, paroles et musique. Les affiches qui annoncent son passage portent en exergue : "Avec le passé détruisont le présent pour devancer l'avenir". Chacune de ces "conférences chantées" comporte d'ailleurs trois type de chansons:

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1901 -- [September 8] Francisco Ferrer, opens the Escuela Moderna in Barcelona, Spain.

Inspired by Paul Robin's libertarian Cempuis school in France. Robin inspired important anarchist & libertarian educators such as Ferrer & Sébastien Faure.

Ferrer, 24 years old when he met Robin, dreamed of creating a similar school in Spain. Having been left a million francs by a benefactor, he was able to realize his dream, opening his Modern School in Barcelona on September 8th, 1901.

By 1905 there were 50 similar schools in Spain. On Good Friday of that year, Ferrer led 1700 children in a demonstration for free education. Within weeks the government acted & forcibly closed all the schools.

During the "Tragic Week" of 1909 he was seized & was executed by firing squad. But his death did nothing to diminish the force of his ideas. Modern Schools were founded in Britain, France, Belgium, Holland, Italy, Germany, Switzerland, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, China, Japan &, on the greatest scale, in the USA.

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1901 -- [September 8] William McKinley on his death bed ... some press reactions:

Wichita, Kan., September 8.-Anarchists, at both Chicopee & Frontenac, small towns 100 miles east of here, held jubilation meetings, to-day & gave thanks over the attempted assassination of the President. The meeting at Chicopee was held in a coal mine beneath the ground & could not be broken up by officers.

The fact that these people get under the ground to rejoice shows that they are not quite easy in their minds.

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Guthrie, 0. T., September 19.-Because George Bradshaw, a carpenter, declared he would not march under an American flag, an Oklahoma City mob of 500 formed this morning & started to lynch him. They were prevented only by the local militia. Excitement is still high & the mob is hunting for Bradshaw, who is concealed. If found he will be lynched.

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1909 -- [September 8] US: Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) win the strike at the Pressed Steel Car Plant in McKees Rock, Pennsylvania anarcho-syndicalist

This year management introduced the new system, which determined a worker's pay according to the output of a group. The company paid a group's entire pay to the foreman, who doled it out as he saw fit.

After a few months under the system, 40 riveters told the company they would not work unless they were given individual rates. Workers in other departments followed suit & soon brought the plant to a standstill. Police surrounded the factory & attacked the pickets. A July battle prompted the Wobblies to take charge.

The final showdown took place August 23rd, when a group of strikers boarded a streetcar to look for scabs. A deputy sheriff shot at them & died in the return fire. The ensuing battle left 11 people dead.

The strikers held solid & kept public opinion on their side.

Today management capitulates, agreeing to improve shop conditions, hike wages by 15 percent, & drop a "pool system."

Tremors from today's victory shakes other steel towns, leading to more IWW gains.

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1926 -- [September 8] Germany admitted to the League of Nations.

"Hitler was Catholic & so were many of his inner circle; Berlin is a Protestant city. Hitler was an Austrian commoner; Berlin was the stomping ground of Prussian aristocracy. Goebbels came here in 1926 to rally Nazi support & described Berlin as a "monster city of stone & asphalt."

Berlin consistently voted against the Nazis (Vassiltchikov notes educated Berliners huddled in bomb shelters complaining about the "women of Germany who voted Hitler into power"). Although the regionalism of Germany is difficult for Americans to fully appreciate, try to imagine NY's Ed Koch somehow getting elected Governor of Texas. Texans turn up their noses at first but are elated when Koch rolls over Oklahoma, Louisiana, New Mexico & Kansas. However, as their relatives serving in the Texas Army are cut down by tenacious Minnesotans & their houses are leveled by bombers from California, the honeymoon comes to an end."

— Philip Greenspun

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1976 -- [September 8] England: 1976 Hull Prisoners Revolt. For four days in September 1976 [I can't find exact dates — ed.] prisoners take over 3 of the 4 wings of Hull prison.

As well as Paul Hill, participants in the riot include Irish Republicans (such as Martin Brady), Jake Prescott (in prison for his activities with the Angry Brigade) & various ‘ordinary criminals’: in struggles such as these it becomes clear that all prisoners are political.

The immediate cause of the riot was the beating up by screws of a prisoner in the segregation unit. Other grievances included the widespread & indiscriminate use of ‘Rule 43’ (allowing for solitary confinement), & slave labor conditions in the prison workshops, where furniture was made for prisons in Iran. The latter explains why, during the riot, prisoners on the roof shouted

"Fuck the Shah of Iran! Fuck the Shah of Iran!"

Source: "Hull 1976 Prisoners Revolt – Paul Hill’s story" in The Red Menace, number five, January 1990

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1877 -- [September 9]
Belgium: Universal Socialist Congress convenes in Ghent, from the 9th-15th.   

The 5th Congress of the anarchist Bakuninist section of the International Workingman's Association (IWA), having concluded yesterday, this Congress convenes today, intent on reunifying the various fractions within the AIT (organitzat per partits polítics i associacions obreres). Representing the Federació Regional Espanyola de l'AIT (FRE), as in Verviers, are Trinidad Soriano & González Morago.

[Source: Congressos Obrers]

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1920 -- [September 10] Italy (CGdL - General Confederation of Labour) holds a conciliation meeting: despite the anarchists of CGdL, the Unione Sindacale Italiana (USI), a split from the reformist CGdL, is not invited. The USI previously proposed an inter-union meeting on the 7th, but the CGdL was clearly dragging it's feet despite the presence of Garino as mediator. Background on the USI:

In August & September (more isolated ones previously broke out in March & April) 1920, there were large-scale stay-in strikes in Italy in response to an owner wage cut & lockout. These strikes began in the engineering factories & soon spread to railways, road transport, & other industries, with peasants seizing land. The strikers, however, did more than just occupy their workplaces, they placed them under workers' self-management. Soon 500,000 "strikers" were at work, producing for themselves. Errico Malatesta, who took part in these events, writes:

"workers thought that the moment was ripe to take possession once [and] for all the means of production. They armed for self-defence. . . & began to organise production on their own. . . . It was the right of property abolished in fact. . . it was a new regime, a new form of social life that was being ushered in. And the government stood by because it felt impotent to offer opposition." [Life & Ideas, page 134]

... show details

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Timeline icon
1911 --

  • BERTHIER, Pierre-Valentin.
    (1911-??) French activist, author, journalist, biographer.
    (Dictionnaire international des militants anarchistes)

    1926 -- [September 11] Italy: A rocky day in Beloved & Respected Comrade Leader Mussolini's life. In Rome, the anarchist Gino Lucetti tosses a bomb at Mussolini's car, but it deflected from the windshield, wounding eight passersby.

    "Bullets pass, Mussolini stays", Mussolini announces afterwards.

    The famous Italian anarchist-communist Errico Malatesta was briefed about the plan & gave it his endorsement.

    Lucetti (1900-1943) got 30 years in prison in the failed attempt on the fascist 'Il Duce'. Two of his captured accomplices, Leandro Sorio & Stefano Vatteroni, were sentenced to 20 years & 19 years 9 months respectively. Vatteroni served the first three years of his time in complete isolation & the only company allowed him was that of a sparrow which visited his cell.

    Lucetti was lodged in the Santo Stefano prison where he spent nearly 17 years before being moved to Ischia where he died on 15 September 1943.

    Two anarchist antifascist partisan formations active in the Carrara area took the names ‘G. Lucetti’ (60-80 persons), ‘Lucetti bis’ (58 strong). (Yet another, ‘M. Schirru’ (454 strong – was named after Michael Schirru, another anarchist & would-be assassin of 'Il Duce'.)

    Another attack, by Anteo Zamboni, is made against Mussolini on October 31, but also fails, & the fascists now turn Italy into a police state. Anarchists are followed, & police stations telephone & telegraph their whereabouts to one another.

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    2001 --

    "...[T]he question of Terror is always capitalized, & returns us to the politics of 1793. Terror as a political instrument, in other words, is the property of the state (maybe the founding property of the state in its ‘modern’ manifestation), or of those thinking like a state. Its purest exponents are the Churchills of the world.

    ‘I do not understand this squeamishness about the use of gas...I am strongly in favour of using poisoned gas against uncivilized tribes [to] spread a lively terror.’

    — Winston Churchill in 1920, as Secretary of State at the War Office, justifying his authorization of RAF Middle East Command to use chemical weapons ‘against recalcitrant Arabs’, quoted in Geoff Simons, Iraq: From Sumer to Saddam, New York 1994, p. xiv.

    Cited in AFFLICTED POWERS: The State, the Spectacle & September 11

    When the Kurdish population had refused to pay taxes on time, Chemical Winston did not order the Tax inspector to go in, but the RAF with mustard gas. This he contended was "an experiment" against "recalcitrant Arabs" & he outright dismissed any objections as "unreasonable". Chemical Winston didn’t mince his words either, "I do not understand this squeamishness about the use of gas. I am strongly in favour of using poisoned gas against uncivilised tribes (to) spread a lively terror." He went on, "We cannot acquiesce in the non-utilisation of any available weapons to procure a speedy termination of the disorder which prevails on the frontier", adding that chemical weapons are merely "the application of Western science to modern warfare".


    Winston Churchill, Secretary of State, British War Office, 1919, authorising use of chemical weapons against Iraqis... in the first of 6 invasions of Iraq by agents of Anglo Iranian Oil (British Petroleum) in the last 100 years. Author: Winston Churchill
    what Churchill recommended here was tear gas. (Churchill Papers 16/16, 12 May 1919).

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    1902 -- [September 12] US: "Black Friday" — the "Yacolt Burn"

    Vancouver, Portland, Tacoma, & Olympia were covered in smoke. St. Helens was dark at noon.

    Trains attempted to keep going even though tracks were burning. Ships had to use searchlights. People had to carry lanterns & visibility was nonexistent. Everett was cut off. Ships halted on the Columbia bar. Towns & villages were destroyed, & homesteads were leveled. Some of the reported damage was a dam on the Hoquiam River, villages & towns, including 60 lost homes near Oregon City, cattle & livestock roasted alive, & an unknown number of wildlife killed.

    Other fires burned that day but the worst was in Southwest Washington, north of the Columbia River & east of Woodland. The fires raged in Clark County throughout the summer & fall.

    According to a newspaper account in the area, the land of Lewis River was a "hot & silent valley of death." In the Yacolt area, two families were trapped, killing five adults, six children, & one baby. Another woman & her three children were killed while trying to hide in the fruit cellar. Thirty-five lives were lost, as well as 239,000 acres valued at $12,000,000,000. The only damage to the town of Yacolt itself was house paint blistered by the heat.

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    1847 -- [September 13] Mexico: The Irish of the Battalion of San Patricio that fought next to the Mexicans against the US invaders are executed.

    Hundreds of Irish & other immigrants deserted Taylor's army & joined forces with Mexico.

    Led by Captain John Riley of County Galway, they called themselves the St. Patrick's Battalion — in Spanish, the San Patricios.

    They fought bravely in most of the campaigns of the two-year conflict, but their efforts failed to stem the yankee onslaught. Soon the US Army occupied the halls of Montezuma, & Mexico eventually surrendered, ceding nearly half its territory to the United States.

    Toward the end of the conflict, at the Battle of Churubsco, 83 San Patricios were captured, & 72 were court martialed. Of this number, 50 were sentenced to be hanged & 16 were flogged & branded on their cheeks with the letter "D" for deserter.

    To this day, many US historians regard these men as traitors, but Mexicans see them as heroes, honoring them every Sept. 12 with a special commenoration.

    In 1993, the Irish began their own ceremony to honor them in Clifden, Galway, Riley's hometown.

    San Patricio meets Zapata on the way to the cantina & over a tequila they discuss how best to be rid of snakes.

    Two books on Mexico:

    Hi David,

    A couple of books on Mexico that relate to (or update) your site. One is "The Irish Soldiers of Mexico" which provides more specific information than the Galleano quote. The second is "Mexican Mornings" which relates the true story of the UNAM shitdown in Mexico City (2000), more about the Chiapas Uprising, & the effect of globalization on Mexico. Both books, by the way, have been praised by our mutual friend Noam Chomsky. Thanks for checking them out.

    — Bleedster Mike, (Dr. Michael F. Hogan), 2001

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    kronstadt vs leftwing logo
    2003 -- [September 14] Revolutionary Soccer Tournament Cup Bay Area 2003

    Anarchist & communist warriors duke it out, creating their own spectacle!

    ... show details

    "Agitate! Agitate! Score a goal & smash the state!"

    It's not how you play the game, it's who wins!!

    ... show more gory details

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    1872 -- [September 15] Saint-Imier Congress, September 15-16 1872

    The antiauthoritarians refuse to recognise the decisions ram-rodded through by the Marxists & authoritarian socialists at The Hague Congress (Sept 2-7). The federations of the Latin countries seceded & held a congress at St. Imier, in the Jura, where they adopted a federal & free pact between all the federations. All forms of political power, i.e. political/administrative & economically broadly defined, are denounced. Also a solidarity & fellowship pact is decided upon by the delegates.

    The anarchist international had meetings several times during the following years. The anarchist section of the International continued until 1878, by which time the increasing reaction in the Latin Countries made it difficult for open mass movements to continue.

    The Marxist rump, split by dissensions in its new home in America, had already expired in 1874, killed by its leader’s megalomaniac desire for complete domination of the working class movement.

    ... show details

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    1925 -- [September 15] Anzia Yezierska

    Anzia Yezierska (ca.1885-1970; exact date of her death unknown) was born in a mud hut in the village of Plinsk to Jewish parents living in poverty near the border between Russia & Poland. At 15 she emigrated with her family to New York City, where she worked in a sweatshop while she studied English at night school. She had a romantic relationship with a philosopher John Dewey. One book was made into the 1922 silent film "Hungry Hearts".

    In the 1930's, after refusing a lucrative screen contract because of the distance from home block her writing, Yezierska worked for the Works Progress Administration's Writers Project in Manhattan. In the last decades of her life, she documented the plight of Puerto Rican immigrants in New York. She died in obscurity in 1970.

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    1927 -- [September 15] Herman Gorter

    "When Gorter became a Socialist he issued a book of poems, which no longer had nature for the theme, but class struggle. As he says in one of his poems, he "had found something much greater than Nature."

    He next worked at a great poem 500 pages, called Pan. He spent nine years, from 1907 to 1916, writing it. This work traces the history of the labor movement. In it, he sees the factory as a wonderful thing, the condensation of the spirit of mankind, the growth of generations, the parent of revolution & Commonweal.

    In the unpublished works of Gorter, there is one poem, "Der Aredarraad" (The Soviet Committee). Gorter pictures the shop committee the centre of revolution, bringing Communism into being. He wrote this poem with all his love for his class, the workers. But the ruling class of today, the world of bogus culture, can never understand how a great poem can centre around the theme of a Soviet Committee."

    — From an article written for The Commune by the Dutch anti-parliamentarian, H. Canne Meijer. Abridged & adapted, from Pioneers of Anti-Parliamentarism, by the anarchist Guy Aldred.

    Herman Gorter was a son of a famous Dutch litterateur. He was born on November 26, 1864. He was keen student of the classics & became a teacher of Greek & Latin at the gymnasium. He astonished the literary World with his poem May. It is a poem devoted to the worship of nature...

    With his friend, Anton Pannekoek, another much neglected famous Dutch marxist, Gorter opposed Lenin & the Bolshevik Party's capitulation to capitalism.

    Gorter, a delegate of the K.A.P.D. to the 3rd International in 1921, along with other leftists, was expelled from the First International.

    Gorter sharply replied to Lenin in Open Letter to Comrade Lenin, showing Lenin's tactic would destroy the Revolution of October 1917, collapse the world struggle towards socialism & arrest world revolution. Leninism would prolong the struggle & increase the cost in suffering & hardship to the workers.

    Gorter developed the tactics of anti-Parliamentarism, against the capitalist methods of Lenin, the retreat to worldwide parliamentarians & trade unionism, dictatorship OVER the proletariat, & the gradual reduction & elimination of the Communist Party in every land to "legal" parties.

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    1938 -- [September 15] Spain: Anarquistas express to Emma Goldman their strong opposition to the policies of the CNT's National Committee & its conciliation of the Negrin government. They are especially critical of Vázquez, who now acknowledges the destructive actions of the Communists but still wants them treated gently. ?

    Emma Goldman complains to him, for example, that all the money raised in other countries for antifascist women goes to Communist organizations & none to the anarchist organization Mujeres Libres. The FAI by contrast is anxious to begin a campaign abroad exposing the activities of the Communists in Spain.

    Emma is shocked by the number of anarchists & other leftists held in prison, among them Jeannette Kiffel, a Polish anarchist & acquaintance of hers, who has been held incommunicado three months but is released after Vázquez & Goldman appeal to Segundo Blanco, CNT minister of education in the Negrín government.

    Emma visits the metal, transport, & milk syndicates; schools modeled on libertarian principles; & the SIA colonies for refugee children. Notes that many collectives have been destroyed & witnesses the continuing bombardment of Barcelona from the air & the chronic shortage of food & electricity.

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    1938 -- [September 15] France: "Immediate Peace!" manifesto — drafted & signed by Nicolas Faucier & Louis Lecoin — published in "Le Libertaire." Arrested the morning of October 8, 1939 ("inciting servicemen to disobedience for the purposes of anarchist propaganda"), Faucier ended up in prison during the war, only avoiding deportation to the Nazi camps with a timely escape.

    Arrested at his home & taken to the Quai des Orfèvres in Paris & thence, after a short interrogation by the deputy governor, to the Sante prison from where he was moved a month later to the naval prison in Lorient, & thence to the one in Cherche-Midi & finally to the army camp in Avord (Cher) for incorporation into the ranks.

    Again he refused & again he was jailed & on 14 March 1940 he was brought under escort before the appeal court in Paris to have his appeal heard against a December 1938 criminal court judgment that had sentenced him in his absence to six months in prison for the crime of "inciting servicemen to disobedience for the purposes of anarchist propaganda", in connection with the declaration that he & Lecoin had signed & which was published in Le Libertaire of 15 September 1938.

    Source for dates & text from "Antimilitarist Biography: Nicolas Faucier," Bulletin of the Kate Sharpley Library Issue No. 34 (April 2003),

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    1904 -- [September 16] Giuseppe Ciancabilla

    Ciancabilla was one of the important figures of the anarchist movement who immigrated to the US in the late 1800s, along with Saverio Merlino, Pietro Gori (see Chronology by Bertolucci), Errico Malatesta, Carlo Tresca, & Luigi Galleani.

    According to historian Paul Avrich, Ciancabilla was one of the most impressive (now one of the least well-known) of the anarchist speakers & writers.

    Giuseppe Ciancabilla was born in Rome & moved to America in 1898 & settled in Paterson, New Jersey, a major stronghold of Italian anarchism. He became the editor of "La Questione Sociale" (The Social Question), a paper which Pietro Gori helped establish in 1895, & one of the leading organs of Italian anarchism in the US.

    Ciancabilla eventually moved westward, settling among the Italian miners of Spring Valley, Illinois. After the assassination of President McKinley in 1901, the anarchist groups were raided by the police, & Ciancabilla was driven from pillar to post, arrested, manhandled, & evicted.

    Driven out of Spring Valley, driven in turn out of Chicago, Ciancabilla wound up in San Francisco, editing the journal La Protesta Umana when he suddenly took ill & died in 1904 at the age of 32, one of the most intelligent & capable of the Italian anarchists in America.

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    1915 -- [September 16] Emma Goldman speaks to rally support for David Caplan & Matthew Schmidt prior to the opening of their trials. EG, anarchist feminist

    During the course of Schmidt's trial, it is revealed that Donald Vose, the son of an anarchist friend of Goldman's, had been employed since May 1914 by detective William J. Burns to spy on Goldman in order to locate Schmidt.

    Vose resided at Goldman's apartment & at her farm in Ossining the previous year, & witnessed Schmidt visiting Goldman. Schmidt was later arrested.

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    1920 -- [September 16] Bomb explosion outside the J.P. Morgan Company on NY's Wall Street

    In revenge for the prosecution of Sacco & Vanzetti, Mario Buda (aka Mike Boda), anarchist & Galleanist (practitioners of "propaganda by the deed"), detonates a horse-&-buggy bomb at the corner of Wall & Broad streets in Manhattan.

    ... show details

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    1923 -- [September 16] Japan: Anarchist Osugi Sakae, his companion Ito Noe, & a six-year-old, are murdered by military police on orders of Hirohito.

    Anarchism in Japan was dealt a blow as hard as the execution of Kôtoku & his comrades twelve years earlier. Ôsugi was the most talented thinker & writer in the anarchists' ranks. His passionate commitment to personal liberation & ardent enthusiasm for the aims & methods of anarchist syndicalism provided inspiration for many.

    ... show details

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    1933 -- [September 16] Paul Robeson

    "Paul Robeson is arguably the greatest Renaissance person in American history. An exceptional scholar, lawyer, athlete, stage & screen actor, singer, & civil rights & political activist, he performed brilliantly in every professional enterprise he undertook. Few human beings have ever achieved his levels of excellence in even one field, much less several. Yet despite his extraordinary accomplishments, he remains virtually unknown by millions of educated Americans."

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    2002 -- [September 16] US: University of California censors strike again, shut down student web sites they have been trying to ban for years. While few students are on campus, & in the police-state atmosphere following 911, come armed the academic terrorists with their web-shredders, & shut down the pages sponsored at the Burn! site, because of an informational link to a group on the official US FTO list.

    Anarchist History pages pointer

    Today UCSD administration notifies the Ché Café Collective they are allegedly "in violation of UCSD policies & Federal law by maintaining the web site & using UCSD computer network resources to provide access to a terrorist organization."

    Gary Ratcliff (sic!), director of the University Centers at UCSD, wrote that the Ché Café & were providing material support in the form of communication equipment, personnel & facilities to a Foreign Terrorist Organization by maintaining "links supporting the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia (FARC), an organization listed by the US Department of State as a Designated Foreign Terrorist Organization (FTO)."

    Among the sites shut down was one dedicated to artist Josep Renau, & the pages of Anarchy Now!. some pages were salvaged & reappeared on the anarchist site & elsewhere.

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    1895 -- [September 17] France: Militant anarchiste Kléber Nadaud lives (1895-1943), Cognac (Poitou-Charentes).

    Son of a blacksmith & a seamstress. Active in Paris, he was arrested with other companions (Henri Delecourt, Petelot Marcel, Gabriel Lattes Jean Laporte & Albert Doucet) in May 1920 & sentenced to four months in prison for "advocating murder" in protesting Émile Cottin's death sentence.(Cottin attempted to assassinate Beloved & Respected Comrade Leader Clemenceau, & protests resulted in his sentence being reduced to 10-years) & "provoking military disobedience" for pasting posters ("Aux grévistes"; The Strikers) supporting striking railway workers.

    Delegate to the founding convention of "l'Union Anarchiste" in Paris on 14 & 15 November 1920. Assumed, from December 1920 to January 1922, editorial responsibility for "Libertaire" which earned him three sentences of 13 months in prison each. Acquitted of one charge on appeal, the other two sentences are combined into one, & he does a year at "La Santé" prison in Paris.

    In 1924, he co-founded with Charles Anderson, Lucien Haussard & Julien Content the newspaper L'Idée Anarchiste as a forum for all the differing anarchist tendencies. (It only lasts for 13 numbers.)

    With the split up of the "l'Union Anarchiste" & formation of the "Anarchist Revolutionary Communist Union (UACR) in November 1927, Nadaud became sub-editor of Libertaire &, with Peter Mualdès, was also head of the Federation of Oise.

    In 1929, he was secretary of the "Committee to Aid Nestor Makhno", collecting funds for Makhno, the Ukrainian guerrilla then in exile in France.

    In 1934, he aided Fernand Planche in founding the newspaper La Conquête du pain, open to all tendencies of anarchism.

    A proofreader, he became a member Syndicat des Correcteurs (CGT) in 1928 & participated in it's Trade Union Committee from 1933 to 1937 & from February to June 1940.

    Kléber Nadaud died August 9, 1943 in Lyon.
    Source: [ L'Ephéméride Anarchiste ] & Anarcoefemèrides

    1921 -- [September 17] Russia: Ten anarchists released & deported: Voline, Vorobiov, Mark Mratchny, Michailov, Gregori Maximoff, Ioudine, Iartchouk, Gorelik, Feldman & Fedorov.

    Fanya Baron & the poet Lev Chernyi are detained, to be executed. Her execution was personally ordered by Lenin himself.

    ... show details

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    1943 -- France: Anarchiste Gino Lucette dies.
    Source: [ L'Ephéméride Anarchiste ]

    1885 -- [September 18] Paul Roussenq, the "anarchist convict".

    Roussenq became an anarchist as a youth with his reading of libertarian newspapers & Elisee Reclus.

    His years in prison began at age16, when arrested & sentenced to 3-months in jail for vagrancy. On March 5, 1903, he threw a crouton at the prosecutor, & this dastardly terrorist act got him sent the disciplinary battalions of Biribi in Africa for 5 years.

    Here he was tossed into prison for insulting his "superiors," & on May 5, 1908, a military tribunal condemned Roussenq to 20 years of forced labor at Cayenne. Here he was involved in a prison uprising, & this earned him another 3,779 days in the dungeon.

    ... show details

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    1895 -- [September 18] Booker T. Washington speech at the Cotton States & International Exposition

    Known as the "Atlanta Compromise" speech, Washington advocates acceptance of a subordinate role for African-Americans, espouses peaceful coexistence with white Southerners, & deems agitation for social equality "the extremist folly." The speech reportedly leaves some African-American listeners in tears & incurs the wrath of W.E.B. Du Bois & others, but secures his reputation among whites as a successor to Frederick Douglass.

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    1900 -- [September 18] France: The International Anti-Parliamentary Congress prohibited in France

    US anarchists, selecting American-born delegates for the Paris Congress settle on Emma Goldman, among others, although she is an immigrant.

    Emma was asked by several, including Lizzie & William Holmes, Abe Isaak, & Susan Patton, to present papers at the Congress.

    ... show details

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    1931 -- [September 18] Japan occupies Manchuria.

    Ishii & Japanese military seize the opportunity to move the center for bacteriological research at the Army's Medical College established in 1930 to northern Manchuria for expansion with a view to making the Soviet Union the hypothetic enemy.

    A special advantage for this move is that the Kuantung Army can kill Chinese at will & provide an unlimited supply of human experiment materials. With Chinese lives at no cost, Japan is poised to lead the world in biological warfare.

    Chiang Kai-shek’s government decides to address League of Nations at Geneva, but not to resist militarily.

    Sources: K.S. Karol & Vanessa Collection

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    1936 -- [September 18] Spain: Generals Francisco Franco & Emilio Mola announce what they hoped would be the triumphant culmination of the fascist military insurrection they head.

    The two planned to capture Madrid on October 12, 1936. When this date came & went without the predicted invasion, a handful of confident madrileños celebrated by placing a fully set table & chairs on the Gran Vía, the main avenue in Madrid, with a placecard reading "Reserved for General Mola." Failing their October goal, Franco's forces quickly began organizing a new offensive for November 7.

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    1945 -- [September 18] Voline, Russian revolutionary & anarchist historian

    In 1907 a Tsarist tribunal banished Voline, & he escaped to France & the US.

    Voline became associated with various libertarians, among them Sébastien Faure, the eloquent orator of the French anarchists. He also had connections with the small circle of Russian Anarchists in Paris, with A. A. Kareline & his group, & other organizations of Russian exiles.

    Moving to NY, Voline joined the Union of Russian Workers in the US & Canada, a formidable organization with about 10,000 members which entertained ideas similar to those of the Confederation Generale du Travail (General Confederation of Labour) in France. Thus he found a rich field for his activities, serving on the editorial staff of Golos Truda ( The Voice of Labour), the weekly paper of the Federation, & was one of its most gifted lecturers.

    ... show details

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    1968 -- [September 18] Troops invade Mexico City National University.

    Mexican federal troops occupy National University in Mexico City, taking 3,000 prisoners, including professors & parents.

    Two months ago, Mexican students organized a huge commemoration of Fidel Castro's July 26th Movement & the Cuban revolution. Police dispersed the demonstration, killing at least 10. The same evening, police broke into & destroyed the Communist Party office. On July 27th, a protest strike extended to all universities & high schools. Demands included constitutional rights, an end to police repression, & a release of political prisoners. The students, in alliance with poor workers, will make a last stand in the suburb of Tlatelolco, which will leave 20 dead & 75 wounded.

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    1830 -- [September 20] US: National Negro Convention, a group of 38 free African-Americans from eight states, meets in Philadelphia, Pa., with the express purpose of abolishing slavery & improving the social status of African-Americans. They elect Richard Allen president & agree to boycott slave-produced goods.

    Bolt out of the blue?: The first so-called Negro Convention of Free Men calls for a boycott of slave-produced goods & encourages free-produce organizations. The most active will be the Colored Females' Free Produce Society, which seeks to overthrow the economic power of slavery one bolt of cotton & teaspoon of sugar at a time.

    Supported by the abolition movement, the boycotts publicize non-slave merchants & provide goods to members. They refute the argument that boycotts ultimately hurt slaves.

    The movement elevates Black women activists such as Frances Harper & Grace Douglass.

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    1882 -- [September 20]
    Switzerland: Jura Federation's annual Congress of 1882

    [I don't have the exact date. — ed.]

       Peter Kropotkin, All Star

    Despite Peter Kropotkin's preoccupation with trade union organization & militant strike action during the early 1880's, he firmly rejected the syndicalist view among many Jurassians, which considered trade unions as the basis of the new society. He was unwavering in his view that 'the Commune' (local urban & agricultural communities) would act as the basic unit in the future libertarian communist society, & disliked the vision of society narrowly based on workers' organizations. To this day, this is one of the main theoretical distinctions between anarcho-communism & anarcho-syndicalism.


    [ See also Sept 9, 1877 above ]

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    1934 -- [September 20] US: Southern employers continue their big counter-offensive break the textile labor strikes & agitation

    Textile labor strikes & agitation have occurred along the Eastern seaboard, which one historian has called "unquestionably the greatest single industrial conflict in the history of American organized labor."

    An army of 10,000 National Guardsmen was mobilized in Georgia & the Carolinas, Alabama, & Mississippi, supplemented by 15,000 armed deputies.

    Earlier efforts to stampede strikers back to work fails miserably, as an AP report a few days ago notes 421,000 on strike — 20,000 more than a week previously.

    But now martial law is declared in Georgia. National Guardsmen start mass arrests & jailings without charges, imprisoning strikers in a former concentration camp for WWI German prisoners. Thirty-four key strike leaders are arrested & held incommunicado, & by yesterday 13 are dead. Union officials state today that only "force & hunger" are causing the few strikers who have gone back to the mills to return to work.

    Source: Jeremy Brecher, Strike! p176

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    1911 -- [September 21] Australia: The Federal Minister for Home Affairs, King O'Malley, issues a directive that "absolute preference" in employment be given to trade unionists.

    King O'Malley, an American bounder & I.W.W. (Industrial Workers of the World) member pretending he was born in Canada (American's couldn't hold parliamentary office in Australia — British subjects could) was Minister for Home Affairs in the Labor government in power 1910 - 1913.

    The conservative opposition immediately attempted to pass a censure motion against the government. The motion was defeated & for the first & last time in Australian history, trade unionists were given "absolute preference" in employment.

    During 1910 to 1913 union membership increased a staggering 44%. To circumvent this directive, employers set up "scab" unions under the Australian Independent Workers Association banner. It aimed to peacefully settle all labor disputes through discussion & demanded an open shop policy for non-unionists. It also organized scabs to work during the 1912 Brisbane General Strike. It had branches in every state & produced a paper called "Square Deal".

    It's fascinating to note its central philosophy that "there is an identity of interest between employer & employee" is the same position promoted in the A.C.T.U.'s & Hawke's precious "Accord" — the single most important factor leading to the decline of the Australian Trade Union Movement at the end of the 20th Century.

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    1913 -- [September 21] US: "Mother" Jones leads a march of miners' children through the streets of Charleston

    Mother Jones attracted the country's attention in 1912-13, during the Paint Creek-Cabin Creek strike in West Virginia; the strike's frequent violence brought the publicity. On February 12, 1913, she was arrested after leading a protest over living conditions for the striking miners.

    At age 83, Mother Jones was convicted by a military court of conspiring to commit murder & was sentenced to 20 years in prison. The event created such a furor that the US Senate formed a committee to look into conditions in the West Virginia coalfields. In 1913, newly elected West Virginia governor Dr. Henry Hatfield freed Mother Jones. As a medical doctor, Hatfield had previously treated Mother Jones for pneumonia.

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    1920 -- [September 21] Chile: "A column of rich scum broke into FECH's headquarters burning books, furniture, & ultimately the whole building." FECH (Federación Estudiantes Universidad de Chile) was a militant student organization involving anarchists, Marxists, democrats which developed strong links with the radical labor movement.

    "We have to teach a lesson to these so-called Chileans, who have sold out to Peru's gold," said one of the authorities.

    Most of the "Traitors to the country" were jailed after being sued in the courts under what the government called the "Subversion Trial."

    One of those jailed — the Law/Spanish student Domingo Gomez Rojas — went mad from torture & was sent to a sanatorium, where he died four months later; he was 23-years-old.

    orange diamond dingbatOverall 1920 was a year of brutal repression for the workers movement — many locals were burnt down, many agitators were murdered, workers were sent to prison etc. & the following year witnessed the almost forgotten San Gregorio Massacre where hundreds of miners were killed mercilessly.


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    1912 -- [September 22] Mexico: The anarcho-syndicalist Casa del Obrero Mundial (COM) is founded (located at Calle 43 de Matamoros número 105) & rapidly becomes the largest union in Mexico City.

    (1912-16) Anarchosyndicalist labor union. Dominated labor in Mexico City; opposed Huerta in 1914, & Villa & Zapata in 1914-1915. After much labor turbulence, crushed by the government.

    "In 1912 the anarcho-syndicalist Casa del Obrero Mundial (House of the World Worker) was formed & rapidly attracted the urban workers of Mexico City to its ranks. Yet, within three years the anarcho-syndicalists were organising Red Battalions to fight in defence of the Mexican state! Although the Casa emerged with a typical anti-politicism & a desire to concentrate on economic struggle several factors led it to give support to one bourgeois faction, the Constitutionalist forces of Venustiano Carranza, against the Agrarians & their P.L.M. allies [Zapata & the Magonistas]...."

    Text from "Syndicalism: a Critical Analysis"; see,

    Date sources, see [Casa Obrero Mundial] &

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    1934 -- [September 22] US: UTW strike Committee order strikers back to work, ending "unquestionably the greatest single industrial conflict in the history of American organized labor."

    Southern employers continue their big counter-offensive to break the textile labor strikes & agitation which have occurred along the Eastern seaboard.

    An army of 10,000 National Guardsmen was mobilized in Georgia & the Carolinas, Alabama, & Mississippi, supplemented by 15,000 armed deputies.

    Earlier efforts to stampede strikers back to work fails miserably, however, as an earlier AP reports 421,000 on strike — an increase of 20,000 strikers in a mere week.

    But now martial law is declared in Georgia. National Guardsmen start mass arrests & jailings without charges, imprisoning strikers in a former concentration camp for WWI German prisoners. Thirty-four key strike leaders are arrested & held incommunicado, & 13 are dead. Union officials state that only "force & hunger" are causing the few strikers who have gone back to the mills to return to work.

    Source: Jeremy Brecher, Strike! p176

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    1881 -- [September 23] Spain: FTRE (Federación de Trabajadores de la Región Española - Spanish Regional Workers’ Federation).

    Launched at a congress held in Barcelona (23-26 September 1881), following the prior winding up of the FRE in February of this year.

    ... show details

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    1895 --

    (Limoges, du 23 au 28 septembre 1895)

    Après plus de dix ans de tâtonnement, le mouvement syndical s'unifie. Réunies à Limoges du 23 au 28 septembre 1895, la Fédération Nationale des Syndicats (FNS) et la Fédération des Bourses du travail de France et des Colonies décident de créer la Confédération Générale du Travail.

    Après un débat désordonné, les congressistes déclarent: «Entre les divers syndicats et groupements professionnels, de syndicats d'ouvriers et d'employés des deux sexes existant en France et aux colonies, il est créé une organisation unitaire et collective qui prend pour titre: Confédération Générale duTravail.» Forte de l'aspirationà l'unité de la base ouvrière,la CGT naissante fédère18 Bourses du Travail, 26 chambres syndicales et 28fédérations syndicales, soit300 000 membres sur les 420 000 syndiqués existant en France à l'époque.

    Un mois après le congrès de Limoges, Fernand Pelloutier publie un article manifeste dans lequel il défend le développement des idées anarchistes dans les syndicats. Cette influence libertaire aidera la jeune CGTà maintenir son indépendance, par rapport à l'État d'abord et par rapport aux partis politique ensuite. Cette indépendance sera codifiée et fortement réaffirmée onze ans plus tard lors du congrès d'Amiens en octobre 1906.

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    1909 --
    Emma Goldman      

    US: Emma Goldman engages in a free-speech battle in Philadelphia for the next month.

    The kindly Police chief will let Emma Goldman speak on condition he review her speech prior to the engagement; the Free Speech Association deems the proposed review an infringement on Goldman's free-speech rights & she refuses to comply.

    Being prevented from entering the lecture hall to exercise her so-called free speech rights, Voltairine de Cleyre reads Emma's lecture to the audience.

    Emma appeals for an injunction to restrain the Philadelphia police from further intimidation & testifies before the court.

    A judge refuses to issue an injunction, claiming police have the right to prevent people from speaking if their words are deemed likely to cause a public disturbance; in addition, he claims she is not a citizen & therefore is not guaranteed constitutional right to free speech.

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    1513 -- [September 25]

    Balboa "discovers" the Pacific Ocean

    Total area: 165.384 million sq km

    Comparative area: about 18 times the size of the U.S.; the largest ocean (followed by the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, & the Arctic Ocean); covers about one-third of the global surface; larger than the total land area of the world.

    Note: Includes Bali Sea, Bellingshausen Sea, Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Coral Sea, East China Sea, Flores Sea, Gulf of Alaska, Gulf of Tonkin, Java Sea, Philippine Sea, Ross Sea, Savu Sea, Sea of Japan, Sea of Okhotsk, South China Sea, Tasman Sea, Timor Sea, & other tributary water bodies

    Two days ago by order of Captain Balboa, dogs sink their teeth into the naked flesh of fifty indians of Panama, disembowelling & devouring the fifty guilty of the abominable sin of sodomy. Balboa's dog gets a sublieutenant's pay & a share of each gold or slave booty...

    Today, with water up to his waist, he raises his sword & yells to the four winds.

    He splashes about dizzy with a joy he won't feel again. The sea opens for him, embraces him, rocks him.

    Balboa would like to drink it dry.

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    1934 -- [September 25] Emma Goldman lectures to a Jewish women's organization in Toronto

    Emma misses Frank Heiner (a blind sociology graduate student at the University of Chicago, whom she became intimate with earlier in the year, & who has impressed her as a promising anarchist leader) after he returns to the US, & hopes that Roger Baldwin will be successful in his efforts in Washington to gain a U.S. visa for her (the US government refuses to allow the old anarchist into the country).

    She works hard writing the lectures for the next month & submits "Was My Life Worth Living?" to Harper's, which is later accepted for publication.

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    1960 -- SI dingbatEngland:

    25 to 28 The Situationist International's fourth conference, in London. Participants: Guy Debord, Jacqueline de Jong, Asger Jorn, Attila Kotànyi, Katja Lindell, Jørgen Nash, Heimrad Prem, Helmut Sturm, Maurice Wyckaert, Hans-Peter Zimmer.

    Creation of the Central Council of the SI, composed of Debord, Jorn, Kotànyi, Nash, Sturm & Wyckaert.
    Transfer of the Bureau of Unitary Urbanism from Amsterdam to Brussels. Director: Kotànyi.
    Adoption of the Declaration on Madness, presented by the German section.

    27 Resolution of the Fourth Conference of the Situationist International Concerning the Imprisonment of Alexander Trocchi, tract denouncing the arrest & detention of the situationist Alexander Trocchi in the United States, for drug use & trafficking.

    28 Declaration in the Name of the Fourth SI Conference to the Institute of Contemporary Arts, read in English by Maurice Wyckaert.

    29 On the day after strict measures are announced by the Gaullist government against the first 121 signatories of the Declaration on the Right to Insubordination in the Algerian War, produced & distributed since Maurice Blanchot & Dionys Mascolo, Guy Debord & Michèle Bernstein co-sign the declaration, which eventually collects 200 signatures.

    Also, during this Autumn Guy Debord joins Socialisme ou Barbarie.

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    1999 -- [September 25] The Friends of the Modern School meet at Rutgers University.

    About 80 or 90 former students of the Modern School, residents of the Ferrer colony, their families, anarchists, & sundry others gather.

    Historian Paul Avrich spoke of Alexander Berkman, giving a graphic description of Berkman's attempt to assassinate Frick. Another speaker, Kevin Van Meter, a young anarchist organizer spoke about his work with the Modern Times Collective (a collective of anarchist-identified groups on Long Island, including Food Not Bombs), the Long Island chapter of the IWW & Students for Peace & Justice.

    Bob Helms of Wooden Shoe Books Collective in Philadelphia spoke of his efforts to liberate Hippolyte Havel's ashes from a storage vault in Linden, New Jersey. He has also done research on Mary Hansen (a teacher at the school) & her partner George Brown.

    Bill Giacalone, a former student, discussed the committee's efforts to preserve Modern School site as a children's park & nature preserve. They designed a park, & met with the Piscataway Borough Council & the Mayor who were enthusiastic about the proposal.

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    1870 -- [September 27] Louise Michel jailed for the first time

    On 14th July 1870, war broke out between France & Germany. Paris was besieged by the Prussian armies. It was during this time that Louise Michel was arrested for the first time. She had, along with Mme Andre Leo, managed to organize a group of volunteers to go to aid Strasbourg in one last stand against the Prussian armies. They were arrested at the Hotel de Ville, which was the building occupied by the acting government. They were arrested as they insisted on receiving arms.

    On 27th September, Louise Michel was released, but Strasbourg had just fallen to the Prussians. Despite this, she remained active & optimistic. She was president of Montmartre Women's Vigilance Committee. Their aim was to provide shelter & food for all who needed it. In December, she was arrested again. She was accused of organizing a demonstration in front of the Hotel de Ville. She replied by saying,

    "I couldn't have organized any demonstration to speak to the government, because I no longer recognized that government".

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    1906 --
    Jim Thompson lives.

    In the 1950s Jim Thompson was blacklisted during the anti-communist witch hunts, but was later summoned to Hollywood by director Stanley Kubrick to co-write screenplays for the films The Killing (1956) & Paths of Glory (1957).

    His first book was published in 1942, but it was his fifth book, The Killer Inside Me which established his reputation. The central character & first-person narrator is a small town sheriff Lou Ford, who pretends to be dim-witted, but is in fact a cunning, complex, even brilliant madman, playing cat & mouse with the world.

    ... show details

    Jim Thompson

    "If Raymond Chandler, Dashiell Hammett & Cornell Woolrich could have joined together in some ungodly union & produced a literary offspring, Jim Thompson would be it."

    — Washington Post

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    1922 -- [September 30] Japan: Founding conference of the All-Japan General Federation of Labor Unions (Zenkoku Rôdô Kumiai Sôrengô) begins in Ôsaka.

    This is the last attempt to form an all-encompassing federation of unions, attended by 106 delegates, representing 59 organizations with a combined membership of over 27,000.

    The unions represented were split three ways between anarchists, reformists & Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks & reformists fought for control of a centralised leadership with powers to enforce decisions, leading to the Federation collapse in 1925.

    Significantly, 20 unions revealed strong preference for anarchist organizational principles, signing in November 1922 the "Announcement to Workers Throughout the Country". Four years later this core was the nucleus for the first nationwide federation of anarchist-inclined unions, the All-Japan Libertarian Federation of Labor Unions (Zenkoku Rôdô Kumiai Jiyû Rengôkai).

    See John Crump, The Anarchist Movement in Japan(Anarchist Communist Editions § ACE Pamphlet No. 8)

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