The Daily Bleed Reference Page: A Radical Calendar, Better Than Boiled Coffee!
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    Our Daily Bleed...


The Daily Bleed Detail Reference Page for the month of August

The Daily Bleed Calendar in full, & access to the pages for this month, are accessible at

1875 --

[August 1] François-Henri Jolivet lives (1875-1955), Paris. French working poet, anarchist & pacifist songster.

Jolivet joined the revolutionary singers, "La Muse Rouge" (at age 17), participated in the worker festival, "Vache Enragée" of Montmartre, the pacifist "La Patrie Humaine", etc.

In the 1920s he frequented the "Musée du Soir" of Henry Poulaille, who wrote the preface to his collection, Chansons Sociales et Satiriques (1956).

Encouraged by Edith Piaf, Jolivet continued appearing in the cabarets of Montmartre until the end of his life, on October 31, 1955.


Un jour souffrant et tout pâle
D'une colique autoritaire,
Je me suis servi de mon livret militaire.
N'allez pas m'accuser ici
De façon trop peu délicate,
Ils usent à peu près ainsi
De leurs traités, les diplomates." (...)

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1907 --

[August 1] Angelo Sbardellotto executed by a fascist firing squad, having admitted to hoping to assassinate Mussolini....

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Angelo Sbardellotto; source
Angelo Sbardellotto (1907-1932), is executed at 5:45 am, June 17, 1932.

Italian anarchist & antifascist, he was executed by a fascist firing squad, having admitted to the Tribunal Spécial (fasciste) his plan to assassinate Mussolini.
  Anarchico bellunese, è condannato a morte e fucilato avendo confessato l'intenzione di uccidere Mussolini.
Viene fucilato anche il genovese Domenico Bovone per alcuni attentati dimostrativi in varie parti d'Italia.
Mussolini in Big Boots; source

[Source: Crimini e Misfatti]

Background materials, in Italian, see,

In French,

In English, see The London Plot to Kill Mussolini, (implicating Emidio Recchioni), plot details suppressed by the British government for over 60 years.

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Frank Little poster
1917 --

[August 1] The murder of Frank Little by Coal Company vigilantes

Years later the writer Dashiell Hammett would recall his days in Butte as an armed mercenary being paid by the Pinkerton detective agency & the mine companies. One night, as he sat in a Butte bar, Hammett said he was approached by a mine company representative who offered him five-thousand dollars to kill Frank Little. Beating Wobblies with clubs was one thing. . .murder was another, & Hammett said he quit on the spot.

But five thousand dollars was a lot of money.
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1919 --

[August 1] Alexander Nakov lives, Kosatcha, Bulgaria. Anarchist militant & Bulgarian esperantist.

Alexander Metodiev Nakov engages in militant actions in 1937 & takes part in the formation of an anarchist group.

In 1941, Nakov & five others were arrested & received prison sentences of 6 to 8 years. Released after 3 years, in 1944 he resumed activity, founding the "Elisee Reclus" group (with Dimitri Vassiliev, Bojan Alexev, Laserman Asenov Minev, Maria Duganova, Kotze Zacharinov & others).

L'Union Anarchiste du sud-ouest bulgare named him to head their organization, but the anarchist movement was outlawed & repressed when the Communists siezed power.

In December 1948, Nakov & over 600 anarchists were arrested & sent to a work & re-education camp. Released on August 10, 1953, & still the recalcitrant anarchist despite his ill-treatment, Nakov immediately resumed his anarchist & esperantist activities, opposing the existing powers, & demonstrating solidarity with his companions despite constant police surveillance.

A small biography published by the review "l'Arc" in 1984 reads like the digest of a rap sheet from the Bulgarian political police.

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1923 -- [ August 1 ]

Spain: Regional Plenary Session of the Catalunya CNT.

llí se propone a Manresa como nueva sede del C.R. de Catalunya quedando dimitido el anterior comité y con los nuevos cargos pendientes de elección, a nombrar en una próxima reunión a celebrar antes de un mes.

Source: Barcelona 1917- 1923; Crònica, by Manel Aisa

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1938 --

[August 1] Hilo Massacre

Aug. 1, 1938 Striking Hilo dock workers faced an Inter-Island Steamship Company vessel run by armed strikebreakers. Picketers were attacked with tear gas, fire hoses, & finally, buck shot & bird shot. At least 50 strikers were wounded. Although the strike was broken, the "Hilo Massacre" helps build labor solidarity in Hawaii.


On August 1st, 1938 over two hundred men & women belonging to several different labor unions attempted to peacefully demonstrate against the arrival of the SS Waialeale in Hilo. They were met by a force of over seventy police officers who tear gassed, hosed & finally fired their riot guns into the crowd, hospitalizing fifty of the demonstrators. This is the story of that bloody confrontation & the events that led up to what has come to be known in the annals of Hawaiian labor history as the Hilo Massacre.

See William J. Puette, THE HILO MASSACRE: Hawaii’s Bloody Monday, August 1st, 1938 (University of Hawaii, Center for Labor Education & Research, 1988).

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1966 -- Timeline icon SI dingbat France:


orange diamond dingbat; new entry, remove 2007

[August 1966]

During this month Anton Hartstein, French section, is excluded shortly after his participation in the 7th SI Conference in Paris in July (5th to 11th). (Exact date not given — ed.) | [Situationist Resources]

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1986 --

[August 1] Jeanne Humbert (1890-1986), French pacifist & anarchist militant who devoted her life to fighting for sexual freedom & birth control rights.

Companion of Eugène Humbert. Jeanne collaborated with Eugene on "Génération consciente", a neo-Malthusianism newspaper which he began publishing in 1908. The movement closely identified with the struggle for women's liberation & sexual freedom. It was repressed by the government for decades & both went to prison & were fined for spreading neo-Malthusian propaganda.

Jeanne wrote a novel & numerous biographies, including one of Eugene's godson, the anarchist filmmaker Jean Vigo, & one of her life with Eugene. She herself is the subject a a film by Bernard Baissat, Ecoutez Jeanne Humbert, (1981).

See Roger-Henri Guerrand & Francis Ronsin, Le Sexe apprivoisé. Jeanne Humbert et la lutte pour le contrôle des naissances, (Paris: Editions de la Découverte, 1990) or the new edition, Jeanne Humbert et la lutte pour le contrôle des naissances., (Paris, Spartacus 2001).

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1893 --

[August 2] Régis Messac lives, (1893-1943?) Champagnac (Charente). Militant & writer, pacifist, anarchist, resistance member.

Régis Messac book covers Seriously wounded in WWI, after the war Messac then worked & taught in various universities in England & in Canada. He returned to France in 1929, teaching at a college in Montpellier, & obtaining his doctorate with a thesis on police literature, Le detective Novel et l'influence de la Pensée Scientifique (1929 & republished many times), the first ever treatment published on the detective novel.

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1913 --

[August 3] Suggestions for further reading relating to the "Wheatland riots" when, on this date, police fire into a crowd of California farmworkers...

See Out of Work: A Study of Unemployment by Frances A. Kellor (NY: G.P. Putnam's, 1915):

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1943 --

[August 3] André Arru, an anarchist organizer in the French underground during WWII, is arrested:

Julia, Chauvet & I were arrested on 3 August. In personnel terms, the damage was none too great, just the three of us. I was on my own when the police came. I was immediately placed in handcuffs. That must have been somewhere between 3 & 6 o'clock in the afternoon. Julia turned up. I immediately showed her the cuffs & told her (in Spanish): "Not a word! Not one! You don't know a thing! Not a thing!" One of the cops barked "Shut up, you!" but he was too late by then. Chauvet arrived later & promptly bumped into the policemen.

They had just found the rubber stamps, handbills, birth certificates & now things were out of their hands.
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1986 --

[August 3] Beryl Markham

There are all kinds of silences & each of them means a different thing. There is the silence that comes with morning in a forest, & this is different from the silence of a sleeping city. There is silence after a rainstorm, & before a rainstorm, & these are not the same. There is the silence of emptiness, the silence of fear, the silence of doubt. There is a certain silence that can emanate from a lifeless object as from a chair lately used, or from a piano with old dust upon its keys, or from anything that has answered to the need of a man, for pleasure or for work. This kind of silence can speak. Its voice may be melancholy, but it is not always so; for the chair may have been left by a laughing child or the last notes of the piano may have been raucous & gay. Whatever the mood or the circumstance, the essence of its quality may linger in the silence that follows. It is a soundless echo.

* * *

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1872 --

[August 4] Italy: National conference in Rimini (August 4-6), A.I.T.

Dal 4 al 6 agosto si riunisce a Rimini la conferenza dei delegati di 21 sezioni internazionaliste, in maggioranza romagnole e marchigiane. La conferenza presieduta da Cafiero costituisce la "Federazione delle sezioni italiane dell'Internazionale".

In settembre, al congresso dell'A.I.L. (Associazione internazionale dei lavoratori) viene deciso di spostare la sede del "Consiglio generale" da Londra a New York. Nel corso dell'anno ci sono stati 64 scioperi.

The conference ends on August 6, having created an Italian Federation within the First International & adopting its constitution, but in opposition to the general council in London (Marxist), & refusing to take part in the Congress of the Hague planned for September 2.

In so doing, the Italian Federation presages the future split of the First International between the authoritarian (Marxists/statist) & antiauthoritarian (anarchist/antistatist) wings. In aligning with the latter, the A.I.T. lays the groundwork which gives rise to a vast organized anarchist movement for many decades to come.

The Conference was presided over by Carlo Cafiero. Delegates, representing 21 cities, include Andrea Costa, Giuseppe Fanelli, Friscia, Errico Malatesta, etc.

In Italian see the detailed page, L’Internazionale di Rimini, 1872, by Antonio Montanari,

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1878 -- [Summer 1878] Spain: Kropotkin visits the country for six weeks during this summer, meeting up with the anarchist José García Viñas in Barcelona. [I''m unable to determine dates or month(s) of this visit — ed.]

During this year Kropotkin spent much of this year working with to strengthen the Jura FederationAccording to the anarchist historian Max Nettlau, Kropotkin derived a new inspiration from his rediscovery of the revolutionary spirit of the old International in Spain, the revolutionary potential of trade unionism, & after his visit began to urge a more clearly defined policy of revolutionary action — both inside & outside the trade unions — on the Jura Federation. .

In turn, of course, Kropotkin exerted much influence in Spain, & his book The Conquest of Bread was well & widely received amongst radical workers.


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2000 --
[August 4] Salvador Clement (1916-2000) dies, Montélimar, Drôme, France. Spanish militant anarcho-syndicalist, born in Canal de Navarrés, Valencia.

Autodidact & revolutionist, Clement was active with the CNT. In Barcelona, during the Spanish Revolution, he was in charge of programming for the Vallespir cinema. The revolution of July 1936 raises an immense hope, broken soon by the war & treasons. Clement takes refuge in France. The authorities contain the thousands of antifascists crossing the Pyrenees in concentration camps. Clement eventually settles in Ardeche as a mine worker & raises a family. He continues his militant activity in France within the CNT & was a subscriber to the newspaper "Cénit" until his death following a lingering illness.

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1910 -- [August 5] Constant Marie, "Le Père Lapurge" (Ste-Houvrince, August 26, 1838 - 1910), French Communard, militant & anarchist songster

A bricklayer's mate & shoemaker, he was wounded at the height of the battle of Vanves in the Paris Commune.

Marie was a composer-songwriter of revolutionary songs, the best-known being "Dame Dynamite", (source of his nickname) & "La Muse Rouge" (source of the name taken in 1901 by a famous group of poets & revolutionary chansonniers which produced songs which are now part of a great French legacy).

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1925 -- [August 5] Georges Palante (1862-1925)

Palante was victim of a rare hormonal & disfiguring disease as a teenager.

He became a professor of philosophy in 1885. Influenced by the work of Schopenhauer, Nietzsche & the anarchist Max Stirner, Georges Palante develops a radical individualist philosophy & "une morale désespérée, mais élégante, de la résistance". Georges Palante; source
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1926 -- [August 5] Per Wahlöö & Maj Sjöwall sought to "use the crime novel as a scalpel cutting open the belly of the ideological pauperized & morally debatable so-called welfare state of the bourgeois type."

The first three novels, Roseanna (1965), The Man Who Went Up in Smoke (1966) & The Man on the Balcony (1967) were straightforward police procedural novels, introducing the central characters: solid, methodical detective Martin Beck with his failing marriage, ex-paratrooper Lennart Kollberg, who hates violence & refuses to carry a gun, Gunvald Larsson, wildman & drop-out from high society, Einar Rönn from the rural north & patrolmen Kristiansson & Kvant, the necessary comic pair.

The Laughing Policeman (1968) & The Fire Engine That Disappeared (1969) introduce in the series social themes & weak points of Swedish society. In Cop Killer (1974) Lennart Killberg resigns because of his socialist world view. The later novels, & especially the last, The Terrorist, is a bitter analysis of the welfare state, & openly sides with criminals-as-revolutionaries.

The Laughing Policeman won the best novel Edgar Award in 1971 from the Mystery Writers of America.

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1982 -- [August 5] Albert Guigui-Theral (1903-1982) dies.
The content previously located is incorported into a page at the Anarchist Encyclopedia at

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1881 -- "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, these three; but the greatest of these is Liberty. Formerly the price of Liberty was eternal vigilance, but now it can be had for fifty cents a year."

So writes Benjamin Ricketson Tucker (1854-1939) on the first page of the first issue of the publication "Liberty", issued August 6, 1881.

Benjamin Tucker, anarchist

Benjamin Tucker, an American individualist anarchist, publisher & bookseller, publishes Liberty for the next 25 years, until 1907. Tucker was influenced by Ezra Heywood, William Greene, Stephen Pearl Andrews, Lysander Spooner, & Josiah Warren, & "Liberty" serves as a voice of individualist anarchism, opposed to the major anarchist communist & anarchist syndicalist wings of the movement (as personified by Michael Bakunin, Peter Kropotkin, Alexander Berkman, etc).

On Warren & early utopians in the US, Kenneth Rexroth has four chapters of interest in his book Communalism (online).

See also,

1859 -- [August 7] Emile Hugonnard (aka Michel) French militant anarchist

Militant & member of fédération révolutionnaire de l'Est until the congress of 1881 (marking the final split between the statist Socialists, Marxists, & antistatist anarchists), & active in the emerging anarchist movement.

Arrested on November 19, 1882 & implicated in the famous "Lawsuit of the 66". On January 19, 1883, in Lyon, Hugonnard was sent to prison for 6 months. He was also a member of the "groupe de la Guillottière" in Lyon.


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1897 -- [August 7] Albert Perrier (1897-1977), aka Germinal, militant French revolutionary syndicalist

Perrier's parents returned to France from Argentina in 1900. Albert, an illiterate, taught himself to read by reading revolutionary journals. He joined the Socialist Party, then the Communist Party in 1921, from which he was booted in 1922. He joined "l'Union Anarchiste", & became secretary of the fédération du Nord-Pas-de-Calais, & here he fought the influence of the Communist Party in his union.

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1900 -- [August 7] The Mexican anarchist periodical "Regeneration"/ "Regeneración" begins publishing

"Regeneration", published by the Flores Magón brothers (Jesus & Ricardo, along with Licenciado Antonio Horcasitas), first appears on August 7, 1900.

Suppressed by authorities, "Regeneration" temporarily suspended publication, eventually resurfacing in the US after Ricardo & Enrique went into exile there (January 3, 1904).
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1921 -- [August 7] West Virginia coal fields

During this year West Virginia miners have been fighting with mine guards, police, hired thugs, & federal troops in a dispute over organizing unions to improve their living conditions, a battle they have been fighting for over the past decade in places like Matewan, Mingo County, Logan County, Blair Mountain & elsewhere, despite the collusion of business & government, their hired goon squads & army troops. Martial law is delcared three separate times, & many labor radicals & militants provided what support they could, including Mother Jones, who visited the area often in support of the striking miners.

Their appeal today is ignored, & martial law is not repealed for over another year, on September 22, 1922.

labor poster

I loaded sixteen tons, I tried to get ahead,
Got deeper & deeper in debt instead.
Well they got what I made, & they wanted some more,
& now I owe my soul at the company store.

CHORUS: I loaded sixteen tons & what do I get
Another day older & deeper in debt.
Saint Peter don't call me cause I can't go
I owe my soul to the company store.

— George Davis, excerpt, Sixteen Tons (1930s),
a song popularized by Merle Travis (ripping it off by claiming to have written in 1946) & Tennessee Ernie Ford

See George Korson, Coal Dust on the Fiddle (Hatboro: 1965)

Music, see

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1963 -- [August 7] Ramón Vila Capdevila (1908-1963) (aka "Caraquemada" [Burnt-face], "Jabalí" (Wild Boar), "Capitán Raymond".)
alt; "Caracremada"; Ramon Rivas

Ramón Vila Capdevila, a militant Spanish guerrilla fighter, an anarcho-syndicalist who fought with the "Iron Column"& the "Column Tierra y Libertad" during the Spanish Revolution.

Active in the French Resistance during WWII & a member of the "Batallón Libertad" (mainly Spanish anarchist guerrillas).

Following the war Vila slipped into Spain & began his famed guerrilla actions against the fascist Franco regime.

Today, age 55, Ramon Vila Capdevila is shot down & purposely left to die following a shootout with the "Guardia Civil" near Balsareny.

"Ramon, who was also from Berguedà, always has scratches on his face. Sometimes they called him caracremada, or "burnt-face." He was a real peasant, a warrior peasant & woodsman. He was robust, but reserved, perhaps a bit distrustful, & above all quiet. & a bit naive too: a mountain man with a dash of simple-mindedness."

The Permanent Revolution: The Memoirs of Joan Ferrer

Further details/ context, click here[Details / context]

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1973 -- [August 7] Emile Bauchet (1899-1973), French militant anarchist & pacifist.

Bauchet deserted from the Army in 1919, eluding military "justice" for 10 years.

In 1927, he began collaborating with Alphonse Barbé on "Le Semeur" & declares himself a conscientious objector. Arrested for his desertion in 1929, & sent to prison, despite the support of Louis Lecoin, Han Ryner & George Pioch during his trial.

Released in April 1930, Bauchet worked with Alphonse's brother, the anarchist Paul Barbé. Active with the "Ligue Internationale des Combattants de la Paix", & he was also secretary of the national office for the fédération du Calvados.

Bauchet was extremely active in the post-war period, working with various organizations & pacifist groups.

[Source: L'Ephéméride Anarchiste]

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1886 -- [August 8] Emile Aubin (aka Marat) French sailor, electrician, anarchist, songster & antimilitarist.

In July 1908, as a sailor aboard the battleship "Vérité", Aubin's belongings were searched, exposing him as the author of revolutionary songs under pseudonym of Marat. He was sent to disciplinary battalion until 1910.

He then joined "Groupe des libérés des bagnes militaires" which published the poster "Galonnés assassins" (Braided assassins). Aubin delivered a speech October 1, 1910, in Lagny, & was sent to prison for 18 months, for "antimilitarism & insults to the Chief of State" (eventually reduced to 6 months).

In 1912, Aubin began publishing "le Cri du soldat" (Cry of the soldier), proclaiming in the first issue,

"Our goal is to sow hatred for the army among the popular masses ..."

In August 1913, he participated the Paris anarchist congress & helped in the drafting of the "Libertarian," but in 1915 he answered his mobilization orders.

In the 1930s he worked in the town hall of Drancy, where he used his solidarity towards the anarchists.

[Source: L'Ephéméride Anarchiste]

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1910 -- [August 8] Janko Polic Kamov, Croatian futurist author

Kamov died not a full year after the publication of the Futurist manifesto in Le Figaro. He was not yet 24. In just three years, he managed to create prose, poetry, drama & essays of great value.

Although not large in volume, his work changed the course of modern Croatian literature, bringing into it new, challenging, anti-conventional, even crude motifs, as yet unknown in Croatian literature, in which he anticipated ideas that the new-born European avant-garde was yet to shape into art movements.

In barely 40 days which he spent in Barcelona before his death, he met a number of intellectuals at the Lion d'Or café in the Teatro Principal, such as the poet Joan Maragall (1860-1911), the painters Nicolau Raurich (1877-1945), Joan Miró (1893-1983) & others. He died after a madly hectic life.

Janko Polic Kamov was one of the most controversial writers of his time & one of the most mysterious of Croatian literature.

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1918 -- [August 8] Michel Zevaco (1860-1918), French novelist, professor, publisher, film director, anticleric, anarchist.

Michel Zevaco founded the anarchist weekly magazine "Gueux" on March 27, 1892. A month later he was jailed for 6 months & fined for praising Pini & Ravachol.

Afterwards Zevaco wrote for Sébastien Faure journal, "Libertaire," as well as for the anarchist newspaper "La Renaissance."

In 1898, he edited "l'Anticlérical" (organ of the Anticlerical League of France), & was involved in supporting Dreyfus

Zevaco's famous cloak & dagger novels Les Pardaillanof, began to be serialized in the daily newspapers in 1900 to great popular success.

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1879 -- [August 10] Paul-Eugène Trouiller (or Troullier), anarchist militant & antimilitarist.

Gardener, day laborer, travelling singer, member of the "Fédération communiste révolutionnaire".

Chat cat
Arrested in Hyère in 1904 & sent to prison on February 19 (1904 or 1905?) in Toulon for 15 months for making threatening gestures at soldiers.

The police deemed him a very dangerous anarchist antimilitarist: in October 1910 during the strike of the railwaymen he recommended violent action, & was suspected of taking part in attacks made at the time. Trouiller, with his extreme views, stood out even at anarchist meetings during 1911. His criminal record by then numbered eight cases, the last being on October 21, 1910, when he was sent to jail for carrying an illegal weapon.

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1937 -- [August 10] The Revolution in Spain reduced to a "civil war".

Finally, when the advance guard of the Revolution in Barcelona had been crushed in May 1937, the coalition government went so far as to liquidate agricultural self-management by military means. On the pretext that it had remained "outside the current of centralization," the Aragon "regional defense council" was dissolved by a decree of August 10, 1937. [Ephéméride anarchiste indicates this occurred on the 11th.]
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1882 -- [August 11] Voline, Russian revolutionary & anarchist historian, lives.

In 1907 Tsarist tribunal banished him...& he escaped to France & the US. In NY, he joined the "Union of Russian Workers in the United States & Canada," a formidable organization with about 10,000 members. He was on the editorial staff of "Golos Truda" (The Voice of Labor), a weekly paper of the Federation, & was one of its most gifted lecturers.

Voline returned to Russia when revolution broke out, doing similar educational writing & distribution, & joined the revolutionary army of Nestor Makhno.

Arrested January 14, 1919, Trotsky had ordered his execution. Voline escaped death only by sheer accident: the Red Trade Union International was meeting in 1921 just as the anarchists in the Taganka prison went on hunger strike, causing a scandal at the Congress, & forcing the Bolsheviks to release them all (on condition they leave Russia — the first political prisoners deported from the vaunted Red Fatherland of the Proletariat).

alt; Nestor Machno; Vsevolod Mikhailovich Eichenbaum

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1921 -- [August 11] Léon Prouvost, "the libertarian Philanthropist"

Anarchist militant, antimilitarist & anticlerical. Businessman who made his fortune & settled in St-Raphaël in 1904 & discovered anarchist ideas.

Published journals (La Revue sociale, L'Idée Libre) & sponsored a mobile library. He also collaborated with Jules Vignes' "La Feuille", in the "Réveil de l'esclave" & with Pierre Chardon's "La Mêlée".

Harrassed on several occasions for antimilitarist propaganda & inciting desertion or disobedience amongst soldiers (in 1915 he was sent to prison for a year), Prouvost was raided on July 27, 1921. A few days later, he put an end to his life after having bequeathed part of his fortune to André Lorulot.

[Source: L'Ephéméride Anarchiste]

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1964 -- [August 11] Stuart Christie & Fernanado Carballo Blanco arrested in Madrid. Christie is suspected of supplying explosives to blow up Franco. On September 2, 1964, Carballo is sent to prison for 30 years & Christie for 20 years.

1967 -- Protests in response to Christie's imprisonment leads to the machine-gunning of US Embassy by the First of May Group, protesting US collaboration with Franco. In the following month Christie (but not Carballo) is unexpectedly released, it being stated Franco was responding to a plea by his mother, surprising hundreds of Spanish mothers who had been severely punished for making just such pleas for their own sons & daughters.

Agustin Garcia Calvo forms Acratas at a Madrid University, influenced by new protest movement amongst students abroad, but anarchist rather than Marxist.

Albert Meltzer & Christie soon re-start the Anarchist Black Cross.

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1894 -- [August 12] The "Procès des trente" (Trial of the Thirty), comes to a close.

This was simply a political show trial, intended to justify repressive measurements ("lois scélérates") against anarchists & to reassure the public opinion after recent attacks.

The prosecuting attorney Bulot failed to prove a criminal conspiracy between the various anarchists charged, as alleged, but this did not prevent the court from exacting heavy sentences on them, some with sentences of 20 years. A few fled the country, others went to prison, but all (except Paul Reclus) were exonerated after an amnesty.

Among those charged were militants, theorists, writers & publishers, artists, etc, including Charles Chatel, Sébastien Faure, Félix Fénéon, Jean Grave, Louis Armand Matha, Maximilien Luce, Émile Pouget, Paul Reclus, Alexander Cohen, Gabriel-Constant, Louis Duprat, etc.

alt; "Proces des trente" "Lawsuit of the Thirty", Trial of the 30, "lois scelerates"

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1871 -- [August 13] Austria: Hippolyte Havel (1871-1950) lives (appears to be some question of exact date), Thabor. A scholarly & notorious anarchist — the original "anarchist dandy" — companion to Emma Goldman, a founder & participant in the first American "Modern School" (based on ideas of the Spanish educator Francisco Ferrer), & adopted the now famous photographer Berenice Abbott.

Havel wrote for Goldman's Mother Earth, & wrote biographies of fellow anarchists such as the walking she-devil, Emma Goldman (he was one of her lovers), Harry Kelly & Voltairine de Cleyre, along with various reviews & booklets.

Havel also edited "Revolt", the "Revolutionary Almanac", & also "Open Vistas", with Joseph Ishill.

Just before WWI he opened, with his anarchist companion Polly, a restaurant in NY City's Bohemian Greenwich Village which was a great meeting place for artists & intellectuals.

  • Proletarian Days

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  • 1917 -- [August 13]

    Spain: General Strike
    throughout the country.

    In Madrid the strike committee is composed of members of the Socialist Party & the UGT: Francisco Largo Caballero, Daniel Anguiano, Julián Besteiros, Angel Saborit. They are eventually taken prisoner.

    In Barcelona the committee is formed by cenetistas (anarchosyndicalist CNT members): Seguí, Pestaña, Minguet, Aragó, Viadiu, Miranda, Barrera, Valero & Herreros.

    Source: Barcelona 1917- 1923; Crònica, by Manel Aisa

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    1890 -- [August 14] Rafael Farga Pellicer (1840[about]-1890). Typographer, advocate of cooperativism & federalism, an anarchist

    He joined the International Alliance of Socialist Democracy" (Bakuninist) & on August 1, 1869, began the newspaper "Federacion." In September, he was a Spanish congressional delegate at the A.I.T. in Basle. He was also delegated by the "Federation of the Area Espagnole"(F.R.E.) to the Congress of the International at the Hague (Netherlands) of September 2, 1872, & rejected the charges formulated by the general council of London (Marxist) against Bakunin & Guillaume &, a little later attends St-Imier (Swiss), for the founding congress of the Anti-authoritarian International.

    In 1881 he participated in founding the new anarcho-collectivist "F.T.R.E." (Federation of the Workers of the Spanish Area) which opposes the insurrectionists like Anselmo Lorenzo. From 1886 to 1888, he publishes the review "Acracia" (he invents the word) & helps found the newspaper "El Productor."

    Rafael Farga Pellicer wrote several works, including Garibaldi, Historia Liberal del Siglo XIX, Biografía de M. Bakounine: sus ideales y tácticas.

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    1901 -- [August 14] Mercedes Comaposada Guillen (1901-1994) Spanish militant, teacher, anarchist

    Daughter of a self-educated socialist shoe-maker, Comaposada became invovled in a cinema production company & joined the C.N.T. Sensitized by the condition of women, she became a teacher, providing private courses to victims of the misery of machismo.

    From her meeting with the poet & painter Lucia Sanchez Saornil came the idea to create a specific women's group within the libertarian movement, & thus, Mujeres Libres (MM.LL) was founded (with the aid, also, of Amparo Poch y Gascon) in April 1936, which also began publishing a review of the same name. This publication was illustrated by Composada's companion, sculptor Baltasar Lobo.

    With the outbreak of revolution, in July 1936, she joined another group of women in Barcelona, working to create a national federation.

    Of fragile health, during the conflict she ardently continued her educational activities, participation in Mujeres Libres, & in writing for the libertarian press.

    Mercedes Comaposada took refuge in Paris with Lobo following defeat of the revolution, where they gained the protection of Pablo Picasso from French authorities hostile to all Spanish refugees. She became his secretary, then took up translations work & was devoted to the artistic work of of Lobo.

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    2001 -- [August 14]

    Tuesday, August 14, 2001 (SF Gate)
    Blacklisted/G8 protesters & performers remain detained in Italy
    by Neva Chonin, special to SF Gate

    "A state must never lose the monopoly on the use of force."
    -- Italian Interior Minister Claudio Scajola

    Does anyone reading this own a black bra? If so, don't wear it on a trip to northern Italy, where possession of women's black undergarments is punishable by beating & imprisonment. & if you are beaten & jailed by Italian polizia for said offense, don't expect the US government to help you.

    ... show details

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    1894 --
    Anarchism Rejects Indiscriminate Violence

    The following portion of text is from An Anarchist "Rabbi" - The Life & Teachings of Rudolf Rocker, by Mina Graur. It deals with the subject of "propaganda by deed," otherwise known as terrorism, though specifically within the context of advancing one's political goals.

    [O]n December 9, [1893, French anarchist] Auguste Valliant hurled a bomb from the gallery into the full Chamber of Deputies. [...]

    ... show details

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    1925 --
    Sources on Canadian Jazz
    • Mark Miller's Jazz In Canada: 14 Lives, Nightwood Editions, 1988 (revised paperback edition). Chapters are on: Trump & Teddy Davidson, Paul & P.J. Perry, Chris Gage, Herbie Spanier, Wray Downes, Larry Dubin, Nelson Symonds, Guy Nadon & Claude Ranger, Sonny Greenwich, Brian Barley & Ron Park.

    • Mark Miller's Boogie, Pete, & the Senator — Canadian Musicians in Jazz: the Eighties, Nightwood Editions, 1987. Shorter takes on some 40 musicians including: Jean Derome, Paul Bley, Kid Bastien, Jim Galloway, Hugh Fraser, Nelson Symonds, Sonny Greenwich, Guy Nadon & Claude Ranger.

    • John Gilmore's Swinging in Paradise: The Story of Jazz In Montreal, Vehicule Press.

    • Jack Litchfield's Canadian jazz discography: 1916-1980, University of Toronto Press, 1982.

    • Gene Lees' Oscar Peterson: The Will To Swing, Lester & Orpen Dennys, 1988.

    • Gene Lees' Jazz Lives contains some Canadians.

    • The Encylopedia of Music In Canada, University of Toronto Press.

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    1902 -- [August 16] Jean Barrue (1902-1989). Professor of mathematics, militant revolutionary anarchosyndicalist

    Active during the 20s & 30s in revolutionary trade unionism, following WWII Barrue joined the "C.N.T. Française" & "Fédération Anarchiste", of which he was a seminal figure in the "Groupe Sébastien Faure" of Bordeaux. Wrote for "Monde Libertaire," the review "La Rue" & the German review "Befreiung."

    In the early 1980s Barrue broke with the "Fédération Anarchiste", joining "l'Union des anarchistes" & their newspaper "Le Libertaire."

    Barrue translated several works from the German, including Bakunin's "La réaction en Allemagne," Arthur Lehning's "Anarchism & Marxism in the Russian Revolution" & various texts on education by Max Stirner. His own book, L'Anarchisme aujourd'hui (Anarchism Today), has been translated into Italian & Dutch.

    "Si nos idées ont une valeur pour l'avenir, elle doivent en avoir une aussi pour le présent et nous devons favoriser ou créer tout groupement d'individus décidés à produire ou à consommer en dehors du cycle capitaliste"

    [Source: L'Ephéméride Anarchiste]

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    1919 -- [August 16] Conchita Guillen Bertolin (1919-), militant anarchist & member of Mujeres Libres.

    Orphaned by her father, while living in "Las Corts" district of Barcelona, in 1936 she joined "Jeunesses Libertaires" (JJ.LL; Libertarian Youths) & was active with "l'Athénée Libertaire" (Libertarian Athenaeum). She discovered the feminist movement Mujeres Libres, at a conference given by Soledad Estorach & joined the movement, working with the secrétariat à la propagande & with Lucia Sanchez Saornil". She also took nursing courses to help the combatants.

    In 1939, with the rout of the Republican forces, she was forced into refuge in France. After various adventures during WWII, she continued her militancy in exile, always faithful to the movement Mujeres Libres.

    Residing in the south of France, in 1999 she participated in the collected work Mujeres Libres, will luchadoras libertarias, translated into French by the Ascaso-Durruti Center of Montpellier in 2000 & published by "Los Solidarios".

    "(...) des femmes qui avaient des connaissances idéologiques solides, qui s'y connaissaient en pédagogie, et autres sciences s'offrirent bénévolement pour instruire le groupe de jeunes qui n'avaient rien d'autres que leur bonne volonté."

    [Source: L'Ephéméride Anarchiste]

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    1920 -- [August 16] Alexander Berkman & Emma Goldman travel through Russia.

    In Poltava they meet with the leader of the Revkom, a non-soviet ruling body. They meet the writer Vladimir Korolenko who speaks to them about his disenchantment with the Bolsheviks. Also meet with local Zionists who, although critical of anti-Semitism of the Bolsheviks, report no evidence of Bolshevik pogroms against the Jews.

    In Fastov they collect historical materials on pogroms, including the Sept. 1919 pogroms led by General Denikin of the White Army. During this period the Polish army gains strength, beginning a counteroffensive against the Bolsheviks.

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    1924 -- [August 16] The body of Giacomo Matteotti is found outside Rome.

    A socialist & outstanding opponent of the Fascist regime during its early days. A member of parliament, his murder by Fascist hirelings precipitated a parliamentary crisis that Mussolini overcame by disavowing the murder & tightening police control. With the crushing of the opposition aroused by Matteotti’s assassination, Mussolini’s dictatorship may be said to have begun. The murderers & their accomplices received only nominal sentences.

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    1997 -- [August 16] Robert Lynn (1924-1997), Scottish anarchist, militant trade unionist & Stirnerite.

    Blackballed by his union & the Stalinist communists for his militancy, Lynn joined the merchant marines & travelled.

    Returning to Glasgow in 1950, he became, with Frank Leach, Jimmy Raside & Eddie Shaw, an active member of the Glasgow Anarchist Group (adherents of Max Stirner). Libertarian athenaeums were organized in Renfrew Street, & over the years Lynn initiated a number of events, especially the Glasgow Anarchist Summer School which now attracts libertarian socialists from all over Britain.

    Lynn died just before the 1997 school was to begin & his last immortal words were:

    "Oh fuck, now I'll miss the summer school."

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    Józef Edward Abramowski, Polish anarchist; source
    1868 -- [August 17] Józef Edward Abramowski, Polish philosopher, psychologist, sociologist, anarchist.

    Influenced by Leo Tolstoy, Abramowski called himself a "state-rejecting socialist". In his most important work developed his concept of a "stateless Socialism".

    His thought tended increasingly towards an anarcho-syndicalist position in politics, emphasising the importance of co-operative organization of the masses. Abramowski is considered the founder of the Polish co-operative movement, promoting economic associations & initiatives.

    Alongside this politico-social theorising, he also conducted an intense research activity in the field of experimental psychology, showing particular interest in the subconscious. This gave him a certain notoriety abroad & in 1916 he was given a chair in Experimental Psychology at the University of Warsaw, which he occupied until his death.

    The best known theoreticians of Polish anarchism were Edward Abramowski, Waclaw Machajski & the anarcho-sydicalists Dr Jozef Zielinski & Augustyn Wroblewski.

    Edward Abramowski claimed to be a non-state socialist. However it should be noted that the word "socialism" at that time did not have such a limited meaning as it has nowadays & a majority of groups of liberation, leftist groups & struggles for independence identified with it.

    Abramowski presented his views in works such as "Ethics & Revolution", "Republic of Friends " & "A Public Collusion Against Government". As an alternative to the state system were , in his opinion, gratuitous ????? trades set up by rules of common affairs & mutual services associated in bigger co-operatives. Only they are a support of a real freedom, give welfare, order, justice and brother hood to the individual. Furthermore they are organised from the grassroots, spontaenaeously without compulsion.Existing associates should form on a specified territory a free commune without authority & police.

    However the lack of a supposedly indispensable repression machinery does not mean the eruption of chaos into human life art all. The reverse happens — it releases energy & fervour that were being reduced in a system so far & that make people wanting to create the surrounding reality & to find themselves in it. An example of a big growth of social consciousness in the big solidarity days & then the repression of 13/12 ?????? is the best evidence of an enormous potential in people who have realised that they can change something in their life & surroundings at last.

    But let's return to Abramowski's theories. An unquestionable authority of those days, Tolstoy, had a considerable influence on his views. Following him he advocatied non-paymnet of taxes & refusing to join the army. At the same time as being against the church as an institution he referred to Jesus' sermons which in his opinion denied statehood & authority.

    In his book "A public collusion against government" he gave some instructions about how people should struggle with the Tsar for thier own national maintenance. It certainly did not mean promoting another dictatorship which statehood is. Abramowski was also ( as every anarchist) opposed to national socialism. He prophetically warned,

    "The politics of modern socialism is not a politics of strengthening & extending national authority that tends not towards setting people free but towards towards authorising everything which can be authorised only in their life."

    Abramowski's writings include: Ethics & the Revolution, The Republic of Friends, & The General Conspiracy against the State.

    See "A Short History of Polish Anarchism,"
    In Polish,

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    1963 -- [August 17] Franco executes the anarchists Francisco Granados & Joaquín Delgado for crimes they did not commit

    Their protests of innocence & their deaths were hardly noticed, overshadowed by the earlier international commotion created by the dramatic deaths of the communist Julian Grimau, on April 20, & the anarchist guerrilla Ramon Vila Capdevila ("Caraquemada") on the 11th of this month.

    Granados & Delgado were accused of blowing up a pump on July 29, in the Main directorate of Seguridad (DGS) of Madrid — "symbol of the pro-Franco torture" — & another in the National Delegation of Unions.

    They were brutally interrogated & condemned to death in a field court martial behind closed doors marked by legal irregularities.

    Almost 33 years later, the actual authors of those explosions publicly testified to their responsibility for the attacks, revealing the sentences of both anarchists today as nothing more than legalalized murder by the dictatorship.

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    1922 -- [August 18] Alain Robbe-Grillet lives, Brest. Wrote The Erasers, The Voyeur, Jealousy, Project for a Revolution in New York.

    Representantive of the nouveau roman — the new novel — & literature theoretician. His works lack conventional elements, such as dramatic plotting & psychological analysis of the character. His novels are composed largely of recurring images, depicting a world of objects & the random events of everyday life. For Robbe-Grillet, life is not overtly meaningful or absurd. Rather, it simply is.

    The most famous dramatization of his literary theories is Alan Resnais's film Last Year at Marienbad, for which he wrote the screenplay.

    Nouveau roman, see also: Michel Butor, Claude Simon, Marguerite Duras, Roland Barthes, & Nathalie Sarraute.
    The wave of experimentalism has been important mainly in France, but echoes of the anti-novel is seen in the works of Uwe Johnson in Germany, Susan Sontag in America, Christine Brooke-Rose & Rayner Heppenstall in England.

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    1925 --
    [August 18] Arkady Strugatski collaborated with his brother Boris on acclaimed science fiction novels.

    They became the best-known Soviet science fiction writers, continuing a tradition starting from Nikolai Gogol's novel Chronicles of a City, & continuing in Vladimir Mayakovsky's play The Bedbug, & Mikhail Bulgakov's The Master & Margarita.

    Under the official dominating Marxist-Leninism ideology much of Strugatskis' works were written in code to avoid censorship. In The Snail on the Slope they argued no form of knowledge can be ultimately secure, implicating the hollowness of Marxist-Leninist theories of progress.

    Their major works include Hard to be a God (1964), Definitely Maybe (1976-77), & Roadside Picnic (1972), which was adapted into screen by Andrei Tarkovsky under the title Stalker.

    See: Soviet Fiction Since Stalin: Science, Politics, & Literature by R.J. Marsh (1986); The Second Marxian Invasion: The Fiction of the Strugatsky Brothers by Stephen W. Potts (1991).

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    1925 --
    [August 18] Warlaam Dzon Aslanovic Tcherkesoff (or Tcherkezov) dies, London. Georgian Prince, anarchist militant & collaborator of Kropotkin's. "Ambassador of Georgian patriots".
    Last name is also spelled Cerkezov, Cerkesov, Cherkesov, Cherkezov; first name is also written as Varlaam, Warlam

    Born into an aristocratic family, Warlaam Tcherkesoff gave up aspirations of a military career at 16 years of age, taking up with various nihilists groups instead. Imprisoned, then exiled to Siberia in 1874, he escaped in 1876 to Geneva, where he took up with Elisée Reclus & Peter Kropotkin. With them he helped found the paper "Le Révolté."

    Tcherkesoff later settled in Paris, participating in the Pantheon group, & collaborating on Jean Grave's "Temps Nouveaux" before being expelled from the country.

    Tcherkesoff returned to Geneva, then on to London before starting a clandestine tour through Russia, Georgia, & the Central Europe, then back to London in 1892

    With his partner Frida (sister-in-law of the Dutch anarchist Christian Cornelissen), he joined the anarchist Federation of Jubilee Street (which included Alexander Schapiro, Rocker Rudolf & Kropotkin) as well as in the "Freedom Group" (founders of the still publishing "Freedom" newspaper).
    ... show more

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    1969 -- [August 18] Jean Goldschild (1890-1969) (aka Goldsky, or Jacques Guerrier).

    Antimilitarist, militant anarchist & journalist

    Involved with the anarchist individualists as a youth, & in the libertarian community of Saint-Germain-en-Laye from 1906 to 1908.

    In April 19, 1909, in Paris, Goldschild, with Almereyda (Eugène Vigo), Rene de Marmande, George Durupt, & others, were part of a group of friends who created the "Fédération révolutionnaire"qui préconise l'emploi de "l'action directe" for "La destruction radicale de la société capitaliste et autoritaire".

    During WWI, with Eugène Merle & Almereyda, he formed "Le Bonnet Rouge" & was card-indexed in the "Carnet B". Though he fought in the war, his ambiguity led to his being sent to prison for 7 years in 1915; after the war he continued his move away from anarchism & pacificism for quite awhile, before returning once more & collaborating on Louis Lecoin's journal "Liberté".

    "C'est dans les milieux libertaires que j'ai appris à penser"

    — Jean Goldschild, "Libertaire", 1924.

    [Source: L'Ephéméride Anarchiste]

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    1864 -- [August 19] Joan Montseny (aka Federico Urales) (1864-1942)

    In 1887, as a young socialist & labor militant, Montseny organized demonstrations protesting the executions of the Haymarket anarchists in Chicago.

    He read "Les dimanches de la Libre-Pensée" by the teacher & militant Teresa Mañé (Soledad Gustavo), & after meeting her, they both gravitated toward anarchism. They founded a school in Reus, but with the anti-anarchist rperession of 1896 were forced to close the school They were then arrested, along with hundreds of militants, & were imprisoned & tortured in the Montjuich military prison, in Barcelona.

    After a year in prison Montseny was expelled from Spain, but soon returned clandestinely, under the name of Federico Urales, & began publishing "Revista Blanca" in Madrid in 1898 (continuing after 1900 as "Tierra y Libertad" after 1900). Montseny then devoted himself to agriculture, journalism, & the writing of books & plays. During WWI he was a signatory of the Manifesto of the 16 / Manifeste des sieze, one of a few anarchists publically favoring the Allies.

    In 1923, with Teresa & his daughter Federica Montseny, they began publishing again "Revista Blanca" & he began publishing his famous small novels Novela Ideal (1925), Novela libre (1929), & El Luchador (1931).

    ... show more

    Already an oldster when the Spanish Revolution broke out in July 1936, Joan Montseny saw his now famous daughter join the government cabinet & the tragedy of immense hopes of the revolution dashed.

    Interned in various French concentration camps, he died in Salon, March 12, 1942

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    1877 -- [August 19] Pierre Jules Ruff militant anarchist & antimilitarist

    Member of the "Fédération Communiste Anarchiste", during WWI he was arrested with Louis Lecoin & sent to prison for 5 years for "provocation au meurtre, à l'incendie et au pillage".

    Released in November 1916, Ruff was arrested a month later, again with Louis Lecoin, for distributing the pacifist leaflet "Imposons la paix!" & sent back to prison.

    Ruff continued his militant activies in the 20s & 30s & was in out of jail for these. Because of his known opinions & activities (& also Jewish), Ruff was arrested in 1942 & sent to a concentration camp in Germany — from which he never returned.

    [Source: L'Ephéméride Anarchiste]

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    1866 -- [August 20] National Labor Union formed, headed by William H. Sylvis

    The first American labor union to unite skilled & unskilled workers. Claimed 640,000 members from smaller organizations, not all of whom were labor groups.

    It decided to form its own political party "as soon as possible" but focused on securing an eight-hour day & "producers' cooperatives".

    Both pushed the movement towards political action. The coops confronted the same kinds of credit problems that plagued western farmers. Workers fell back upon the old monetary theories of [the anarchist] Josiah Warren & ideas gaining ground mong the farmers who were moving towards independent politics.

    The NLU, in 1869, is the first union to welcome Blacks to join & attend its conventions. It also encouraged women members, & in in 1868 appointed Kate Mullany, President of the Troy Collar Laundry Union, Assistant Secretary of the National Labor Union.

    The effort to launch a National Labor Reform Party proved disastrous partly due to the death of Sylvis.

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    1898 -- [August 20] Fourteen weeks after beginning a walkout, the Amalgamated Woodworkers Union of Oshkosh, Wisconsin, halts its strike.

    On August 3rd, the two largest mills reopened, but mass picketing continued & women's squadrons began throwing eggs, salt & rocks. The police, once sympathetic to the strikers, quickly became less tolerant & jailed nine of the women. The union's strike fund, meanwhile, is now depleted. Today's settlement represents a defeat for the workers. Union leaders are blacklisted, & three still face charges of "conspiracy" to injure the Paine Lumber Company. Defending them, Attorney Clarence Darrow presents a seven-&-one-half-hour summary argument that wins a not-guilty verdict.

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    1898 -- [August 20] Vilhelm Moberg (1898-1973). Swedish novelist/dramatist, best known for his four volume story of the Swedish immigration to America in the 1850s.

    Moberg's dramas -- among them ÄNKEMAN JARL (1939), VÅR OFÖDDE SON (1945), DOMAREN (1957) -- have been televised in Poland, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, the Soviet Union, & Yugoslavia. Other plays, such as Ride Tonight (1942), & Man's Woman (1943) were filmed in the 1940s. During WW II Moberg published a novel attacking tyranny & oppression, RID I NATT (Ride This Night, 1941). In the 1970s Moberg started the large historical work, MIN SVENSKA HISTORIA 1-2, which looks at history from the viewpoint of the illiterate classes. The work was left unfinished. He committed suicide, apparently by drowning.

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    1913 -- [August 20] The Chinese anarchist journal, "Hui-ming-lu" (The Voice of the Cock Crowing in the Dark), begins publication (-1916).

    It used the Esperanto name, "La Voco de La Popolo", &, after the first few issues, changed its Chinese title to "Min Sheng" (The Voice of the People).

    By 1913, a number of intellectual groups were cultivating anarchist theories & values, especially in south China. Most active, & producing the great bulk of publications during this period, were Shih Fu & his group, Hui-ming Hsueh-she.

    ... show more

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    1996 -- [August 20] Italy: Maria Occhipinti (1921-1996) dies, in Rome. Italian militant pacifist & anarchist.

    In 1945, in Raguse, Sicily, Maria Occhipinti, lies down in front of army trucks which came to find new young conscripts to incorporate into the new Italian army. Within minutes, a crowd surrounds the soldiers, forcing them to release their recruits, but they kill a demonstrator & set off a major revolt.

    Maria Occhimpinti, anarchistThe city falls to the insurgents & resists government troops for three days. The revolt is subdued only at the cost of many deaths. Leaders in the revolt, including Maria & the young anarchist Erasmo Santangelo, were imprisoned until the end of 1946, (except Santangelo, who was sentenced to 23 years & later found hung in his cell).

    The Communist Party, seeking to help restore the capitalist state & the national army in a bid for a piece of the power pie, condemned this revolt as a "soulèvement fasciste".

    Maria Occhipinti tells her own story of the uprising in A Woman of Sicily (Italy, 1957; translated into French, 1980.)

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    1752 -- [August 21] France: Jacques Roux (1752-1794) lives, Charente.

    French revolutionist, known as the pitiless & sometimes cruel "Red Priest," but also a precursor of socialism & modern anarchism. Denounced those monopolizing the revolution, the speculator, the merchant — & also government & the whole apparatus of the parliamentary state. Wrote the famed "Manifeste des enragés" (signed by Jean Varlet & Leclerc d'Oze). A spokesman of poorest "sans-culottes" & incited women to assert their rights.

    See Peter Kropotkin's The Great French Revolution

    "Liberty is no more than an empty shell when one class of men is allowed to condemn another to starvation without any measures being taken against them. & equality is also an empty shell when the rich, by exercising their economic monopolies, have the power of life or death over other members of the community.'

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    1944 -- [August 21] Eugène Dieudonne dies. Former member of the Bonnot Gang.

    When the Paris trial of the Bonnot Gang ends sentences are handed out on February 27, 1913, as follows:

    • Raymond Callemin, Eugene Dieudonne, Andre Soudy, & Antoine Monier, are condemned to death;
    • Paul Metge & Edouard Carouy get life without parole (Carouy commits suicide tomorrow, in his cell).
    • Their accused accomplices: Jean de Boe: 10 years forced labor; Gauzy: 18 months prison; Kibaltchiche (aka, Victor Serge, editor of "L'anarchie"): 5 years prison.
    • Rirette Maitrejean is freed. Louis Rimbault, sentenced to prison, fakes mental illness & gains his release.
    • Eugene Dieudonne's death sentence was commuted to life. After several escapes, & following a campaign for his release headed by Albert London, he was pardoned in 1925.
    Bonnot Gang book cover

    See Richard Parry's The Bonnot Gang, (Rebel Press) which punctures the romanticism of "illegality" & individual armed struggle. He sees the Bonnot Gang as a temporary coalition of individualist anarchists drawn together by the anarchist individualist weekly "L'Anarchie" & criminals who donned the cloak of anarchism in their search for a convenient philosophical excuse for their actions — without support of the populace or the rest of the anarchist movement.

    See also Doug Imrie's article, "The Illegalists", & background material on the Bonnot Gang, online,

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    1998 -- [August 21] Korea: Second East Asia Peace & Human Rights Academic Conference held in commemoration of the 50th Anniversary of the Cheju April 3rd Massacre.

    Some crimes are too terrible to be forgotten, & especially when a self-righteous America wraps itself in it's flag & dares to characterize others as evil. It can only do this because it denies it's own war crimes, alter's history, hides it's own complicity in murder & genocide at home & around the world, decade after decade, as it seeks to impose itelf everywhere.

    As a whole the conference focused on Cold War human rights abuses in South Korea, Taiwan, & Okinawa that were backed or perpetrated by the US government.

    But the main object of the conference was to bring world attention to one of the darkest yet least-known chapters of postwar Asian history-the horrific genocide of 30,000 innocent civilians on Cheju-do between 1948 & 1949. In the space of one year, fully 10 percent of the island's total population of 300,000 was massacred — literal Roman decimation. Privately the governor of Cheju told American intelligence at the time that 60,000 were killed.

    This mass murder, in the guise of an anti-Communist civil war, was undertaken by the South Korean army, the Cheju-do police, & the U.S. military, which directed the counterinsurgency operation, providing military advisers, naval & air support, & U.S. ground troops. Prof. Bruce Cumings of the University of Chicago, America's foremost authority on contemporary Korea, is the scholar in the United States who has been trying to notify the American public about the 1948 genocide in Cheju-do. In 1990 he wrote in Volume II of The Origins of the Korean War, published by Princeton University Press:

    It can be said that the 20th century history of East Asia consists of imperialist colonialism in the first half & cold war conflicts in the second half. The end of World War II ushered in the era of cold war which manifested itself most prominently in East Asia.

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    1871 -- [August 23] Germany: Alfred Sanftleben (aka "Slovak") lives, Thuringe. Militant anarchist, active in Germany, Switzerland & the US.

    Typesetter & translator, friend of Max Nettlau, Gustav Landauer (collaborating on "Der Sozialist" & "La Révolte"), Rudolf Rocker & the Flores Magón brothers (translating articles into English for their paper, "Regeneración" until they had a falling out). Quite taken with Giovanni Rossi's writings (on the Cecilia Colony in South America, etc), Stanftleben translated & edited "Un comune socialista", together with other articles & letters by Rossi & others, under the title Utopie und Experiment (Zurich 1897). A manuscript by Sanftleben about Emiliano Zapata (of which there is little reliable literature), based primary source materials, remains, unfortunately, unpublished.
    [Source: L'Ephéméride Anarchiste]

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    1977 -- [August 23] US: Beloved & Respected Comrade Liberal Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis proclaims "Nicola Sacco & Bartolomeo Vanzetti Day" on the 50th anniversary of their deaths.
    ... show more

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    1919 -- [August 24] Barcelona, Spain, 1919 un año compulsiv

    El 24 de agosto será arrestado el pistolero de Portillo, Luís Fernández por los Mozos de Escuadra que iban acompañados del juez Alberto Parera y de los abogados Jesús Ulled y Guerra del Río. Fernández después de diversos interrogatorios reconoció que era confidente de Bravo Portillo implicando también, en el asesinato del "Tero" al coronel de policía Alvarez Caparrós, ya que su coche había servido para llevar a cabo la operación.

    Debido a las numerosas huelgas y lock-outs que había en Barcelona, el nuevo gobernador civil Julio Amado pretendía sentar a los obreros y los empresarios, para que pusieran fin a la difícil situación en que vivía Barcelona, pero los cenetistas en ese momento contaban con quince mil hombres huidos o presos y los sindicatos clausurados, por lo que la situación era difícil de negociar, así el 2 de septiembre se levantó él "Estado de Guerra" en el que vivía Barcelona, aunque precisamente desde Gobernación ese mismo día habían pedido refuerzos a Madrid en guardias civiles y agentes de policía secretas.

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    1944 -- [August 24] France: Spanish anarchists aid in the liberation of Paris, & are the first to enter the city.

    Interned in the French concentration camps as refugees escaping Franco's fascist takeover in Spain, many find their way out & join the anti-Nazi undergound résistance in France & Africa. Their experience during the Spanish Revolution lends itself to guérilla actions & as members of the Maquis.

    Tomorrow they resume combat elsewhere in the Republic. On the 26th they are triumphant on the Fields-Elysées (preceding General de Gaulle), & move into Lorraine & Alsace, & liberating Strasbourg on September 23. They are also among the last to fight in Germany, particularly at Hitler 's headquarters in Berchtesgaden (the Alps Bavarian) where they are the first to arrive.

    Their hopes to next liberate Spain, however, are dashed, as de Gaulle prohibits antifranquist acitivites into the 1960s, imprisoning Spanish militants & anarchist-trade unionists.

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    1964 -- anarchiste diamond dingbat; new entry, remove 2010 [August 24] Virgilio Gozzoli (1880-1964), anarchist, dies.

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    1920 -- [August 25] EG, anarchist feminist Russia: Late August, Alexander Berkman & Emma Goldman visit Kiev.

    The majority of the population is Jewish. Here they find valuable material on the rightwing Denikin pogroms; interview local Jews whose views on Bolshevik anti-Semitism differ.

    Goldman tours local health facilities, including the Jewish hospital & the hospital for disabled children; also visits the local anarchist center.

    With other members of the museum expedition, Goldman attends lavish functions held in honor of a visiting Italian & French delegation; meets two French anarcho-syndicalists one of whom is preparing a manuscript exposing Bolshevik wrong-doings. Later they are reported to have drowned off the coast of Finland; manuscript never published.

    Goldman & Berkman visited by two women representing the Ukranian guerrilla Nestor Makhno, who request again that they aid him by circulating his call to the international community. They determine it is too risky to meet with him in person as he has proposed.

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    1913 -- [August 26] Ireland: The 1913 Lock-Out in Dublin continues
    The strike is on. On the 21st workers in the parcels office of the Tramway Company received this notice:

    "As the directors understand that you are a member of the Irish Transport Union, whose methods are disorganising the trade & business of the city, they do not further require your services. The parcels traffic will be temporarily suspended. If you are not a member of the union when traffic is resumed your application for re-employment will be favourably considered."

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    1930 -- [August 26] Louis Eugène Jakmin, antimilitarist, syndicalist
    Secretary of la fédération communiste anarchiste (1913), manager of "libertaire", & participant in the newspaper "Le réveil Anarchiste ouvrier," from 1912 to the end of 1913.

    A convinced antimilitarist & co-author with Senna of "La brochure Rouge" which recommended sabotage in case of mobilization for war. Jacquemin underwent a number of trials, notably on January 29th, 1914, when he was sent to prison for a year for "provoking military disobedience". During WWI, he himself was mobilized & sent to Algeria.

    In the 1920s, he pursued trade-union activity, in the east of France, & published "Le réveil ouvrier," in Nancy, where he also founded worker cooperatives. Tried again in 1921, he was sent to jail for two months for an article inciting workers to prevent their unemployment by seizing the factories.

    Jakmin remained a member of the SFIO until his death today following an illness.

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    1931 -- [August 26] Writer & editor Frank Harris dies in Nice. EG, anarchist feminist

    Emma Goldman hurries there to be with Nellie Harris, Frank's widow, & to help arrange his funeral.

    Emma spends the last week of September helping Nellie sort out her affairs. She has been preoccupied throughout the summer & into September with the urgency of Alexander Berkman's need to secure new papers & with Mollie Steimer & Senya Fleshin's precarious financial situation in Berlin, & consumed by mounting disappointment over the prospects for her autobiography Living My Life.

    Among the visitors to the old anarchist at St. Tropez are Harry Kelly, Anna Strunsky Walling & her three daughters, American sculptor Jo Davidson, & Peggy Guggenheim.

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    1937 -- [August 26] Spain: Santander falls to the Nationalists.
    Some background & sources:
    ... show more

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    1986 -- [August 26] Boris Franteschini (1914-1986) was one of the last active members of the Italian Anarchist Movement in Melbourne, Australia.

    Boris was born in 1914 in the US, into a family of anarchist militants. At the age of 7 he returned to Italy with his family. In 1927 due to the increasing repression in Italy associated with the rise of fascism, Boris & his family immigrated to Melbourne.

    With the death of the older more experienced comrades Boris eventually found himself as a centre-point for Italian anarchist activity in Melbourne after WWII.

    Between 1950 & 1965 there were about 30 people involved in the Italian Anarchist Movement in Melbourne. With the death of Boris Franteschini only four members of the group remain: Amendu Ceccaroni, Jack Farrello, Raphaele Turco, & Bruno Vannini.

    Although the group had contact with the Spanish & Bulgarian anarchists in exile, it was only a few years ago that a link was made with the local "Australian" anarchist movement.

    He maintained his commitment & enthusiasm until his death on this day.

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    1890 -- [August 27] Surrealist photographer, anarchist, chess player MAN RAY lives

    Man Ray resources:

    —, 1976
    —, Danger — Dancer ILXT, 1972
    —, —, [larger version]

    In addition to Mark Harden’s Artchive (artchive), The Man Ray Trust (, & the University of Michigan SILS Art Image Browser (, Artcyclopedia identifies six online exhibits of the artwork of Man Ray:
    Citta Dell’Arte/City of Art, World Gallery, Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery at the U of NE, McMullen Museum of Art at Boston College, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, National Museum of American Art, Washington.

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    1896 -- [August 27] Surrealist photographer, anarchist, chess player MAN RAY lives

    Spain: Fernando Tarrida del Marmol is released from the dreaded Montjuich prison, thanks to help from family members. Spanish free-thinker, Director of the Polytechnic Academy of Barcelona, translator, biographer, & anarchist theoretician, he was arrested July 21 following the Cambios-Neuvos street attack on June 7, & imprisoned along with many workers (the "crime" for the majority of them is failing to attend church) who, not so fortunate as he, were tortured.

    Hounded & in fear for his life, he takes refuge in France & starts at once a campaign denouncing the atrocities occurring in Barcelona, publishing the book Un mois dans les prisons d'Espagne. He also writes articles supporting the insurgents of Philippines & Cuba in their fight against Spanish colonialism. Spain pressed for his expulsion. Tarrida went Belgium & then to England where he lodged with Kropotkin & Louise Michel..
    See the Fernando Tarrida del Marmol Archive,

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    1882 -- [August 28] Práxedis Gilberto Guerrero, Mexican Magonista insurgent killed during uprising

    Práxedis helped publish 'Revolucion' in Los Angeles, California. US authorities, always anxious to protect free speech, shut them down in January 1908.

    Later, when the anarchist Magonist forces took over parts of Mexico, Praxedis led a small group to Casas Grandes, intending to take this town, until they discovered it hid a garrison of 450 federales. Bypassing Casas Grandes, they attacked the town of Janos & after a long & bloody fight it was taken by the P.L.M. insurgents. Immediately a force of 150 federales together with a detachment of rurales were sent to Janos. During the ensuing battle Praxedis was mortally wounded & he died at the age of 28.

    In November 1932 his remains were exhumed & taken to the state capital, Chihuahua, where they were reinterred with great pomp. This was done not to honor an anarchist but to honor a mere "national hero" by a so-called "revolutionary" regime that then, as today, subjects anarchists to the most brutal torture & murder (see any history of the more contemporary Zapatista movement).

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    1892 -- [August 28] Augustin Souchy, German militant anarchosyndicalist, steadfast pacifist

    Influenced, while young, by reading of Gustav Landauer. In 1914 Souchy sought refuge in Sweden, but ended up in prison for distributing leaflets against the war. In prison, he wrote a book on Landauer.

    After the war, in 1920, he went to Russia for a labor congress, where he met & stayed with Peter Kropotkin. On his return he wrote a very critical book on the so-called Russian Revolution. In 1922, Souchy became one of the three secretaries of the new A.I.T. With the seizure of power by Hitler, fled from Germany, & in 1936 participated in the Spanish Revolution, which he wrote about. Interned in France, escaped the Nazis to Mexico before returning to Germany in 1950. Beware Anarchist! book cover

    Augustin Souchy wrote many books, including "Comment vivent le paysan et l'ouvrier en Russie?"; "Nuit sur l'Espagne"; "La révolution sociale en Espagne"; "Amérique Latine: entre généraux paysans et révolutionnaires"; The May Days: Barcelona 1937; & his autobiography, Beware! Anarchist! A Life for Freedom, (Chicago: Charles H. Kerr, 1992) (Attention anarchiste: une vie pour la liberté), etc.

    In his introduction to a collection of documents on collectivization in Spain, Augustin Souchy writes:

    For many years, the anarchists & the syndicalists of Spain considered their supreme task to be the social transformation of the society. In their assemblies of Syndicates & groups, in their journals, their brochures & books, the problem of the social revolution was discussed incessantly & in a systematic fashion.

    All of this, as Noam Chomsky notes, lies behind the spontaneous achievements, the constructive work of the Spanish Revolution:

    "The ideas of libertarian socialism, in the sense described, have been submerged in the industrial societies of the past half-century. The dominant ideologies have been those of state socialism or state capitalism (of increasingly militarized character in the United States, for reasons that are not obscure)."

    — Noam Chomsky, Notes on Anarchism

    See Beware! Anarchist!: A Life for Freedom, An Autobiography ed. by Sam Dolgoff & Richard Ellington

    "Equality, Liberty, Fraternity, the great dreams of the French Revolution, have not yet been realised in the world. They were being realised in Aragon. The peasant was free from political oppression & the exploitation of the great landholders. Liberty was won in battle. Equality was organised. Fraternity lived in the hearts of the people."


    by Augustin Souchy

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    Timeline icon
    1870 -- anarchiste diamond dingbat; new entry, remove 2010 [July 31] French anarchiste Gabriel Giroud lives.

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    1907 -- [August 30] First meeting, Society for the Study of Socialism is held by Chinese anarchists, in Tokyo, Japan

    Chang Chi made a few remarks, & a lengthy speech by Kotoku, the Japanese anarchist leader, followed. Kotoku was probably the most brilliant Japanese radical of his generation & his involvement & familiarity with Western anarchists made Japan a transmission belt conveying Westernism in all its facets to young Chinese intellectuals.
    A short talk by Ho Chen, Liu's wife & the editor of T'ien-i Pao, ended the meeting. She suggested the Russian situation, in its three stages of development, offered a guide for China: speech & discussion, followed by a state of political activity, & climaxed by a period of assassination. Many of the Chinese & Japanese present at this meeting were to have their lives profoundly affected by the attempt to follow these words.

    In a few years, Kotoku & a number of his students would be dead, executed on charges of a plot against the Emperor. In Chinese revolutionary circles Ho Chen herself evidently was involved in an assassination attempt.

    See John Crump’s The Anarchist Movement in Japan & The Chinese Anarchist Movement, by R. Scalapino & G. T. Yu (1961),

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    1957 -- [August 30] Josep Lluís Facerias (Jose Luis Facerias), Cenesta, Maquis, anarchist guerrilla, assassinated today by the fascist Civil Guard in 1957

    ... show more

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    1968 -- [August 31] Italy: The International of Anarchist Federations (IAF-IFA) founded at the Congress of Carrara (August 31-September 5).
    Taking its inspiration from the anarchist congresses of Amsterdam in 1907 & London 1958, this congress seeks, among other things, to create a world wide anarchist organization as an alternative to "Cohn Bendit et autres gauchistes", also called "the children of Marx". These anarchists were tired of people presenting what they felt were basically Marxist ideas as anarchism. In the following years, additional congresses were held (Paris 1971, Carrara 1978, Paris 1986, Valencia 1990).
    ... show more

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    Tom Tomorrow comic panels, 'Terrorists Lurking Everywhere'; source
    9003 --
    Tom Tomorrow, Nov 1995, from This Modern World
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