Cat Has Had the Time of His Life

    thin line

    Our Daily Bleed...


The Daily Bleed Detail Reference Page for the month of June

The following entries on this page provide details, subtext or background relating to dated entries cited in the Daily Bleed Calendar, linked from there to the date(s) cited here.

The Daily Bleed Calendar in full, & access to the pages for this month, are accessible at

[June 1] Daily Bleed Saint, Helen Keller

Helen Keller was born a healthy child on June 27, 1880 in Tuscumbia, Alabama.

In 1882, Helen was left deaf, blind, & mute by an illness diagnosed as brain fever that may have been scarlet fever. It caused Helen to enter what she later described as a "no world" — a dark & silent world devoid of human communication. Popular belief had it that the disease left its victim an idiot.

As Helen grew into childhood, wild, unruly, & with little real understanding of the world around her, this belief was seemingly confirmed.

Use your back button to return to your last page

1906 -- [June 1] "The most dramatic" instances of increasing opposition to the Diaz regime were the strikes of 1906 — one at the Cananea Copper Company in Sonora & the other at Rio Blanco. In reaction the government determined to destroy the anarchist PLM.

The Cananea strike began suddenly on June 1. The workers demanded "an eight-hour work day & a higher minimum wage" & were "protesting racial discrimination against Mexicans."

The workers rioted for two days & put up fierce resistance for another two days with firearms in hand.

... show details

Use your back button to return to your last page

1929 -- [June 1] Korean Anarchist Federation in China

The Korean Anarchist Federation in China was formed in April 1924.

Over 2 million Koreans were living in Manchuria, & anarchists were active & influential among them.

By August 1929 the anarchists had formed an administration in Shinmin (one of the three Manchurian provinces).

... show details

Use your back button to return to your last page

1876 -- [June 2] Christo Botev (also Hristo Botev or Khristo Bôtef) (1848-1876) dies in a battle. Bulgarian poet & revolutionist, writer; early libertarian & propagandist.

Born in 1848 in Kalofer, Bulgaria. Botev studied in Odessa, Russia, meeting revolutionists there before forced to leave. Went to Romania, publishing propaganda newspapers & developing contacts with Russian exiles in England & Switzerland — particularly among Bakuninists.

A founding member of the anti-authoritarian International, Botev was charged with clandestinely spreading Bakunin's ideas in Russia & Romania, where he created the first Romanian anarchist group. Botev then raised & lead a group 200 partisans into Bulgaria in an attempt to help liberate the country from Turkish occupiers.

Christo Botev is killed today in battle, age 28 — but his life & writings remains an inspiration for many Bulgarians.

... show details

Use your back button to return to your last page

1970 -- [June 2] Lucia Sanchez Saornil (1895-1970)

In 1918 Lucia published her first poems, & joined the "Ultraïsmo" literary movement. Over the years she also wrote & edited for the newspapers "Tierra y Libertad" & "Solidaridad Obrera."

In 1936, with Mercedes Comaposada & Amparo Poch, she founded Mujeres Libres (Free Women) which begins publishing, in May 1936, a review of the same name.

... show details

Use your back button to return to your last page

1849 -- [June 3] Jean-Louis Pindy lives (1840-1917), Brest, France. Member of the Internationale, communard, anarchist, carpenter.

Arrested & sent to prison for a year in the third trial against the First International, April 1870, & released September 4, when the Republic is declared.

Elected to the Paris Commune, it was Pindy who ordered the l'Hôtel de Ville burned down during the Bloody Week. Condemned to death, he slipped away into Switzerland, where, in contact with James Guillaume, he joined the Jura Federation.

September 16, 1872, Jean-Louis Pindy attended the anti-authoritarian Congrès de l'AIT (International Workers Association /Asociación Internacional de los Trabajadores), as well as later congresses. In 1877, Pindy creates, with Paul Brousse & François Dumartheray, a French section of AIT, with its newspaper "L'Avant-Garde."

Died on June 24, 1917.

In French, see

Use your back button to return to your last page

1888 -- [June 3] Who Was Jim Tully?

Novelist, journalist, lecturer, Hollywood columnist of the 1920s & 30s, road kid, chainmaker, boxer, circus handyman, tree surgeon; an inheritor of the tradition of the literary wanderer, & father of another, the school of hardboiled writing.

... show details

Use your back button to return to your last page

1896 -- [June 3] Isaac Puente (1836-1936), Spanish anarchist.

Maeztu's City Hall, the CNT & several Basque libertarian collectives held events commemorating the centennial of Isaac Puente.

Three aspects made him famous in his day: his activities as a rural physician in support of the neediest, his educational work (preventive medicine, sexual education, nutrition, wholesome living etc) & his theoretical & militant contributions to anarchism.

From 1921 he played an important role in the Basque CNT.

In 1930 he was elected by Alava's College of Physicians as Provincial Delegate, two months later he quit in disgust. During the Republic he was imprisoned for one month in 1932. In 1933 he was arrested in Zaragoza together with the other members of the Revolutionary Committee.

After the military rebellion which sparked the Spanish Revolution of 1936 he was arrested in July 1936 at his home in Maeztu. He was seen alive for the last time a month later coming out of Vitoria jail. He was probably executed in Burgos & his grave has never been found. He was sentenced to death posthumously by a franquist court.


Use your back button to return to your last page

1920 -- [June 3] EG, anarchist feministRussia: During this month, Emma Goldman nurses John Reed, in poor health following his release from a two-month prison term in Finland for unauthorized travel.

Goldman tours two legendary Czarist prisons & is shocked to discover many members of the intelligentsia were routinely executed following the October Revolution.

John Clayton's interview with Emma Goldman is published in several American newspapers, attributing to her a blunt criticism of the Bolshevik regime & a longing to return to the US. To refute the claim she & Alexander Berkman oppose the Soviet government, Stella Ballantine releases a letter written by Goldman last month to demonstrate their support for the Bolsheviks. The support will not last much longer however.

In French, see

Use your back button to return to your last page

1921 -- [June 3] EG, anarchist feministRussia: Alexander Berkman sustains a foot injury, delaying his departure with Emma Goldman from Workers' Paradise.
The veteran anarchists are now being thoroughly disillusioned with the Bolshevik "counter" revolution. The Cheka use the opportunity to raid Emma's Moscow apartment. Goldman & Berkman meet regularly with the European & Scandinavian anarcho-syndicalists, delegates to the international congresses, & they renew their friendship with Vera Figner, a leader of the Narodnaya Volya ("People's Will") movement.

In French, see

Use your back button to return to your last page

1898 -- [June 4] US: Laurance Labadie (1898-1975), Individualist anarchist, son of Joseph Labadie.

The last direct link to Benjamin R. Tucker, his death amounted to the virtual closure & the last episode in the socio-economic impulse which became known in the early decades of the 20th century as "Mutualism."

This blending of the ideas of Josiah Warren, P. J. Proudhon, William B. Greene, & Benjamin Tucker, along with peripheral contributions from Stephen Pearl Andrews, Ezra Heywood, & additional embellishments of others less well known, was succinctly elucidated in the 1927 Vanguard editions What Is Mutualism? & Proudhon's Solution of the Social Problem, by Clarence Lee Swartz & Henry Cohen, respectively.

From the early 1930s Laurance Labadie was the most polished exponent of this ideological tradition, his articulateness being commended by Tucker himself, in a dedication to a photograph he presented to Laurance dated September 6, 1936.

On Josiah Warren see Kenneth Rexroth's chapter in Communalism.

On Tucker see

Use your back button to return to your last page

1871 -- [June 5] Michele Angiolillo, Italian typographer, anarchist, proponent of "Propaganda by the Deed".

On August 8, 1897 Angiolillo shot & killed the infamous reactionary, Antonio Cánovas del Castillo, who was responsible for the torture & the executions of five anarchists in Montjuich Prison (the Montjuich Horrors, Barcelona).

... show details

Voltairine de Cleyre's poem "Germinal" was explicitly written with Michele Angiolillo in mind.
Angiolillo's Vengeance

Use your back button to return to your last page

Timeline icon
1939 -- [June 6] Barcelona, Spain
The anarchosyndicalists Manuel Campos & Juan Cerón, Spanish Cenetista militants captured by the fascists, are today executed.

Use your back button to return to your last page

1494 -- [June 7] Treaty of Tordesillas: the Pope divides the New World between Spain & Portugal. The dissident Spanish chronicler, Las Casas, recording the actions of Spanish troops on the island of Hispaniola in the 16th century:

"There were 60,000 people living on this island, including the Indians; so that from 1494 to 1508, over three million people had perished from war, slavery, & the mines. Who in future generations will believe this? I myself writing it as a knowledgeable eyewitness can hardly believe it."

Quoted in Howard Zinn, A People's History of the United States, (Harper Perennial, 1990), p.7

Every attempt the Spaniards had made in the three hundred years of Spanish rule to dissolve their pueblo & break it up into fincas had failed — the pueblo was too strong.

When small groups & single families could not hold out, they gave way; but if a lincjuero settled on the land of these deflated Indian families, he was murdered or driven out as soon as the soldiers left. The Spaniards despaired of getting the pueblo under their yoke..."

Government, from the series of Jungle novels by B. Traven, page 171

Use your back button to return to your last page

1902 -- [June 7] Germaine Berton, French trade union militant & anarchist

Berton first joined l'Union Anarchiste in 1922. Jailed once for insulting a policeman & active in the committee to defend the "Black Sea Mutineers."

... show details

Saint-Pol-Roux, Raymond Roussel, Philippe Daudet, Germaine Berton, Saint-John Perse, Pablo Picasso, Giorgio di Chirico, Pierre Reverdy, Jacques Vachè, Leon-Paul Fargue, Sigmund Freud, your portraits hang on dream's bedroom walls, you are the presidents of the Republic of Dream.

— Louis Aragon, A WAVE OF DREAMS

Use your back button to return to your last page

1914 -- 7 Giugno. Durante una manifestazione anti-militarista ad Ancona i carabinieri sparano sulla folla : 3 morti e 20 feriti. Inizia così la "settimana rossa" nelle Marche e in Romagna. Lo stato invia nella zona 100.000 soldati per far fronte alle manifestazioni. Il bilancio finale è di tredici morti fra i dimostranti e di uno tra i soldati, con decine di feriti e contusi.

After the May riots & revolts of 1898 in Italy & Ferrer's week in Barcelona, July 1909, the June revolt of the Romagna & of Ancona was the strongest popular rising in Europe since the Paris Commune & the Spanish insurrections of 1873.

... show details

Use your back button to return to your last page

1929 -- [June 7] Striking textile workers in Gastonia, North Carolina.

During today's battle, police chief O.F. Aderholt is accidentally killed by one of his own officers.

But who gets blamed? Six strike leaders, including Fred Beal, get convictions of "conspiracy to murder" & prison sentences of five to 20 years. The workers belong to the Communist-organized National Textile Workers Industrial Union, which has led walkouts at cotton mills in South Carolina, North Carolina & Tennessee.

... show details

Use your back button to return to your last page

1917 -- [June 8] -- Granite Mountain / Speculator Mine Fire kills 168 men in worst disaster in American metal mining history, near Butte, Montana

By the summer of 1917 the copper mines of Butte, Montana were booming with war-time production. The price of copper soared, & companies were making record profits. But miners felt they were being left out of the boom . . . losing ground as they dealt with skyrocketing inflation. A few years before, Butte had been considered the very heart of the miners union -- the birthplace of the Western Federation of Miners.

But while unions like the I.W.W. pushed for radical confrontation, the federation had followed a conservative path. & a subsequent Butte miners union was considered outright docile. Frustration grew to the point that miners dynamited their own union hall in butte in 1914. By 1917 the Gibraltar of unionism was in fractured pieces.

Three days after the Speculator Mine disaster...while funerals were still taking place...the miners of Butte walked off the job & called a strike. They demanded an end to blacklisting – the firing of workers for union membership...& demanded that Montana's mine safety laws be honored. The mine owners rejected the demands.

William Clark:

"As far as the Clark Mines are concerned, I will close them down...flood them, & not raise a pound of copper before I will recognize the anarchist leaders of the union."

Further details / context, click here[Details / context]

Use your back button to return to your last page

Timeline icon
1908 -- France: Anarchiste Eugène Thennevin (or Tennevin) (1848-1908) dies.

Use your back button to return to your last page

1921 -- [June 9] In the Sacco & Vanzetti trial...

Miss Splaine, a bookkeeper, testifies she saw Sacco lean out of the automobile [driven by Richard Oriciani] as it crossed railroad tracks. On cross-examination, Splaine denies saying at the preliminary hearing that she had doubts as to whether she could identify Sacco, though her statement is in the record.

Background resources & references for the anarchists Sacco & Vanzetti:
[Sacco & Vanzetti sources]

Use your back button to return to your last page

1953 -- [June 9] US House Concurrent Resolution 108

The resolution calls for terminating federal supervision of Indian reservations at the (quote) "earliest possible time." Enacted into law, it allows the government to cut off services to the reservations.

The policy has a particularly tragic effect on Menominees in Wisconsin. In 1954, Congress pressured the tribe to relinquish its reservation status. Without the status, the Menonimee hospital is forced to close, other health programs crumble, housing deteriorates & the Menominee infant-death rate soared.

In 1970, on the brink of extinction, Menominees found the grassroots organization DRUMS. In 1973, the group will pressure Congress to restore reservation status.

"Maybe we should not have humored them when they asked to live on reservations.

Maybe we should have said, No, come join us.

Be citizens along with the rest of us."

— Beloved & Respected Comrade Leader Acting President Ronald Reagan during a trip to Moscow, when a student asks about US treatment of Native Americans

[Insurgent Radio Kiosk]

Use your back button to return to your last page

1966 -- [June 9] Helmut Rudiger & the Friends of Durruti Group

In December the German volunteers in the Durruti Column's International Group expressed their opposition to militarization & listed a number of items they wanted incorporated in any new military code: they wanted the delegate system retained along with egalitarian features; they wanted soldiers' councils to represent the army as a whole.

The Friends of Durruti Group: 1937-1939

Use your back button to return to your last page

2000 -- [June 9] Jacob Lawrence, African American artist

Lawrence shot to fame at the age of 24 when he completed an epic series of 60 paintings called "Migration of the Negro," which blended mural, realist & abstract styles to portray the journey of millions of blacks from the South to the North after World War I.

The "Migration" series brought him wide acclaim & made him the first African-American artist to receive sustained recognition in the United States.

Lawrence started studying art in Harlem in the 1930s, where he painted on themes of black poverty, ill health, police brutality, & racism.

He became a tenured professor at Seattle's University of Washington in 1971, & retired as professor emeritus in 1986. He was actively painting until a few weeks before his death.


Use your back button to return to your last page

1904 -- [June 10] US: Passports, Please?: 79 striking Colorado Dunnville miners "deported" to Kansas.

A battle between the Colorado Militia & striking miners at Dunnville ended with six labor union members dead & 15 taken prisoner. Seventy-nine of the strikers were deported to Kansas two days later.

... show details

"Habeus Corpus, hell!

We'll give 'em post mortems."

With the support of the militia, the mine owners regained control over the Cripple Creek mines. By midsummer, 1904, the strike was broken although it was never officially terminated by the Western Federation of Miners. The owners reopened their mines with non-union labor & the union never again assumed its prominence in Cripple Creek. By 1905, organized business had won an important victory against Colorado's union mine workers.

Use your back button to return to your last page

1942 -- [June 10] Massacre at Lidice, Czechoslovakia. Gestapo kills 173.

The German Security Police burns the tiny village of Lidice to the ground. Under Captain Max Rostock's command, the Nazis execute all of the town's 173 men, & deport the women & children to Germany's Rabensbrueck concentration camp.

Today's slaughter is a response to Czech fighters who assassinated Reinhard Heydrich, the genius of the Nazi "final solution." Czech executions will surpass 1,300, but Jews suffer even more for the assassination. Three thousand are taken from the Theresienstadt ghetto & shipped to the East for extermination.

Use your back button to return to your last page

1894 -- [June 11] US: First regular convention of the American Railway Union, delegates vote unanimously for a boycott of Pullman cars.
The union is acting in sympathy with workers at the Pullman Company who have been on strike since May 10.

The boycott begins June 26, when switchmen on a number of lines out of Chicago refuse to switch Pullman cars. They are instantly fired, leading other workers to walk off in protest. Soon virtually all 26 roads out of Chicago are paralyzed & all transcontinental lines stopped.

The struggle extends to 27 states. An estimated 260,000 railroad workers join the Pullman strike, which is eventually crushed by federal troops who take over the city of Chicago.

Use your back button to return to your last page

1922 -- [June 11] Spain: CNT withdraws from the Third International (its provisional affiliation of 1919) in favor of the International Workers Association (IWA)

"At a plenum held in Lerida in 1921, while the CNT was in disarray [due to repression] in Catalonia, a group of Bolsheviks was designated to represent the Spanish CNT in Russia . . . The restoration of constitutional guarantees by the Spanish government in April 1922, permitted the anarcho-syndicalists to meet in Saragossa in June 11 . . . [where they] confirmed the withdrawal of the CNT from the Third International & the entrance on principle into the new [revolutionary syndicalist] International Working Men's Association."

[Anarchist Organisation: History of the FAI, p. 61]

... show details

Use your back button to return to your last page

1925 -- [June 11] Davis Day, Canada: Mine workers' strike against the British Empire Steel Corporation (BESCO) in Nova Scotia

During a mine workers strike against the British Empire Steel Corporation (BESCO) in Cape Breton, drunken company police charge on horseback beating all who stood in their path, then ride through the school yards, knocking down innocent children while joking that the miners are at home hiding under their beds.

A company president had sneered,

"We hold the cards,
they will crawl back to work..."

... show details

Use your back button to return to your last page

1962 -- [June 11] US: Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), the group that pioneers the 60s protest movement, meets June 11th-16, & will issue the Port Huron Statement.

Fifty-nine people, mostly students, gather at Port Huron, Mich., to draft a platform for the Students for a Democratic Society, an obscure offshoot of the League for Industrial Democracy. The conference revolves around an angry debate between Michael Harrington, the veteran socialist, & the young activists, led by Tom Hayden.

Finally, on June 16 the student group overwhelmingly votes to ratify the manifesto, called simply The Port Huron Statement. The statement helps catapult SDS to national prominence by popularizing the idea of "participatory democracy."

The hopes first expressed in the statement motivate activists involved in the protests that shake the US in the late Sixties, briefly raising the specter of civil war.

Use your back button to return to your last page

1970 -- [June 11] US: The International Union announces that UAW Local 598 will represent workers at the Truck Plant & the seniority lists of the two plants (which had been represented by Local 659 & Local 598) will be merged as one. In about two weeks Fisher Body 2 goes out of existence.

In September 1969 Local 598 Fisher Body workers took on GM in the longest strike by the UAW in GM history.

In September of this year it becomes nationwide. The 67 day strike at General Motors in the Fall of 1970 is a classic example of the anti-employee nature of the conventional strike, perfectly illustrative of the ritualized manipulation of the individual which is repeated so often & which changes absolutely nothing about the nature of work.

See John Zerzan"'s "Organized Labor versus 'The Revolt Against Work'",

Use your back button to return to your last page

1890 -- [June 12] Voltairine de Cleyre gives birth to Harry de Cleyre
The third man that Voltairine met in 1888 was James B. Elliot. Elliot was an organizer in the free thought movement, & when the Friendship Liberal League invited Voltairine to lecture for them in Philadelphia the two met. Voltairine was to remain most of her adult life in Philadelphia from 1889-1910.

Soon after moving to Philadelphia she began a relationship with Elliot that was short-lived . However during their short relationship, Voltairine became pregnant. On June 12, 1890, Harry de Cleyre was born. Harry was to be Voltairine's only child. Voltairine had no intentions of being a mother & did not want to raise a child. Avrich writes that "neither physically nor emotionally nor yet financially was she able to cope with the responsibility of motherhood".

Harry was raised by his father in Philadelphia, & while there was little contact between Harry & Voltairine, her son maintained an enormous amount of love, respect & admiration for his mother throughout his life.

In fact, Harry took his mother's name not his father's & later in life named his first daughter Voltairine.

Use your back button to return to your last page

1887 -- [June 13] US: Miner's Union Day. Butte, Montana: Bluebird Incident
Today a group of union members walked there to "gently intimate to the men in charge that the shutting down of the mine would be in accordance with the eternal fitness of things."

Over the objections of the mine superintendent, the workers of the Bluebird were then marched to the union hall & initiated as union members. After what was to become known as the Bluebird Incident, Butte effectively became a closed shop.

Use your back button to return to your last page

La Protesta Humana masthead
1897 -- [June 13] Argentina: "La Protesta Humana" first appears today.

In 1888 & '89 immigration into the Argentine Republic increased rapidly & unemployment & strikes made their appearance.


Malatesta seems to have spent this period at Buenos Aires doing active propaganda; we read in the "Revolte" of March 24, 1889, that some time ago the commissioner of police sent for him, to tell him that the police would be represented at all public meetings. They tried also to assist at private (group) meetings, but desisted when invited to leave.

Meetings were held on March 18 (1888), on the occasion of the first local strikes, etc., & it is probably then the movement "El Perseguido" was first issued [March 18, 1890 according to Pablo Pérez; see his article, The Anarchist Movement & the Origins of the Argentinian Libertarian Federation], continued until Jan. 31, 1897, the first of the rapidly developing active & numerous press, culminating in the "Protesta Humana" (June 13, 1897), followed by the (daily) "Protesta") (April 5, 1904 [edited by Alberto Ghiraldo]), which for so many years weathers all storms.

Max Nettlau, Errico Malatesta: The Biography of an Anarchist
See also
Background on Latin American anarchism

Use your back button to return to your last page

1909 -- [June 13] Spain: A congress of the labor federation Solidaridad Obrera today votes overwhelmingly to accept the general strike tactic "depending upon circumstances."
The anarchists in Solidaridad Obrera (a regional federation embracing 112 labor syndicates throughout Catalonia with a membership of 25,000 workers) were anarcho-syndicalists who believed in operating within large labor movements — workers like Jose Rodriguez Romero, Tomas Herreros, & the publicist Leopoldo Bonofulla.

Encouraged by Francisco Ferrer, they opened a concerted attack on the Socialists & tried to guide the labor federation toward revolutionary goals. Their efforts, fostered by the drift of the early French CGT toward revolutionary syndicalism, were marked by increasing success.

The periodical "Solidaridad Obrera" was also under anarcho-syndicalist control.

Barcelona anarchist communists associated with the periodical "Tierra y Libertad", like editors such as Juan Baron & Francisco Cardenal, regarded the anarcho-syndicalists as deserters to reformism, as did the terrorist-oriented Grupo 4 de Mayo (May 4th Group).

See Murray Bookchin's The Spanish Anarchists,

Use your back button to return to your last page

1980 -- [June 13] US: Publication of classified Pentagon papers on U.S. involvement in Vietnam begins in the New York Times

The New York Times begins publication of the History of U.S. Decision Making Process on Vietnam Policy, better known as the Pentagon Papers—a secret Defense Department study, prepared in 1967-69, of U.S. involvement in Vietnam. The Pentagon Papers were leaked to the Times by Daniel Ellsberg, a former Defense Department analyst. Go to an excerpt from the Pentagon papers.

U.S. Supreme Court upheld the right to publish the documents under the protection of the First Amendment. The NY Times had finally tired of being mouth-piece for the government line/lies on the war, & Daniel Ellsberg had the dirt, which he originally considered publishing in the LA Free Press because he could find no mainstream newspapers (free press) who would touch the papers.

Daniel Ellsberg, a Rand Corporation employee who helped write the history, leaked the history with the help of former Rand employee Anthony Russo. They spent many nights at a friend's advertising agency copying the 7,000-page document, which they gave to several lawmakers & The Times.

The Nixon administration asks the Supreme Court to stop further publication, but the court says this would put a "prior restraint" on freedom of the press.

The government then indicts Ellsberg & Russo for violating the Espionage Act. A judge, however, calls off the trial after Watergate disclosures reveal unfair practices by the prosecution.

[Source: Chicago '68: A Chronology]

Use your back button to return to your last page

1865 -- [June 14] Bernard Lazare

  • Following the enactment of the "Laws scélérates", Jean Grave was prosecuted (February 26, 1894) for writing La société mourante et l'anarchie (1892), prefaced by Octave Mirbeau.

    To no avail Elisee Recluse, & Paul Adam, testified in Grave's behalf. The court ordered his book destroyed & Grave received a two-year prison sentence.

    Max Nettlau, in his biography of Malatesta, notes Bernard Lazare's presence at the anti-authoritarian Congress in London at Holborn Town Hall, where the speakers were J. Presberg, J. Keir Hardie, Paul Reclus, C. Cornelissen, Tom Mann, Louise Michel, J. C. Kenworthy, Tortelier, Peter Kropotkin, Lazare, Touzeau Parris, F. Domela Nieuwenhuis, W. K. Hall, Errico Malatesta, P. Gori, Gustav Landauer, Louis Gros (a Marseille syndicalist), & at the overflow meeting W. Wess, F. Kitz, Sam Mainwaring, Augustin Hamon, P. Pawlowitsch (a Berlin anarchist metal worker).

  • 1896, il fonde la revue "L'Action d'Art" dans laquelle écrira Fernand Pelloutier et André Girard, partisan d'un art social, opposé à un art de classe.

Source: Max Nettlau, Errico Malatesta: The Biography of an Anarchist

In French,
See also,

Use your back button to return to your last page

1914 -- [June 14] Libertarian conference at in São Paulo, Brazil.
Sessions for this conference were held Sundays through June & July: June 14, 21 & 28, & July 12 & 26. The primary purpose was to select & prepare two delegates to attend an anarchist Congress scheduled in London, England (it was cancelled due to the government conflagration of WWI consuming Europe).

Conferência Libertária de São Paulo - Rua José Bonifácio, 39-2º andar. Ao todo realizaram sessões nos domingos 14, 21 e 28 de junho, 5, 12 e 26 de julho de 1914. O objetivo principal era preparar e indicar dois delegados para representar o Brasil no congresso anarquista de Londres que não chegou a acontecer por causa da guerra.

Source: [ Arquivo de História Social ]

Use your back button to return to your last page

1919 -- [June 14] Trotsky, drafts an order banning the Makhnovist (anarchist) Congress, & calls for the arrest of the delegates.

The Makhnovists rejected the Bolshevik corruption of the soviets & instead proposed "the free & completely independent soviet system of working people without authorities & their arbitrary laws". Their proclamations state the "working people themselves must freely choose their own soviets, which carry out the will & desires of the working people themselves, that is to say, ADMINISTRATIVE, not ruling soviets."

Peter Arshinov, History of the Makhnovist Movement

Use your back button to return to your last page

1921 -- [June 14]

Davis & Brockus lead state police & vigilantes in a raid on the Lick Creek tent colony, in retaliation for further sniping incidents. 47 strikers arrested & locked in the Williamson jail.

... show details

God,  if You had but the moon
    Stuck in Your cap for a lamp,
Even You'd tire of it soon,
    Down in the dark & the damp.

Nothing but blackness above
    & nothing that moves but the cars. . . .
God, if You wish for our love,
    Fling us a handful of stars.

— Louis Untermeyer
excerpt from Caliban in the Coal Minesfrom Challenge, 1914


Use your back button to return to your last page

Rirette Maitrejean
1968 -- [June 14] Rirette Maitrejean & the Bonnot Gang

Raymond Callemin, Eugene Dieudonne, Andre Soudy, & Monier, are condemned to death; Paul Metge & Edouard Carouy get life without parole (Carouy commits suicide tomorrow, in his cell).

Their accused accomplices: Jean de Boe: 10 years forced labor; Gauzy: 18 months prison; Kibaltchiche (aka, Victor Serge, editor of "L'anarchie"): five years prison. Rirette Maitrejean is freed. Louis Rimbault, sentenced to prison, fakes mental illness & gains his release. Eugene Dieudonne's death sentence was commuted to life. After several escapes, & following a campaign for his release headed by Albert London, he was pardoned in 1925.

"It was in the black mirror of anarchism that surrealism first recognised itself."

— Andre Breton, 1952

  • The surrealists had not hesitated in 1923 in showing solidarity with the young anarchist woman Germaine Berton who had killed an activist of the extreme right nationalist party L'Action Francaise & who was aqcquitted in a jury trial! Another member of the surrealist group, Robert Desnos, had associated with the individualist anarchist circles of Victor Serge & Rirette Maitrejean, while according to a police record, the surrealist poet Benjamin Péret had been active in an anarchist group in the Paris region & had contributed to the anarchist paper "Le Libertaire."


Also in French, see "La bande à Bonnot,"

See also Doug Imrie's article, "The Illegalists" in the Stan Iverson Archives, & background material on the Bonnot Gang, online, Photo courtesy of l'Ephéméride Anarchiste

Use your back button to return to your last page

1896 -- [June 15] Gérard Duvergé
Gerard Duverge

Duvergé became an anarchist in 1935, writing for the anarchist press, & joined a group in Agen in 1936. He was also involved with "la libre pensée" & the "Ligue Internationale des Combattants de la Paix." But it was within the framework of the Fédération des oeuvres laïques that Duverge found his ideal best realized, where he & his companion Henriette organized youth camps.

... show details

Use your back button to return to your last page

1942 -- [June 15] Vera Figner dies.

As a leader of the 'People's Will' movement in the 1880s, Vera Figner organized resistance within the Russian army & navy &, in 1880, she plotted to blow up Tsar Alexander II's train. That plot failed.

After the tsar was assassinated in 1881, Figner & other movement leaders were arrested. Her death sentence was never carried out (commuted), but she spent more than 20 years in solitary confinement, where she wrote her memoirs, How the Clock of Life Stopped.

... show details

Use your back button to return to your last page

1963 -- [June 15] Seattle's first civil rights march

More than 700 people attended a "freedom march" protesting racial discrimination in Seattle. The marchers, many of whom were white, walked in silence but carried signs. The Rev. Mance Jackson announced that the Bon Marché promised 30 new jobs for African Americans in its downtown & Northgate stores.


Use your back button to return to your last page

1933 -- [June 16] National Industrial Recovery Act passes

The National Recovery Administration (NRA) codes establish maximum hours & minimum wages for every major industry. It also abolishes sweatshops & child labor, give workers the right to bargain through their own union representatives, & specifies businesses must open their books to government inspection.

Eventually Congress approves some 550 codes, including the Burlesque Theater Code, limiting shows to four striptease acts. The clause allowing collective bargaining turns businesses against the New Deal & leads to management-run company unions.

The business interests eventually ally with liberal Supreme Court justices, who think the New Deal unfairly favors businesses. In 1935, the court declares large portions of the act unconstitutional.


[Insurgent Radio Kiosk]

Use your back button to return to your last page

1937 -- [June 16] Spain: Members of the POUM Executive Committee & foreign activists are rounded up. The POUM is proscribed & its militants persecuted by the Stalinists & the Republic's police.

Fidel MIRO: Things had changed radically; Largo Caballero & the left-wing socialists had stepped down by then, & the CNT had been dropped from the government. & after the happenings in May there was a feeling in everyone’s mind that we had lost a lot of our strength & that the Communist Party was on the up & up & that all of the good weapons arriving from Russia were going to the troops that the communists commanded.

Angel URZAIZ: Surreptitiously they started to worm their way into the army, into the corps of commissars, into the military intelligence services which they captured completely.

Ramon ALVAREZ: & we were convinced that the idea was to carry out Stalin’s orders to wipe out the anarchists above all else, to capture the positions of command & wind up the war once Stalin might decide that the time was right. That this was what was afoot.

Ethel MacDonald visited comrades in prison, smuggling in food & letters. She helped several foreign anarchists escape from Spain, borrowing clothes for their disguise & getting them on board foreign ships. She was finally captured & imprisoned herself. In prison she helped organise a hunger strike in every prison where there were anarchist prisoners...

... show details

Use your back button to return to your last page

2000 -- [June 16] England: Residents Against McDonald's (RAM) celebrate an historic victory.

Following exactly 18 months of controversy & determined opposition, two days ago McDonald's threw in the towel & handed back the lease on the pub to the original owners.

On Sunday 13th December 1998 local residents in Hinchley Wood, Surrey moved caravans on to the car park of their >well-loved local pub ['The Hinchley Wood'] which had been leased by McDonald's — their aim was to occupy the site & stop it from being turned into a fast food joint.


Use your back button to return to your last page

1903 -- [June 17] Mother Jones & textile strike in Kensington, Pennsylvania

Mother Jones was called to assist a strike by 75,000 textile workers in Kensington, Pennsylvania. The strikers include 10,000 small children, who Jones says (quote) "came into Union Headquarters, some with their hands off, some with the thumb missing, some with their little fingers off at the knuckle."

Mother Jones confronts reporters who say they cannot publish the facts because the millowners have stock in the papers. Jones also will take an army of the children on a march to New York City.

Beloved & Respected Comrade Leader President Theodore Roosevelt refuses to see her or answer her letters, but the marchers receive national attention &, despite a defeat in Kensington, Pennsylvania legislators pass a child-labor law, setting 14 as the earliest age a child can work in a factory.


[Insurgent Radio Kiosk]

Use your back button to return to your last page

1911 -- [June 17]

The consequences of these poorly devised strategies eventually opened the way for the retaking of Tijuana by Diaz's former Federal troops, now lead by Madero on June 17, & the final dissolution of the PLM forces by defeat & desertion.

During the mayhem of the battle to retake Tijuana, many Wobblies snuck back across the border, including the famous Wobbly, songwriter Joe Hill. Commander Mosby, head of the infamous Magonista "Foreign Legion," was arrested & then shot when he refused to incriminate Magon in court via the infamous ley de fuega (law of fire), which is a deceitful way of covering up a police murder by alleging that the prisoner was attempting to escape.

... show details

Use your back button to return to your last page

1953 -- [June 17] Gunter Grass's "The Plebeians Rehearse the Uprising"

The play was Günter Grass's "The Plebeians Rehearse the Uprising".

Mr. Grass's intentions are twofold. First he wants to show us the political artist at a moment of crisis. Second — & this intention is more misty — I think he wishes to show that political thought is useless without political action.

His play is based on one historical event, the workers' uprising in East Berlin in June, 1953. There, during the bleakest of conditions, with Walter Ulbricht, the Communist party leader, calling for ever-increased productivity, the workers briefly, & ineffectually, revolted. They marched down the streets shouting slogans; they threatened a general strike. But they had no leaders, no organization & — most importantly — no real encouragement from the West.

On June 16 the upheaval had been largely confined to Berlin. Today there were disturbances in several parts of the country. Roughly 274 towns & 372,000 strikers were involved...

Construction workers in Berlin marched to the Council of Ministers. Chanting, “We are not slaves,” demanding to see Beloved & Respected Comrade Leader Walter Ulbricht & other top leaders personally...


See also,

Use your back button to return to your last page

1972 -- [June 17] Casualties & Convictions Resulting from Watergate

  • one presidential resignation
  • one vice-presidential resignation
  • 40 government officials indicted or jailed
  • H.R. Haldeman & John Erlichman (White House staff) resigned 30 April 1973, subsequently jailed
  • John Dean (White House legal counsel) sacked 30 April 1973, subsequently jailed
  • John Mitchell, Attorney General & Chairman of the Committee to Re-elect the President (CREEP) jailed
  • Howard Hunt & G. Gordon Liddy (ex-White House staff), planned the Watergate break-in, both jailed
  • Charles Colson, special counsel to the President jailed
  • James McCord (Security Director of CREEP) jailed

    There's much more, but this gives you the general drift...


    Use your back button to return to your last page

  • 2001 -- [June 18] Travel ban to block 'anarchist' leaders Street clashes greet the 'Toxic Texan'...

    Beloved & Respected Comrade Leaders Tony Blair & Jack Straw, both dismiss the protestors as an "anarchists' travelling circus".

    Belgium has already signalled a get-tough approach when it takes over the EU presidency from Sweden next month: from next year it will host a summit every six months.

    The Belgian police are more experienced than the peace-loving Swedes, who were caught out by the mayhem in Gothenburg - & were accused of overreacting by shooting three demonstrators.

    With concern already high over anti-globalisation protests at next month's G8 summit of industrialised countries in Genoa, Germany & France called for consultations about a phenomenon now reluctantly accepted as a permanent feature of international diplomacy.

    ... show details

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1981 -- [June 19] Senya Fleshin dies

    Fleshin was active in Paris anarchist group with Samuel Schwartzbard, Alexander Berkman, Voline, Nestor Makhno, Jacques Doubinsky, et al.

    alt; Nestor Machno
    • Among Emma Goldman 's closest comrades were Mollie Steimer & Senya Fleshin, who also left Soviet Russia after conditions there became intolerable for anarchists.

    • On Steimer, see Marsh, Anarchist Women; Paul Avrich, Anarchist Portraits; Polenberg, Fighting Faiths; & the pamphlet, Sentenced to Twenty Years Prison (NY: Political Prisoners Defense Relief Committee, 1919).

      See also the memorial volume edited by Abe Bluestein, Fighters for Anarchism: Mollie Steimer & Senya Fleshin ([NY]: Libertarian Publications Group, 1983).

    • The documentary film, Anarchism in America (1982) weaves together archival footage — including Mollie Steimer


    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1997 -- [June 19] Italy: Cops raid anarchist centers & homes across the country

    At least 29 arrest warrants were issued & at least 39 people were informed that they were under official investigation. Of these some were already in jail: Antonio Budini, Carlo Tesseri, jean Weir & Christos Stratigopolus since September 1994 for a bank robbery near Trento; Orlando Campo, Gregorian Gargarin, Francesco Porcu for the Silocchi kidnapping; Horst Fantazzini (since 25 years) for many robberies & assault; & Marco Camenisch for bombings. In all it looks like some 68 people have been implicated by the police in this supposed "terrorist" gang. 21 anarchists were apprehended between Sept. 17, 1996, & the end of December, while 8 went underground. On December 18 two of those arrested were sentenced to 22 years in prison.

    ... show details

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1848 -- [June 20] American anarchist, Haymarket Martyr, Albert Parsons lives, Montgomery, Alabama (some sources say the 24th)

    Albert Parsons was targeted for death by city leaders. A bomb was thrown at police during the Haymarket Bombing. Although Albert Parsons was not even present (the bomb was thrown at 10pm, after he & Lucy & his two children had left), he was indicted & convicted for his alleged participation. Police Captain John Bonfield, a brutal thug, had led the charge on the gathering of workers & evidence suggests he may have been involved in the bomb-throwing.

    Lucy Parsons lived for 90 years & died without regrets for having fought the Chicago establishment tooth & nail for over 60 years. When Lucy died, police seized & destroyed her letters, writings & library. & so she has virtually disappeared from our memory.

    Uruguayan writer Eduardo Galeano comments on “A Terrible Drama” (in his Memories of Fire, Vol. II):

    “The scaffold awaited them. They were five, but Lingg got up early for death, exploding a dynamite cap between his teeth. Fischer was seen unhurriedly humming the ‘Marseillaise.’ Parsons, the agitator who used the word like a whip or a knife, grasps the hands of his comrades before the guards tie his own behind his back. Engel, famous for his sharp wit, asks for port wine & then makes them all laugh with a joke. Spies, who so often wrote about anarchism as the entrance into life, prepares himself in silence to enter into death.

    “The spectators in the orchestra of the theater fix their view on the scaffold — a sign, a noise, the trap door gives way, now they die, in a horrible dance, twisting in the air. [Here he quotes Martí.]

    “José Martí wrote the story of the execution of the anarchists in Chicago. The working class of the world will bring them back to life every first of May. That was still unknown, but Martí always writes as if he is listening for the cry of a newborn where it is least expected.”


    See also:

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1893 -- [June 20] Debs forms the American Railway Union (ARU)

    Eugene Debs supported unionization & labor reforms, opposed strikes, & favored negotiation as a means to improve the conditions for laborers. He founded the ARU in 1893 to organize railroad workers, coal miners, & longshoremen employed in the industry, regardless of their skills. While the American Railway Union includes only workers born of white parents, it adopts an industrial strategy in the tradition of the Knights of Labor, uniting all railway workers in one great union rather than along craft lines.

    In just a few months the union led an 18-day strike against the Great Northern Railroad, forcing management to reverse three wage cuts. The victory against a railroad with 2,500 miles of track & 9,000 employees was so remarkable — especially during a depression — that the union will sign up 2,000 members a day.

    Within a year, the ARU has 150,000 members, almost as large as Samuel Gompers' American Federation of Labor. This sets the stage for Chicago's Pullman strike in 1894 — the first organized nationwide strike in US history.


    [Insurgent Radio Kiosk]

    See also:

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1912 -- [June 20] US: Voltairine de Cleyre (1866-1912) dies, age 45... The original anarchist-feminist. Two thousand attended her funeral at Waldheim cemetery where she was buried next to the Haymarket Martyrs.
    "The leaders of the anarchist movements in Latin America almost all began by rebelling against the Church before rebelling against the State. The founders of the anarchist movements in India & China all had to begin by discarding the traditional religions of their communities. In the United States, Voltairine de Cleyre was (as her name suggests) the child of freethinkers, & wrote & spoke on secular as much as political topics."

    — Nicolas Walters, "Anarchism & Religion"

    Sharon Presley on DeCleyre

    See also:
    Poetry by Voltairine de Cleyre
    Quote from Voltairine de Cleyre

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1925 -- [June 20] Bulgaria: Vassil Ikonomov, anarchist guerrilla

    Guérillero anarchiste, figure importante du mouvement bulgare.

    Fils d'un employé des postes, il est mobilisé, durant la première guerre mondiale qu'il termine comme jeune officier. Mais dégouté du militarisme, il rencontre Michel Guerdjikov qui lui fait découvrir l'anarchisme. En 1919, il adhère à la Fédération anarchiste communiste de Bulgarie (F.A.C.B) qui vient de se créer.

    Partisan d'une guérilla révolutionnaire, contre la dictature de Stambolijski, il met son courage et sa détermination au service de l'organisation pour laquelle il commet de nombreuses actions terroristes. Les "expropriations" réalisées permettent la création de journaux et d'une maison d'édition. Il organise également des groupes de maquisards qui comptent dans leur rangs outre des anarchistes, des communistes, ou des membres du parti des paysans.

    En septembre 1923, il prend une part active dans l'insurrection anti-fasciste. Les années 1924-25 voient la multiplications de ses actions, comme l'exécution de plusieurs personalités réactionnaires et même une tentative de capture du roi Boris III.

    Traqué par l'armée et des groupes para-militaires, il est tué dans des circonstances mystérieuses le 20 juin 1925, alors qu'il prenait un bain dans une rivière près du village de Bélitsa.

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1941 -- [June 20] River Rouge Plant & the first United Auto Workers (UAW) contract with Ford

    The 1945 Trends in Collective Bargaining study noted that "by around 1940" the labor leader had joined the business leader as an object of "widespread cynicism" to the American employee.

    Later in the 1940s C. Wright Mills, in his The New Men of Power: Amenca's Labor Leaders, described the union's role thusly: "the integration of union with plant means that the union takes over much of the company's personnel work, becoming the discipline agent of the rank-&-flle."

    In the mid-1950s, Daniel Bell realized that unionization had not given workers control over their job lives. Struck by the huge, spontaneous walk-out at River Rouge in July, 1949, over the speed of the Ford assembly line, he noted that "sometimes the constraints of work explode with geyser suddenness." & as Bell's Work & Its Discontents (1956) bore witness that "the revolt against work is widespread & takes many forms," so had Walker & Guest's Harvard study, The Man on the Assembly Line (1953), testified to the resentment & resistance of the man on the line.

    Similarly, & from a writer with much working class experience himself, was Harvey Swados' "The Myth of the Happy Worker," published in The Nation, August, 1957, Workers & the unions continued to be at odds over conditions of work during this period.

    See John Zerzan's Organized Labor versus "The Revolt Against Work,


    Use your back button to return to your last page

    2004 -- [June 20] From the Dayton Daily News of June 20, 2004.

    Ray Bradbury, author of the classic sci-fi book Fahrenheit 451, is burning mad over Michael Moore's appropriation of his title for his Bush-bashing documentary, reports "The Philadelphia Inquirer."

    "Number one, he didn't ask, and, number two? He took it...period," said the celebrated fantasy writer, whose 1953 novel gave Moore the inspiration for his "Fahrenheit 9/11" title. "What he has done is a crime."


    The title of Bradbury's antitotalitarian work refers to the temperature at which books burn.

    Book titles are not subject to copyright; Moore's title isn't the same as Bradbury's. 9/11 is quite different from 451.


    Bradbury sounds irritated that Moore didn't get in touch early on. Apparently Moore told him he was embarrassed.

    The BBC story has a few more details:

    Not mentioned in that story are the 1966 film "Fahrenheit 451" & the new to-be-released production of it. Also notable is Bradbury's short story "A Sound of Thunder" which is being made into a movie to be released this year. For those unfamiliar with it, this is a classic SF short story in which hunters pay a high price (in more ways than one) to travel back to prehistoric times to hunt & kill dinosaurs.

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1921 -- [June 21] In the Sacco & Vanzetti trial, a ballistics expert testifies shells found at the scene & taken from the bodies of the decedents were “consistent with” having been fired by Sacco’s pistol.

    It was later challenged that the word “consistent” was used purposely to lead the jury to believe that Sacco’s pistol was the murder weapon without explicitly saying so.

    Yesterday employees of the Iver Johnson Company testified the gun taken from Vanzetti when arrested was “of the same kind” as the one left at their store by the victim Berardelli. Sacco’s boss also testifies that a cap found at the scene was similar to one Sacco wore.

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1921 -- [June 21] Judy Holliday

    A shrewd, intelligent woman, Holliday made her acting career by playing endearing, scatter-brained blondes. In the early 1950s, Holliday is called before the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee for associating with suspected communists.

    Realizing the public confuses her with her film persona, Holliday put on a show for the committee, leading her questioners in circles of illogic & forgetfulness.

    Convinced she really is truly an idiot, the committee let her go without getting a single piece of usable information — & never realizing they were the idiots & victims of a masterful joke.

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1937 -- [June 21] Youngstown Riots & Poland Avenue Riot (Ohio Steel Strike of 1937).

    Monday night, June 21, was a crucial night in the life & history of Youngstown, Ohio. All factions agreed that nothing short of a miracle would prevent serious trouble. Few people went to sleep.

    Near the mills, & away from them, people were gathered in groups & talked of only one thing — the strike. It had become more than a strike. War was in the air.

    The weeks of preparation were bound to bear fruit this night. There would be bloodshed & murder. Some time between midnight & seven the next morning the forces opposing the C. I. O. were scheduled to go "over the top," & to break through the union lines.

    The union people carried signs reading "They Shall Not Pass" & gathered in large numbers to guard the gates. The city & county increased their respective police forces & added to their store of munitions.

    A preliminary battle had taken place two nights before. Some union men say that it was deliberately staged in an effort to test the probable extent of union resistance in the real fight. This trial skirmish took place on Saturday, June 19.

    If you happened to have a Pennsylvania license, you were particularly suspected because, as every cop & official in Youngstown will tell you, Pennsylvania has gone Bolshevik...


    Sidney Solomon
    (Painter, New York, USA)

    "I remember a talk I gave in the 1930's to 500 steelworkers in Youngstown, Ohio. The biggest hit was the IWW songbook... If we'd had more strength we could have made a significant impact - because workers are sympathetic to Anarchism."

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1943 -- [June 21] US: Government attempt to strip William Schneiderman, a communist, of his citizenship is overturned by the US Supreme Court.



    A resolution by the Georgia legislature will cite this in one of its efforts to impeach US Supreme Court justices:

    "Thereby, the said Justices Black, Reed & Douglas effectively repealed & nullified a constitutional law enacted by Congress for the protection of this country against its enemies & in doing so gave aid & comfort to the greatest enemy the United States has ever had..."

    "Whereas, the chief enemy of the United States is Godless communism...."

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1967 -- [June 21] New Buffalo founded near Taos, New Mexico; a Bleed reader writes:

    Subject: New Improved Jook Savage
    Date: Thu, 21 Jun 2001

    We, we live while they sleep... No, we play, we do politically incorrect things & eat them & miscegenate them too.

    The New Improved Jook Savage Minnesota contingent has won Minneaplois' "Battle of the Jug Bands" for about 15 years running.

    The sorta useta dylan look alike guitar player that still lives in Marin makes disrespectful tapes in CA that seem to amuse the Church of the SubGenius & some italian art music site


    > > La Holy Funk è un’etichetta culto Californiana specializzata infolle ART Rock. Musica scarna, > impolverata.Odora di sole, pre-dicatori religiosi, pompe di benzina. Se conoscete“Le colline hanno gli occhi” > vi sarà chiaro lo scenario evocato.Una specie di blues corrotto.

    > Vegetarians In Naziland” Tape Holy Funk (USA) Vedi sopra.

    (i knew that)

    Lisa Law is full of shit, & anything she says about her relationship to the jook savages in her "Ripping of the 60s" is to be taken with about 250 mickymikes which is a challenge you can bet she'll turn down. Tom & lisa were never on a stage with us anywhere, anytime - in anything but the universe of their own co-optive arrogance.

    Michael Butler's website journal mentioning the (new improved - & we were right from the start) jooksavages is the most stunningly imaginative piece of shit i've ever read, next to the taxbill "they" just passed & the more hyperbolic parts of Gravity's Rainbow.

    Blue Cheer was also a small pill which you shouldn't take before driving from Larkspur to Muir Beach.

    The Mojo Men wore purple & navy broad striped velour v-neck pullovers & refused to share a dressing room with us

    The wino with the vomit on his trenchcoat sat with us in the hall of Glide Memorial & shared his white port with us turned out to be Bukowski. I didn't read him for another 5 years.

    Rick Griffin first played with us in 1965 next door at his neighbor Rick Timberlakes. 5 core Jooks were there, along with Allen Ginsberg (i didn't know who he was) who played his harmonium & Gregory Corso who did moaning noises that were probably some mantra (i didn't know who he was either - hey! I was from mpls!) either right after or right before we played the Watts Acid Test with Hugh Romney (soon to become wavy gravy & then currently doing stand-up schtick in hollywood dives, double-gigging with tiny tim ((who would only use the toilet at his mother's house)) who had yet to meet bonniejean beecher (dylan's girl from the north country - and our mutual bigcity hometown - & who now has some name i can't pronounce) & Ur hog-farmers, & ken & the merrys & a loud rock group with really big speakers then known as the Warlocks, & two barrels of cool-aid...

    I’m beginning to believe that some people really DON’T remember the 60s… Weird … i can still see dust doing brownian movement in the sunlight of some of the rooms…

    So - WHO are you anyway? Why did you pick THAT ITEM for 1967?


    just an impoverished bass player who misses the Committee Theater, didn't think LaVerne & Shirley was that great, & just wants to wear a green beret (not made in china, please) & be an oscar myer wiener.


    PS. I was a child spy for the FBI. No shit...

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1899 -- [June 22] US: Emma Goldman begins a seven-week series of lectures

    "Why I Am an Anarchist Communist," "The Aim of Humanity," "The Development of Trades-Unionism," & "Charity" number among Emma Goldman's lectures.

    The socialists are antagonistic to her on several occasions. Her lecture on "Sex Problems" continues to stir debate; some applaud her courage to speak about this taboo issue.

    Socialists & cops weren't the only people Emma Goldman had problems with. As she once noted,

    "Censorship came from some of my own comrades because I was treating such "unnatural" themes as homosexuality. Anarchism was already enough misunderstood, & anarchists considered depraved; it was inadvisable to add to the misconceptions by taking up perverted sex-forms, they argued.

    Believing in freedom of opinion, even if it went against me, I minded the censors in my own ranks as little as I did those in the enemy's camp. In fact, censorship from comrades had the same effect on me as police persecution; it made me surer of myself, more determined to plead for every victim, be it one of social wrong or of moral prejudice."

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1907 -- [June 22] First appearance of the Chinese weekly, "Hsin Shih-chi" (Xin Shiji; The New Century).

    Four young ardent Chinese anarchist students, Li Shizeng, Zhang Jing Jiang, Chu Min Yi, Wu Zhihui, began the paper in Paris, France, to espouse their creed. Influenced by the thought of Peter Kropotkin, for three years this journal championed the causes of anarchism & revolution, reaching Chinese students & intellectuals in all parts of the world. While few copies penetrated China proper, eventually the "Hsin Shih-chi" message reached the homeland through various channels. It reemerged in Shanghai in 1947.

    See The Chinese Anarchist Movement, by Scalapino & Yu,

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1920 -- [June 22] Italy: Following an immense open air meeting in Milan, people returning home are fired upon & assaulted by gendarmes... Five workers shot dead & many wounded.

    Errico Malatesta, one

    Malatesta of the speakers, was (as he wrote) "suddenly confronted by a dispersing crowd, heard the hissing sound of bullets & took under a doorway. What ought he to have done? Get killed to give pleasure to these gentlemen? ...

    The day when we shall think to be able to begin the fight — we, not they — we will be on our post & all do our duty. This does not mean that we will stay in the middle of the street with open breast to be killed stupidly to the satisfaction of those who from safe shelter behind their windows will shoot at us [as the nationalists had done]. We will get killed, if necessary, but we will not commit suicide. We want to win... & win we shall."

    — "Umanita Nova," June 25, 1920

    This was in reply to nationalist denunciations which grudged him taking shelter, while other "ex-combattenti" circulated death threats against him.

    At the funeral of the victims Malatesta said:

    "Our high ideal is not violence but peace, a society of people who are free & equal, in which conflicts & massacres will be impossible. Violence is not ours, but theirs, of the governing class which oppresses, tramples on the ground & murders the weaker. There is nothing left to the proletariat but to react violently against their violence & to put lead against lead to crush violence."

    — "Umanita Nova," June 26, 1920

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1937 -- [June 22] Spain: Soviet secret police are on a campaign to destroy Republican forces they cannot control.

    The war, shortages of raw materials, destruction of plant, a boycott by international capital & attacks from their own Republican government.

    The revolution that Spain experienced from 1936 through the implementation of anarchist ideas suffered all sorts of misadventures & yet production increased, working conditions improved, there was greater equality between citizens & the economy operated along more rational lines.

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1884 -- [June 23] José Martins Fontes lives. Brazilian doctor, lecturer, poet, anarchist, militant activist in São Paulo & Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Em 1938, o amigo Epíteto fontes o descreveria assim:

    "Não acreditando em deus, descrendo dos governantes humanos, não tendo religião ou credo politico, este ateu, este anarquista, era o mais piedoso dos homens, piedade universal, profunda, vigilante de todas horas e de todos os minutos."

    Deixou 4 obras poéticas que foram publicadas ainda em 1938 pela comissão glorificada de Martins fontes.

    Some of his poems are online, in Portuguese:

    Background, see
    History of the Anarchist Movement in Brazil (in Portuguese)

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1914 -- [June 23] Charles Moyer, president of the Western Federation of Miners came to Butte to attempt to mediate the conflict at the next regular meeting of the union on June 23rd. At that meeting, he might have wished he had stayed home.

    During the contentious meeting, shots were fired, killing one man. Moyer & other union officers vacated the hall & once again dynamite was the tool of choice. The hall was destroyed as the Uptown rocked with the repercussions from blasts throughout the night.

    Later that summer, The Company took advantage of the dissension to announce that they would no longer recognize the legitimacy of the Western Federation of Miners. The era of the closed shop had ended.

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1947 -- [June 23] US: Anti-worker Taft-Hartley Act passed
    A compendium of restraints on unions, the law bans mass picketing & union-only shops. It also allows employer interference with employee attempts to join unions. Another Taft-Hartley clause compels union officers to sign oaths that they are not Communists.

    The American Federation of Labor & the Congress of Industrial Organizations angrily denounce the act until they realize that certain leaders will gain power under the law. To share in the benefits, union leaders purge their ranks of Communists & other militants. Unions who refuse to remove radicals will be subject to a joint attack by the government & the AFL-CIO.

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1958 -- [June 23] Boris Vian

    Vian strongly disapproved of the film's treatment of his work, having battled with the film company for years & having all his own film treatments of the book rejected by the producers. Having forgotten to take his medicine that morning, & very agitated, the experience literally killed him.

    In 1946 he completed the manuscript of L'Ecume des jours, & later that year, in 15 days between the fifth & the 20th of August, he wrote the entire manuscript of J'irai cracher sur vos tombes, which sold in excess of half a million copies.

    Vian made his antimitilitarism (& his scorn for existentialism) quite plain when he wrote:

    "War is a social phenomenon of capital interest because all those who engage in it may earn a pure & complete objectification & thus reach the corpse state ... but war does not provide a solution because often one is not killed."

    In the middle 1950s, during the Algerian crisis, he wrote popular songs including "Le Déserteur".

    Also by Boris Vian, L'Ecume des jours; L'Herbe rouge; L'Arrache-coeur.


    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1964 -- [June 23] US: Freedom Riders Chaney, Goodman & Schwerner murdered, by KKK
    Civil rights volunteers Michael Schwerner (24), Andrew Goodman (20), & James Chaney (21) were allegedly arrested for speeding, held for six hours, then released, but their car was found burned. On 4 August their bodies are discovered by the FBI buried in a dam. Contrary to Hollywood fantasy, the FBI does not immediately step in to champion racial justice.

    African-American Mississippian Chaney & Jewish New Yorkers Schwerner & Goodman are reportedly arrested for speeding in Neshoba County, Mississippi. This followed their inspection of an African American church that mysteriously burned down. Local white authorities report the trio was released after their arrest.

    Searchers found the burned hulk of their station wagon but not the young men. After the FBI begins work on the case, some white Mississippi leaders publicly suggest the disappearance is a hoax.

    On August 4th, the FBI, on a tip, goes to a farm near Philadelphia. Buried in an earthen dam are the bullet-ridden bodies of the missing men.

    The Neshoba county sheriff & one of his deputies are among 21 arrested in December for the murder, but all win release on a technicality.

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1647 -- [June 24] US: US: Margaret Brent urges women's vote before Maryland Assembly.
    Brent appears before the Maryland colonial assembly to demand a voice & vote for herself in that body. She completely shocks the all-male Assembly, which refuses her the vote.

    Born in England in 1601, Brent & her sister in 1638 settled in Maryland, a Catholic colony founded by Lord Baltimore. She became the first woman freeholder in the colony when she was granted a 70-acre estate that she & her sister called "Sisters Freehold."

    Refusing to marry, the two sisters are the only spinsters in 17th-century Maryland. Brent's unusual stature in the community & the resulting confusion of sex roles has led her to sign official documents as "Margaret Brent, Gentleman."

    Earlier this year, Brent quelled a rebellion among soldiers by selling some of Lord Baltimore's land to pay them. In London, Baltimore objected after the fact, but the legislature defended her actions & she emerged a heroine.

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1842 -- [June 24] US: Ambrose Bierce
    "Bitter Bierce" — American newspaper columnist, satirist, essayist, short-story writer & novelist, disappeared in the Mexican Revolution. Presumably died in the siege of Ojinega, January 1914. Strongly influenced by Edgar Allan Poe. His experiences in the Civil War marked him for life.

    (F)red Bierce Jack London noted of the cynical author of The Devil's Dictionary:

    "Bierce would bury his best friend with a sigh of relief, & express satisfaction that he was done with him."

    A fictional account of his last days is The Old Gringo (1985) by Carlos Fuentes (adapted to screen in 1989, directed by Luis Punzo, starring Jane Fonda & Gregory Peck).

    Further reading:
    Ambrose Bierce, The Devil's Lexicographer by Paul Fatout (1951)
    Ambrose Bierce by Robert A. Wiggins (1964)
    Ambrose Bierce: A Biography by Richard O'Connor (1968)

    Bierce wrote Cobwebs From an Empty Skull, Dance of Death, Tales of Soldiers & Civilians (revised & renamed In the Midst of Life, includes the short story 'An Occurence at Owl Creek Bridge'), The Devil's Dictionary (originally published as The Cynic's Word Book).

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1917 -- [June 24] Jean-Louis Pindy (1840-1917) dies; communard & anarchist.

    Pindy was arrested & sent to prison for a year in the third trial against the First International, April 1870, & released September 4, when the Republic was declared.

    Elected to the Paris Commune, it was Pindy who ordered the Hôtel de Ville burned down during the Bloody Week.

    Condemned to death, he slipped into Switzerland, where, in contact with James Guillaume, he joined the Jurassic Federation.

    On September 16, 1872, Jean-Louis Pindy attended the anti-authoritarian Congrès de l'AIT (International Workers Association /Asociación Internacional de los Trabajadores), as well as later congresses.

    In 1877, with Paul Brousse & François Dumartheray, Pindy co-founded a French section of AIT, with its newspaper "L'Avant-Garde."

    In French, see

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1924 -- [June 24] Michel Ragon, Anarchitecte

    Michel Ragon published an autobiographical novel, Drôles de métiers, Drôles de voyages & then, in 1954, a collection of poetry Cosmopolites (winner of the "Prix des Poètes").

    In 1948 Ragon organizes the exhibition Art brut, naÏvisme et littérature prolétarienne at the Gallery Portes de France in Paris. The Cobra Group is founded.

    Ragon then discovered a passion for architecture (he coined the term Anarchitectes) & wrote several works as a result.

    He wrote also Histoire de la littérature prolétarienne en France (1974), the highly successful novel Les mouchoirs rouges de Cholet (1983), & other books such as La voie libertaire, Terre Humaine (1991), La mémoire des vaincus (1990), Le roman de Rabelais (1993), Un si bel espoir (1998).

    Michel Ragon
    Proletarian writer, poet, critic & historian
    of art & architecture,
    fellow traveler of anarchy.

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1935 -- [June 24] Luigi Fabbri, Italian anarchist theorist

    Fabbri & Pietro Gori participated in the review "Il pensiero". Contributed to Umanita Nova, an anarchist daily paper published by Errico Malatesta in Milan, along with Gigi Damiani, Camillo Berneri, Nella Giacomelli, Armando Borghi, etc.

    In 1926 Fabbri went into exile to escape the fascist regime, taking refuge in France, Belgium, &, finally, after being expelled several times, in Uruguay. In Montevideo he began, in 1930, the review "Studi sociali" (Social Studies), promulgating the ideas of Malatesta. In addition to writing for many newspapers, he wrote Dictature et Révolution.

    Luigi Fabbri died prematurely in the thick of the struggle on 24 June 1935. The previous December an incident at the oasis of Wal Wal in Ethiopia had provided the spark for a fascist attack on Ethiopia & the start of a spiral of war-mongering which carried the Mussolini dictatorship through events in Spain to the catastrophe of Hitler's war. It was a catastrophe which Fabbri had been awaiting faithfully, hopefully for many a long year, but which he was denied the chance to see.

    — Francesco Lamendola, (Unamita Nova, 6-11-1988)

    (A city in Sweden in June 2001, concerned about it's image while hosting a meeting of the European Union honchos, asked a restaurant to remove a toilet bowl with a painting of Mussolini on it. It complied.)

    Of related interest: Reviews — A Tent in This World

  • New York Times Book Review, 6/6/99: The William Weaver familiar to generations of readers as the translator, quick & sure, of the best of postwar Italian writing was once the aspiring (and rejected) novelist William Fense Weaver, who along the way created this wonderful short work, first published in Italy (in the journal Botteghe Oscure) in 1950, & now happily issued as a book. In the fictive form of a diary written on the spot, "A Tent in This World" chronicles six weeks in the autumn of 1947 when Bill, 24 years old, comes back to Naples, revisits the scenes that had most vividly impressed themselves on his young mind when he was a volunteer ambulance driver in the city three & a half years earlier, renews & strengthens his connections with the Fabbri family, particularly his friend & contemporary Luigi, & once more leaves the city, this time for Rome & new literary connections. . . . There is never really any doubt, however, about the outcome, for the diary itself is so attentive, so receptive, so free of nostalgia & sentimentality, that the readers feels instinctively supportive of its narrator. Bill has unlimited curiosity, he is stimulated throughout, & what his journal conveys is how it feels to be young & alive & alert. It is because of William Fense Weaver's tactfulness & skill that all this is achieved without pretension or self-dramatization, & in a way that gives extraordinary pleasure.

  • Publishers Weekly, 3/15/99: Renowned translator Weaver's long-ignored novella, first published in 1950 in the literary journal Botteghe Oscure, blends reminiscence with regret as it offers a closeup of a sensitive young man's growing pains during the years following WWII. Bill returns to Naples in 1947 to visit Luigi, a friend from his days as an ambulance driver in & around the city during the war. He meets several intriguing characters through Luigi: Rina, who flirts with Bill, with Luigi & with insanity; Cesare, Luigi's younger brother, living recklessly on the island of Capri; & the impetuous & irascible Signora Fabbri, Luigi's mother, who rules her household with an excess of concern. Several pleasant but unconnected events nostalgic sightseeing jaunts, a trip to Capri, a harmless dalliance with Rina amuse Bill, but ultimately it is the act of writing letters home that provokes in him the self-questioning necessary for personal change. Having outgrown his soldier's uniform, Bill no longer recognizes his identity or his life's purpose. He leaves Naples at the story's end altered both from within & from without a response to historical progress & to his inevitable abandonment of youthful aimlessness. Astute observations about the nature of language, tourism, alienation & culture lace the novel & offer a rough & early map of the approach taken by one of the great American translators of 20th-century Italian novelists. Charming & intelligent, Weaver's unrevised novella comes to our shores as a late but very welcome guest.
    Remembering Luigi Fabbri

    Fabbri, Luce

    For Pietro Gori, see the chronology by Franco Bertolucci

  • Use your back button to return to your last page

    1995 -- [June 24]

    André Laude (1936-1995)

    French writer, poet, journalist, militant anarchist, surrealist, "Carried the bags" during the Algerian revolution.

    Poetry now became Laude's "raison de vivre," rather than journalism. Politically he was briefly involved with the PSU (Left Socialist Unified), but in 1968, as a friend of Raoul Vaneigem, Guy Debord & Dany Cohn-Bendit, he participated in the l'internationale situationniste. He remained, basically, a libertarian & a true poet until his death.

    "Only the poets who preach disorder are, in my eyes, authentic poets."

    —Comme une blessure rapprochée du soleil (1979).

    André Laude wrote many volumes of poetry, including Occitanie premier cahier de revendication (1972), Testament de Ravachol (1974), 53 Polonaises (1989). His novels include Plusieurs romans: Joyeuses apocalypse (1972), Rue des merguez (1979), Liberté couleur d'homme (1980). Laude also wrote a short Histoire de la pensée libertaire (Revue Planète, 1968).




    Ainsi se résumait André Laude en quatrième de couverture de Joyeuse Apocalypse, publié par Stock en 1973. Le poète est mort dans la misère d'une petite chambre le 26 juin 1995. Le journal Le Monde, auquel il avait collaboré durant des années comme chroniqueur littéraire, s'est souvenu de son existence et lui a consenti une notice nécrologique, le 28 juin. Parmi une oeuvre vaste et dispersée citons Couleur végétale, Dans ces ruines campent l'homme blanc, le Testament de Ravachol, Rue des Merguez... Dans les poèmes qui suivent, fragments d'un recueil en préparation et à jamais inachevé, résonne étrangement la voix posthume du poète anarchiste.

    "Ce qui nous réjouit chez André Laude, c'est la fraîcheur, la spontanéité et son envoûtante petite musique. Il est sincère au-delà des mots, il ne s'embarrasse pas de vers mesurés, il dit tout, comme ça, à cru, et ça vibre, ça nous émeut.

    Voudrait-il écrire un méchant poème qu'il ne le pourrait pas. André est pauvre, malade, mais il n'est jamais amer. Il a l'orgueil des grands : la grâce.

    Ne nous y trompons pas, il sait tirer à boulets rouges (et noirs) sur la saloperie des hommes.

    Il est du Sud (Occitanie) mais il est né et vit à Paris, et il a hérité de la "douleur polonaise". Il sait, dans le Grand Nord, apprivoiser la ronde des loups, et, au Mexique, faire chanter les veuves noires.

    D'aucuns diront qu'il y a quelque naïveté à écrire, par exemple dans Journaux de voyages.

    D'aucuns diront qu'au fond de son désespoir, il est furieusement optimiste comme les grands révoltés. Qu'il sait que l'Humanité renaîtra de ses cendres."

    Michel Pérelle

     Je m'appelle personne


    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1938 -- [June 25] US: US: Fair Labor Standards Act passed.
    President Franklin Roosevelt signs the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) — also known as the federal wage & hour law — guaranteeing a minimum hourly wage of 25 cents.

    The law is enforced by the Department of Labor’s Wage & Hour Division & sets the federal minimum wage & overtime requirements.

    It also prohibits child labor & requires employers to keep adequate time & payroll records.

    In 1996, the FLSA covers more than 110 million workers.


    See also:

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1926 -- "James Eads How: Portrait," appears today, "Collier's", p. 16, a depiction of the millionaire-hobo.

    JAMES EADS HOW, Daily Bleed Saint, 2002-2004
    Patron Saint of the Boxcar Traveler.

    How, the "millionaire hobo," began the International Brotherhood Welfare Association (IBWA), in 1906, for the education & mutual support of the hobo & tramp. The IBWA founded various Hobo Colleges & published the "Hobo News." By the time of How's death in 1930 he had spent his entire fortune on this effort.

    “James Eads How, an heir to a St.Louis fortune, chose to live his life as a hobo, riding the rails, sleeping in flophouses & wearing old clothes. Fueled by the Social Gospel Movement that adhered to helping relieve the suffering of the poor, Mr. How founded the International Brotherhood Welfare Association & a publication known as the Hoboes Jungle Scout in 1913. That newspaper evolved into the Hobo News in 1915 which became a monthly & lasted until at least 1929. Hobo News in turn evolved into the Hobo World newspaper. The only existing copies of the monthly publication indicate it was mix of job news, poems, sentimental short stories & lore about the life of hoboes.”

    -Trying to Write a History of the Role of Street Newspapers in the Social Movement to Alleviate Poverty & Homelessness -by Norma Fay Green ~ July 23, 1999 Click to access the locally archived copy of 1937 Time articles.

    How organized a series of hobo colleges in many major cities. Mr. How believed that hobos were intelligent & knew from personal experience many economic & social realities that the outstanding thinkers of the time were writing about. They were not formal institutions of learning but lecture halls where hoboes debated issues with speakers & each other.

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1961 -- American radical poet & novelist Kenneth Fearing (1902-1961) dies after being diagnosed last week with a malignant melanoma. Contributing editor, "New Masses", member of John Reed Club, associate editor of "Partisan Review", Albert Halper's novel Union Square, includes a character modeled on Fearing. His portrait was painted by Alice Neel. Best known for his novel The Big Clock (filmed & released 1948).

    In his fictional works, Fearing satirized the middle class, often using savage dialogue.

    Contributing editor, New Masses (till 1933). Member of John Reed Club & later member of executive committee of NY chapter (till about 1935). Last contribution to the "New Masses" was in 1938. Albert Halper's novel Union Square (1933), includes a character modeled on Fearing. Leslie River's Death of a Young Man (1922), also has a protagonist modeled on Fearing (Rivers was a high school friend).

    Besides The Big Clock, (1946), other works include: Angel Arms, 1929, Poems, 1935, Dead Reckoning: A Book of Poetry, 1938 , The Hospital, 1939, Collected Poems of Kenneth Fearing, 1940, The Dagger of the Mind, 1941, Clark Gifford's Body, 1942, Afternoon of a Pawnbroker & Other Poems, 1943, Sherlock Spends a Day in the Country, 1944, Loneliest Girl in the World: A Novel, 1951, The Generous Heart: A Novel, 1954, New & Selected Poems, 1956, The Crozart Story, 1960, Stranger at Coney Island & Other Poems, The Complete Poems, 1997.

    Some sources:

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1906 -- [June 28] Japan: Shusui Denjiro Kôtoku speaks at a large public meeting in Tokyo.

    Kotoku was a journalist, writer, & one of the most outstanding figures of Japanese anarchism.

    As soon as Kotoku returned from the US, a large public meeting was organised in Tôkyô to welcome him back & to give him the opportunity to report on how his ideas had developed while in America. At this meeting, held on today, Kôtoku spoke on "The Tide of the World Revolutionary Movement", which he asserted was flowing against parliamentarism & towards the General Strike as "the means for the future revolution".

    Kotoku (1871-1911) & 11 other anarchists were hanged in 1911 for plotting against the emperor's life.

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    Gavrilo Princip
    1914 -- [June 28] Serbian anarchist Gavrilo Princip assassinates Austria's Archduke Ferdinand. The young Serbian revolutionary's two pistol shots are said to have touched off World War I. This was a fine excuse...the governmental bloodbath had been coming for many years as various nation-states jockeyed for power & wealth. Called a Great War to End All Wars by some political jokester, the blood of citizens is cheap (5 to 10 million soldiers died).

    "Bang, bang Gavrilo Princip/Bang, bang shoot me Gavrilo/Bang, bang, the first six are for you/Bang, bang, the seventh is for me... Europe's going to weep."

    ... show details

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1956 -- [June 28] Excerpt, The Hungarian Workers' Revolution A Syndicalist Workers' Federation pamphlet:

    "The Polish revolt, like the East German, began with a strike of industrial workers. But, unlike the Berlin revolt, the Polish was premeditated & organised. The mass feeling of revolt was certainly there, waiting to be called into action, but the character of its bursting forth showed that factory-based organisations of the workers existed.

    In Poznan, on June 28, 1956, the workers of the big ZISPO locomotive works appeared as usual at their benches & machines. Within 15 minutes they were marching out to Red Army Street in the centre of the city — 15,000 of them. Almost at the same moment, other factories & work sites became idle as the whole industrial population joined in the demonstration, & the trains stopped running.

    Street traffic had to stop because of the crowds, & the drivers of trams & lorries joined the strikers. Now students & housewives joined the march to the prison & police headquarters, which surrendered without a shot. The prisoners were free.

    Next to the Communist Party headquarters, which were quickly ransacked. Then to the U.B., Polish Communist Gestapo, where gun-fighting followed. Barricades went up. The radio station was seized & revolutionary broadcasts began. But the headquarters of the secret police torturers was not captured &, after heavy fighting, the Communists with the threat of the Red Army regained control. ...

    The East German rising began as a spontaneous revolt of one job site. The Poznan revolt was an organised strike of most factories, in the city. ..."

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1974 -- [June 28] Maurice Vandamme, (aka Mauricius) (1886-1974) dies. French néo-Malthusien, free-love advocate, anti-militarist, medical research doctor.
    One-time companion of Rirette Maitrejean. Involved in numerous papers, including Libertad's "L'Anarchie," Sébastien Faure's "Ce qu'il faut dire" & E. (Ernest) Armand's "la Mêlée".

    Vandamme was sent to prison for five years for an article he wrote on the Bonnot Gang, & did over 1-1/2 years before winning on appeal.

    Vandamme was also arrested by the Bolsheviks while attending the Communist International Congress in 1920, & condemned to death, avoiding only by the intervention of libertarian syndicalists Vergeat & Lepetit.

    He began publishing "Cupidon" in 1922, founded a medical center & was a member of the underground resistance during WWII.

    Vandamme wrote Au Pays des Soviets, neuf mois d'aventures (1922), E. Armand, sa vie, son oeuvre (1964), etc.

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1930 -- [June 30] Francisco Saverio Merlino (1856-1930) dies. Lawyer, theorist, propagandist of Italian anarchism, then a socialist. He continued to defend the anarchists as needed — which was often.
    • Berti, Giampietro. Francesco Saverio Merlino: Dall'anarchismo socialista al socialismo liberale (1856-1930) in the Collana della Fondazione di studi storici Filippo Turati (FrancoAngeli, 1993).

    • Liberali, e quindi anarchici (Libertarians, & therefore anarchists)

    • See Luigi Galleani's Il principio dell'organizzazione alla luce dell'Anarchismo

    • The End of Anarchism? was Galleani's outraged response to an interview of ex-anarchist Saverio Merlino entitled "The End of Anarchism," in which Merlino pronounced "anarchism an obsolete doctrine, torn by internal disputes, bereft of first-rate theorists, & doomed to early extinction."

      Anarcho Chik overturning the political pyramid
      3000 --

      anti-CopyRite 1997-3000, more or less
      Subscribe to daily email excerpts & updates (include the words 'subscribe bleed' in subject field),
      or send questions, additions, corrections to:
      BleedMeister David Brown

      Visit the complete Daily Bleed Archives

      The Daily Bleed is freely produced by Recollection Used Books

      Over 1 million visitors since May 29, 2005

      anarchist, labor, radical books

      See also: Anarchist Encyclopedia
      Stan Iverson Memorial Library
      Anarchist Time Line / Chronology