Cat Has Had the Time of His Life

    thin line

    Our Daily Bleed...


The Daily Bleed Detail Reference Page for the month of April

Entries on this page provide details relating to dated entries cited in the Daily Bleed Calendar, linked from there to the date(s) cited here.

The Daily Bleed Calendar in full, & access to the pages for this month, are accessible at The Daily Bleed Calendar, April Reference Pages, anarchism, radical, anarchy archives, Timeline, Chronology, History, Arts, Literature, Anarchists, libertarian, Emma Goldman, syndicalism, individualist, anarchiste, anarquista, anarchist-communism"

1841 -- [April 1] US: Brook Farm, history's most famous utopian community, is founded near West Roxbury, Massachusetts. It's primary appeal was to young Bostonians who shrink from the materialism of American life, & the community was a refuge for dozens of transcendentalists, including Ralph Waldo Emerson & Nathanial Hawthorne.

Members share the farm & domestic labor. A desire to care for each other will lead to episodes such as the so-called "griddle-cake crisis," in which those eating breakfast will not be able to enjoy their pancakes while oppressed by the thought of those serving them. A Brook Farm meeting will settle the question by having the eaters turn around & serve the cooks.

A community school, providing a balance of care & freedom, is Brook Farm's most successful institution. Children mix farm work with study, music, dancing & art.

See Kenneth Rexroth's chapter on Brook Farm, in Communalism.

Use your back button to return to your last page

1871 -- [April 1] France: Emile Digeon is arrested...
On March 24, with news of the Parisian insurrection, the people of Narbonne had invaded City Hall, distributed the weapons, & Digeon had proclaimed the Narbonne Commune, which lasted until overwhelmed by the army yesterday.

Digeon, a revolutionary journalist/anarchist, was tried, but found innocent on the charges against him & released, November 13.

Use your back button to return to your last page

Timeline icon
1894 --

En-tête du numéro du 20 janvier 1895 (coll. perso)

[April 1] Le 1er avril 1894, sortie à Dison (Belgique) du bimensuel "Le Plébéien".

"Le Plébéien"

anarchiste diamond dingbat

En-tête du numéro du 20 janvier 1895 (coll. perso)

Se proclamant d'abord "Organe de combat pour l'émancipation des travailleurs" puis "Journal communiste-anarchiste" et enfin "Sociologie -Arts - Littérature". Victime de la répression policière, seuls 4 numéros verront le jour en 1894. Mais le journal réapparaît dès le 6 janvier 1895 et ce jusqu'à la fin de l'année.

"Nous sommes ... des révoltés. Nous luttons pour aider à la naissance d'une société égalitaire où l'individu puisse se mouvoir librement, sans entrave de la part d'un pouvoir quelconque. Nous combattons l'ordre des choses actuel et tous nos efforts tendront à soulever les individus contre la savante tyrannie et les tracasseries bêtes de nos maîtres... "

Source & graphic: Ephéméride Anarchiste

Use your back button to return to your last page

or visit April 1

1896 -- [April 1] Emma Goldman, anarchist feministUS: Back in New York this month, Emma Goldman resides with Edward Brady in a German neighborhood on Eleventh Street

Emma earns a meager living as a midwife & nurse, witnessing the plight of many women suffering from unwanted pregnancies.

She persuades Alexander Berkman to appeal to the Pennsylvania Board of Pardons for his release from prison. She helps to launch a broad-based campaign for his case, & also solicits Voltairine de Cleyre's support.

... show more

Use your back button to return to your last page

1901 -- [April 1] Francisco Ascaso. Anarchist militant/CNT member. Member of "Los Solidarios".

Several members of Nosotros, an FAI action group. Those pictured include the three most well-known figures, Garcia Oliver, Francisco Ascaso, & Buenaventura Durruti.

Francisco Ascaso Abadia was part of "Los Solidarios" with Durruti, Gregorio Jover, Juan García Oliver, Antonio Ortiz, Ricardo Sanz, etc. They fought against the "Pistoleros" (hired by cleric employers to assassinate trade unionists).
... show more


Use your back button to return to your last page

Timeline icon
1914 --

En-tête du numéro trois du 1er mai 1914 (coll. perso)

[April 1]

"Le Réveil Anarchiste"

anarchiste diamond dingbat

Le 1er avril 1914, sortie aux Lilas (près de Paris) du premier numéro du journal "Le Réveil Anarchiste". Il succède en fait au "Réveil Anarchiste Ouvrier" qui était publié depuis le 15 novembre 1912. Parmi le comité de rédaction du journal et ses collaborateurs citons les noms d'Edouard Boudot, Eugène Jacquemin, Edouard Sené, Christian Cornelissen, Charles-Ange Laisant, Charles Malato, Benoit Broutchoux, Jean Wintsch, etc. Le gérant et les principaux rédacteurs seront emprisonnés à l'automne 1913. Le journal reparaît donc sous un autre nom ce premier avril, mais seulement trois numéros verront le jour.

Source & graphic: Ephéméride Anarchiste

Use your back button to return to your last page

or visit April 1

Timeline icon
1927 -- [April 1] Le 1er avril 1927, sortie à Barcelone (Catalogne) du premier numéro de "Etica" Revue d'Education Individuelle, Philosophie, Littérature, Art et Naturisme.


En-tête du premier numéro

anarchiste diamond dingbat;anarquistaEcléctique, elle comptera de nombreux collaborateurs comme Isaac Puente, E. Armand, Federica Montseny, Han Ryner, Emma Goldman, etc. La revue s'arrêtera en janvier 1929, laissant la place à "Iniciales". Mais le titre "Etica" reparaîtra à Valencia entre 1935-1936.

Source & graphic: Ephéméride Anarchiste

Use your back button to return to your last page

or visit April 1

1936 -- [April 1] Emma Goldman, anarchist feministEngland: During this month Emma Goldman leaves London for Nice

Alexander Berkman is still hospitalized; in spite of Emmy Eckstein's worsening health, she & Emma visit him daily.

Emma also writes to drama organizations in Britain & places advertisements in drama publications, soliciting lecture dates for the fall: she offers to speak on Eugene O'Neill, Clifford Odets, & other contemporary playwrights, as well as on "Soviet Literature, Its Struggle & Its Promise."

Use your back button to return to your last page

1974 --
Dernier numéro du journal, décembre 1983.

"Le Réfractaire"

anarchiste diamond dingbat [April 1] Le 1er avril 1974, sortie à Paris du premier numéro du mensuel "Le Réfractaire" Journal de l'association des Amis de Louis Lecoin.

Timeline icon"Social, pacifiste, libertaire" puis "Organe libertaire pour la défense de la Paix et des libertés individuelles" publié par May Picqueray. Le journal s'arrêtera après son décès en décembre 1983.

Source & graphic: Ephéméride Anarchiste

Use your back button to return to your last page

or visit April 1

1899 -- [April 2] Ferdinand Félix Fortin

Ferdinand Félix Fortin spent time in prison, in 1935 & 1936, for publishing anti-militarist articles which included an extract from the Handbook of the Soldier written by the anarcho-syndicalist Georges Yvetot in 1903.

In 1936, Fortin joined the libertarian forces in Barcelona during the Spanish Revolution, with the International Group of the Durruti Column which retook Saragossa [Zaragoza] from Franco's fascist army. It was there that his partner Georgette was killed on October 17, 1936.
Felix Fortin continued his militant activities in France after the defeat in Spain.

Source: Ephéméride Anarchiste’

Use your back button to return to your last page

1899 -- [April 2] Emma Goldman

Emma Goldman lectures on "Trades-Unionism & What It Should Be" & other issues in German & English before the International Workingmen's Association (IWA) & trade unions including the Brewers & Malters Union, the Painters & Decorators Union, & the Journeymen Tailors Union. Emma's presentation to the conservative Amalgamated Wood Workers Union is the first to take place by an anarchist.
... show more

Source: Emma Goldman Papers

Use your back button to return to your last page

1908 -- [April 2] Ramón Vila Capdevila

Ramón Vila Capdevila was a C.N.T. [Confederacion Nacional del Trabajo] member, involved in the Figols insurrection in January 1932, & was arrested & imprisoned.

The police still wanted to get him afterwards &, on April 18, 1936, with his cousin Ramón Rivas Capdevila, he is the victim of two seditious police officers trying to apply "Ley de fugas" (assassinating them in a fictitious bid to escape arrest). During the resulting fracas, Ramón Rivas & one of the officers is killed & the other wounded.

... show more

Use your back button to return to your last page

1954 -- [April 2] O'Sheel

"For me this document is especially poignant, since O'Sheel was my choice to supply the foreword for my soon-to-appear anti-McCarthy collection, Roll the Forbidden Drums! which the liberal William-Frederick Press had already set up in print but at the last moment decided was too great a risk. It was instead grabbed up by Cameron & Kahn, a new publishing house established when Angus Cameron lost his post at Little, Brown for protesting its rejection of Howard Fast's Spartacus.
... show more

Use your back button to return to your last page

1996 -- [April 2] Antonio Ortiz Ramirez (1907-1996) dies.
Ortiz was a member of the CNT in 1936 during the Spanish Revolution & Civil War.

Ortiz participated in the July 19/20, 1936 Barcelona attack against the barracks. He directed the "Red & Black" column which won part of Aragon from the fascists, allowing the development of the libertarian communities.

A video cassette recalls the life of this little known anarchist: "Ortiz, General Without God Nor Master".

In 1923, Antonio Ortiz was part of the group "Los solidarios" with Buenaventura Durruti. Durruti formed his famed column of volunteers to take Saragossa [Zaragoza] from the fascists, while Ortiz directed the "Red & Black" column (the Ortiz Column) in Aragon.

Afterwards Ortiz went to France which interned him in camps in Algeria. He then joined then liberation army to free Lattre, fought in Africa, & took part in the freeing of Strasbourg during WWII.

Antonio Ortiz then moved to Venezuela. See also 12 September 1948

Source: Ephéméride Anarchiste


Use your back button to return to your last page

Timeline icon
2007 --
anarchiste diamond dingbat


"There is a lot of bullshit in Lawrence & Miller — but their enemies are my enemies." (Kenneth Rexroth)

"The Reality of Henry Miller"
"Henry Miller: The Iconoclast as Everyman's Friend"


Two of Rexroth's greatest essays are about two of his greatest contemporaries: "Poetry, Regeneration, & D.H. Lawrence" "The Reality of Henry Miller" A few years later Rexroth nuanced his appreciation of both writers with some more critical second thoughts: "D.H. Lawrence: The Other Face of the Coin" "Henry Miller: The Iconoclast as Everyman's Friend" Other Rexroth essays just added to the BPS website: "Ford Madox Ford" "Blaise Cendrars" "Richard Wright & the Persistence of Racism"

Use your back button to return to your last page

1915 -- [April 4] John Rompapas

Rompapas founded the Rabelais Press, a New York radical publishing house that funded the "Revolutionary Almanac", a journal edited by the notorious anarchist, Hippolyte Havel.

Rabelais Press published Sanger's sex hygiene articles in book form with the titles What Every Mother Should Know & What Every Girl Should Know. And we know from the only surviving letter of Rompapas to Sanger (the Yeânnis letter) that he supported the "Social War", another anarchist publication edited by Havel & Robert Lee Warwick.
... show more

Use your back button to return to your last page

Timeline icon
1951 -- [April 4] Argentina: During this month, in Buenos-Aires, en-tête d'un numéro du mensuel "La Obra" (The Work).

La Obra masthead, April 1951

"La Obra"

anarchiste diamond dingbat; anarquista

Founded in 1936, this journal ceases publication in 1952.

Numéro 78 d'avril 1951 (quatorzième année de publication).
Masthead image courtesy: Ephéméride Anarchiste

Use your back button to return to your last page

1958 --


4 April 1958 Exclusion of Ralph Rumney, Italian section of the Situationist International. | [Situationist Resources]

1904 -- [April 5] Argentina: "La Protesta" first appears today.

Timeline icon

Successor to "La Protesta Humana" (1897-1904, founded & directed by Gregorio Inglán), the daily newspaper "La Protesta") was edited early on by Alberto Ghiraldo, & despite the many repressive storms it faces over the years, this important anarchist paper weathers them into the 1930s[?].

Background on Latin American anarchism

Use your back button to return to your last page

1930 -- [April 5] Antoine Cyvoct
Because of an article in "le droit social", Antoine Cyvoct was wrongly suspected of being the author of an attack against the restaurant at the Bellecour theatre in Lyon on October 22, 1882.

Cyvoct was also charged in the "Trial of the 66," (see the Daily Bleed for 28 January 1883) & sentenced, in absentia, to five years in prison (he had taken refuge in Switzerland & Belgium).

He was extradited to France in 1883 & tried for the Bellecour attack.

He was sentenced to death, despite the court's failure to prove he was responsible. His sentence was commuted to forced labor. Despite a massive campaign by the anarchists in 1895 to gain his release, Cyvoct was not amnestied until March 1898. This same year, Cyvoct was nominated for legislative elections, "To draw attention to the cases of the anarchists remaining in prison."

Cyvoct then worked in the bookstore business, & gave talks in the anarchist circles on living conditions in prisons.

Source: Ephéméride Anarchiste’

Use your back button to return to your last page

1959 -- [April 5] See Cuban Anarchism: The History of a Movement by Frank Fernandez

Synopsis: Cuba's anarchist movement traces its heritage back further than any other anarchist movement in Latin America; & Cuba produced the only mass, well organized anarchist movement ever to appear in the Western Hemisphere (excepting that in Argentina). Cuban Anarchism traces that movement from its beginnings in 1865 through its role in resisting homegrown dictatorship & U.S. imperialism throughout the first half of the 20th century; its important role in resisting the Batista dictatorship; its opposition to Castro's betrayal of the Cuban Revolution; & its years in exile. The book concludes with a look at the failure of the Castro dictatorship & at the possibility of fulfilling the promise of the Cuban Revolution after the fall of Castro.

A short chronology of developments in Cuba:

... show details

Use your back button to return to your last page

John Turner court ruling
1904 -- [April 6] John Turner's deportation; his arrest October 23, 1903 was the first test of the anti-anarchist immigration act: At an event at Murray Hill Lyceum, where Emma Goldman was to speak, Turner was arrested & charged with promoting anarchism & violating alien labor laws. He was "detained" on Ellis Island until his deportation, with the words "Let freedom ring" burning in his ears.
Said John Turner was arrested in the city of New York on or about October 23, 1903, under a warrant issued by the Secretary of the Department of Commerce & Labor of the United States, & was taken to the Ellis island immigration station, where he was examined by a board of special inquiry, duly constituted according to law, upon his right to remain in this country, & that said alien was, by said board, found to be an alien anarchist, & was, by unanimous decision of said board, ordered to be deported to the country from whence he came, as a person within the United States in violation of law.

That on October 26, 1903, said alien appealed from the said decision of the board of special inquiry to the Secretary of Commerce & Labor, who dismissed the appeal, & directed that said alien be deported to the country from whence he came, upon the ground that said alien is an anarchist [194 U.S. 279, 282] & a person who disbelieves in, & who is opposed to, all organized government, & was found to be in the United States in violation of law.

Argued April 6 & 7, 1904 before the US Supreme Court, in Turner v. Williams, 194 U.S. 279; Rules May 16, 1904 that Congress has unlimited power to exclude aliens & deport those who have entered in violation of the laws, including philosophical anarchists.


Use your back button to return to your last page

1918 -- [April 6] Russia

Scarcely a major city was without an anarchist or anarcho-syndicalist group, spreading a relatively large amount of printed matter — papers, periodicals, leaflets, pamphlets, & books. There were two weeklies in Petrograd & a daily in Moscow, each appearing in 25,000 copies.

Anarchist sympathizers increased as the Revolution deepened & then moved away from the masses.

At the end of 1918, according to Voline [the premier historian of the anarchists during the revolution, as well as an active participant in the events described— cf], "this influence became so great that the Bolsheviks, who could not accept criticism, still less opposition, became seriously disturbed."

Voline reports that for the Bolshevik authorities "it was equivalent... to suicide to tolerate anarchist propaganda. They did their best first to prevent, & then to forbid, any manifestation of libertarian ideas & finally suppressed them by brute force."

From Daniel Guérin's Anarchism (Monthly Review Press)

Use your back button to return to your last page

1931 -- [April 6] Framing the Scottsboro Boys

The trials of the nine boys began at Scottsboro before Judge E.G. Hawkins. Milo Moody was appointed by the court to serve as "defense counsel." Charlie Weems & Clarence Norris were declared "guilty" by the jury. The great crowd assembled before the courthouse, surrounded by state troopers, staged a demonstration of approval with the band playing, "There'll be a hot time in the old town tonight".

The others are found guilty over the next two days.

Langston Hughes, expecting fellow writers to speak out on the outrageous framing of the “Scottsboro Boys” in Alabama, wrote:

Surely, I said,
Now will the poets sing.
But they have raised no cry.
I wonder why.


Use your back button to return to your last page

1959 --



April 1962

Internationale Situationniste #7. Central bulletin published by the sections of the Situationist International. Editor: G.-E. Debord. Editorial committee (Central Council of the SI): Debord, Kotànyi, Lausen, Vaneigem.

April 1963

Der Deutsche Gedanke #1. Bulletin, in German, of the Situationist International for Central Europe, Brussels. Editor: Raoul Vaneigem.

April 1968

The Power of Negative Thinking – or – Robin Hood Rides Again, booklet by Robert Chasse, New York.

The Question of Organization for the SI, also known as The April Theses, notes by Guy Debord.

6 1959 Shooting begins for Guy Debord's film On the Passage of a Few Persons through a Rather Brief Period of Time.

April 1961

11 to 13 April 1961 Third session of the SI's Central Council in Munich. Participants: Debord, Kotànyi, Nash, Sturm.
Exclusion of Maurice Wyckaert from the Belgian section, following an attempt to meddle in the SI's affairs by the art dealer Otto Van de Loo, who had hoped to influence its politics by making threats & promises to several situationists with whom he had personal relations.
In order to deal with his increasingly pervasive fame, the Central Council accepts the resignation of Asger Jorn from the French section. Jorn affirms his complete accord with the SI, demonstrating it in writing (he continues his participation in the SI under the pseudonym George Keller for around a year).
The Central Council, reduced to four members, decides not to meet again until the next SI conference, where it will be reorganized.

Musique phénoménale (Phenomenal Music), text by Asger Jorn accompanying the four albums of 'chaosmic music' written & recorded between December 1960 & February 1961 with Jean Dubuffet, Galleria del Cavallino, Venice.

12 April 1958 Address by the Situationist International to the General Assembly of the International Association of Art Critics, Meeting on 14 April 1958 at the World's Fair in Brussels, signed by A. Khatib, W. Korun, G.-E. Debord, H. Platschek, G. Pinot Gallizio & A. Jorn on behalf of the Algerian, Belgian, French, German, Italian & Scandinavian sections of the Situationist International.
On the back of the pamphlet: 'The classless society has found its artists. Long live the Situationist International!'
Judicial proceedings are initiated against Walter Korun for his role in the scandal.

15 April to 8 May 1959 'A meter of art for 40 to 70 marks,' slogan of Giuseppe Pinot Gallizio's first exhibition of industrial painting at Van de Loo Gallery, Munich.

17 to 20 1959 3rd SI conference in Munich. Participants: Armando, Constant, G.-E. Debord, Erwin Eisch, Heinz Höfl, Asger Jorn, Giors Melanotte, Har Oudejans, Giuseppe Pinot Gallizio, Heimrad Prem, Gretel Stadler, Helmut Sturm, Maurice Wyckaert, Hans-Peter Zimmer.
Foundation in Amsterdam of the Bureau for Invesigation for Unitary Urbanism. Director: Constant.
Potlatch becomes a bulletin of internal liaison under the responsibility of the Dutch section.
Adoption of 'The Amsterdam declaration.'
The tract Ein Kultureller Putsch während Ihr schlaft! (A Cultural Putsch While You Sleep!), signed by Constant, Debord, Jorn, Pinot Gallizio, Wyckaert & Zimmer for the Dutch, French, Danish, Italian, Belgian & German sections, is distributed on the morning of the 21st with an invitation to Professor Bense's tape-recorded pseudo-press conference.

Tape recorded conference by the Dutch section at the Amsterdam Academy of Architecture.

April 1951 20 Guy-Ernest Debord meets the lettrists at the Cannes Film Festival, following the screening of Isou's Traité de bave et d'éternité (Treatise on Slime & Eternity).

APRIL 23 1952 Ion #1, Paris, Editor: Marc-Gilbert Guillaumin, contains the scripts for The Anticoncept & an early version of Howls for Sade, as well as Guy-Ernest Debord's Prolégomènes à tout cinéma futur (Prolegomena to Any Future Cinema).


Fini le Cinéma français (No More French Cinema), tract distributed at the Cannes Film Festival, signed by Serge Berna, Guy-Ernest Debord, François Dufrêne, Monique Geoffrey, Jean-Isidore Isou, Yolande du Luart, Marc,O., Gabriel Pomerand, Poucette & Gil J. Wolman.


1958 24 April to 31 May Exhibition by Jorn at the Institute of Contemporary Arts (ICA), London.

26 1958 'First Industrial Conference' in Alba, Italy. Lecture by tape recorder & in person by Debord & Pinot Gallizio from the Italian translation of Debord's Report on the Construction of Situations.

orange diamond dingbatAlso during this month Guy Debord is interviewed on Belgian radio, speaking at length on industrial painting.

[Exact dates not given —ed.]

April 1967

An SI post office box is opened in New York. | [Situationist Resources]

1872 -- [April 7] Dr. Marie Equi
Personally acquainted with many of America's radicals in the first half of the Twentieth century, Portland physician & suffragist, Dr. Marie Equi was arrested with birth control advocate Margaret Sanger in 1916, & was sentenced to San Quentin Prison for her anti-war views in 1920.

During her incarceration in San Quentin prison, Equi's personal correspondence was copied & read by agents of the United States Department of Justice. Copies of her letters can still be found to this day in her files which are now housed in the National Archives facility in College Park, Maryland. Of prime interest to the Department of Justice were efforts made by Equi's friends to secure a pardon on her behalf. J. Edgar Hoover who was then Assistant Director of the Bureau of Investigation, made mention of this to a superior in a letter dated April 29, 1921, noting also that Equi was "associated with Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Anita Whitney & Emma Goldman ...and was a professional abortionist."

Dr. Marie Equi (1872-1952) is found guilty of sedition (as were countless others opposing American involvement in one of Europe's bloodiest wars) under a newly amended Espionage Act.
... show more

Use your back button to return to your last page

1951 -- [April 7] Jim Bumpas (1943-1997) dies, Eugene, Oregon.
anarchist diamond dingbat

Sportsman, attorney, computer enthusiast, baseball & soccer coach, social critic & author. Publisher of the Social Revolutionary Anarchist Federation (SRAF) newsletter during the 1970s & 80s, Mountain View, California. IWW member.
... show more

Author, "The failure of punishment." SRAFPRINT CO-OP, Los Altos. 1971, 15p., wraps. (SRAFLET, March, 1971)

Use your back button to return to your last page

1977 -- [April 7]
Jim Thompson
September 27, 1906 - April 7, 1977


... show details

Use your back button to return to your last page

1877 -- [April 8] "Gang of Matese" Included Bianchini Cornacchia

Gathered at the village, the crowd listens to the words of Cafiero, perched on a cross where flies a large red & black flag.

Cafiero explains the principles of libertarian communism, the land deeds are burned, as well as the files of monarchy & the State. Matese, unfortunately, is soon besieged by 12,000 infantrymen, who capture almost all the internationalists.

The 26 accused are tried in 1878 & are all acquitted.

According to the report written by Angiolini, the 27, conducted by guides, led by Malatesta & Ceccarelli (35 years, merchant born at Savignano, died 1886 in Cairo), always conversing with Cafiero, feeding & sheltered in farms, between April 6 & 8 marched by the mountains of the Monte Matese Chain, by Pietrarvia, the Monte Mutri, Filetti & Buco to Letino, entering in silence, with the red flag & invading the municipal building where the council was sitting. But troops began to surround them & they got no support in the two localities mentioned, though the letter of 1877 tells of demands of peasants for bread & money ...
... show more

anarchosyndicalist star
1948 -- anarchiste diamond dingbat; new entry, remove 2010 [April 8] Paul Delesalle (1870-1948) dies. French militant anarchiste & revolutionary syndicalist.

Use your back button to return to your last page
or visit April 8

1974 -- [April 8] Hammerin' Hank Aaron's 715th home run

Henry Aaron drives a 1-&-0 fastball from LA Dodgers' left-hander Al Downing over Atlanta Stadium's left-center-field fence, just to the right of the 385-foot marker. His 715th career home run, Aaron's hit breaks Babe Ruth's Major League record, which has stood for nearly 40 years.

Detractors have downplayed this inevitable event, often with racist overtones, saying the modern baseball is livelier than in Ruth's day & that Aaron has played more games. Aaron's defenders counter that modern hitters also must contend with more night games & the slider — a breaking pitch introduced after Ruth retired.

Use your back button to return to your last page

1977 -- [April 8] Argentina: Adriana Gatti "disappeared" by government security forces. She was previously kidnapped from her home on March 31 & taken to where Ricardo Carpentero (her fiance by whom she was about was 8-9 months pregnant) being held, but was set free the same day. Daughter of Gerardo Gatti, Uruguayan anarchist labor militant "disappeared" in 1976 by the Argentine government, tortured & put up for ransom before he died.
anarchiste diamond dingbat; anarquista


orange diamond dingbatAccording to press reports, between April 7 & 8, 1977, the house in which Gatti was-residing was attacked by Argentine Security forces, a shootout occurred, & the couple with whom Gatti was living was killed. About 7 months pregnant, Gatti was taken away wounded in ambulance, according to eye witnesses, & since that time family has heard nothing.

The case took on new interest when the couple who was killed, Eduardo Testa & Norman Ines Masuyuma, appeared in list of 76 bodies buried as NN in Chacarita cemetery in a list released December 1982.

orange diamond dingbatRicardo Carpintero seized by unknown people, somewhere in BA (per his mother) on March 25, 1977.
Nunca Más (Never Again): Report of Conadep (National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons) - 1984,

Use your back button to return to your last page

2001 -- [April 8] HERR RUDOLF GHOULIANI: Rudy Giuliani is the mayor who tried to turn the terroist attacks on Sept.11 into an extended stay in office, after having been voted out; he is also the same bozo who turned up in the media every 10 seconds like a clown, donning a NYC fireman's helmet for months afterwards.

To the endless ritmo
Of the junky-filled ambulancias.
Oh, Spanish Harlem!
Where jazz leaks up from
The sidewalks, where
Mayor Giuliani's fascist piggies
Dare not tread.
Where the law is a dime bag
& Santana is a god.

— Neal Pollack, excerpt from
"A S P O K E N - W O R D P O E M F O R A M E R I C A"

"Freedom is about authority. Freedom is about the willingness of every single human being to cede to lawful authority a great deal of discretion about what you do & how you do it."

— Mayor Giuliani, New York Newsday pg A3 4/20/98

“State authority must provide for peace & order, & peace & order in turn must conversely make possible the existence of state authority. Within these two poles all life must now revolve...Ideas of 'freedom,' mostly of a misunderstood nature, inject themselves into the state conceptions of these circles”.

— Adolph Hitler, Mein Kampf

Source: Associated Press, April 8, 2001.

Background, see:

Use your back button to return to your last page

1834 -- [April 9] "Sanglante Semaine" (Bloody Week)

After the failure of the February strikes, leaders are put on trial & new laws enacted against the workers' associations, the workers have reached the exploding point. The army occupies the city & bridges, & now troops fire into an unarmed crowd. The streets are immediately filled with barricades, with workers storming & taking the barracks of Bon-Pasteur, while others barricade themselves in the districts, some, like Croix Rousse, making fortified camps.

Source: Ephéméride Anarchiste’

Use your back button to return to your last page

1875 -- [April 9] Jacques Futrelle

His best known character was Professor Augustus S.F.X. Van Dusen, the Thinking Machine, who was small, nearsighted, & had superior mental powers. His assistant was a clever newspaper reporter - a model of team work copied later in many mystery writers, among them Rex Stout.

Futrelle — & several of his stories — went down with the ship.

SEE: Titanic: Triumph & Tragedy by John P. Eaton & Charles A. Haas, 1995; The Titanic Disaster by Dave Bryceson, 1997; A Night to Remember by Walter Lord; Titanic: the Extraordinary Story of the Unsinkable Ship by Geoff Tibbals; Titanic: Destination Disaster by John P. Eaton & Charles A. Haas; Every Man for Himself by Beryl Bainbridge.

Literary coincidences: Morgan Robertson's novel The Wreck of the Titan, (1898), told a story of a ship sunk by ice. American poet Celia Thaxter described in 1874 a collision between a ship & an iceberg.

Journalist William Thomas Stead, a first class passenger on the Titanic, wrote in 1886 a fictional article for the Pall Mall Gazette, in which a ship collided with another ship. Great loss of life resulted because of too few lifeboats & an article for the Reviews of Reviews in 1892 depicting a journey from England to the US. During the voyage a liner rescues survivors from a ship sunk after a collision with ice. Stead himself died on the Titanic.


Use your back button to return to your last page

Timeline icon
1891 --

En-tête du numéro 31 du 23 janvier 1892

[April 11]

"L'Homme Libre"

anarchiste diamond dingbat

Bruxelles du premier numéro du journal anarchiste belge "L'Homme Libre" Organe de combat pour l'Emancipation des Travailleurs, publié par le groupe du même nom. D'abord hebdomadaire puis bimensuel durant l'année suivante, il cédera ensuite la place à "La Débacle."

Source & graphic: Ephéméride Anarchiste

Use your back button to return to your last page

or visit April 11

1914 -- [April 11] "Explaining the term 'Anarchist-Communism'," appears in Min Sheng, No. 5, April 11, 1914, pp.1-5.

Another significant article seeking to define anarchist communism was written by Shih Fu in April, 1914.

Since both the terms "anarchism" & "communism" were new to the Chinese language, many misunderstandings had resulted, he stated.

Anarchism advocated the complete freedom of people, unrestrained by any controls, with all leaders & organs of power eliminated.

Later, Wu Chih-hui was to write:

"Since the death of Shih Fu, the Anarchist Party of China has been scattered & indifferent it seems as if Shih Fu's death from tuberculosis has caused the Chinese Anarchist Party to suffer also from this disease."

The death of Shih Fu removed a dynamic figure from the Chinese anarchist movement & certainly damaged it severely.

Source: The Chinese Anarchist Movement, by R. Scalapino & G. T. Yu (1961).

Use your back button to return to your last page

1900 -- [April 12] Famed labor song "Which Side Are You On?", by Florence Reece

About 1940, Pete Seeger, an "eager young college dropout wanting to learn union songs," learned the song from Tillman Cadle, a coal miner. In 1941 it was recorded by the Almanac Singers & made the song famous. It continues to be sung at gatherings for labor workers & many other social causes throughout the world.

Reece also wrote a book, Against the Current, of short stories & poems & the song "You Can't Live on Jellybeans," critical of Beloved & Respected comrade Leader Acting President Reagan after he made cuts in programs
for the poor & needy.

One writer notes, "Florence symbolizes that ordinary people out of their own life experiences can capture in simple words & feelings the idea of struggle".

They say in Harlan Co.
There are no neutrals there
You'll either be a Union man
Or a thug for J.H. Blair.

Which side are you on?
Which side are you on?



Use your back button to return to your last page

1924 --
Masthead, numéro 4 du 12 avril 1924

"Le Tam Baz"

anarchiste diamond dingbat [April 12] "Le Tam Baz" (The Piece of Stick).

Timeline iconA satirical, humorous & naturalist newspaper produced by the Brestoin anarchist Herve Coatmeur. The newspaper appears on Saturdays, & is one of many titles published by Coatmeur & Foyer Naturien (Natural Hearth) de Brest.

Source & graphic: Ephéméride Anarchiste

Use your back button to return to your last page

or visit April Daily bleed

1931 -- [April 12] Teresa Claramunt, (1862-1931) dies, Barcelona. Militante anarchiste, anarcho-syndicaliste et féministe catalane.
Elle est née en 1862. Ouvrière dans le textile et militante anarchite, elle collabore à la revue "El Productor" (Le producteur). Dès 1905, elle revendique, dans une brochure, le droit à l'égalité des femmes dans la société, et la prise en mains par ces dernières de leurs propres destinées. Elle est, en compagnie de Soledad Gustavo (avec qui elle était très liée), une des pionnières de l'anarcho-syndicaliste féminin en Espagne, poussant Federico Urales à reprendre la parution de "La Revista Blanca".

Militante acharnée, Teresa est plusieurs fois arrêtée et interrogée par la police. Elle y subit de mauvais traitements pour avoir refusée de livrer les noms de ses compagnons anarchistes recherchés, et sera condamnée à 5 ans de prison. Son enterrement, le 14 avril fut l'occasion d'une grande manifestation anarchiste dans la ville de Barcelone.

Edited La mujer en la Lucha Social y en la Guerra Civil de España, de Lola Iturbe. (Editores Mexicanos Unidos, 1974).

Use your back button to return to your last page

1936 -- [April 12-13] France: The Union anarchiste or UA) convenes its Easter congress.

Union anarchiste

anarchiste diamond dingbat

This tactic was confirmed as policy: the UA could not remain on the touch-line. Anarchists must ally themselves with the non-anarchist left & take part in the mass antifascist movement — albeit whilst trying to exert a revolutionary influence. It is no coincidence that it was at this conference that the FCL (Fédération communiste libertaire) rejoined the UA. Nor was it unconnected that the following August the opposite faction left the UA to found the FAF (Fédération anarchiste de langue française), condemning the UA for being centralised & centralist (dominated by a Parisian clique), authoritarian & too conciliatory towards the non-anarchist left. The Nîmes-based "Terre libre," which had existed since 1934, became the organ of the FAF in February 1937.

Note: The Union Anarchiste was created in 1920, the short-lived Fédération communiste révolutionnaire anarchiste (launched in 1913) having been destroyed by the 1914-18 war. As a result of the increasing marginalisation of individualism, the organization changed its name to Union anarchiste communiste in 1926, & a year later the word révolutionnaire was added under the influence of those — the ‘platformists’ — in favour of more cohesive organization, a more workerist emphasis & closer links with organised labour & with other sectors of the left.


Use your back button to return to your last page

or visit April 12

1873 -- [April 13] US: Colfax Massacre. An orgy of brutality by the White League leaves more than 200 hundred African Americans dead in Grant Parish, Louisiana.

White League groups formed across the South during reconstruction to drive blacks out of the political arena. In Coahoma County, Mississippi, hundreds of armed whites roamed the countryside, hanging & shooting blacks.

Monroe Lewis was dragged from his bed, forced to say his prayers & shot. Charles Green was forced to cook for a party of a hundred whites, one of whom then shot him (quote) "to try his gun out."

President Ulysses Grant will refuse to intervene against the White Leagues. White newspapers like Georgia's Augusta Chronicle will warn African Americans (quote) "Let not your pride. . . flatter you into the belief that you ever can or ever will, for any length of time, govern the white men of the South."

Use your back button to return to your last page

1901 -- [April 13] French anarchist Clément Duval, with eight other prisoners, puts to sea in a fragile canoe & silently made for the open sea.
It was in the dead of night, & no guards noticed the escape until the next day. The convicts rowed with all their strength & in the morning raised a sail, avoiding territories under French jurisdiction. A warship came close without showing the slightest interest, & continued on its way. A good start. After 14 years in the Guyana prison, & over 20 escape attempts, Duval is successful, making it to NY where he lives to age 85.

Use your back button to return to your last page

1905 -- [April 13] France: The French "Illegalist" newspaper "l'anarchie," first appears in Paris today, & every Thursday until the outbreak of WWI in 1914.

"L'anarchie" declared itself against resignation & conformity to the existing state of affairs.

It condemned vices (marriage, military service, work, drinking, voting, smoking tobacco & eating meat. It exalted l'endehors (outsiders) & the hors-la-loi (outlaws). A fund-raiser is carried in its pages to help Marie Berthou, the mother of the anarchist Alexandre Marius Jacob (a member of "Les travailleurs de la nuit" (Workers of the Night) gang, credited with 150 burglaries, he had just been sent, on March 22, to prison for life).

"Resignation is death. Revolt is life."

— from the first issue of "L'anarchie"

Use your back button to return to your last page

1932 -- Timeline icon [April 13] orange diamond dingbat; new entry secondary material, remove 2008Henri Legay dies.

Use your back button to return to your last page
or visit April 13

1963 -- [April 13] Dick Higgins founds Something Else Press

In 1961 Higgins co-founded Fluxus with Maciunas & others when that same year Maciunas began his Fluxus press. Maciunas wanted to publish a series of anthologies of very new & avant-garde art based on La Monte Young's An Anthology, which Maciunas had designed & produced.

He proposed publishing an anthology of Higgins entire life's work. However, Higgins thought the publication would be too large for commercial publication. They agreed instead to include everything Higgins wrote, composed or invented between April 13, 1962 & April 13, 1963 (Thomas Jefferson's birthday).

Since Maciunas was taking too long, Higgins decided to publish the work himself. Thus, Higgins founded Something Else Press in 1964. Its first publication was his Jefferson's Birthday/Postface, two books bound back to back.

Higgins also published the Something Else Newsletter, 1966-73 & operated the Something Else Gallery, 1966-69, which in 1966 showed the first exhibit of concrete poetry in the United States.

Use your back button to return to your last page

1980 -- [April 13] José Ester Borrás, Spanish anarchist, active in the resistance in France & in the Mauthausen concentration camp, & co-founder of the Spanish Federation of Former Political prisoners & camp inmates (FEDIP).

José Ester Borrás was active in the anarchist youth & trade union movement, fought in the famous Colonna Tierra y Libertad during the Spanish Revolution of 1936, was arrested by the communists. He fled to France after the fall of the Spanish Republic, fought in the resistance against the Nazis, was arrested October 30, 1943 & tortured by the Gestapo & deported to the Mauthausen concentration camp.

Ester returned to France in 1945 & founded FEDIP (Federación Española de Deportados e Internados Políticos). Ester & FEDIP campaigned for political José Ester Borrás prisoners in Franco's Spain, but also for the Spanish antifascists who were deported to labor camps in the Soviet Union after the Civil War. These prisoners were released only in 1956.

Ester remained active until well into the 1970s. He died on April 13, 1980.

Dès juillet 1940, il participe à la création d'un réseau de résistance composé de militants libertaires espagnols, dirigé par l'anarchiste Francisco Ponzan Vidal (qui sera fusillé le 17 août 1944, par la gestapo, à Buzet-sur-Tarn). José Ester est chargé de faire passer clandestinement la frontière espagnole à de nombreux résistants ou candidats à l'évasion. En avril 1941, il est arrêté par la police de Vichy qui l'envoie au camp du Vernet dans l'Ariège, d'où il s'évadera à deux reprises, fin 1941 et 1942. Le groupe est demantelé à Toulouse, le 31 octobre 1943.

Torturé par la gestapo, il est déporté en mars 1944 à Mauthausen (Allemagne), où il participe (en tant que représentant de la C.N.T), au "Comité International de la Résistance". Après la libération, il prend part à la création de la "Fédération espagnole des déportés et internés politiques". A partir de 1953, il travaillera à l'O.F.P.R.A (Office français de protection des réfugiés et apatrides). Il est mort à Alès, le 13 avril 1980.

Source, International Institute of Social History. See also:
Anarchist Encyclopedia, José Ester Borrás

Use your back button to return to your last page

1845 -- [April 14] Louis Genet, French textile worker, member of the Vienna anarchist group "Les Indignés".

Louis Genet was at Louise Michel's side in the riot of May 1, 1882.

He was also a defendant in the "Trial of the 66" in Lyon (January 1883), & was sent to prison for 15 months &, because of his continuing militant activitism, was card-indexed by the gendarmerie as a "dangerous antimilitarist."

Use your back button to return to your last page

1901 -- [April 14] US: Emma Goldman begins a lecture tour (April-July) with a free-speech battle in Philadelphia where she is prevented from speaking before the Shirt Makers Union. Emma & the organizations sponsoring her talks, including the Single Tax Society, defy police orders; she speaks in public on at least two occasions. Emma Goldman, anarchist feminist
Today Emma speaks at an event sponsored by the Social Science Club; other speakers include Voltairine de Cleyre.

Despite the Social Science Club's opposition to Emma's anarchist views, it passes a resolution protesting the violation of her right to free speech.

During this tour, Emma also speaks in Lynn, Mass., Boston, Pittsburgh, Cleveland, St. Louis, Chicago, & Spring Valley, Ill., on such topics as "Anarchism & Trade Unionism," "The Causes of Vice," & "Cooperation a Factor in the Industrial Struggle."

Use your back button to return to your last page

1920 --

[April 14] Factory Council Movement in Italy

The council movement in Turin of March-April 1920 originated among the highly concentrated proletariat of the Fiat factories. During August & September 1919 new elections for an “internal commission” (a sort of collaborationist factory committee set up by a collective convention in 1906 for the purpose of better integrating the workers) suddenly provided the opportunity, amid the social crisis that was then sweeping Italy, for a complete transformation of the role of these “commissioners.”

They began to federate among themselves as direct representatives of the workers. By October 30,000 workers were represented at an assembly of “executive committees of factory councils,” which resembled more an assembly of shop stewards (with one commissioner elected by each workshop) than an organization of councils in the strict sense. But the example nevertheless acted as a catalyst & the movement radicalized, supported by a fraction of the Socialist Party (including Gramsci) that was in the majority in Turin & by the Piedmont anarchists (see Pier Carlo Masini’s pamphlet, Anarchici e comunisti nel movimento dei Consigli a Torino).

While the councilist program was later approved by the Congress of the Italian Anarchist Union when it met at Bologna on July 1, the Socialist Party & the unions succeeded in sabotaging the strike by keeping it isolated: when Turin was besieged by 20,000 soldiers & police, the party newspaper Avanti refused to print the appeal of the Turin socialist section (see Masini, op. cit.). The strike, which would clearly have made possible a victorious insurrection in the whole country, was vanquished in April.

DURING the month of September, 1920, however, a widespread occupation of Italian factories by their workforces took place, which originated in the auto factories, steel mills & machine tool plants of the metal sector but spread out into many other industries — cotton mills & hosiery firms, lignite mines, tire factories, breweries & distilleries, & steamships & warehouses in the port towns.

By the middle of September nearly 600,000 workers were occupying & running their factories through their factory councils.

With the mass factory occupations in September 1920 a defining moment was reached. Things had gone so far that turning back was not a real option. As Errico Malatesta warned:

"If we do not carry on to the end, we will pay with tears of blood for the fear we now instill in the bourgeoisie".

But there was a loss of nerve, not among those occupying the factories, but among the leaders of the Socialist Party (PSI) & the CGL union. Instead of expanding the industrial struggle & linking it directly with the various community & rural struggles, they negotiated a deal & ordered their members back to work. & at the moment that the momentum was lost the rattled bourgeoisie were given their moment for revenge. The fascist squads were to be the instrument of that revenge.

Source: Ephéméride Anarchiste’


Use your back button to return to your last page

1931 -- [April 14] Fall of the Spanish Monarchy

EGMany anarchists, including some of Emma Goldman's closest associates, are enthusiastic about the prospects for anarchism there, while Goldman remains skeptical.

During this month, Francisco Ascaso & Buenaventura Durruti returned to Spain. On arrival they found that certain 'leaders' of the CNT had become increasingly reformist during the period of the Dictatorship, whilst the FAI & most of the rank-&-file members & activists of the CNT remained true to their anarchist principles.

... show details

Use your back button to return to your last page

1889 -- [April 15] Louis Bertho lives (known as Jules Lepetit), Nantes. French anarchist/syndicalist, reported missing after a trip to Moscow.
A shipyard worker in Saint-Nazaire, he took a false identity to escape military service. In 1912 he joined the Anarchist Communist Federation in Paris, & the Syndicat des Terrassiers. Exempted from the war for health reasons, on June 19, 1917 he was sent to prison for two years for clandestinely publishing the paper "Libertaire." Bertho, as a trade union activist, was invited to the Second Congress of the Communist International in Moscow, in July 1920, along with R. Lefebvre & Vergeat. After having met Victor Serge & visiting the Ukraine they disappeared, probably eliminated by the Communists.

Use your back button to return to your last page

1947 -- [April 15] US: French freighter Grandcamp docks at Texas City, Texass (today or 4/16?) & took on 1,400 tons of ammonium nitrate fertilizer.
Tonight a fire broke out in the hold, a ball of fire engulfed the ship, & a nearby Monsanto chemical plant exploded, killing & maiming hundreds of workers & spectators. Most of the business district was devastated, & fires raged along the waterfront, where huge tanks of butane gas stood imperiled.

Shortly after midnight, a second freighter, also carrying nitrates, exploded, & the whole sequence began again. At least 468 people died, & another 1,000 were seriously injured in the disaster. The probable cause of the initial blast was careless smoking aboard the Grandcamp.

Use your back button to return to your last page

1960 -- [April 15] US: Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), one of the main organizations of the civil rights movement, forms. In the late 60s it becomes a black militant organization & far from non-violent in position. Nearly 150 students from nine states met in North Carolina with Ella Baker, James Lawson & Martin Luther King, Jr. By this time, in mid April, over 50,000 students have participated in sit-ins.

SNCC [snick], is founded at Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina. One of SNCC's most profound influences was Ella Baker, an older woman who directs Martin Luther King's Southern Christian Leadership Conference.

Baker lost her conference job after relentlessly prodding King to be more aggressive. Saying racism is rooted in economic disparities, Baker has little use for a group that tries to inspire whites to reach a higher level of morality. As King distances himself from her, SNCC will rely on Baker's experience & strategies.

On Ella Baker, a libertarian socialist, was a SNCC advisor (along with Howard Zinn). See Chris Crass' article on Baker & anarchist organizing,

Use your back button to return to your last page

1854 -- [April 16] Laurent Tailhade

Laurent Tailhade's first poems were published in 1880, but he was best known for his polemical writings, as he moved from anticlericalism to anarchism.

His aesthetics & a provocative defense of Auguste Vaillant's attack in 1893 earned him the enmity of the middle class press & their mocking when he lost an eye during the anarchist bombing of the Foyot restaurant (where he happened to be by chance.) Tailhade was involved in the support of Dreyfus, & wrote for "Libertaire," & on October 10, 1901, following an article appearing in this journal during the Tsar's visit to France, he was sent to prison for a year.

In 1905, following a serious misunderstanding, he broke with the anarchists & former friends, putting himself in the service of nationalist jingoism.

  • Pages choisies. Vers et proses. Albert Messein, Paris 1912. 2ème édition. In-12° broché, 311 pp.

  • Lettres familières. Nouvelle série. Librairie Ollendorf, Paris, sans date. In-12° broché, 194 pp.

  • Petits mémoires de la vie Editions G. Crès et Cie, " Mémoires d'Ecrivains et d'Artistes " Paris 1922. In-12° broché, 268 pp.

    Source: Ephéméride Anarchiste’

    Use your back button to return to your last page

  • 1920 -- [April 16] Deportation of Ferruccio Coacci, an Italian anarchist

    Ferruccio Coacci, who was to be in East Boston to be deported yesterday, tells Bureau of Immigration Inspector O. L. Root that he did not report as scheduled because his wife was sick & he needed a few days to take care of her.

    Suspicious, Root asks Michael E. Stewart, Bridgewater chief of police, to look into Coacci’s story. Stewart had patrolman Frank LeBaron accompany Root to talk to Coacci. When they arrive at Coacci’s, they find Coacci’s wife in fine health & Coacci packing a suitcase & insisting on leaving immediately.

    He was taken to the immigration station & left for Italy two days later....Stewart will later conclude that both of the South Braintree hold-ups done by the same group of Italians, Coacci being one of them.

    On April 17, the car used by the South Braintree bandits, a stolen Buick, is discovered two miles from Coacci & Mario Buda’s (aka Mike Boda) home.

    April 20, 1920 Stewart goes to Coacci’s former home & talks to Buda. Buda claims he is a salesman & that his car is being repaired at the Elm Square Garage.

    April 22, 1920 Stewart talks to Simon Johnson, owner of the Elm Square Garage, & sets a trap for Buda by instructing Johnson to call him when anyone comes for the car.

    Source: Sacco & Vanzetti Chronology at Famous American Trials

    Sacco & Vanzetti-related:

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1934 -- [April 16] US: Deportation of Filipinos

    Within a year of Jessup's call for deporting some 7,000 indigent Filipinos, Congress responds to such exclusionist demands by passing the Repatriation Act. The law offers Filipinos transportation to the Philippines at federal expense if they forfeit their right to re-enter the US.

    Originally allowed into the US as cheap labor, Filipino farm workers are no longer needed because of Mexican labor & no longer wanted because of their union militancy. But the law repatriates fewer than 2,200 Filipinos.

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1912 -- [April 17] Kropotkin & the Lena gold mines in Siberia...

    Kropotkin had visited the Lena gold mines early in his life, & indeed his experiences there when two revolts occurred, caused him to quit the military...

    1866: In this year, Peter finally realized that he had to leave the military. This decision stemmed from two events. The first took place when Peter visited the Lena gold mines on an expedition. The conditions here were even worse than those that Peter had experienced in other towns in the Amur region were. A series of letters to his brother conveys Peter's shock at the manner in which workers were treated. He suggested that the only way to remedy the situation would be to drastically alter the existing economic system.

    The second event occurred in June. A group of Polish exiles staged an uprising with the hope of escaping to China. The Siberian administration quickly took care of the situation by sending in the army. The army restored order, & the five leaders of the uprising were shot. Given, the conditions that he had just witnessed at the Lena gold mines, Peter understood why the Poles would want to escape. Furthermore, he could not justify to himself the use of the army when the revolt posed no real threat to anybody. In the next few months Peter immersed himself in reading, studying works by J.S. Mill, Renan, Heine, Herzen, & Proudhon.

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1912 -- [April 18] West Virginia coal miners strike


    Paint Creek-Cabin Creek miners strike to gain recognition of the United Mine Workers of America.

    UMWA miners on Paint Creek in Kanawha County demanded wages equal to those of other area mines. The operators rejected the wage increase & miners walked off the job today, beginning one of the most violent strikes in the nation's history. Miners along nearby Cabin Creek, having previously lost their union, joined the Paint Creek strikers.

    The Kanawha Valley miners go on strike.

    The Kanawha Valley miners had been organized during a 1902 strike with the assistance of Mother Jones, but in the intervening years the union had been driven out of Cabin Creek.

    On April 1, 1912, the contract for the union Kanawha miners expired, & they tried to negotiate a new contract to improve their working conditions. Their demands were rejected & union miners throughout the Kanawha district went on strike on April 18th; eventually all the demands were met, except those of the Paint Creek miners who wanted wages equal to those paid in other area mines. Rejecting this, the Paint Creek operators instead began hiring guards from the Baldwin-Felts Detective Agency to intimidate, harass, & even physically assault miners & their families.

    As large contingents of these hired gunmen began to arrive in May, & violence betwen miners & guards became a daily occurrence.

    On three separate occasions, Governor Glasscock declares martial law & sends in troops. Martial law was imposed until January 1913.

    Mother Jones attracted the country's attention in 1912-13, during the Paint Creek-Cabin Creek strike in West Virginia; the strike's frequent violence brought the publicity. On February 12, 1913, she was arrested after leading a protest over living conditions for the striking miners.

    At the age of 83, Mother Jones was convicted by a military court of conspiring to commit murder & was sentenced to 20 years in prison. The event created such a furor that the U.S. Senate form a committee to look into conditions in the West Virginia coalfields. In 1913, newly elected West Virginia governor Dr. Henry Hatfield freed Mother Jones. As a medical doctor, Hatfield had previously treat Mother jones for pneumonia.

    Known as the Paint Creek-Cabin Creek strike it involved the first use in the mine wars of an armored train known as the "Bull Moose Special."

    At a tent colony known as Holley Grove the Sheriff of Kanawha County along with a number of Baldwin-Felts men machine-gunned the miners encampment by surprise catching many women & children unawares. The Sheriff is quoted as saying something to the effect of "boy that was fun, back her up boys & let's let `em have it again!"

    — John Adkins, labor historian

    Mother Jones, see

    God,  if You had but the moon
        Stuck in Your cap for a lamp,
    Even You'd tire of it soon,
        Down in the dark & the damp.

    Nothing but blackness above
        & nothing that moves but the cars. . . .
    God, if You wish for our love,
        Fling us a handful of stars.

    — Louis Untermeyer
    excerpt from Caliban in the Coal Minesfrom Challenge, 1914
    (Untermyer's poem is based on the the historical character of "Few Clothes" Johnson, the character played by James Earle Jones in Sayles' film Matewan.)


    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1913 -- [April 18] Paint Creek-Cabin Creek one year later...


    ...the miners had been on strike for more than a year; they had endured a cold winter in tents & on meager rations. They had suffered humiliation, brutality & death at the hands of the Baldwin-Felts mine guards. They had been machined gunned by an armor plated train, illegally court martialed & illegally imprisoned by Governor H. D. Hatfield.

    When the miners were on the verge of winning this monumental labor dispute, Governor Hatfield muscled his way in, ordered them to abandon the strike & dictated the conditions under which they would return to work. Miners who opposed these dictates were, under the governor's orders, illegally deported from the state.

    Two labor newspapers that opposed the governor's dictates were, under the governor's orders, illegally suppressed as the militia destroyed their presses & arrested & imprisoned their editors.

    The local UMWA officials who were supposed to be representing the best interests of the miners were working in cahoots with the governor to break the strike.

    Eugene V. Debs came into West Virginia & reported that the governor was doing a good job! Fagge maintains that Debs did a good job! I am confused!

    This alone constituted a "betrayal" of the cause & interests of the rank & file miners! But Debs did not let it stop there.

    In a fruitless effort to defend his report, Debs lied about the contents of the report.

    Sources: see "Eugene V. Debs in West Virginia, 1913: A Reappraisal" By Roger Fagge, "Debs's Visit Challenged in Historical Interpretation"

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1930 -- [April 18] Barbecue Bob, "We Sure Got Hard Times Now"

    Employed at Tidwell's Barbecue Place in Atlanta, Robert Hicks recorded extensively as Barbecue Bob & with the Georgia Cotton Pickers. He was among the most distinctive exponents of the 'Atlanta 12-string' school of guitarists, until his untimely death from pneumonia at age 29 in 1931. "Hard Times" were on the minds of many black Atlantans: Bob's friend, Buddy Moss, waxed a "Hard Times Blues" in 1933, & the popular preacher Rev. J.M. Gates cut "These Hard Times" as a sermon in 1930.

    TExt source: The Great Depression: Music from the era (unfortunately no longer online)

    Related: BOB

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1937 -- [April 18] The Friends of Durruti

    (Sunday) April 18, 1937: Friends of Durruti hold a rally in the Poliorama Theater. Chaired by Romero, it hears contributions from Francisco Pellicer, Pablo Ruiz, Jaime Balius, Francisco Carreño & V. Pérez Combina.

    Friends of Durruti has been organised within the CNT. Although it has a legal status it is being sabotaged by the leadership of the CNT because its policy is far to the left of the reformist top.

    Source: Anarchist chronology, Friends of Durruti Group 1937-39, by Agustin Guillamón (AK Press)

    More on Durruti, see the Anarchist Encyclopedia,
    Buenaventura Durruti


    The Friends of Durruti rally is held to bring its existence & its program to the attention of the public. Jaime Balius, Pablo Ruiz (delegate from the Gelsa Group), Francisco Pellicer (delegate from the Iron Column) & Francisco Carreño (member of the Durruti Column's War Committee) all spoke. The meeting was a great success & the ideas as set out by the speakers were roundly applauded.

    This meeting to introduce the Group was reported in detail by Rosalio Negrete [Pen name of Russell Blackwell, who later became an anarchist] & Hugo Oehler in a report written & date-lined in Barcelona the same day. That report was first published in "Fourth International" Volume 2, No. 12, (1937). See Revolutionary History Volume 1, No. 2, (1988), London, pp. 34-35.

    The meeting was called by means of handbills announcing that Francisco Pellicer would speak on the problelm of subsistence, Pablo Ruiz on the revolutionary army, Jaime Balius on the war & the revolution, Francisco Carreño on trade union unity & political collaboration, & V. Perez Combina on public order & the present time.

    The following notice was carried in the daily newspaper "La Noche" (19 April 1937) about the progress of the meeting:

    Yesterday morning, in the Poliorama Theatre, a meeting was held by the Friends of Durruti Group. There was a considerable attendance & the meeting was chaired by comrade Romero, who, after a few short remarks outlining the meaning of the meeting, called upon Francisco Pellicer, who opened with a recollection of Durruti.

    Next, attention turned to the problem of subsistence, & he stated that it was impossible to eat on current rates of pay [. . .] Pablo Ruiz spoke on the revolutionary army [. . .] Then Jaime Balius read some jottings [. . .] in which he reviewed the initial fighting against fascism on July 19 [. . .] He stated that the Revolution should go hand in hand with the war & that both have to be won. [. . .] Francisco Carreño spoke last on the topic 'trade union unity & political collaboration' [. . .] He, like the rest of the speakers, was very warmly applauded.

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1943 -- [April 19] Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

    Today at 6 a.m., a contingent of 2,000 heavily armed Schutzstaffel troops with tanks enter the ghetto. While the civilian population hides in underground bunkers, the ghetto fighters attack the Germans with incendiary bottles & a few guns. Shocked by the Jewish resistance, the SS is forced to withdraw. Unable to put down the revolt with conventional weapons, the Germans resort to setting the ghetto on fire.

    On May 8th, the Germans surround the ghetto's underground military headquarters. More than a 100 Jewish fighters inside commit suicide rather than be taken alive.

    On May 10th, some 75 survivors escape through the city's sewers.


    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1945 -- [April 19] Julius Nolden & FAUD

    Nolden was rounded up along with 50 anarcho-syndicalists from Duisburg, Dusseldorf & Cologne by the political police in early 1937. A little later, further arrests were made & these brought the number of members of the outlawed FAUD in Gestapo clutches to 89. These male & female comrades were charged with "preparing acts of high treason"& were tried in January & February of 1938.

    All but six were convicted & sent to prison. Nolden was committed to the Luttringhausen prison & remained there until the arrival of the Allies on 19 April 1945.

    Julius Nolden, a car plant worker from Duisburg was sentenced by a "The People's Court" in Berlin to a 10 year prison term. Nolden had been at the head of the FAUD (anarcho-syndicalist Free Union of German Workers) in the Rhineland when that underground organization was dismantled by the Gestapo in January 1937. ... more

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1914 -- [April 20] The Ludlow Massacre...
    The Cleveland Leader, echoing the sentiments of much of the US press, wrote,

    "The charred bodies of two dozen women & children show that Rockefeller knows how to win!"

    John D. Rockefeller's company "guards" machine-gun & set fire to a union tent camp during a strike at Colorado's Ludlow Mine Field. In all, 26 people die in what is known as the Ludlow Massacre.

    The attack starts today after a miner & company guard get into a fight. When strike leader Lou Tikas approaches the company gunmen for a cease fire, he's shot dead. Tomorrow a telephone lineman going through the ruins finds a shallow pit beneath a cot with the charred remains of two women & 11 children.

    After burying their dead, armed miners take to the hills & begin destroying mines & killing guards. The Colorado governor will ask for federal troops &, a few months after the army arrives, the strike is broken.

    Ludlow Massacre Monument
    Junction of Del Aqua & Colorado & Southern Railroad tracks
    Marks the site where striking miners & their families were killed in their tent colony on April 20, 1914.

    They Don't Put Ludlow On The Colorado Map

    Bleed citation[Daily Bleed citation]

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1916 -- [April 20] Emma Goldman

    US: Emma Goldman, on trial for presenting a lecture on birth control at the New Star Casino on April 8th, defends herself & is convicted. Refusing to paying a $100 fine, she serves 15 days in the Workhouse at Queens County Penitentiary. She is released May 4.

    anarchist feminist
    According to the NY Times (April 21, 1916) she was applauded by several hundred sympathizers as she was led from the courtroom where a squad of officer friendlies was posted.

    "Hundreds came as to [a] play with Emma Goldman in the leading role. Among the spectators were Mrs. J. Sergeant Cram, George Bellows, Mr. & Mrs. Robert Henri, Rose Pastor Stokes, Leonard Abbott, Mrs. John Sloan & Ben Reitman."

    [See also the next entry]
    Bleed citation[Daily Bleed citation]

    1916 -- US: [April 20] "The Most Dangerous Woman in the World," Emma Goldman is arrested for telling an audience how to use contraceptives; chooses 15 days in jail over $100 fine.
    ... show more

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1927 -- [April 20] International conference at Hay-les-Roses

    NESTER MAKHNO & Peter Arshinov with other exiled Russian & Ukrainian anarchists in Paris, launched the excellent bimonthly "Dielo Trouda" (Workers' Cause) in 1925. It was an anarchist communist theoretical review of a high quality. Years before, when they had both been imprisoned in the Butirky prison in Moscow, they had hatched the idea of such a review. Now it was to be put into practice. Makhno wrote an article for nearly every issue during the course of three years.

    In 1926 the Dielo Trouda Group was joined by Ida Mett (author of the expose of Bolshevism, The Kronstadt Commune), who had recently fled from Russia. That year also saw the publication of their 'Organisational Platform'.

    The publication of the 'Platform' was met with ferocity & indignation by many in the international anarchist movement. ... more

    Use your back button to return to your last page

    1999 -- [April 20] US: Second Columbine Massacre. You probably never of the first one (1927). & though the media claims this to be the biggest American school massacre ever, it was not (the worst was also in 1927).

    I may be the only parent of a Columbine High School student who isn't howling for more gun control laws.

    I may also be the only Columbine parent who hasn't attended church to thank "god" that my daughter is still alive.

    & with respect to the police, the events this past spring have convinced me more than ever that the cops, being inept & useless parasites at their very best, are not only incapable of preventing crimes of this nature, but only contribute thereafter to the anguish & suffering of victims.

    — Parent Paul Roasberry, COLUMBINE, CHRISTIANS & COPS
    (from The Match!, edited by Fred Woodworth)