Cat Has Had the Time of His Life

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    Our Daily Bleed...


The Daily Bleed Detail Reference Page for the month of March

The following entries on this page provide details relating to dated entries cited in the Daily Bleed Calendar, linked from there to the date(s) cited here.

The Daily Bleed Calendar in full, & access to the pages for this month, are accessible at

1875 -- [March 1] US: Congress, gives African Americans the right to serve on juries & occupy public places. In the wake of the Civil War, black men are briefly able to vote & hold elected office.

On March 13, 1866, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act declaring all person born in the Unites States were citizens with full rights under the Constitution. A second Act, today, gave citizens of every race & color equal rights to make contracts, testify in court, purchase, hold & dispose of property, & enjoy full & equal benefit of all laws. It provided punishment for anyone denying this right to any citizen.

But because African Americans remain dependent on whites for work, these rights often are denied by force. Southern whites are beginning to use their economic power & form terrorist groups such as the Ku Klux Klan, & many northern politicians say stabilizing the South requires a return to white supremacy. It is only a matter of time before they reduce blacks again to near slavery.

For example, on the basis of Dred Scott, the Supreme Court found that the Civil Rights Act of 1875 was unconstitutional, & that under the Constitution, Blacks were not people as "people" is used in the Constitution.

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1877 -- [March 1] Milly Witkop Rocker (1877-1955) lives, Ukraine. Exiled to London, an activist in the Jewish anarchist movement among the Lower Eastside sweatshop workers.

In London, in 1896, Milly met Rudolf Rocker who became her lifelong companion.

In 1916 she was sentenced to two years in prison for antiwar activities, & in 1918 the Rockers went to Germany, where Milly organized women workers.

In 1933, with the Nazi burning of the Reichstag they were forced to the US, where they continued to fight & organize, & were prominent supporters of the revolution in Spain.

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1900 -- [March 1] March-October: Emma Goldman prepares for & visits Europe.

US anarchists debate the importance of selecting American-born delegates to represent their movement at the Paris congress; it is eventually decided that Goldman, although an immigrant, will be a suitable representative. Other representatives also selected. Goldman asked by several American comrades, including Lizzie & William Holmes, Abe Isaak, & Susan Patton, to present papers at the congress.

In the summer, accompanied by Hippolyte Havel, Emma Goldman visits Paris in preparation for the September International Anti-Parliamentary Congress.

While immersing herself in French culture, Goldman becomes acquainted with the leading figures of the French anarchist movement & other progressive circles, including Augustin Hamon & Victor Dave.

She met up with US-Italian comrades, including Salvatore Palavicini, & reunited with Max Baginski. She met Oscar Panizza, who wrote for Der arme Teufel & discusses issues of sexuality, including homosexuality, with Dr. Eugene Schmidt.

Goldman delivers a statement to the organizing committee of the Paris congress about her most recent lecture tour in the US, the necessity of organizing American-born citizens into the anarchist movement, & the reluctance of some anarchists to participate in the Paris congress.

Emma also decides against pursuing further medical studies so that she can concentrate on political activities. Following the Congress, she earns her living as a boarding room cook & as an American tour guide at the Paris Exposition.

Goldman's "The Sex Question" is one of her lectures scheduled — although some French comrades oppose this topic being addressed in public, fearing it will lead to further misconceptions of anarchism.

During this period, Goldman also attends the Neo-Malthusian Congress in Paris, held in secret because of a French law prohibiting organized attempts to limit offspring. She obtains birth control literature & contraceptives to take back to the US.

French intelligence notes the presence of anarchists Hippolyte Havel & Emma Goldman at a women's congress in Paris.

French police files reveal that Goldman's movements were closely followed when she visited Paris at the turn of the century in part because the French authorities mistakenly suspected that as a prominent anarchist she played a role in Gaetano Bresci's assassination of King Umberto of Italy.

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1932 -- [March 1] Librado Rivera dies from complications following a car accident.

Mexican anarchist, a school principal, then a professor, & companion in the fight waged by the Magón brothers, Enrique & Ricardo Flores.

Librado Rivera's libertarian ideals landed him in jail numerous times & in May 1905 Rivera went into exile in the US with Ricardo Magon & was active in the newspaper "Regeneración".

Several times he was jailed & threatened with expulsion. Finally both were arrested & sentenced to 15 & 20 years of forced labor (Ricardo Flores Magón died in the Leavenworth penitentiary). Rivera was released on 2 October 1923, & extradited to Mexico.

Imprisoned again in 1927, he continued writing for his paper "Sagitario" until the police banned it. After his release he started "Avante," which was shut down 1929, & the printing shop destroyed.

Librado Rivera was arrested, struck & thrown in front of a train in an attempt to kill him, but he foiled the attempt, & went on to found yet another newspaper, "El paso," the year before his death.

Ricardo Flores Magon, Antonio I. Villarreal & Librado Rivera were freed from Florence jail, Arizona, where they had been serving an 18 month sentence for the alleged "violation" of the neutrality laws. They immediately went to Los Angeles where they were met at the railway station by hundreds of P.L.M., sympathizers. Praxedis joined them & publication of "Regeneración" was resumed.

Librado Rivera, Magón brothers, et al, in a mural by Diego Rivera,

Librado Rivera: En la Oficina del Alcalde:
Los Hermanos Flores Magón,
Regeneracion Radio 104.9 FM (Spanish) ... chiapas Itemid=200042
In French,

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1933 -- [March 1] An Anarchist Looks At Life: Speech Before The Foyle's 29th Literary Luncheon.

Mr. Chairman, Ladies & Gentlemen, the
subject this noon is, "An Anarchist Looks at
Life." I cannot speak for all my fellow
anarchists, but for myself I wish to say that I
have been so furiously busy living my life that
I had not a moment left to look at it.

Emma Goldman, March 1, 1933

When I was 15 I suffered from unrequited love, & I wanted to commit suicide in a romantic way by drinking a lot of vinegar. I thought that would make me look ethereal & interesting, very pale & poetic when in my grave, but at sixteen I decided on a more exalted death. I wanted to dance myself to death.

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1966 -- Timeline icon SI dingbat France:

publications préhistoriques...

[March 1966]

During this month (Exact date not given — ed.)

Internationale Situationniste #10. Editor: Debord. Editorial committee: Michèle Bernstein, Théo Frey, Mustapha Khayati, J.V. Martin, Raoul Vaneigem.

Bulletin critique de publications préhistoriques volume VIII number 1, 1966, appears with a cover détourned from IS #10 with the intention of deceiving police & customs officials, particularly in Algeria. | [Situationist Resources]

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1876 -- [March 2]

Switzerland: Meeting of the Jura Federation in Lausanne.

Although Peter Kropotkin is generally credited as the primary innovator of anarcho-communism, in reality it was Élisée Reclus, the French Bakuninist & ex-Communard, who first gave an expose of anarcho-communist ideas here at this meeting. By the summer of that year leading Italian anarchists (Malatesta, Cafiero, Covelli & Costa) had decided to abandon collectivism & to persuade delegates at the forthcoming Congress of the Italian Federation to make a declaration for libertarian communism. The question of the socialization of consumption was raised in a series of articles in the Jura Federation's "Bulletin" throughout the second half of 1876, & in German-speaking Swiss anarchist circles Paul Brousse began to campaign vigorously for the adoption of anarcho-communism in the pages of "L'Arbeiter Zeitung."

However, there was still no strong sympathy for anarcho-communism among the mainstream of the European anarchist movement. The first tentative step in this direction was only taken by the Jura Federation at their annual congress at La Chaux-de-Fonds in 1880.

It would be a full 18 months after the Congress of La Chaux-de-Fonds (1880) that Kropotkin began to discuss anarcho-communist ideas in the pages of "Le Revolte."

By 1883 Kropotkin began to emerge as a major exponent of anarcho-communism, partly because of the success of Le Revolte & partly because of the leading role he played in the anarchist trials at Lyon. Certainly, it is likely that he was the principle author of the 'Anarchist Declaration' read out to the court on January 12, 1883.

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1915 -- [March 2] US: Frank Abarno & Carmine Carbone, members of the Italian anarchist Gruppo Gaetano Bresci, are arrested.

Abarno & Carbone are accused of planting bombs in St. Patrick's Cathedral & the Church of St. Alphonsus on October 13, 1914 — the five year anniversary of the execution of Francisco Ferrer.

Anti-radical sentiment gripped the city & they were sentenced to 6 to 12 years on April 9, 1915, in a prelude to 1918 when the government & press whipped up an anti-radical hysteria following America's entry into the war. Emma Goldman helps raise money for their defense fund.

Background, see "Radical Educators in New York City, 1909-1915" by Reid Friedson

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Kronstadt photo
1921 -- [March 2]
The Kronstadt Soviet was due to be renewed on 2nd March. alt: Cronstadt Uprising

A meeting of the First & Second Battleship Sections had been planned for 1st March. The notification had been published in the official journal of the city of Kronstadt.

The speakers were to include Kalinin, President of the All Russian Executive of Soviets, & Kouzmin, political commissar to the Baltic Fleet. When Kalinin arrived, he was received with music & flags. All military honors were accorded him.

Sixteen thousand people attended the meeting. Party member Vassiliev, president of the local soviet, took the chair. The delegates who had visited Petrograd the previous day gave their reports. The resolution adopted on 28th. February by the crew of the battleship 'Petropavlovsk' was distributed. Kalinin & Kouzmin opposed the resolution. They proclaimed that 'Kronstadt did not represent the whole of Russia.'

Nevertheless, the mass assembly adopted the Petropavlovsk resolution. In fact only two people voted against it: Kalinin & Kouzmin!

Kronstadt Rebellion graphic by Cliff Harper

Illustration by Clifford Harper

  • Short bio of Lenin, Trotsky, Stalin in French, in the Anarchist Black Book,
  • "Kronstadt, Leninists & the Truth,"
  • Voline noted that Stalin "did not fall from the moon." More on Voline at
  • A number of articles on the Russian Revolution at Workers Solidarity Page, &

    The text of Voline's Unknown Revolution is online in French, including his chapter "Cronstadt (1921),"

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    1904 --

    Timeline icon 1904-1905  

    "Martín Fierro"

    anarchist diamond dingbat;anarquista

    Martín Fierro — Argentine literary & political magazine, founded to propagate anarchist ideas. Named after José Hernández's gauchesque poem Martín Fierro, a touchstone of Argentine national identity, whose title character is a renegade gaucho.

    Directed & published in Buenos Aires— from 3 March 1904 to 6 February 1905— by Alberto Ghiraldo, a playwright & poet & one of the most notable intellectuals active in anarchist circles at the time. Ghiraldo became active in anarchist circles in 1900, & took up editing the anarchist literary magazines Martín Fierro & El Sol as well as La Protesta & Ideas y Figuras.

    Alberto Ghiraldo

    "No hay país donde el anarquismo haya tenido tanta influencia en la literatura como en la Argentina, si exceptuamos un cierto período en Francia... Se puede decir que la gran mayoría de los jóvenes escritores en la Argentina se han ensayado dede 1900... como simpatizantes del anarquismo, como colaboradores de la prensa anarquista y algunos como militantes..."

    See Yaacov Oved, "The Uniqueness of Anarchism in Argentina"

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    Egoist masthead
    1882 -- [March 5] Dora Marsden

    The Egoist: An Individualist Review; formerly The New Freewoman, London (January 1914 - December 1919). "A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man"; (15 July 1914) Vol. 1: No. 14, pp. 273-74.

    ... show details

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    1879 -- [March 6] The trial of 29-year-old Italian anarchist Giovanni Passannante [sometimes spelled Passanante]

    The trial is a judicial sham & the most elementary procedures are trampled underfoot with brazen cynicism.

    The president, Ferri, refused to draw lots for the jury but hand-picked them one by one so as to ensure their findings would not reveal the feelings of the citizenry who, whilst deploring the violence of Passannante’s action, by no means sympathised with Umberto I & the all-conquering dynasty.

    Leopoldo Tarantini, appointed to defend the accused, travelled to Rome before accepting the task, to kneel before the king & apologise for the task that he would, as a professional duty, have to perform.

    This young would-be assassin was a surprise to everybody, a party-pooper in that his action left it plain to see that, as far as he was concerned, there was another Italy, one that did not believe in handshakes or smiles, an Italy of toil & suffering. Even though the assassination bid had been the individual action of one man acting alone, the country was in uproar & throughout Italy there were demonstrations against the monarchy & everywhere there sprouted up clubs called after the young republican trooper Barsanti, who had been killed at the age of 21 for mutiny in barracks. Bombs went off in Florence & Pisa & in Pesaro rifles were looted from a barracks. The government fell on 11 December 1878.

    Condemned to death, Passannante's sentence was commuted. Passanante was to survive for 32 years of unbelievable suffering.

    In Portoferraio prison he was committed to a dark cell below sea level & hampered by irons weighing 18 kilos. Every night seamen from Elba could hear Passanante’s screams of pain as he was savagely beaten by Umberto I’s gaolers.

    The prison governor, Simon, was to brag to Amilcare Cipriani: "I broke Passanante & I’ll break you too!"

    In 1899, a parliamentarian, Bertani, denounced the mistreatment of the regicide. This caused a scandal & experts found the convict reduced to little more than a jelly & he was moved to the criminal asylum in Montelupo Fiorentino where physical & mental recovery were impossible.

    Thanks to his being made of sterner southern stuff, he hung on until his death at the age of 61 on 14 February 1914.

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    1974 -- [March 6]

    "Any white person
    who brought the element of civilization
    had the right to take over this continent."

    —Ayn Rand

    "Any white person who brought the element of civilization ..."
    2 citations found

    [1] "The Soul of an Individualist," For the New Intellectual, p. 98 (pb: 84).
    [2] "The Nature of Government," The Virtue of Selfishness, p. 146 (pb: 108).

    To help readers & researchers locate Ayn Rand's view on specific topics, ARI presents the Ayn Rand Bibliographic Search Engine. Based on The Ayn Rand Lexicon: Objectivism from A to Z, the search engine offers three ways of searching Rand's corpus: enter a word or phrase of your choice, browse a group of topics by category, or browse an alphabetical listing of topics. Whichever option you use, the search engine will list the articles (or books or essays) in which Ayn Rand discussed a given topic, along with the page reference.

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    2000 -- [March 6]

    Miriam Is Not Amused, A Film By Kim Roberts - 23 min. - 16 mm.

    Witty, wry & lyrical, Miriam Is Not Amused is a multilayered portrait of Miriam Patchen — activist, widow, & muse of famed poet Kenneth Patchen. The film combines rare archival footage with intimate observations of Miriam now.

    From her non-traditional upbringing in the 20's & 30's, through the years spent in the shadow of her celebrated anarchist husband, to her current reinvention as a political provocateur, Miriam reveals the choices & the compromises of her extraordinary life. With a sharp tongue & quick wit, Miriam turns the tables on filmmaker & audience by challenging her own relevance as a documentary subject, & legendary artistic muse.

    Born Sirkka Miriam Oikemus in Belmont, Mass. to Finnish socialist parents, she was politically active all her life. She claimed to have been the "youngest card-carrying member of the American Communist Party," having joined at the age of 7.

    A 3-hour Tribute to Kenneth & Miriam Patchen was held at the Tate Modern, London, 'For Kenneth & Miriam: A Poet & His Muse' on Friday, 14 July, 2000.

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    2002 -- [March 6] anarchist diamond dingbat

    Ralph Rumney, Artist & Avant-Gardist, Dies at 67
    New York Times - March 31, 2002

    Ralph Rumney, an English-born artist who romanced just about every eccentric left-wing intellectual movement he encountered over a half-century and helped start a few died on March 6 at his home in Manosque in the Provence region of France. He was 67.

    The cause was cancer, the news agency Agence France-Presse reported.

    Mr. Rumney founded no philosophical schools, nor did the art he produced so voluminously bear any important influence. But he displayed an uncanny knack for finding himself where intellectual cauldrons were bubbling, & tossing in some memorably zestful spice.

    In 1957, Mr. Rumney was a founding member of the Situationist International, a movement that mixed Surrealism, Marxism & sometimes spectacular hedonism and that has been described as the spiritual precursor to the Paris riots of 1968, the Sex Pistols & the sensationalist art of people like Damien Hirst. The tiny movement has remained a subject of fascination in France, where books on it appear regularly.

    ... show details

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    Timeline icon
    1943 -- [March 7] Spain:

    anarchist diamond dingbat;anarquista José García Hernández «Alcubillero», a member of the guerrilla group of Juan Nieto Martínez («Cuco»), is killed at Collado del Cortijo Las Cruces, district de Gergal (Almeria), along with Juan Membrive Membrive (not, as Guardia Civil F. Aguado Sanchez claims, with Sebastian Romero Magaña «El Marranica»).

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    1874 -- [March]

    Russia: Peter Kropotkin arrested & imprisoned (I don't have exact date — ed.) Before the Chaikovskii Circle could complete their goals, they experienced a significant set back.

    ... show details

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    Unione Sindacale Italiana
    1922 -- Italy: Roma, 10-13 marzo 1922. IV Congresso dell'Unione Sindacale Italiana.
    anarchist diamond dingbat; anarchicho

    Timeline iconDu 10 au 14 mars 1922, à Rome, se tient le quatrième congrès de "l'U.S.I" (Union Syndicale Italienne). C'est en fait le dernier Congrès avant le fascisme. La motion présentée par Armando Borghi préconisant l'adhésion à une nouvelle AIT anti-autoritaire l'emporte.

    Max Nettlau, anarchist
    1922 -- anarchist diamond dingbat

    Timeline iconMax Nettlau's, "Panarchy, A Forgotten Idea of 1860" first published (in Gustav Landauer's Der Sozialist, 15.3.1909).

    1950 -- [March 11] Cuba: Beginning of the The Third National Libertarian Congress

    The Third National Libertarian Congress was called (March 11-22, 1950) to reorganize the libertarian labor movement & adopt concrete radical measures enabling its militants to again orientate & play a decisive part in the regeneration of thc Cuban labor movement. The Congress approved the following resolutions:

    A) fight against the control of the labor movement by bureaucrats, political parties, religious sects, & class-collaborationists

    B) extend the influence of the libertarians by actively articipating in the daily struggles of the urban & rural workers for better wages & working conditions.

    C) encourage workers to prepare themselves culturally & professionally not only to better their present working conditions, but also to take over the technical operation & administration of the whole economy in the new libertarian society.

    D) educate the workers to understand the true meaning of syndicalism, which must be apolitical, revolutionary & federalist, which will help prevent authoritarian elements to institute a tyrannical type of unionism, actually becoming an agency of the state.

    On tactical problems the Congress resolves to work actively with the workers of the CGT, the only legitimate national labor orgallization with syndicalist tendencies, & which is most responsive to the real needs of the workers.

    To warn the workers that the CTC is a state-sponsored union, supported by the Stalinite faction & allied labor fakers; that the CTC is a pseudo-proletarian organdization without a trace of revolutionary ideas, spirit or practice; that the CTC is entirely dominated by dictatorial political parties & a corrupt leadership.


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    1885 -- [March 12] France: Antoine Rieffel, manager of "Terre et liberté" goes to prison...

    anarchist diamond dingbat; new entry secondary material, remove 2009

    Antoine Rieffel, manager of "Terre et liberté" (Land & Freedom), is sentenced to prison for two years. The paper was founded in 1884, but is forced to cease publication during anti-anarchist repression, after police ransacked the paper & arrested Rieffel for his political activites.

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    1909 -- Gaetano Salvemini

    Salvemini escapes to France in 1926 after his arrest (while out on bail?). A socialist & leading anti-Fascist critic, he was in exile for over 20 years, teaching at Harvard University (1930-48) before returning to Italy.

    Camillo Berneri attended his university lectures before he himslef was forced to flee fascist persecution.

    Salvemini (1873-1957), Enzo Tagliacozzo, Davide Jona, & many other anti-Fascist refugees were contributors to the anarchist Aldino Felicani's Italian & English language anti-Fascist journal, Controcorrente / Countercurrent.

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    1873 -- [March 15] The Italian Congress of the International meets
    Originally planned for Mirandola, where Cleso & Arturo Cerretti lived. But the local section was dissolved, Cerretti arrested, & so the delegates gather today meet at a Bologna factory.

    On March 16, Andrea Costa, Errico Malatesta, Alcesto Faggioli, A. Negri & other delegates are arrested, but the Congress is able to meet elsewhere, with 53 delegates representing 50 sections: these include local federations of Naples, Florence, Ravenna, Rimini, Turin, Mirandola, Modena, Ancona, Siena, Pisa, Rome; sections of Forli, Faenza, Lugo, S. Potito, Fusignano, Fermo e circondario, Menfi, Sciacca (Sicily), Osmimo & numerous smaller localities.

    [Source: Max Nettlau, Errico Malatesta: The Biography of an Anarchist]

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    Timeline icon
    1918 -- la Mêlée [March 15] Sortie du journal bimensuel "la Mêlée" Libertaire - individualiste - éclectique.

    "la Mêlée"

    Le journal fait suite à "pendant la mêlée" et à "par delà la mêlée" (journaux publiés pendant la guerre). L'administrateur et gérant en est Pierre Chardon. Le journal s'arrêtera en février 1920. Epigraphe:

    "L'anarchisme n'est pas une question de classes, il relève de tout individu - ouvrier ou non - à qui la liberté est chère."


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    1920 -- [March 15] Italy: The council movement in Turin begins a strike combined with occupation of the factories & resumes production under their own control.

    By April 14 the strike is general in Piedmont; in the following days it spread through much of northern Italy, particularly among the dockers & railroad workers. The government had to use warships to land troops at Genoa to march on Turin.

    While the councilist program was later approved by the Congress of the Italian Anarchist Union when it met at Bologna on July 1, the Socialist Party & the unions succeeded in sabotaging the strike by keeping it isolated: when Turin was besieged by 20,000 soldiers & police, the party newspaper Avanti refused to print the appeal of the Turin socialist section.

    The strike, which would clearly have made possible a victorious insurrection in the whole country, was vanquished on April 24.

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    Timeline icon
    1921 -- [March 15] Sortie à Bagnolet (93) du premier numéro du mensuel "La Jeunesse Anarchiste" Organe de la Fédération des Jeunesses Anarchistes.
    La Jeunesse Anarchiste

    "La Jeunesse Anarchiste"

    Le journal s'arrêtera en 1922 après 12 numéros. Un journal portant ce titre sera repris à Paris après-guerre, en 1946-47.


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    1937 -- [March 15] Crackpot fantasist H.P. Lovecraft dies

    "The world is indeed comic, but the joke is on mankind."

    —H.P. Lovecraft

    American poet & author of macabre short novels, whose cult following, particularly in America & France, can be traced to the 60 or so 'Cthulhu Mythos' stories.

    Most of his short stories appeared in the magazine Weird Tales, beginning in 1923. His best-known story is "The Call of Cthulhu" (1928), where he created his basic myth of the Elder Race, that once dominated the Earth, but largely destroyed itself, & whose members now lie sleeping somewhere under the sea or underground.

    See: Lovecraft: A Biography by L. Sprague De Camp (1975); The Encyclopedia of Fantasy, edited by John Clute & John Grant (1997); Clive Barker's A-Z of Horror (1997).

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    1938 -- [March 15] Poet Dick Higgins lives (1938-1998), Cambridge, England.

    Higgins studied at Columbia University, New York (where he received a bachelors degree in English, 1960), the Manhattan School of Printing, New York, & the New School of Social Research, 1958-59, with the anarchist John Cage & Henry Cowell. He attended Cage's composition class, where he met George Brecht, Allan Kaprow, Al Hansen & other future Fluxus artists.

    In 1958 Hansen & Higgins formed the New York Audio Visual Group, which was one of the groups to develop the concept of Happenings. The following year Higgins in association with Richard Maxfield, another of Cage's students, presented Stacked Deck, one of the earliest multi-media performances. Higgins also helped Kaprow put together his first New York happening 18 Happenings in 6 Parts that same year. Moreover, he also participated in the series of performances at George Maciunas' AG Gallery in 1961.

    Higgins also published the Something Else Newsletter, 1966-73 & operated the Something Else Gallery, 1966-69, which in 1966 showed the first exhibit of concrete poetry in the United States. John Cage's philosophy of integrating art & life influenced Higgins' own artistic & theoretical ideas. Higgins' important concept of "intermedia, " stated in 1965, is a direct outgrowth of Cage's ideas. Higgins identified Happenings & contemporary experiments in theatre & the visual arts as arts that "fall between media."

    Unpublished Editions was a hybrid between the traditional small press & an artists' cooperative. Its members included Higgins, Knowles, Cage, Philip Corner, Geoffrey Hendricks, anarchist poet Jackson Mac Low, Pauline Oliveros, & later, Jerome Rothenberg. It was renamed Printed Editions in 1978 & discontinued in 1985.

    When Higgins' financial problems became acute again in 1980, he moved from his large house in Vermont, with its indoor swimming pool, & bought & renovated a church in Barrytown, New York. Among his neighbors was George Quasha, publisher of Station Hill Press, who published, among others, Robert Kelly & Jackson Mac Low. ... =bioghist;byte=19092087

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    1980 -- [March 15] Hélio Oiticica (1937-1980) dies. Brazilian painter, performance artist, & anarchist. Grandson of the anarchist Jose Oiticica whose ideas & activities were an important influence.
    (alt., Helio Oiticica)

    Created environmental, participatory events—among them Parangolé (1964), Tropicália (1967) & Apocalipopótesis (1968)—either in art centres or in the street.

    One of the leading exhibitors in the exhibition Nova objetividade brasileira (Rio de Janeiro, 1967), which reactivated Brazil's avant-garde.

    See The Grove Dictionary of Art,

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    1995 -- [March 15] Jean Meckert, aka Jean or John Amila, (1910-1995) dies. Libertarian novelist & antimilitarist.
    His first novel Les coups (1941) is noticed by André Gide & Raymong Queneau. In 1950, at the request of Marcel Duhamel, Meckert began, under the pseudonym John Amila, detective novels, 21 titles in the 'Noire Series' between 1950 & 1985. Additionally he wrote science fiction, books for youth, of the theatre & film scripts for Yves Allégret, André Cayatte, Maurice Labro & George Lautner.

    Notable books are La lune d'Omaha, Noces de soufre, Pitié pour les rats (1964), Le sulfureux boucher des Hurlus (1982).

    In 1971, his novel La vierge et le taureau denounced military misdeeds in the South Pacific (atomic & bacteriological experiments). Jean Amila was violently attacked, possibly by government agents, & left for dead. He suffered amnesia afterwards, regaining his memory, little by little, thanks to his continued writing.

    Jean Amila's books are all stamped with his antimilitarist/anarchist spirit, tackling the army, the church, the family & the State, & often include characters who are spontaneously libertarian, their anarchism deep & visceral.

    " I do not know if I am an anarchist, but I know the ideas. My father was an anarchist & a deserter..."

    —"le monde libertaire," December 3, 1987

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    Timeline icon
    1900 -- [March 16]
    Zsherminal masthead; source

    Masthead, December 1906


    anarchiste diamond dingbat; new entry, remove 2010
    England: Premier issue of the monthly "Zsherminal" (Germinal), in London. Yiddish language organ of anarchist youth, the newspaper is published in London, then at Leeds, by Rudolf Rocker (living with his companion Milly Witkop to reduce costs), until March 1903. The paper reappeared in January 1905 & continues until May 1909.

    Source: Ephéméride Anarchiste

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    1907 -- [March 16] August Roden, editor of the 'Wisconsin State Journal" in Madison opens his crusade against Madison Gas & Electric

    MG&E's cooking & lighting gas has long been considered inferior, although its price is 21 percent higher than the U.S. average. A study by a University of Wisconsin professor found that 20 percent of the gas is nothing more than nitrogen, which provides no heat or light, but causes the meters to whirl just the same.

    A study commissioned by progressive Wisconsin Governor James O. Davidson finds that MG&E rates are not based on production costs plus a fair return but on the basis of all the traffic will bear. Roden's crusade is carefully timed for the legislative session. He prompts a new public utilities-regulation law, the forerunner of the state's Public Service Commission. Finally, in March 1910, MG&E will cut its rates by 10 percent. Over the next decade, the rates are rolled back three more times.

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    1930 -- [March 16]
    Studi Sociali masthead; source

    Premier issue (doc. Cira de Lausanne)

    Studi Sociali

    anarchiste diamond dingbat; new entry, remove 2010
    Argentina & Uruguay: Studi Sociali (Social Studies) premiers in Buenos Aires & Montevideo. Free biweekly review, written by Luigi Fabbri & published by Carlo Fontana in collaboration with the newspaper La Protesta. The illness of Luigi Fabbri, beginning in 1932, causes several interruptions in the publication of the magazine.

    Source: Ephéméride Anarchiste

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    1933 -- [March 16] Germany: Last appearance of FAUD's (Die Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands) newspaper for the unemployed in Dresden, which had served as the unofficial organ of the German anarcho-syndicalist movement after the Nazi's banned their two previous papers.

    FAUD truck

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    1935 -- [March 16]
    anarchiste diamond dingbat; new entry, remove 2010

    "Musée du soir"

    France: Opening of "Musée du soir" (Museum night), in Paris at 69 rue Fessard, at the initiative of Henry Poulaille & "Cercle d'écrivains prolétariens" (Circle of proletarian writers). More than a lending library, it is a meeting place, a sort of university, where workers & employees can come & participate in conferences, exhibitions or meetings with writers (primarily libertarian, but not exclusively). In 1936, the room became too small, & it moved to rue Médéah Médéah dans le 14e. Unfortunately, the "Museum night" is unable to survive for long following the declaration of war (WWII) & closes its doors in 1940.

    Source: Ephéméride Anarchiste

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    Zenzl Mühsam
    1962 -- [March 16] Germany: Zenzl Mühsam dies. anarchist diamond dingbat

    The most prominent victims of the bogus “bloc” constructed by the Stalinists were, together with Hirsch, Kreszenzia (“Zenzl”) Mühsam, the widow of the anarchist poet Erich Mühsam (who was tortured to death by the Nazis in the Oranienburg concentration camp) & Carola Neher, an actress in Brecht’s theatre.

    Together with Carola Neher, Zenzl Mühsam, who had been a friend of Wollenberg for many years, had aroused suspicion since the days of Zenzl’s exile in Prague. She had come to Moscow because she hoped to be able to bring out the unpublished works of Erich Mühsam. She enjoyed the special protection of Yelena Stasova, the leader of the MOPR (International Organization to Support the Fighters of the Revolution).

    Confronted with the delaying tactics of the Stalinist bureaucracy, who were certainly not interested in publishing the works of the anarchist & critic of the KPD, Erich Mühsam, & disgusted by the reality of “socialism in a single country,” which consisted of constant control & ubiquitous surveillance, she increasingly distanced herself from Stalin’s state. When she openly voiced her criticisms within the émigrés’ circles, she came under fire by the Stalinist bureaucracy. Despite strong international protest (including efforts on her behalf by Emma Goldman), she was arrested three times over the next 20 years & eventually banned before she was able to emigrate to East Germany in 1955. In the GDR, she was “looked after” by the ruling Socialist Unity Party (SED) & spied on by the secret police....

    Denunciations & the official files on political dissenters served as the basis for dossiers & blacklists of “diseased elements,” which were then forwarded by the cadre department of the Communist International to the Stalinist secret police.

    Wehner, Herbert (1906-90)

    German politician, born in Dresden. One of the most controversial & influential politicians in post-war social democracy in Germany, during the Weimar Republic he was anarchist youth officer & secretary to Erich Mühsam. He joined the Kommunistiche Partei Deutschlands (KPD) (1927-42) & became secretary of the Revolutionary Trade Union Opposition (1929) & member of the Sachsen Landtag (1930-1). He worked for the banned KPD (1933-5) in Germany & abroad, & in Moscow with the Komintern (1937), but broke with Communism during his stay in Sweden (1944). After the War he returned to Germany, & in 1946 joined the Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD), became a member of the Bundestag (1949-83), SPD parliamentary party deputy chairman (1958-73), & holder of other party posts. A supporter of Adenauer's NATO & European policies, he helped form the Grand Coalition of 1969-9. He influenced Willi Brandt's resignation from his post as chancellor in 1974.

    ... show details

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    1968 -- [March 16] Vietnam: My Lai Massacre, American soldiers murder civilians.

    Carrying on the tradition of 'teaching' American values to the godless & the communist (see October 29), Captain Medina leads a 'victorious' attack on the village of Xom Lang, near My Lai in South Vietnam. In a one hour killing spree Charlie Company lines up 430 old men, women & children in a ditch & proceed to massacre every single person.

    While the upper brass circles overhead in helicopters, the men of Charlie Company, First Battalion, American Division, enters the hamlet of My Lai 4, in Quang Ngai Province, & methodically & ruthlessly murders an estimated 347 civilians over an 8-hour period.

    Most are women, children & old men.

    Some are slain by bullets fired into their houses, others herded into small groups & mowed down, & still more die when they are hurled into a ditch & sprayed with automatic rifle fire.

    The Army first tries to cover it up & the US media refuses to report it (despite news stories circulating for over a year in Europe). Later they will portray it as a aberration, one bad guy (Calley), one good guy (who stops it). Calley is convicted, sent to his room for being a bad boy, then released after a year or so under house arrrest.

    Although it will not become public knowledge for more than a year, US ground troops from Charlie Company rampage through the hamlet of My Lai killing more than 500 Vietnamese civilians from infants to the elderly.

    The massacre continues for three hours until three American fliers intervene, positioning their helicopter between the troops & the fleeing vietnamese & eventually carrying a handful of wounded to safety. View the BBC Special Report on the incident.

    March 16, 1968
    150 unarmed Vietnamese civilians are killed by members of U.S. Army Lt. William L. Calley Jr.'s platoon at My Lai.

    In South Vietnam, Charlie Company (11th Brigade, Americal Division) enters the village of My Lai & kills over 300 apparently unarmed civilians. The American public will not hear about the My Lai atrocities until November 1969.

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    1968 -- [March 16] US: Beloved & Respected Comrade Leader Senator Robert Kennedy, former Attorney General & brother of former president John F. Kennedy (1961-63) ends months of debate by announcing that he will enter the 1968 Presidential race. No opportunist he, as he plays to the anti-war mood in the US & the voters Eugene McCarthy has won over in opposition to "Hey, Hey! LBJ" Johnson.

    March 16: Senator Robert Kennedy reverses his earlier decision & announces his candidacy for the Democratic nomination, criticizing Johnson for his handling of the war. (THIS FOLLOWS March 12: Voters in the New Hampshire primary give President Johnson only a narrow victory over antiwar candidate Senator Eugene McCarthy. )
    [Source: WholeWorld is Watching]

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    1826 -- [March 17] US: The Kendal Community (now Massillon) founded in Ohio. "Friendly Association for Mutual Interests."

    A 2000 acre estate settled by I50 local farmers, mechanics & woollen mill workers in an attempt to emulate Owen's community at New Harmony. The experiment was quietly abandoned after the members came to the conclusion that communitarian life did not benefit them substantially more than an individualised lifestyle.
    REF: Robert Owen & the Owenites in Britain & America.

    On Robert Owen, see Kenneth Rexroth's chapter in Communalism.

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    1876 -- [March 17] The Battle of Powder River

    In the first of a series of battles over the Black Hills, Colonel Joseph Reynolds leads troops in an attack on a peaceful camp of Northern Cheyenne & Oglala Sioux near the Powder River.

    From positions on ledges & behind rocks, the Indians hold the soldiers at bay until women & children can escape across the river. Then the soldiers burn the tepees & everything inside, including the winter food supply, & drive away all the Indians' ponies.

    After dark, however, the Indians raid the Army encampment & recover their stolen horses. This lead to a court martial of Colonel Reynolds. The fighting near the Powder River culminates at the Little Big Horn & the ultimate destruction of freedom for the northern plains Indians — what the racist & genocide apologist Ayn Rand defends as "morally correct" white men bringing civilization to North America.**

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    1897 -- [March 17] Jules Jouy (1855-1897) dies. Anarchist songster, poet, & pioneer of the social song

    " It was from the very start of years 1880 that the first artistic cabarets made their appearance. The first of the kind, in absolute, was the ' Club of Hydropates' with Emile Goudeau & Rodolphe Salis. But it is with this last that we owe the foundation in 1881, Rochechouart boulevard, of the ' Cat noir', intended to be used as model for all the other artistic establishments which endeavoured to imitate the formula of it. The originality of the ' Cat noir', the key of its success, was to have known to associate in the same artists place, chansonniers & public thanks to a setting in skilful scene, organized by the Master of the places, Salis. Many were the chansonniers who made their first genuine weapons in this establishment, to start with Aristide Bruant & Jules Jouy. Bunting, in particular, made itself famous there with its ' ballade of the cat noir' ".

    The fame which the establishment of Dirtied could acquire in a few years is remarkable, so much so that in 1895 Horace Valbel could write that ' the Cat noir' was ' the only really artistic establishment, I will not say Paris, but a whole world. [ It is ] to some extent the Academy of the song, criticism, the laughter & sincere art, véritable[...]'. In January 1882, the cabaret of the ' Cat noir' published a weekly sheet of the same name with as writer-directors Goudeau & Salis. In this newspaper made, & especially superbly illustrated rather well, inter alia, by the drawings of Steinlein, it was possible to find, among the collaborators, the signature of prestigious authors such Paul Verlaine or Jean Richepin, which ensured an artistic behaviour to him some. "

    — G Manfredonia, the anarchist song in France, from its origins to 1914 , p. 273.

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    1921 -- [March 17] USSR: Kronstadt falls to the Bolshevik military assault under the direction of Beloved & Respected Comrade Leader Trotsky, who boasted he would "shoot them like pigeons". There is a great slaughter when the island is taken. To the end of his life Trostky continued defending his actions, as Kenneth Rexroth notes, in a dispute with Victor Serge he continued dispensing Bolshevik lies. alt: Cronstadt

    75 years ago, today, Russia's Bolshevik dictatorship succeeded in putting down the Kronstadt uprising, killing thousands of revolutionaries (& their families). Tomorrow they celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Paris Commune, denouncing Thiers & Gallifet for the slaughter of the Paris rebels — while the last of the Kronstadt survivors who are unable to escape to Finland are being executed, or interned in concentration camps & prisons, where many die of malnutrition or are shot by the Cheka.

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    1921 -- PETRICHENKO (??-1945)
    Martyred heroic leader of the Kronstadt Rebellion.

    Petrichenko's name was Stiepan. He was a senior leading seaman on Kronstadt based dreadnought "Pietropavlovsk."

    He had originated from an Ucrainian peasant family, & before joining the Marine in 1912, had worked as a plumber.

    He was leading the initial marines' gathering on the Pietropavlovsk board & was elected the commissar of the Temporary Kronstadt Revolutionary Commitee by the marines & town inhabitants.

    After the fall of Kronsztad he escaped with some other rebels to Finland where he continued to edit brochures & books on the Kronstadt cause & the Bolshevik falseness. After the 2nd World War he was given to Stalin's regime & was probably killed in the gulag in 1945.

    His works: The Truth About Kronstadt Cause, 1921; The Days of Kronstadt, 1922; The Reasons of Kronstadt Uprising, 1926.

    — Bleedster Piero, Poland

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    1941 -- [March 17] France: Jules Sellenet, known as Francis Boudoux (born in St Etienne,1881), dies, in Argenteuil. French militant, antimilitarist & anarcho-syndicalist.

    In 1907 during a peaceful demonstration by strikers in Raon-l'Etape, the forces of "order" opened fire on the procession, killing two workers. It was Boudoux (Jules Sellenet), anarchist & secretary of the l'union des syndicats de Meurthe-et-Moselle, delivered a speech at the funeral services for the two workmen.

    A member of "l'Association Internationale Antimilitariste," Boudoux was arrested numerous times for his antimilitary activities & also for "offences related to industrial disputes." His own union denounced him as an agent provocateur, a charge that the Communists would revive following WWI.

    anarchist-syndicalist star

    On January 11, 1924, he was wounded during a meeting that ended in a brawl between anarcho-trade unionists & Communists (two anarchists were killed). In 1926, he served with Pierre Besnard, founder of the C.G.T- S.R (revolutionary syndicalist), as secretary of the Federation of Builders.

    In 1936, Boudoux fought in Spain with the Durruti Column.

    [Also cited as by David Berry as "Sellenet, Jean/Jules (aka J.-S.Boudoux)"]

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    1948 -- [March 17] William Gibson lives, Conway, South Carolina.

    Gibson left the US for Canada when he was 19 to avoid the draft for the Vietnam War. Son of a civilian contractor who had prospered during the construction of the Oak Ridge facility that manufactured the first atomic bomb, he spent his childhood with his widowed mother in a small town in the mountains of southwestern Virginia, attended a boarding school in southern Arizona. Since 1972, he has lived in Vancouver, British Columbia, with his wife & their two children.

    Gibson began to write fiction while attending the University of British Columbia, & is credited with having coined the term 'Cyberspace', & with having envisioned both the Internet & virtual reality before most people had even heard of them.

    The cyberpunks are Vietnam era, as «punks», & identify with grunts vs. officers.

    ‘Cyberpunk’ is a kind of sf sub-genre; its works are set in a computer-driven, high-tech near-future & feature low-life protagonists interacting in hard-boiled detective type plots.

    An early notable book by Gibson is Count Zero, whose characters are a mixture of eccentric low-lifes & nonconformists who find themselves confronting representatives of vast egomaniacal individuals whose wealth & power result directly from their ability to control information.

    Tauter, more tightly controlled & easier to follow than Neuromancer, Count Zero is nevertheless once again extraordinarily rich in suggestive neologisms & other verbal pyrotechnics, with a fascinating evocation of a world in which humanity seems to be constantly outshone by the flash & appeal of the images & machines that increasingly seem to be pushing mere people aside in their abstract dance towards progress & efficiency.

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    1877 -- [March 18] Switzerland: Kropotkin & Brousse organized a demonstration in Bern on March 18 to commemorate the Paris Commune. Peter helped that this bit of unrest would help stir the workers. Some members of the Federation feared that there would be clashes with the polices at the demonstration. This is actually what Peter hoped for. He knew that police intervention would make great propaganda.

    The clash with the police did occur. The group carried the red flag in honor of the commune. Switzerland law outlawed the public display of the flag. The police attempted to seize the flags from the protesters through force. Six or seven of the police officers were injured along with several protesters. The police failed, however, in seizing all of the flags. The flags were carried to a hall where speeches were given. Overall the day was a huge success. The police brutality had a tremendous effect on the workers. The size of the federation nearly doubled after the demonstration. Guillaume disagreed with Peter's assessment that the demonstration had been a success. Guillaume disapproved of the violent tactics that had been used which caused a division to begin between Peter & him.

    During the next few years, Peter became very involved in social congresses. In September, he attended the last meeting of the International. The organization had become doomed when Marx moved the headquarters to New York. As the International was falling apart, Peter saw problems developing between the North & South sections of the Jura Federation. These divisions undermined many of the resolutions passed at this meeting.

    The week after the International meeting, Peter attended the Universal Socialist Congress in Ghent. Although he had been named one of the two secretaries of the session, Peter was forced to leave the Congress early when he learned that the police were looking for him. Fearing that the Belgium authorities would extradite him back to Russia, he left the country, traveling to England. After a short time, he returned to Switzerland.

    Source: Anarchy Archives,

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    1869 -- [During the month of March] Mikhail Bakunin begins his notorious collaboration with Nechaev [Nechayev]. Bakunin was quite taken with Nechaev, but ultimately repudiated him in 1870. See Bakunin & Nechaev by Paul Avrich.
    "To begin with, my views are different in that they do not acknowledge the usefulness, or even the possibility, of any revolution except a spontaneous or a people's social revolution. I am deeply convinced that any other revolution is dishonest, harmful, & spells death to liberty & the people. It dooms them to new penury & new slavery....

    "You wished, & still wish, to make your own selfless cruelty, your own truly extreme fanaticism, into a rule of common life.... Renounce your system & you will become a valuable man; if, however, you do not wish to renounce it you will certainly become a harmful militant, highly destructive not to the state but to the cause of liberty..."

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    1898 -- [March 20] Emma Goldman, anarchist feministUS: In Chicago, Emma Goldman, (March 20-26, during her speaking tour of Feb/June, addressing 66 meetings) is aided by Josef Peukert, who secures for her several speaking engagements before labor unions.

    Emma addresses the Economic Educational Club, the Brewers & Malters Union, the Painters & Decorators Union, the Co-operative College of Citizenship, the Turn-Verein Vorwärts Society, the German group of the International Workingmen's Association (IWA), & the Bakers' & Confectioners' Union. Lectures include "Trades Unionism," "Passive Resistance" (both in German), & "The New Woman."

    "Red" Emma also visits Max Baginski at the "Arbeiter Zeitung" office. Fearing that Baginski had disapproved of Alexander Berkman's attempt to kill Frick, Emma had avoided seeing him; she finds, however, that they share many similar viewpoints.

    Emma also meets Moses Harman, the editor of "Lucifer the Light-Bearer," with whom she discusses women's emancipation.

    Visits Michael Schwab, who served more than six years in prison for charges relating to the Haymarket Affair before he was pardoned. Hospitalized with tuberculosis, Schwab dies a few months later, on June 29.

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    1903 -- [March 20] Arbeter Fraint begins republishing under the administration of the Arbeter Fraint group & editorship of Rudolf Rocker, but now as the organ of the "Federation of Yiddish-Speaking Anarchist Groups in Great Britain & Paris".

    A conference of Jewish anarchists meeting in London during the Christmas week 1902, in London, had four items on the agenda: Restarting the Arbeter Fraint, opening a club, issuing pamphlets & books, & linking different groups in London & the provinces into a Jewish Anarchist Federation. Rocker ceased publishing his own paper Germinal, unable to do both papers at the same time. In January 1905, another group undertook responsibility for publishing it, & named Rockerit's editor.

    See Rudolf Rocker, The London Years

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    1916 -- [March 20] Private Aby Harris, no. 111799, shot by a firing squad for desertion
    The Deserter, book cover by Clifford Harper

    Abraham Beverstein

    Private Abraham Beverstein was a Jewish soldier from the East End of London. Due to some people viewing it as dishonourable for a Jewish person to enlist as a soldier, Beverstein enlisted under the false name of Harris. He was also his parent's only son.

    After enlisting in September 1914, he was sent to Aldershot for his military training. Once completed, during May 1915, Beverstein joined the rest of his comrades in France. Two days before Christmas 1915, the 11th Middlesex went into the front line at Givenchy. The next day, Christmas Eve 1915, a huge mine was detonated by the Germans. Private Beverstein was wounded in the back, & was admitted to hospital. He also appeared to have been suffering from shock. He eventually recovered, & rejoined his battalion.

    In February 1916, Beverstein left his position in the front line, & reported to one of the Company Headquarters in the rear. He told the Company Quartermaster Sergeant that a grenade had burst very near him, & that he was shocked. The NCO sent him to the Medical Officer. This doctor examined him, & told him that there was nothing wrong with him. Consequently, he was ordered to return to his unit in the front line. Beverstein instead went to a farmhouse in the rear, & hid in the barn. He was found by an officer from another regiment, & placed under arrest as a deserter.

    After his arrest, Beverstein wrote the following letter (reproduced from "The Thin Yellow Line"):

    I have sent you a letter that I have received the parcel. I am well & hoping all of you are quite well. Dear Mother, we were in the trenches & I was ill, so I went out & they took me & put me in prison, & I am in a bit of trouble now & won't get any money for a long time. I will have to go in front of a court. I will try my best to get out of it. But dear Mother, try to send some money. I will let you know in my next [letter] how I get on. Give my best love to Father & Kath.

    From your loving son, Aby.

    Private Beverstein was courts-martialed on 4 March 1916.

    He was executed by firing squad, with another unconnected soldier, on 20 March 1916.

    Private Beverstein is buried in Labourse Communal Cemetery, Grave Reference B.5.


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    1877 -- [March 21] Anna Strunsky Walling lives. A family story says that because Anna was small at nine her parents misstated her age to get a cheaper ticket, hence much subsequent confusion over her real birth date, which is today.

    In her novel, The Heart's Country (1914), labor journalist Mary Heaton Vorse created a fictional character, Roberta, who concluded that women would be judged far differently than men:

    "I fancy that women will have another bar of judgment & that the question asked of us there will be: Have you loved well?"

    For Vorse as for Anna Strunsky Walling, modern dancer Isadora Duncan, anarchist Emma Goldman, salon hostess Mabel Dodge, & many other notable radical women of the 1910s, loving well was critical to their identity, & their accomplishments in the realm of politics & culture palled when compared to their emotional dependence upon men.

    In the era of the "new woman," these women still paid homage to the Victorian ideal of subsuming the self in love.

    No one who met Anna Strunsky ever forgets her, they say.

    She first won celebrity in 1896, when William Randolph Hearst's San Francisco Examiner dubbed her the "Girl Socialist of San Francisco." The fascinated reporter found in her face the "beauty of intelligence" rather than prettiness & noted her "pleading, sorrowful voice." He referred to her as Russian by birth but clearly identified her as Jewish with references to "Oriental" aspects of her appearance. He also recorded that she had difficulty answering questions from the floor. From that time forward, the press found her, as her friend Jack London pointed out, "exceptionally good copy."

    Jack London (1876 - 1916) was one of America's most popular writers & folk heroes. He held an enormous variety of jobs, never shying from adventure.

    Though married, he soon fell into an affair with Anna Strunsky, a fellow author who eventually caused his divorce. Paradoxically, London maintained that he did not believe in love, yet he clearly displays some of its symptoms in the following letter.

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    1812 -- [March 22] Modern Times founder Stephen Pearl Andrews (1812-1886) Lawyer, anarchist, free-love advocate


    "Stephen Pearl Andrews once offered, as an image of anarchist society, the dinner party, in which all structure of authority dissolves in conviviality & celebration..."

           — Hakim Bey, Pirate Utopias

    Regards the anarchist colony Modern Times, see:

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    1969 -- [March 22] The anarchist militant Miguel Garcia released from prison.

    Former Portuguese diplomat, Antonio de Figueredo, despairing of attempts at ameliorating the dictatorship of Dr. Salazar, persuades local anti-fascists to unite with Iberian dissidents, including ETA & the anarchist militants such as Garcia.

    1971 — The Tupamaros (MLN) rebel against the military dictatorship in Uruguay, which reduced the "Sweden of South America" to Third World conditions, & a virtual civil war ensures. The British Ambassador to Uruguay, Sir Geoffrey Jackson, is kidnapped, & a statement issued in Montevideo protests how "For years England has drained our economy . . . obtaining benefits which amounted to thousands of times the invested capital & which never left the country tangible advantages. British Ambassadors did good business for Britain" (MLN Communique, February 1971). They demand the release of Tupamaro prisoners, asking Miguel Garcia to publicise the case in London.

    Meltzer suggests that if Whitehall agrees to Garcia & de Figueredo acting as go-betweens, which would lead to Jackson's immediate release, they should be asked to release Purdie & Prescott, not yet sent for trial, as "brokerage". Christie approaches two journalists from "The Times" with known connections with the Foreign Office. They are more concerned with making a case against Christie & the negotiations fall through. Though the plan did not come off, this is one of the internationally concerted defence efforts that caused Interpol to concentrate efforts on growing anarchist activism.

    See the Chronology in Albert Meltzer's I Couldn't Paint Golden Angels
    [Source: Albert Meltzer]

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    1987 -- [March 22] Uruguay: Eugen Relgis (1895-1987), Rumanian poet, antimilitarist & prolific anarchist author, dies, Montevideo. Wrote Cosmometapolis (1950); La letteratura, l'arte e la guerra (1968); Principi umanitaristi: Umanitarismo e socialismo (1969), the biography, Han Ryner (1971), among others.
    Relgis was born in Rumania, but after being persecuted by the fascists, & then the Communists, he moved & settled in Uruguay.

    Eugenio Relgis In Montevideo he was part of a group, with Abraham Guillen, Gerald Gatti & others in charge of safeguarding anarchist files sent from Europe, but police attack & destroy their location & steal the archives. Relgis, despite many difficulties, evades arrest.

    In the Fifties he met the anarchist Jose Oiticica in Rio de Janeiro with the aim of translating his works into Portuguese (his writings, translated into numerous languages, are ignored in the US & France).

    Eugen Relgis, in his book Páginas de mi calendario (Pages of My Calendar) described the pacifist "School Day of Non-Violence & Peace" begun in 1964 as "a glimmering hopeful freeing light in a cloudy sky."

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    1871 -- [March 23] France: Communes are proclaimed in Lyon & Marseille.

    "L'indépendance de la commune est le gage d'un contrat dont les clauses librement débattues feront cesser l'antagonisme des classes et assureront l'égalité sociale.(...)

    Nous avons combattu, nous avons appris à souffrir pour notre principe égalitaire, nous ne saurions reculer alors que nous pouvons aider à mettre la première pierre de l'édifice social".

    — Déclaration de l'Association internationale des travailleurs (A.I.T), 23 mars 1871

    anarchiste diamond dingbat

    A popular insurrection & the seizing of the public buildings establishes the Commune of Marseille, succeeding where two previous efforts had failed (on August 8 & November 1 of 1870).

    A departmental Commission, made up of 12 representatives, with the radical Gaston Crémieux at its head, includes Charles Alerini, a member of the First International.

    The black flag is raised on the prefecture as a sign of mourning for the Fatherland.

    On April 3, troops supported by three ships, move on the city. On April 4, despite the barricades, the fraternization of two battalions of infantry, & a last-ditch effort at mediation by Crémieux, the army attacks the city: 300 shells fall on the prefecture & close combat follow, with the insurrectionists holding the city until this evening when the Marseillaise Commune is finally overcome.

    A pitiless clerical & reactionary repression follows.

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    1913 -- [March 23] In Micheroux-Fleron (Liège, Belgique) the premier of the bimensuel "L'action anarchiste," révolutionnaire - communiste.

    "L'action anarchiste"

    anarchiste diamond dingbat

    Le gérant du journal (lequel s'arrêtera après huit numéros parus) est Jean Kroonen. Epigraphe:

    "Les anarchistes veulent instaurer un milieu social qui assure à chaque individu la plus grande somme de bonheur adéquate au développement progressif de l'humanité."

    Source & graphic: Ephéméride Anarchiste

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    1983 -- [March 23] Hermoso Plaja Saló, anarquista, dies.

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    1997 -- [March 23] East Timor:

    Brutal military crackdown against a group of about 250 unarmed East Timorese students who marched to the hotel where a representative of the U.N. General Secretary was staying. They wished to express their opposition to the continued integration of East Timor into Indonesia. They entered the hotel lobby & presented their written statement to an assistant to the U.N. representative.

    Soon thereafter, in the hotel lobby itself, the Indonesian military began its assault on the students. The soldiers beat the students with sticks, shot at them & arrested those they could grab.

    One report notes, "21 were hit by bullets & 30 were injured by bayonets & broken glass. Among the injured some were captured & are being detained by the police, others managed to seek protection in Motael, in the convents & in their own homes. Some have disappeared & their whereabouts are not known." The report lists the names of 90 people who have disappeared, either they are in hiding or they are in the secret custody of the military. Of the 21 hit by bullets, an unknown number have died, anywhere from one to seven depending on the report.

    Why Americans Should Care about East Timor by Noam Chomsky,

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    Timeline icon
    1794 -- [March 24]
    anarchiste diamond dingbat
    Anacharsis Cloots dies.

    Source: Ephéméride Anarchiste

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    1867 -- [March 24]
    anarchiste diamond dingbat
    Henri Moray lives.

    Source: Ephéméride Anarchiste

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    1904 -- [March 24] US: Russell Blackwell lives (d.1969). Cartographer, community activist, a Wobbly & an anarchist co-founder of the Libertarian League.

    Russell Blackwell was a one-time Communist Party member (1924-27) & the national secretary for the Mexican Young Communist League.

    In November 1936, after stowing away aboard a freighter, he appeared in Spain as an observer for the Revolutionary Workers' League (anti-Stalinist), to whom he provided detailed reports (as Rosario Negrete, an assumed named he used to get into the country). He worked closely with the POUM, the CNT & the FAI.

    By 1937, when the Stalinists began attacking the anarchists, Trotskyists & various Republicans in a power grab, Russell was wounded on the barricades of Barcelona. On March 17, 1938 he was imprisoned for nine months by the Stalinist wing of the Loyalist government, who accused him of being an American spy in the service of American imperialism, an agent of Trotsky & of plotting to assassinate the War Minister.

    Endlessly interrogated & also beaten on one occasion, his wife Edna, fearing for his life, agitated in the US for his release. With the help of the Blackwell Defense Committee, which included such notables as John Finerty, John Dewey, Carlo Tresca, Norman Thomas, James T. Farrell, Suzanne LaFollette, Linton Oak, Eugene Lyons, Sydney Hook, A.J. Muste, Dwight Macdonald, James Oneal, Bertram Wolfe, James Cannon, Max Eastman, among many others, she was able to get the Secretary of State to intercede by arguing he was being victimized by the Stalinists because of his defection from the CP.

    Following his release on December 30th he returned tithe US, working as a cartographer for the American Geographical society & the UN, & involved in political & community action, including directing a cultural enrichment program for underprivileged children on the Lower East Side of NYC.

    Over 100 people attended his memorial service, with Sam Dolgoff (aka Samuel Weiner) the principal speaker.

    Russell's body was cremated, & on Labor Day his adhere were dropped from the Queensboro Bridge into the East River by his close friend Clinton Davis, with whom he had long ago made a pact that when either died, the survivor would perform that service. Each wanted his ashes to be swept out to sea by the tides, then far & wide around the earth.

    Source for this material paraphrased from his obituary, "Russ Blackwell, Longtime Fighter for Libertarianism!," Industrial Worker, October 1969, & his obituary in the NYT, August 22, 1969. Many thanks to A. Blackwell, his granddaughter, for providing these.

    See also

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    1887 -- [March 25] French anarchist Clement Duval is deported from the military fortress of Toulon, bound for the prison vaults of Guyana

    Clement Duval, a partially disabled veteran of the Franco-Prussian war of 1870, spent a year in prison for stealing from his employer in order to feed his family & buy much-needed medication.

    Unable to support his family upon his release, he undertook a life of crime.

    "Theft exists only through the exploitation of man by man...when Society refuses you the right to exist, you must take it...the policeman arrested me in the name of the Law,
    I struck him in the name of Liberty..."

    See the Anarchist Encyclopedia,

    Duval spent 14 years in Guyana. During these years, he tried to escape more than 20 times, seizing every chance, every means: on rafts, on stolen or patiently built boats, hiding in ships that passed. Every time something went wrong. Until....
    See also
    [Details, click here]

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    Timeline icon
    1917 -- [March 25]
    anarchiste diamond dingbat
    Spain(?): Ángel Marín Pastor lives. At the Joint plenum of the CNT-ML regionals in exile in France, in Muret, 12 March, 1944, Ángel Marín was appointed to the secretariat.

    En juillet 1945 Emilio C., Francisco Sabaté Llopart El Quico, Juan Salas Millán El Rotget & Jaime Parés Adán El Abisinio formaient le groupe de soutien qui accompagnait en Espagne Angel Marín Pastor & Lucio Gómez délégués du Mouvement Libertaire Espagnol (MLE) chargés de former un Comité de liaison permanent entre l’organisation de l’exil et l’Espagne.

    Source: Ateneo Virtual Efemérides

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    1926 -- [March 25] Emma Goldman

    England: Emma Goldman returns to London for a series of six lectures ( March 25-April 29) on dramatists, including Eugene O'Neill, Henrik Ibsen, Susan Glaspell, & the German expressionists; she also delivers the same lectures in Yiddish as well as lecturing on Yiddish drama.

    Source: See Daily Bleed Source page


    Any good search engine will locate pages for the authors cited, as well as her involvement in the Yiddish anarchist movement. See also Emma Goldman's book, The Social Significance of the Modern Drama

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    1889 -- [March 26] Ukrainian Jewish anarchist Iakov Dubinsky (better known under his French name as Jacques Doubinsky) lives, (1889-1959)

    As a young labor radical Doubinsky joined the Ukrainian peasant uprising in 1918, fighting with the famed anarchist insurrectionary Makhnovist army.

    When the Makhnovist army, as well as the Russian Revolution, was betrayed & crushed by the Bolshevik counter-revolution, Doubinsky went to Bulgaria, where he was arrested & tortured after the coup d'etat of 1923 for his anarchist activities. He escaped to France where he met up with Voline.

    With his companion Rosa, he later co-directed the Jewish anarchist library "L'autodidacte".

    Following WWII & Voline's death, he formed the "Friends of Voline," publishing Voline's book The Unknown Revolution (1947) (translated by Fredy Perlman & a group in Chicago; published by Black & Red in Detroit, Free Life Editions in NY & Black Rose Books in Canada.)

    Jacques Doubinsky was also involved with the Jewish anarchist "La libre Pensée" in Paris & in assisting Bulgarian refugees.

    He is the grandfather of the anarchist & writer, Sebastien Doubinsky:

    Sebastien Doubinsky

    "He died before my birth; I cannot really speak about him, but I can speak about his heritage which I assert fully. To have an anarchist like him in the family, which did so much for Bulgaria, the Spanish revolution, etc, it is for me the image of insubordination, the image of freedom, & the image of a worthy fight. It is a heritage of freedom, of courage also, because my grandfather suffered in his flesh, especially in Bulgaria, & Russia, where he was tortured several times."

    Sources & references:

    Raymond Callemin
    1890 -- [March 26] Raymond Callemin, (aka Raymond-la-Science) member of the anarchist/illegalist Bonnot Gang, lives.

    Raymond met Victor Serge in Belgium, with whom he started the individualist paper, "L'anarchie".

    He was apprehended on April 7, 1912, in Paris, & sentenced to death on February 28, 1913, along with André Soudy, Antoine Monier & Eugene Dieudonné.

    Raymond Callemin was guillotined April 21, 1913, having cleared & saved Eugène Dieudonné from his own fate.

    Why I Took Part...See Raymond's statement from the tiral, "Why I Took Part in a Burglary, Why I Committed Murder," online,

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    1923 -- [March 26] The army opens fire on a peaceful demonstration in Yambol, Bulgaria, during an anarchist protest against the government's decision to disarm the people. The army shoots into the crowd, wounding the speaker Atanas Stoitchev, & massacre others.

    About 30 are murdered here, including others executed at the Yambol barracks tomorrow. Among them:

    • Todor Darzev, born in 1880, great figure of the revolutionary movement, speaker & anarchist propagandist, enjoying a prestigious figure among the working class.
    • Pani Botchkov, shoe-maker, secretary of the local anarchist group.
    • Dimitar Vassilev, born in 1897, underground, anti-military activist.
    • Cyrille Kehaiov, Spiro Obretenov, Pétar Kassapina, Rousko Nanine, Pétar Glavtchev, etc.
    With the military coup d'etat on 9 June 1923, other activists are forced underground.
    On April 24, 1923 in Sliven (Bulgaria), the anarchists Nicolai Dragnev, the brothers Panayot & Ilia Kratounkov are all shot by the army under the pretext of an "escape attempt."

    Nicolai Dragnev, born in Yambol, was one of the significant figures of Bulgarian anarchism. Propagandist & esteemed popular speaker, he was not a part in the March 26 protest, & failed to hide after the repression. This cost him his life.

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    1949 -- [March 26] Intellectually, the Cold War began today in New York City at the Waldorf Hotel

    A conference organized by, among others, Lillian Hellman brought communist cultural celebrities together to defend the U.S.S.R. The older, more liberal Commentary carried William Barrett's lively account of the affair. Those who bolted from the Stalinist-dominated conference & started the American Committee for Cultural Freedom included liberals, democratic socialists & even anarchists (Dwight Macdonald), with no conservatives in sight.

    Indeed, there was more true, gut-felt anti-communism among Italian American, Polish American, Irish American & Jewish American anarchists (Carlo Tresca, Aldino Felicani, Max Nomad, Dorothy Day, et al.) than within the entire Republican Party, some of whose leaders used the issue to win elections, only later to shake hands with communist leaders & open up trade relations. As early as 1920, it was the anarchists & the liberals, Emma Goldman & Bertrand Russell, who first perceived the treacheries of Leninist communism, & in the 1920s, Max Eastman of the old "Masses" helped translate Russian documents for "The New Leader" to publicize the plight of the opposition in Stalin's Russia & make available to Americans the writings of Boris Souvarine & Boris Nicolaevski. The valiant struggle against totalitarianism became synonymous with democratic liberalism & the anti-communist left.

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    1931 -- [March 27] Uruguay: Arrest of Miguel Arcangel Roscigna, anarchist Argentinean expropriator who, after being a wrought iron craftsman, went from anarcho-syndicalism to violent action. Initiated by Buenaventura Durruti in bank robberies to finance propaganda & to help prisoners escape.

    October 1, 1927, Roscigna & his gang (Andrès Vasquez Paredes, Vicente & Antonio Moretti) netted an impressive 141,000 pesos in a Buenos Aires robbery. A police officer was killed but they escaped to Uruguay. There they financed a spectacular escape from the Punta Carretas Prison in Montevideo, freeing nine men, but resulting in the arrest of Roscigna & Moretti. Sentenced to six years in prison before being delivered to the Argentinean police who then murdered them: the body of Roscigna has never been found (a now familiar "method" of torturing & disappearing the victims). See Osvaldo Bayer's Les anarchistes expropriateurs.

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    1943 -- [March 27]
    Francis Ronsin; source anarchiste diamond dingbat; new entry, remove 2009


    Le 27 mars 1943, naissance de Francis Ronsin à Paris. Historien du mouvement néo-malthusien.

    Source: Ephéméride Anarchiste

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    2003 -- [March 27] Slovenia: 1a Fiera del libro anarchica balcanica: Incontro anarchico internazionale, in Lubiana, Marzo 27-30.
    In uno spirito di cooperazione reciproca, iniziativa e dibattito, gli anarchici di quasi tutti i paesi dell'ex-Jugoslavia sono arrivati all'accordo che serve la comunicazione costante e profondo, solidarieta e organizzazione dei nostri progetti per poter costruire delle potenti realta anarchiche locali.

    percio, abbiamo deciso che il primo passo concreto sara l'organizzazione della Prima Fiera del Libro Anarchica nei Balcani.

    ... show details

    Social Anarchist Federation – Slovenia
    Per contatti ufficiali: Ulteriori informazione a:

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    US / Global military spending
    2006 -- US Military spending compared globally
    A comparison of the budgets for the world's greatest military spenders. Note that this comparison is done in US dollars & thus is not adjusted for purchasing power parity.

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    1909 -- [March 28] Novelist Nelson Algren (A Walk on the Wild Side) lives (1909-1981), Detroit, Michigan. Grew up in Chicago in a poor Polish neighborhood, served a four-month jail term for stealing a typewriter. Algren joined John Reed Club & was editor of the New Anvil, an experimental magazine. Heavy drinker & gambler, involved with Simone de Beauvoir.
    Never play cards with a man called Doc. Never eat at a place called Moms. Never sleep with a woman whose troubles are worse than your own.

    Think of Nelson Algren, & many images come to mind — Chicago's unappreciated genius, champion of the poor & disenfranchised, lover of Simone de Beauvoir, author of The Man with the Golden Arm & A Walk on the Wild Side— but the author of a cookbook?

    The origins of America Eats are as fascinating as the book. In the late 1930s Nelson Algren joined such writers as Saul Bellow, Richard Wright, Margaret Alexander, & Arna Bontemps in the employ of the Illinois Project, a branch of the federal Works Progress Administration (WPA).

    Algren's assignment: to collect information for the national "America Eats" program, a pioneering enterprise whose members hoped to produce a series of regional guides describing types of immigration, settlement, & customs as these factors related to the universal language of food. Algren completed his project, a look at the foodways of the Midwest, but by the early 1940s the fruits of "America Eats" had been filed away as the government mobilized for war.

    Further reading, see: Nelson Algren: A Life on the Wild Side by B. Drew (1989); Confronting the Horrors: The Novels of Nelson Algren by J.R. Giles (1989); Nelson Algren: A Descriptive Biography by M.J. Bruccoli & J. Braughman (1985); Nelson Algren by M.H. Cox & W. Chatterton (1975); Conversations with Nelson Algren by H.E.F. Donohue (1965)

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    1911 -- [March 28]
    anarchist diamond dingbat; anarquista
    Paulino Malsand Blanco (1911- 19 de diciembre 1980) lives

    Outstanding militant from the Upper Llobregat. His prestige derives from the 1930s; he was active in the miners’ union of the CNT in Sallent.

    Sources: Ateneo virtual [Entry #201]

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    1915 -- [March 28] US: "The Most Dangerous Woman in the World," Emma Goldman is arrested for telling an audience how to use contraceptives; chooses 15 days in jail over $100 fine.

    [— BleedMeister's note: This information & date are incorrect, & happened later; this information is confused with today's talk by Emma, cited in the Goldman Chronology at the Emma Goldman Archives:

    March 28
    Emma Goldman lectures again on "Limitation of Offspring — Why & How Small Families are Preferable" in New York. Although explicit information is repeated & detectives are present, no arrests are made.

    The NY Times reports the trial as being on April 20, 1916 for presenting a lecture on birth control at the New Star Casino on April 8th, defends herself & is convicted. Refusing to paying a $100 fine, she serves 15 days in the Workhouse at Queens County Penitentiary. She is released May 4.

    According to the NY Times (April 21, 1916; from a newspaper clipping reproduced in the pamphlet The Traffic in Women & Other Essays) she was applauded by several hundred sympathizers as she was led from the courtroom where a squad of officer friendlies was posted.]

    When Emma began speaking publicly on homosexuality & on how to practice birth control, the authorities could no longer tolerate her. She, Margaret Sanger, & others had been lecturing about birth control generally for years. But general talk was one thing & telling how to do it was quite another. The latter was a crime. On March 28, 1915, addressing a mixed audience of 600 people in New York's popular Sunrise Club, Emma publicly explained for the first time anywhere in America how to use a contraceptive. . . When she chose jail the entire courtroom cheered her. Margaret Anderson of "The Little Review" observed,

    "Emma Goldman was sent to prison for advocating that women need not always keep their mouths shut & their wombs open."

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    1970 -- [March 28]
    anarchiste diamond dingbat France: Jules Vignes (1884-1970) dies. Anarchist publisher, propagandist & idist (Ido, international language, a simplification of Esperanto).


    "La Torche" "La Feuille" (The Sheet), "Le Vieux travailleur" (The Old Worker, 1951-57), & "Le Travailleur libertaire" (1957-58). En 1936, il soutient la révolution espagnole et, début 1939, accueille plusieurs libertaires espagnols en exil. Il apporte également son aide au réseau de résistance de Francisco Ponzán Vidal (Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, anti-fascist guerrillero, anti-Francoist & resistance fighter captured in 1943, shot & burned by the Nazis two days before the Spanish guerrillas liberate Toulouse).

    Born on April 13, 1884, in Toulouse. Initially worked with galochier (the wooden-soled shoes) in Moulins, then various other work (butcher's assistant, etc.).

    In May 1906, it is condemned to have placarded anarchistic posters.

    In October 1908, it creates the anarchistic newspaper “the Torch”. In 1909, he is the first secretary of the departmental Union of the working trade unions Allier, but he gives up one year later his mandate.

    In April 1910, he will be “unparliamentary” candidate with the legislative elections. At the beginning of 1917, it publishes with St Genis-Laval (the Rhone) the libertarian newspaper, idist, “the Sheet” followed into 1927 of “Release” & “Liberoso” (in Ido).

    In 1936, it supports the Spanish revolution and, at the beginning of 1939, accomodates several Spanish libertarians in exile. It also brings its assistance to the resistance network of Francisco Ponzan Vidal.

    In 1945, it republishes “the Sheet”, followed by “the Old worker” (1951-57), & “the libertarian Worker” (1957-58).

    Source: Ephéméride Anarchiste

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    1979 -- [March 28] US: A Three Mile Island cooling unit fails, leading to a meltdown that uncovers the reactor's core. Amid the worst nuclear disaster in U.S. history, it will take Pennsylvania authorities three days to advise pregnant women & children to evacuate. Thousands will flee the Harrisburg area. The men — apparently born macho mutants — hang around for their daily dose.
    "No nuclear reactor is an island."
    At 4:00 a.m., a series of human & mechanical failures nearly triggers nuclear disaster. By 8:00 a.m., after cooling water was lost & temperatures soared above 5,000 degrees, the top half of the reactor's 150-ton radioactive core collapsed & melted. Contaminated coolant escaped, releasing radioactive gasses, leading as many as 200,000 people to flee. Gives the lie to the illusion of nuclear power being "safe," of technology as "progress."

    On May 6th, more than 100,000 nuclear opponents will protest in Washington, D.C. On September 23rd, in the biggest political gathering of the late 1970s, more than 200,000 will protest in lower Manhattan. But despite an increase in miscarriages & birth defects in Harrisburg, industry & government officials will surprisingly deny the accident harmed anyone. & it will take, surprisingly again, seven years for industry officials to acknowledge that the incident led to a 52-percent core meltdown.

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    1869 -- [March 30] Feminist, anarchist, & labor agitator Emma Goldman (1869-1940) lives. Arguably one of the great 20th Century American figures.

    Emma Goldman wrote, among much other material, My Disillusionment in Russia; Living My Life; Anarchism & Other Essays; The Place of the Individual in Society. See also Vision on Fire: Emma Goldman edited by David Porter. Left fielder for the 1998 Armageddonia Anarchists baseball team.

    "If I can't dance I don't want to be part of your revolution."

    Emma Goldman

    After growing up in the US, then deported by the government during the Red Scare years, she has been banned from the country (called the "land of the free" by some), since 1931, except for a brief visit in 1934.

    Anti-anarchist laws are still used to prevent certain people from entering the US with their tainted foreign ideas.

    Her death finally allowed her a visa back into the US, where she was buried in Waldheim Cemetery, close to the Haymarket Martyrs in Chicago, her casket covered by an SIA-FAI flag & bouquets of flowers sent by friends & organizations across the nation.

    See Karl Shapiro's poem, Death of Emma Goldman in full at the Stan Iverson Archives.
    The Emma Goldman Papers
    The Place of the Individual in Society, by Emma Goldman
    Patriotism: A Menace to Liberty, by Emma Goldman
    Minorities versus Majorities, by Emma Goldman
    excerpt from Living My Life, by Emma Goldman

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    1906 -- [March 30]
    l'affranchi masthead
    anarchiste diamond dingbat30 mars 1906, sortie à Bruxelles (Belgique), du premier numéro du journal "L'Affranchi". Publié par Raphaël FRAIGNEUX


    Publié par Raphaël FRAIGNEUX, le journal d'abord mensuel paraîtra ensuite de façon irrégulière avant de s'arrêter en 1914.

    Source: Ephéméride Anarchiste

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    1919 -- [March 31]

    anarchist diamond dingbat; anarquistaSpain: Se aplica por primera vez la ley de fugas en la persona de Miguel Burgos, secretario del Ramo de Curtidos de la CNT.

    "Ley de fugas"

    The triumph of the CNT in the strike of the "La Canadiense" (name of the electric company where the movement started, & spread, causing a General Strike which lasted 44 days) set up a situation leading to later confrontations. The government responded by imprisoning of strikers 3000 CNT, & decreed martial law. By mid-March the workers won a salary increase & the 8-hour day; at a rally attended by more than 20,000 people, leaders of the CNT proclaimed the end of the strike. Still, by 22 March, the army refused to release a score of workers imprisoned as a result of the strike, & militant anarchists began to demand their freedom & determined to strike again, & on the 24th, Barcelona amaneció is occupied by the army & the just constituted Somatén of Barcelona, known by the Barcelonians as the “White Guard”; it was dedicated to frisk the passers-by & if they were carrying of a card of the CNT they broke it immediately. The civil governor, Mr. Montañés, aligned with the employer's association, refuses to mediate in the conflict, hoping for defeat of the workers. Constitutional guarantees were suspended & again the cenetistas were persecuted & jailed. & thus today Miguel Burgos is murdered.

    "Ley de fugas" (law of escape) was applied frequently in Spain to union militants, taken to jail, then "set free" — only to be shot down moments later as "escapees." The beauty for the police is its simplicity & cover of legality.

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    2003 -- [March 31] (This has been circulating on Hawaiian & American Indian lists.)


    Dear People of Iraq,

    Now that you have been liberated from your tyrannical oppressors, we at the BIA look forward to our relationship with you. Below you will find a list of what to expect from the services of our good offices.

    1. Henceforth, English will be the spoken language of all government & associated offices. If you do not speak English, a translator fluent in German will be provided.

    2. All Iraqi people will apply for a spot on a citizen roll. Citizenship will be open to those people who can prove that they are Iraqi back four generations with documents issued by the United States. Christian church records may also be given in support.

    3. All hospitals will be issued with a standard emergency aid kit. The kit contains gauze, Band-Aids, burn cream, iodine, tweezers, & duct tape.

    4. Your oil is to be held in trust for you. We will appoint your new American approved government a lawyer with a background in the oil industry. Never mind that he works for the company that he will eventually cut a deal with. This close relationship will guarantee you more money for your oil.

    5. Each Citizen will be allotted one hundred acres of prime Iraqi desert. They will be issued plows, hoes, seed corn & the King James Bible. All leftover land will be open to settlement by Israelis.

    6. Each Citizen is entitled to draw a ration of milk, sugar, flour & lard. If you can not use the rations for health or religious reasons you may file a complaint with your BIA appointed liaisons, Crisco. Those Iraqis showing signs of diabetes, heart disease, or glaucoma will be issued with double rations in place of adequate health care.

    7. We will mismanage your trust monies, allowing any five year old with minimal computer skills to hack into the system & set up their own account. Records of your accounts will be kept, but you must receive express written permission from the head of the BIA to examine them.

    8. In keeping with the separation of Church & State supported by the US constitution, Christian missionaries will be sponsored through government funding. Only Iraqis who convert to Christianity will be allowed to hold jobs within the government.

    9. For the purposes of treaty making, any single Iraqi will be found competent to sign on behalf of all other Iraqis.

    10. Welcome to the Free World & have a nice day!

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    2003 -- [March 31] Morocco offers US monkeys to detonate mine

    >From the International Desk Published 3/24/2003 6:43 AM

    RABAT, D.C., Morocco, March 24 (UPI) — A Moroccan publication accused the government Monday of providing unusual assistance to U.S. troops fighting in Iraq by offering them 2,000 monkeys trained in detonating land mines.

    The weekly al-Usbu' al-Siyassi reported that Morocco offered the U.S. forces a large number of monkeys, some from Morocco's Atlas Mountains & others imported, to use them for detonating land mines planted by the Iraqis.

    The publication quoted a highly-informed source as saying, "that is not a scientific illusion but a well-known military tactic."

    Copyright (C) 2001-2003 United Press International

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    2003 -- [March 31] Iraq: The Bush Regime's war against the Hussein Regime continues.

    The "Bush Doctrine" of preemptive war, formulated by a small clique of White House staff "neo-conservatives" who have long been advocating killing Saddam & urging an aggressive effort bya teh US to dominate the world politically & economically, is the most radical revision of American foreign policy in over 200 years. War Headlines, First Strike!

    Bush has flouted the Geneva Convention by refusing to recognize captured Taliban soldiers as Prisoners of War. He has sabotaged attempts to halt the small arms trade, & demanded American immunity from future prosecution for war crimes in the International Criminal Court.

    Bush covets the power to wage war whenever, & wherever he pleases, in direct defiance of international law.

    With military bases in more than 40 countries, the US has a peace-time military budget larger than that of the other nine leading military powers COMBINED. That budget is now growing astronomically with Iraqi war appropriations.

    Also during this past week, former UN weapons inspector Scott Ritter, has warned that America will lose the Iraq war & the American military: "will leave Iraq with its tail between its legs."

    In an interview with Irish radio, Ritter said that the conflict would become an "absolute quagmire," & the US-UK advance would stall outside Bhagdad & fail to capture the city.

    War photo

    Few American voters know that of the 535 members of Congress, only one has a son or daughter in the armed forces. Few American "patriots" have sent their daughters to Kuwait to don chemical warfare suits &, obviously, fewer still of the 'patriots" in Congress with a child of military age are about to sacrifice their kids.

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    2003 -- [March 31] US: NBC fires journalist Peter Arnett, saying it was wrong for him to give an interview with state-run Iraqi TV in which he said the American-led coalition's initial plan for the war had failed because of Iraq's resistance. Arnett called the interview a "misjudgment" & apologized, but added "I said over the weekend what we all know about the war."

    He said he would try to leave Baghdad now, joking "there's a small island in the South Pacific that I've inhabited that I'll try to swim to."

    One of the few American television reporters left in Baghdad, his reports were frequently aired on NBC & its cable sisters, MSNBC & CNBC.

    Arnett, a news reporter during the Vietnam War (& collector of books on Vietnam with over 5,000 in his personal library) & a Recollection Books customer, would of course still be contracted by these outlets if he was a cheerleader for the US effort to kill Saddam, like so many journalists interviewed on American TV.

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    White House terrorists: Bush, Cheney, Powell, Rice, Rusmfeld, Ashcroft
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